Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 156
Filter
1.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1363165

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Riociguate e outros medicamentos de controle da hipertensão pulmonar. Indicação: Tratamento de Hipertensão Pulmonar Tomboembólica Crônica (HPTEC). Pergunta: Há superioridade em eficácia e segurança do riociguate, comparado a medicamentos disponíveis no SUS, no tratamento de HPTEC inoperável ou operada com hipertensão pulmonar residual? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foram selecionadas 4 e incluídas 2 revisões sistemáticas. Conclusão: Comparado ao placebo, em tratamento de curto prazo de HPTEC, riociguate melhora a tolerância ao exercício, aumenta a chance de melhora da classificação funcional e tem similar risco de eventos adversos sérios, porém não reduz a mortalidade. Treprostinil tem efeitos similares a riociguate. Entretanto, ambrisentana, bosentana, macitentana ou sildenafila não diferem do placebo no tratamento de HPTEC


Technology: Riociguat and other drugs to control pulmonary hypertension. Indication: Treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Question: Is riociguat more effective and safe than other drugs available in the Brazilian Public Health System for the treatment of inoperable or recurrent CTEPH? Methods: Rapid review of evidence (overview) from systematic reviews, with a bibliographic search in the PUBMED database, using a structured strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed with AMSTAR-2 (Methodological Quality Assessment of Systematic Reviews). Results: Four systematic reviews were selected and two included in this study. Conclusion: Compared to placebo, in the short-term treatment of CTEPH, riociguat improves exercise tolerance, increases the chance of improving functional classification, and has a similar risk of serious adverse events, but does not reduce mortality. Treprostinil has similar effects to riociguat. However, ambrisentan, bosentan, macitentan or sildenafil do not differ from placebo in the treatment of CTEPH


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Guanylate Cyclase/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Placebos , Evidence-Informed Policy
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 750-764, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345224

ABSTRACT

Resumo Muitos avanços ocorreram nas últimas décadas na terapêutica da hipertensão arterial pulmonar (HAP), uma doença grave, progressiva, incurável e potencialmente fatal. Para seu tratamento adequado, são fundamentais o diagnóstico hemodinâmico e a classificação de sua etiologia, em que várias delas (colagenoses, hipertensão portal, cardiopatia congênitas, esquistossomose) requerem medidas específicas, além do tratamento farmacológico característico para HAP. O tratamento com fármacos-alvo para HAP baseia-se em produtos farmacêuticos que interferem em três vias fisiopatológicas moleculares: da prostaciclina, da endotelina e do óxido nítrico. Tais fármacos apresentam múltiplas apresentações (oral, endovenosa, subcutânea e inalatória) e mudaram a história da HAP. Essas medicações e suas estratégias de uso, assim como particularidades das diferentes formas de HAP, são o foco desta revisão.


Abstract In the last decades, important advances have been made in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a severe, progressive, incurable, and potentially fatal disease. For an adequate therapy, correct hemodynamic diagnosis and etiology classification are fundamental. Many etiologies - rheumatic disease, portal hypertension, congenital heart diseases, schistosomiasis - require specific measures, in addition to drug therapy for PAH. The specific therapy for PAH is based on medications that act on three pathophysiological pathways - prostacyclin, endothelin, and nitric oxide pathways. These drugs have multiple presentations (oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, and inhaled) and have changed the history of PAH. This review presents an overview of drug therapy strategies and different forms and peculiarities of PAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hemodynamics
3.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(5): 1345-1359, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352115

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la hipertensión pulmonar es un hallazgo frecuente en la insuficiencia cardíaca. El uso del sildenafilo en estos casos es una práctica habitual, pero aún controversial por lo limitado de los estudios realizados. Objetivo: comparar las variables ecocardiográficas de hemodinamia pulmonar, en pacientes con disfunción sistólica ventricular izquierda e hipertensión pulmonar secundaria severa, antes y después del uso del sildenafilo. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte, donde se incluyeron 19 pacientes; se realizó un seguimiento de dos años. Se analizaron variables clínicas, de laboratorio y ecocardiográficas. Se evaluaron las principales variables de hemodinamia pulmonar antes del uso del sildenafilo y a las doce semanas de su indicación. Se realizó una curva de supervivencia al concluir el seguimiento. El nivel de significación estadístico empleado fue de p < 0,05. Resultados: la edad promedio fue de 56,16 ± 15,77 años y predominó el sexo masculino, con un 73,7 %. La supervivencia al término del seguimiento fue de 78,9 %. Las principales variables ecocardiográficas de hemodinamia pulmonar mostraron una reducción significativa a las doce semanas del tratamiento con sildenafilo. La supervivencia de los pacientes con una reducción del 25 % de las presiones pulmonares en el ecocardiograma realizado a las doce semanas del tratamiento, fue mayor al terminar el estudio (100 % vs 33 %, log-rank test p = 0,001). Conclusiones: posterior al uso del sildenafilo se encontró una reducción significativa de las variables de hemodinamia pulmonar en el ecocardiograma evolutivo. La sobrevida fue mayor en los pacientes que presentaron dicha reducción (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: pulmonary hypertension is a common finding in heart failure. The use of sildenafil in these cases is a common practice, but still controversial due to the limited number of studies carried out. Objective: to compare echocardiographic variables of pulmonary hemodynamics, in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and severe secondary pulmonary hypertension, before and after the use of sildenafil. Materials and methods: a cohort study was led, including 19 patients; a two-year follow-up was carried out. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic variables were analyzed. The main pulmonary hemodynamics variables were evaluated before the use of sildenafil and 12 weeks after its indication. A survival curve was performed at the end of the follow-up. The statistical significance level used was p < 0.05. Results: the average age was 56.16 ± 15.77 years, and male sex predominated with 73.3 %. Survival at the end of the follow up was 78.9 %. The main echocardiographic variables of pulmonary hemodinamics showed a significant reduction at 12 weeks of treatment with sildenafil. The survival of patients with a 25 % reduction in pulmonary pressures in the echocardiogram performed at 12 weeks of treatment was greater at the end of the study (100 % vs 33 %, log-rank test p = 0.001). Conclusions: after using sildenafil, a significant reduction of pulmonary hemodynamics variables was found in the evolutionary echocardiogram. Survival was higher in patients who had this reduction (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Patients , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy , Sildenafil Citrate/supply & distribution , Sildenafil Citrate/therapeutic use , Sildenafil Citrate/pharmacology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 624-636, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346516

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HAP) requiere procesos estructurados de diagnóstico y estratificación de riesgo, siendo la función del ventrículo derecho (VD) un marcador pronóstico central. Los principales objetivos terapéuticos en la HAP son mejorar y/o intentar revertir la disfunción del VD y mantener condición de bajo riesgo. Actualmente existen múltiples fármacos con diferentes mecanismos de acción cuya combinación en doble o triple terapia ha mostrado mejores resultados que la monoterapia. Evidencia actual demuestra la importancia de incorporar tempranamente prostanoides parenterales al esquema, mejorando la funcionalidad del VD y la supervivencia. En esta revisión se refleja el papel de la función del VD en el diagnós tico, pronóstico y seguimiento de la HAP. Se recomienda la evaluación sistemática y estandarizada del VD, así como el inicio temprano de tratamiento combinado en riesgo intermedio-alto para obtener las metas de alcanzar y mantener un riesgo bajo y/o evitar la progresión de la HAP.


Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) requires structured processes of diagnosis and risk stratifica tion, being the function of the right ventricle (RV) a hallmark prognosis determinant. The main therapeutic goals in PAH are to improve and try to revert RV dysfunction and maintaining a low risk. Currently, there are multiple treatments with different mechanisms of action, the combination of which in double or triple therapy has shown improved results compared to monotherapy. Recent clinical evidence shows the importance of early incorpora tion of parenteral prostanoids to the scheme, improving RV function and survival. In this review, we discuss the role of the RV function in the diagnosis, prognosis, and follow-up of PAH. We recommend the systematic and standardised evaluation of the RV as well as the early initiation of combined treatment in cases of intermediate-high risk to try to reach and keep the patient with PAH at a low risk and / or avoid the progression of PAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Ventricular Function, Right , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 219-226, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153005

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A resistência vascular pulmonar elevada ainda é um grande problema na seleção de candidatos ao transplante cardíaco. Objetivo Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o efeito da administração de sildenafila pré-transplante cardíaco em pacientes com hipertensão pulmonar fixa. Métodos O estudo retrospectivo, de centro único, incluiu 300 candidatos a transplante cardíaco consecutivos tratados entre 2003 e 2013. Destes, 95 pacientes tinham hipertensão pulmonar fixa e, dentre eles, 30 pacientes foram tratados com sildenafila e acabaram passando pelo transplante, formando o Grupo A. O Grupo B incluiu 205 pacientes sem hipertensão pulmonar que passaram pelo transplante cardíaco. A hemodinâmica pulmonar foi avaliada antes do transplante, 1 semana e 1 ano após o transplante. A taxa de sobrevivência foi comparada entre os grupos. Neste estudo, um P valor < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Após o tratamento com sildenafila, mas antes do TxC, a RVP (-39%) e a PAPs (-10%) diminuíram significativamente. A PAPs diminuiu após o TxC em ambos os grupos, mas permaneceu significativamente alta no grupo A em relação ao grupo B (40,3 ± 8,0 mmHg versus 36,5 ± 11,5 mmHg, P=0,022). Um ano após o TxC, a PAPs era 32,4 ± 6,3 mmHg no Grupo A versus 30,5 ± 8,2 mmHg no Grupo B (P=0,274). O índice de sobrevivência após o TxC 30 dias (97% no grupo A versus 96% no grupo B), 6 meses (87% versus 93%) e um ano (80% versus 91%) após o TxC não foi estatisticamente significativo (Log-rank P=0,063). Depois do primeiro ano, o índice de mortalidade era similar entre os dois grupos (sobrevivência condicional após 1 ano, Log-rank p=0,321). Conclusão Nos pacientes com HP pré-tratados com sildenafila, a hemodinâmica pós-operatória inicial e o prognóstico são numericamente piores em pacientes sem HP, mas depois de 1 ano, a mortalidade em médio e longo prazo são semelhantes. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):219-226)


Abstract Background Elevated pulmonary vascular resistance remains a major problem for heart transplant (HT) candidate selection. Objective This study sought at assess the effect of pre-HT sildenafil administration in patients with fixed pulmonary hypertension. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 300 consecutive, HT candidates treated between 2003 and 2013, in which 95 patients had fixed PH, and of these, 30 patients were treated with sildenafil and eventually received a transplant, forming Group A. Group B included 205 patients without PH who underwent HT. Pulmonary hemodynamics were evaluated before HT, as well as 1 week after and 1 year after HT. Survival was compared between the groups. In this study, a p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results After treatment with sildenafil but before HT, PVR (-39%) and sPAP (-10%) decreased significantly. sPAP decreased after HT in both groups, but it remained significantly higher in group A vs. group B (40.3 ± 8.0 mmHg vs 36.5 ± 11.5 mmHg, p=0.022). One year after HT, sPAP was 32.4 ± 6.3 mmHg in group A vs 30.5 ± 8.2 mmHg in group B (p=0.274). The survival rate after HT at 30 days (97% in group A versus 96% in group B), at 6 months (87% versus 93%) and at one year (80% vs 91%) were not statistically significant (Log-rank p=0.063). After this first year, the attrition rate was similar among both groups (conditional survival after 1 year, Log-rank p=0.321). Conclusion In patients with severe PH pre-treated with sildenafil, early post-operative hemodynamics and prognosis are numerically worse than in patients without PH, but after 1 year, the medium to long-term mortality proved to be similar. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):219-226)


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Transplantation , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Sildenafil Citrate , Hemodynamics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922763

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe pathophysiological condition characterized by pulmonary artery remodeling and continuous increases in pulmonary artery pressure, which may eventually develop to right heart failure and death. Although newly discovered and incredible treatment strategies in recent years have improved the prognosis of PH, limited types of effective and economical drugs for PH still makes it as a life-threatening disease. Some drugs from Chinese materia medica (CMM) have been traditionally applied in the treatment of lung diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) derived from those medicines brings promising future for the prevention and treatment of PH. In this review, we summarized the pharmacological effects of APIs derived from CMM which are potent in treating PH, so as to provide new thoughts for initial drug discovery and identification of potential therapeutic strategies in alternative medicine for PH.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
8.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(1): 41-47, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115461

ABSTRACT

En los pacientes con Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar (HAP) de alto riesgo, en clase funcional (CF)IV, la terapia específica debe ser combinada y debe incluir una prostaciclina (PGI2) de uso sistémico en espera de trasplante bipulmonar (TBP). En el sistema público la única PGI2 disponible para asociar a Sildenafil y algún inhibidor de endotelina (Ambrisentan o Bosentan) es Iloprost nebulizado, que si bien es efectiva, no logra estabilizar los casos graves con severa disfunción del ventrículo derecho (VD). Se presenta el primer caso en el Instituto del Tórax, centro de referencia nacional de HAP, del uso de treprostinil en una paciente de 24 años con HAP grave e indicación de TBP. Treprostinil es un análogo sintético de PGI2 de uso subcutáneo en dosis desde 1 a 40 ng/kg/min. La paciente presentaba una situación de extrema gravedad: CF IV, distancia recorrida en el test de caminata de 6 min (DRTC 6 min) < 300 m,derrame pericárdico y severa disfunción del VD con TAPSE (índice de disfunción del VD) de 13 cm/s asociado a ProBNP >2.500 pg/ml. Luego de 6 meses de hospitalización en intermedio, terapia triple (Sildenafil, Ambrisentan e Iloprost nebulizado) asociado a O2,diuréticos y milrinona, logró ser dada de alta a las 3 semanas del inicio de treprostinil, regresando al trabajo a los 2 meses y estabilizando su condición en CF III, con DRTC 6 min > 440 m, mejoría de la función del VD(TAPSE 19). El ProBNP persistió elevado, 1.491 pg/ml, indicando que su enfermedad es grave y progresiva; sin embargo, ha logrado un nivel de estabilidad clínica que le permite una adecuada vida de relación familiar y laboral.


In high risk Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) patients with functional class (FC) IV, specific therapy must be combined and must include systemic prostacyclin (PGI2), meanwhile they are enlisted for double lung transplant (DLT). In Chilean Public Health System, nebulized Iloprost is the only PGI2 available to combine with Sildenafil and either Ambrisentan or Bosentan as endothelin receptor antagonist. This association is not enough for severe cases with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. The first case from the National Institute of Thorax as a referral center is presented now in a 24 years-old lady treated with treprostinil. She has severe PAH with DLT indication. Treprostinil is a PGI2 analog, for subcutaneous use in a dose from 1 to 40 ng/kg/min. She was extremely sick, with FC IV, she walked < 300 m at 6 min walking test (6 MWT), presented pericardial effusion and severe RV dysfunction, with TAPSE (echocardiography index for RV dysfunction)=13 cm/s, ProBNP > 2,500 pg/ml. Six months after being at intensive care unit with triple therapy (Sildenafil, ambrisentan and nebulized Iloprost) plus oxygen, diuretics and milrinone, she was finally discharged after receiving a 3 weeks treprostinil course. She came back to work two months later and her condition was more stable: FC III, she walked > 440 m at 6MWT, with a significant improvement in RV function with TAPSE = 19. Although ProBNP decreased to 1,491pg/ml, it was still high, pointing out the progressive nature of her disease. However, she met a better clinical condition which allows her to reach a much better quality of life from a personal, familial and social point of view.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Epoprostenol/analogs & derivatives , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Phenylpropionates/therapeutic use , Pyridazines/therapeutic use , Radiography, Thoracic , Epoprostenol/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Sildenafil Citrate/therapeutic use , Computed Tomography Angiography , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 541-550, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878199

ABSTRACT

The occurrence and development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is closely related to the genetic mutation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPRII) encoding gene and the inflammatory response mediated by nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. This paper was aimed to investigate the effect of NF-κB pathway inhibitors on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary artery endothelial cell injury. Human pulmonary artery endothelial cells were treated with 1 μg/mL of LPS. The expression levels of BMPRII and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were detected by Western blot and qPCR. The rat PAH model was established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of monocrotaline (MCT). The expression levels of BMPRII and IL-8 in pulmonary artery endothelial cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining. Cardiac hemodynamic changes and pulmonary vascular remodeling were detected in the MCT-PAH model rats. The results showed that LPS caused down-regulation of BMPRII expression and up-regulation of IL-8 expression in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 (10 μmol/L) reversed the effect of LPS. In the pulmonary artery endothelial cells of MCT-PAH model, BMPRII expression was down-regulated, IL-8 expression was up-regulated, weight ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum [RV/(LV+S)] and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) were significantly increased, cardiac output (CO) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) were significantly reduced, and pulmonary vessel wall was significantly thickened. BAY11-7082 (5 mg/kg, i.p., 21 consecutive days) reversed the above changes in the MCT-PAH model rats. These results suggest that LPS down-regulates the expression level of BMPRII through NF-κB signaling pathway, promoting the occurrence and development of PAH. Therefore, the NF-κB pathway can be used as a potential therapeutic target for PAH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II , Down-Regulation , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Lipopolysaccharides , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vascular Remodeling
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(4): 413-415, ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1054947

ABSTRACT

La hipertensión pulmonar es una complicación frecuente de la displasia broncopulmonar. A pesar de su alta incidencia, existen pocos tratamientos disponibles. El epoprostenol y el treprostinil son análogos de las prostaglandinas I2, que activan la adenilato ciclasa e incrementan el adenosín monofosfato cíclico en las células de la musculatura lisa de la arteria pulmonar y pueden resultar eficaces en el tratamiento de estos pacientes. Se presenta el caso de un prematuro de extremado bajo peso con hipertensión pulmonar secundaria a displasia broncopulmonar grave, no respondedora a óxido nítrico inhalado y sildenafilo, que fue tratado con análogos de prostaglandinas I2. En nuestro paciente, este tratamiento evidenció mejoría clínica y ecocardiográfica significativa tras varias semanas de tratamiento.


Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, with a high mortality rate. Despite the high incidence of pulmonary hypertension, there are few available treatments. Epoprostenol and treprostinil are prostaglandin I2 analogs that activate adenylate cyclase and increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Therefore, they may be an effective treatment for these patients. We report the use of prostaglandin I2 analogs in an extremely low birth weight preterm baby with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia associated with pulmonary hypertension non-responding to inhaled nitric oxide and sildenafil. In our patient this treatment resulted in remarkable clinical and echocardiographic improvement, evident after a few weeks of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tracheostomy , Epoprostenol/therapeutic use , Infant, Extremely Premature , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy
11.
Med. infant ; 26(2): 177-188, Junio 2019. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021533

ABSTRACT

El rotular a un niño o adolescente de hipertenso no es una tarea fácil en la actualidad. Sabemos que el pilar para el diagnóstico de Hipertensión Arterial sigue siendo la presión arterial de consultorio; pero tenemos que tener en cuenta que, por su escasa reproducibilidad éste método tiene limitaciones. Hoy existen métodos complementarios reproducibles, validados y confiables como el Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial (MAPA) y el Monitoreo Domiciliario de la Presión Arterial (MDPA) menos difundido en pediatría, que nos ayudan a llegar a un diagnostico correcto (AU)


Diagnosis of a hypertensive child or adolescent is not an easy task today. We know that the mainstay for diagnosing arterial hypertension remains the measuring of blood pressure at the office; however, it is necessary to bear in mind that, because of its low reproducibility, this method has limitations. Today there are reproducible, validated, and reliable complementