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Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 282-288, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935141


Objective: To explore the impact of composite clinical worsening (cCW) events and its components on the prognosis of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease (CHD-PAH). Methods: This is a retrospective study. Patients who were diagnosed with CHD-PAH in Beijing Anzhen Hospital between January 2007 and July 2018, were included, and their baseline clinical data including demographic, clinical manifestations and New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification were collected retrospectively. All-cause deaths and clinical worsening events were recorded, which included syncope, PAH related hospitalization, NYHA classification deterioration and ≥ 2 PAH related clinical symptoms (dyspnea, hemoptysis, edema, chest pain, palpitations, cyanosis) appearance/progress. Three kinds of cCW events were defined: cCW1 (included PAH related hospitalization, NYHA classification deterioration), cCW2 (increased syncope on the basis of cCW1) and cCW3 (increased ≥ 2 PAH related clinical symptoms appearance/progress on the basis of cCW2). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to analyze the long-term survival of the included patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to evaluate the impact of cCW events and their components on the risk of all-cause mortality. Results: A total of 525 patients with CHD-PAH were included in this study. The median age at diagnosis was 20.7 (11.2, 30.3) years. There were 43.8% children (<18 years), and 68.8% female patients. There were 431 patients (82.1%) with NYHA classification II. A total of 180 patients had PAH symptoms at diagnosis. The median follow-up time was 4.5 (2.6, 6.7) years. Forty-seven patients (9.0%) died during the follow-up period. Survival rates at 1, 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of PAH were 98.0%, 89.9% and 84.4%, respectively. Cox multivariate analysis showed that NYHA classification deterioration (HR=3.901, 95%CI 1.863-8.169, P<0.001), ≥2 PAH symptoms appearance/progress (HR=4.458, 95%CI 1.870-10.625, P<0.001), PAH-related hospitalization (HR=4.058, 95%CI 1.851-8.896, P<0.001) and syncope (HR=11.313, 95%CI 4.860-26.332, P<0.001) were independent predictors of increased risk of death. All 3 kinds of cCW events were significantly associated with the significantly increased risk of death, and cCW2 was highly predictive to increased risk of death (HR=15.476, 95%CI 4.346-37.576, P<0.001). Conclusions: The overall long-term prognosis of CHD-PAH patients in this study is relatively good. cCW events and its components (NYHA classification deterioration, ≥2 PAH symptoms occurrence/worsening, PAH-related hospitalization and syncope) have adverse influence on all-cause death in this patient cohort.

Child , Familial Primary Pulmonary Hypertension/complications , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Male , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Retrospective Studies
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(2): 265-267, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251085


Abstract Coronary artery to left atrial fistula is rare in patients with mitral stenosis. We report an interesting case of a patient with concomitant mitral valve stenosis and coronary fistulae, originating from the left circumflex artery and drained into the left atrium with two terminal orifices.

Humans , Fistula , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Mitral Valve Stenosis/surgery , Mitral Valve Stenosis/complications , Mitral Valve Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 12-17, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098366


Resumen Objetivo: Correlacionar las generalidades de la etiología, patogenia, presentación clínica y métodos diagnósticos actuales disponibles para el aneurisma de arteria pulmonar con la muerte súbita o repentina de estos pacientes. Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron revisión del expediente clínico, análisis de la autopsia y revisión bibliográfica. Presentación de caso: Se presenta el caso de un masculino de 39 años con antecedente de hipertensión pulmonar que consultó por disnea súbita. Se abordó el caso como un tromboembolismo pulmonar. El paciente presentó una evolución clínica tórpida y falleció. La autopsia reveló un aneurisma de la arteria pulmonar. Conclusión: Los aneurismas de la arteria pulmonar son poco frecuentes. La presentación clínica es inespecífica. Los métodos diagnósticos más fiables son la sospecha clínica y los métodos de imagen, sin embargo siguen siendo motivo de muerte súbita y repentina; cuyo hallazgo es postmorten.

Abstract Objective: Correlate the generalities of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and current diagnostic methods available for pulmonary artery aneurysm with sudden death of these patients. Materials and methods: Review of medical record, autopsy analysis and scientific literature. Case presentation: A 39-year-old male with a history of pulmonary hypertension, who consulted for sudden dyspnea. The case was approached as a pulmonary thromboembolism. The patient presented bad clinical evolution and died. Autopsy revealed an aneurysm of the pulmonary artery. Conclusion: Aneurysms of the pulmonary artery are rare. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. The most reliable diagnostic methods are clinical suspicion and imaging methods, however they remain a cause of sudden death; whose finding is postmortem.

Male , Adult , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Hemoptysis/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Aneurysm/pathology , Costa Rica
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(7): 946-950, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041046


SUMMARY A background of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) indicates a progressive elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, leading to overfilling, elevation of venous pressure, congestion in various organs, and edema in the venous system. This study aimed to investigate whether PH is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities after hip and knee replacement surgery. METHODS A total of 238 patients who received joint replacement of lower extremities in our department of orthopedics from January 2009 to January 2012 were examined by echocardiography and Color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) of the lower extremities. Based on pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), the patients were divided into a normal PAP group (n=214) and PH group (n=24). All the patients were re-examined by CDFI during post-operative care. RESULTS Among the 238 patients, 18 had DVT in the lower extremities after the operation. DVT total incidence rate was 7.56% (18/238). In the PH group, 11 patients had DVT (45.83%, 11/24), but in the normal PAP group, only 7 had DVT (3.27%, 7/214). The incidence of DVT was significantly lower in the normal PAP group than in the PH group (P<0.01). In addition, there was a positive correlation between PAP and the incidence of DVT. CONCLUSION PH could be a high-risk factor for the occurrence of DVT in patient's lower extremities after joint replacement surgeries.

RESUMO OBJETIVO A hipertensão pulmonar (HP) indica elevação progressiva da resistência vascular pulmonar, levando ao excesso de enchimento, elevação da pressão venosa, congestão em vários órgãos e edema no sistema venoso. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar se a HP é um fator de risco para trombose venosa profunda (TVP) das extremidades inferiores após cirurgia de prótese de quadril e joelho. MÉTODOS Um total de 238 pacientes que receberam a substituição da articulação das extremidades inferiores em nosso departamento de ortopedia de janeiro de 2009 a junho de 2012 foi examinado por ecocardiograma e fluxo de imagem Doppler colorido (CDFI) dos membros inferiores. De acordo com a pressão arterial pulmonar (PAP), os pacientes foram divididos em grupo PAP normal (n=214) e grupo PH (n=24). Todos os pacientes foram reexaminados por CDFI durante os cuidados pós-operatórios. RESULTADOS Entre os 238 pacientes, 18 pacientes tiveram TVP nas extremidades inferiores após a operação. A taxa de incidência total de TVP foi de 7,56% (18/238). No grupo PH, 11 pacientes tiveram TVP (45,83%, 11/24), mas no grupo PAP normal, apenas sete pacientes tiveram TVP (3,27%, 7/214). A incidência de TVP foi significativamente menor no grupo PAP normal do que no grupo PH (P<0,01). Além disso, houve uma correlação positiva entre a PAP e a incidência de TVP. CONCLUSÃO A HP poderia ser um fator de alto risco para a ocorrência de TVP nas extremidades inferiores do paciente após cirurgias de substituição articular.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Reference Values , Echocardiography, Doppler , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Preoperative Period , Hip/blood supply , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Knee/blood supply
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(4): 394-402, out.-dez. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-970499


A dor torácica aguda é um sintoma muito frequente nas unidades de emergência, constituindo-se em um possível sinal de alerta para as doenças com risco iminente de morte. Como a maioria desses pacientes é internada para avaliação de uma possível síndrome coronariana aguda, isso gera um custo hospitalar muito alto por paciente. Por conta dessa possibilidade diagnóstica, muitos emergencistas internam a maioria dos pacientes. Por outro lado, a liberação inapropriada daqueles com infarto agudo do miocárdio representa um risco para o médico e, especialmente, para o paciente. Outro ponto importante é a demora para o atendimento, em que há a influência de fatores relacionados ao paciente, assim como, pontos negativos na logística de atendimento dos serviços de emergência em nosso país. Para excelência no atendimento, é importante uma anamnese detalhada adicionada ao exame físico, a qual permite a elaboração das hipóteses diagnósticas. E para auxiliar os médicos na escolha da hipótese diagnóstica e na tomada rápida de decisão, escores de risco são disponibilizados, os quais, facilmente, identificam a probabilidade de eventos adversos. A conduta imediata de casos com risco de morte imediata tem como principal objetivo reduzir a morbidade e a mortalidade, aumentando, consequentemente, a segurança do profissional da emergência. Sugestões de fluxogramas e algoritmos para o atendimento desses pacientes na sala de emergência definem, de forma objetiva, quem fica e quem pode ser liberado

Acute chest pain is a frequent symptom in emergency units, being a possible war-ning sign of diseases with an imminent risk of death. Since most of these patients are hospitalized to evaluate possible acute coronary syndrome, this generates a very high hospital cost per patient. Because of this diagnostic possibility, emergency professionals admit most patients. In contrast, the inappropriate release of those with acute myocardial infarction poses a risk to the physician and, especially, the patient. Another important point is the delay in care, where there is an influence of patient-related factors, as well as negative points in the logistics of care in the emergency services in our country. For excellence in care, a detailed anamnesis added to the examination is important, allowing the elaboration of diagnostic hypotheses. Moreover, to assist physicians in selecting the diagnostic hypothesis and making fast decisions, there are risk scores that easily identify the likelihood of adverse events. The immediate management of cases with an imminent risk of death is the main objective to reduce morbidity and mortality and, consequently, increase the safety of emergency professionals. Flowcharts and algorithm suggestions targeting patients in the emergency room objectively define who stays and who can be released

Humans , Male , Female , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Chest Pain/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Emergencies , Aorta , Troponin/therapeutic use , Echocardiography/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Biomarkers , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography/methods , Exercise Test/methods , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Angina, Unstable/complications , Angina, Unstable/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(1): 25-38, ene.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054985


Resumen: La hipertensión portopulmonar (HPP) es una entidad poco frecuente a nivel mundial, aunque se desconocen los datos epidemiológicos en México. Sin embargo, las enfermedades crónicas del hígado son muy prevalentes en mexicanos. La HPP es el 4.◦ subtipo en frecuencia del grupo de la hipertensión arterial pulmonar. Su diagnóstico está dentro de 2 escenarios: los pacientes con sospecha de hipertensión pulmonar y los candidatos a trasplante hepático ortotópico (THO). Tanto el ecocardiograma como el cateterismo cardiaco derecho son determinantes para el diagnóstico en ambos escenarios. La HPP es un reto para el THO, pues aumenta la mortalidad perioperatoria de manera importante. El uso de terapia específica es la piedra angular de este padecimiento, como una medida para poder mejorar el desenlace de los que llegan a ser candidatos a un THO con HPP moderada a grave. Es importante reconocer que la HPP puede llegar a ser una contraindicación para el THO. Hasta el momento el papel del trasplante combinado pulmón-hígado o corazón-pulmón-hígado como una medida de curación de la enfermedad vascular pulmonar en pacientes con HPP es incierto. © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiolog´ıa Ignacio Cha´vez. Publicado por Masson Doyma Me´xico S.A. Este es un art´ıculo Open Access bajo la licencia CC BY-NC-ND (

Abstract: Portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a rare condition worldwide, although epidemiological data are unknown in Mexico. However, chronic liver diseases are very prevalent in Mexico. PPH is the 4th subtype in frequency in the group of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Its diagnosis is made within 2 scenarios: patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension and candidates for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Both echocardiogram and a right cardiac catheterisation are crucial for diagnosis in both cases. PPH is a challenge for OLT, since it can significantly increase perioperative mortality. The use of specific therapy is the cornerstone of this disease, as a measure to improve the outcome of those who become candidates for OLT with moderate to severe PPH. It is important to recognise that PPH can be a contraindication to OLT. The role of lung-liver transplantation or heart-lung-liver transplantation as a measure to heal pulmonary vascular disease in patients with PPH is still uncertain.© 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiolog´ıa Ignacio Cha´vez. Published by Masson Doyma Me´xico S.A. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Humans , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Liver Transplantation , Hypertension, Portal/diagnosis , Hypertension, Portal/therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941727


To investigate the pathophysiology, screening, diagnosis and treatment of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in pregnancy complicated with pulmonary hypertension. Retrospective analysis was made of one case of SLE in pregnancy complicated with pulmonary hypertension in Peking University Third Hospital. Literature was reviewed to investigate the pathophysiology, screening, diagnosis and treatment of the SLE in pregnancy complicated with pulmonary hypertension. SLE is an autoimmune mediated diffuse connective tissue disease characterized by immunological inflammation. The incidence of SLE combined with pulmonary hypertension was low, but the risk was high with pregnancy, with a high perinatal mortality rate. Pulmonary hypertension is the leading cause of the death in patients with pregnancy complicated with SLE. This patient was diagnosed with SLE six years before and was hospitalized for 29 weeks of menopause, with fatigue five months and chest congestion one month. Ultrasonic cardiogram showed severe pulmonary hypertension, with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure being 96 mmHg. After admission, multidisciplinary consultation was organized to draw up a diagnosis and treatment plan. The patient received the treatment of rest,oxygen,blood gas and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring. Considering perioperative pulmonary hypertension crisis likely to occur, pulmonary artery catheter was placed preoperatively. In general anesthesia, the cesarean was performedfter operation,the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit, with the treatment of expanding blood vessels, reducing pulmonary artery pressure,administering anticoagulation and preventing infection. Ten days after operation, the patient was discharged from hospital with smooth condition. Strengthening the management of SLE patients in pregnancy, early detection, and cooperation of multidisciplinary teams can help improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Termination of pregnancy should be offered to the patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. Right cardiac catheterization is the gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary hypertension. Some patients are diagnosed in later stage of pregnancy, regular antenatal examination, interdisciplinary co-operation, assessment of cardiac function, monitoring the condition of the pregnant woman and fetus and timely termination of pregnancy are needed. Epidural anesthesia is the appropriate choice for cesarean delivery.

Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Retrospective Studies
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 87(1): 26-34, ene.-mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-887491


Resumen: La hipertensión pulmonar tromboembólica crónica (HPTEC) es un subtipo de hipertensión pulmonar (HP) caracterizada por la obstrucción mecánica de las arterias pulmonares causada por una tromboembolia pulmonar. Sin tratamiento es una enfermedad progresiva y devastadora, y es el único subgrupo de HP potencialmente curable mediante la endarterectomía pulmonar. La magnitud, así como la recurrencia de la embolia pulmonar, son determinantes y contribuyen al desarrollo de la HPTEC aun cuando está asociada solo a algunos factores trombofílicos. Una hipótesis es que la enfermedad es consecuencia de la resolución incompleta y la organización del trombo, favorecido por fenómenos de inflamación, inmunitarios y/o genéticos que promueven el desarrollo de estenosis de tipo fibroso que culminan con el remodelado vascular oclusivo de vasos proximales y distales. Los mecanismos involucrados en la fallida resolución del trombo aún no están esclarecidos. Los pacientes con HPTEC con frecuencia exhiben HP severa que no puede ser explicada por el grado de obstrucción vascular demostrada en estudios por imagen. En tales casos la arteriopatía pulmonar y las lesiones trombóticas obstructivas, distales al nivel subsegmentario, pueden contribuir al incremento fuera de proporción de las resistencias vasculares pulmonares. Los procesos que llevan al desarrollo de la arteriopatía pulmonar y los cambios microvasculares que ocurren en la HPTEC explican el comportamiento progresivo de la HP y el deterioro clínico gradual con pobre pronóstico para los pacientes, así como también la falta de correlación entre la magnitud de la obstrucción vascular y la medición de parámetros hemodinámicos, aun en ausencia de tromboembolismo venoso recurrente. Esta revisión resume los aspectos más relevantes y actuales de la patobiología y fisiopatología de la HPTEC.

Abstract: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) represents a unique subtype of pulmonary hypertension characterized by the presence of mechanical obstruction of the major pulmonary vessels caused by venous thromboembolism. CTEPH is a progressive and devastating disease if not treated, and is the only subset of PH potentially curable by a surgical procedure known as pulmonary endarterectomy. The clot burden and pulmonary embolism recurrence may contribute to the development of CTEPH however only few thrombophilic factors have been found to be associated. A current hypothesis is that CTEPH results from the incomplete resolution and organization of thrombus modified by inflammatory, immunologic and genetic mechanisms, leading to the development of fibrotic stenosis and adaptive vascular remodeling of resistance vessels. The causes of thrombus non-resolution have yet to be fully clarified. CTEPH patients often display severe PH that cannot be fully explained by the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction apparent on imaging studies. In such cases, the small vessel disease and distal obstructive thrombotic lesions beyond the sub-segmental level may contribute for out of proportion elevated PVR. The processes implicated in the development of arteriopathy and microvascular changes might explain the progressive nature of PH and gradual clinical deterioration with poor prognosis, as well as lack of correlation between measurable hemodynamic parameters and vascular obstruction even in the absence of recurrent venous thromboembolism. This review summarizes the most relevant up-to-date aspects on pathobiology and pathophysiology of CTEPH.

Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(6): 463-467, Dec. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844566


El óxido nítrico inhalatorio (ONi) es actualmente la terapia de primera línea en la insuficiencia respiratoria hipoxémica grave del recién nacido; la mayor parte de los centros neonatales de regiones en Chile no cuentan con esta alternativa terapéutica. Objetivo: Determinar el costo-efectividad del ONi en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia respiratoria asociada a hipertensión pulmonar del recién nacido, comparado con el cuidado habitual y el traslado a un centro de mayor complejidad. Pacientes y método: Se modeló un árbol de decisiones clínicas desde la perspectiva del sistema de salud público chileno, se calcularon razones de costo-efectividad incremental (ICER), se realizó análisis de sensibilidad determinístico y probabilístico, se estimó el impacto presupuestario, software: TreeAge Health Care Pro 2014. Resultados: La alternativa ONi produce un aumento promedio en los costos de 11,7 millones de pesos por paciente tratado, con una razón de costo-efectividad incremental comparado con el cuidado habitual de 23 millones de pesos por muerte o caso de oxigenación extracorpórea evitada. Al sensibilizar los resultados por incidencia, encontramos que a partir de 7 casos tratados al año resulta menos costoso el óxido nítrico que el traslado a un centro de mayor complejidad. Conclusiones: Desde la perspectiva de un hospital regional chileno incorporar ONi en el manejo de la insuficiencia respiratoria neonatal resulta la alternativa óptima en la mayoría de los escenarios posibles.

Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is currently the first-line therapy in severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure of the newborn. Most of regional neonatal centres in Chile do not have this therapeutic alternative. Objective: To determine the cost effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension of the newborn compared to the usual care, including the transfer to a more complex unit. Patients and method: A clinical decision tree was designed from the perspective of Chilean Public Health Service. Incremental cost effectiveness rates (ICER) were calculated, deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed, and probabilistic budget impact was estimated using: TreeAge Pro Healthcare 2014 software. Results: The iNO option leads to an increase in mean cost of $ 11.7 million Chilean pesos (€ 15,000) per patient treated, with an ICER compared with the usual care of $ 23 million pesos (€ 30,000) in case of death or ECMO avoided. By sensitising the results by incidence, it was found that from 7 cases and upwards treated annually, inhaled nitric oxide is less costly than the transfer to a more complex unit. Conclusions: From the perspective of a Chilean regional hospital, incorporating inhaled nitric oxide into the management of neonatal respiratory failure is the optimal alternative in most scenarios.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/economics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Administration, Inhalation , Bronchodilator Agents/economics , Budgets , Decision Trees , Chile , Public Health/economics , Patient Transfer/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospitalization/economics , Neonatology/economics , Nitric Oxide/economics
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(1): 33-39, July 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792492


Abstract Background: Right-sided heart failure has high morbidity and mortality, and may be caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension. Fractal dimension is a differentiated and innovative method used in histological evaluations that allows the characterization of irregular and complex structures and the quantification of structural tissue changes. Objective: To assess the use of fractal dimension in cardiomyocytes of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension, in addition to providing histological and functional analysis. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 8) and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (M; n = 8). Five weeks after pulmonary arterial hypertension induction with monocrotaline, echocardiography was performed and the animals were euthanized. The heart was dissected, the ventricles weighed to assess anatomical parameters, and histological slides were prepared and stained with hematoxylin/eosin for fractal dimension analysis, performed using box-counting method. Data normality was tested (Shapiro-Wilk test), and the groups were compared with non-paired Student t test or Mann Whitney test (p < 0.05). Results: Higher fractal dimension values were observed in group M as compared to group C (1.39 ± 0.05 vs. 1.37 ± 0.04; p < 0.05). Echocardiography showed lower pulmonary artery flow velocity, pulmonary acceleration time and ejection time values in group M, suggesting function worsening in those animals. Conclusion: The changes observed confirm pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-induced cardiac dysfunction, and point to fractal dimension as an effective method to evaluate cardiac morphological changes induced by ventricular dysfunction.

Resumo Fundamento: Insuficiência cardíaca direita apresenta grande morbimortalidade e pode ser causada por hipertensão arterial pulmonar. Um método diferenciado e inovador utilizado em avaliações histológicas é a dimensão fractal, que permite a caracterização de estruturas irregulares e complexas e pode quantificar alterações estruturais dos tecidos. Objetivo: Avaliar a utilização do método da dimensão fractal nos cardiomiócitos de ratos com hipertensão arterial pulmonar induzida por monocrotalina, associada com análise histológica e funcional. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 2 grupos: controle (C; n = 8) e hipertensão arterial pulmonar induzida por monocrotalina (M; n = 8). Após 5 semanas da indução da hipertensão arterial pulmonar pela monocrotalina, foi realizado ecocardiograma. Os animais foram eutanasiados, o coração dissecado e os ventrículos pesados para avaliação dos parâmetros anatômicos. Lâminas histológicas foram confeccionadas, coradas com hematoxilina/eosina para análise da dimensão fractal, realizada pelo método box-counting . Inicialmente foi testada a normalidade dos dados (teste Shapiro Wilk) e a comparação entre os grupos foi por meio do teste t de Student não pareado ou teste de Mann Whitney (p < 0,05). Resultados: Maiores valores da dimensão fractal foram observados no grupo M em comparação ao C (1,43 ± 0,06 vs. 1,37 ± 0,04; p < 0,05). O ecocardiograma apontou menores valores no grupo M para velocidade máxima pulmonar, tempo de aceleração pulmonar e tempo de ejeção, sugerindo piora funcional nesses animais, que também apresentaram hipertrofia cardíaca. Conclusão: As alterações observadas comprovam a disfunção cardíaca induzida pela hipertensão arterial pulmonar e apontam que a dimensão fractal é um método eficaz para avaliar alterações morfológicas cardíacas induzidas pela disfunção ventricular.

Animals , Male , Fractals , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/pathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/pathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography , Reproducibility of Results , Monocrotaline , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159446


Combined pulmonary fi brosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a recently recognized radiologically defi ned syndrome characterized by simultaneous coexistence of both upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe pulmonary fi brosis. We present a case of CPFE in a 57-year-old male smoker who presented with dry cough, progressive breathlessness, and swelling of feet. His chest X-ray revealed bilateral lower Zone reticulonodular opacities with hyperlucent upper Zones. Pulmonary function tests showed wellpreserved lung volumes and reduced diff using capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomogram showed bilateral lower lobe subpleural honeycombing along with fi brosis and traction bronchiectasis with bilateral upper lobe emphysema predominantly paraseptal type. His 2D echo was suggestive of moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Carbon Monoxide/analysis , Emphysema/diagnosis , Emphysema/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Artery , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity/methods , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(1): 1-8, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742893


Objective: To apply and to compare the Society of Thoracic Surgery score (STS), EuroSCORE (Eurosc1), EuroSCORE II (Eurosc2) and InsCor (IS) for predicting mortality in patients undergoing to coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery at the Santa Casa Marilia. Methods: The present study is a cohort. It is a prospective, observational, analytical and unicentric. We analyzed 562 consecutive patients coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery, between April 2011 and June 2013 at the Santa Casa Marilia. Mortality was calculated for each patient through the scores STS, Eurosc1, Eurosc2 and IS. The calibration was calculated using the Hosmer Lemeshow test and discrimination by ROC curve. Results: The hospital mortality was 4,6%. The calibration is generally adequate group P=0.345, P=0.765, P=0.272 and P=0.062 for STS, Eurosc1, Eurosc2, and IS respectively. The discriminatory power of STS score 0.649 (95% CI 0.529 to 0.770, P=0.012), Eurosc1 0.706 (95% CI 0.589 to 0.823, P ≤0.001), Eurosc2 was 0.704 (95% CI 0.590-0.818 P=0.001) and InsCor 0.739 (95% CI 0.638 to 0.839, P ≤0.001). Conclusion: We can say that overall, the InsCor was the best model, mainly in the discrimination of the sample. The InsCor showed good accuracy, in addition to being effective and easy to apply, especially by using a smaller number of variables compared to the other models. .

Objetivo: Aplicar e comparar o Society of Thoracic Surgery score (STS), EuroSCORE (Eurosc1), EuroSCORE II (Eurosc2) e InsCor (IS) na predição de mortalidade nos pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio e/ou cirurgia valvar na Santa Casa de Marília. Métodos: O estudo representa uma coorte. É prospectivo, observacional, analítico e unicêntrico. Foram analisados 562 pacientes consecutivos operados de revascularização do miocárdio e/ou cirurgia valvar, entre abril de 2011 e junho de 2013 na Santa Casa de Marília. A mortalidade foi calculada em cada paciente com o uso dos escores STS, Eurosc1, Eurosc2 e IS. A calibração foi calculada utilizando o teste de Hosmer Lemeshow e a discriminação mediante a curva ROC. Resultados: A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 4,6%. A calibração foi adequada no grupo geral com P=0,345; P=0,765; P=0,272 e P =0,062 para o STS, Eurosc1, Eurosc2 e IS, respectivamente. O poder discriminatório do STS score 0,649 (IC95% 0,529 P=0,272- 0,770, P=0,012), do Eurosc1 0,706 (IC95% 0,589 - 0,823,P ≤0,001), do Eurosc2 foi 0,704 (IC95% 0,590 - 0,818, P=0,001) e do InsCor 0,739 (IC95% 0,638 - 0,839, P ≤ 0,001). Conclusão: Podemos afirmar que no geral o InsCor foi melhor modelo, principalmente na discriminação da amostra estudada. O InsCor mostrou boa acurácia, além de ser efetivo e de fácil aplicação, principalmente por utilizar um menor número de variáveis comparado aos outros modelos. .

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Stroke Volume , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Failure/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications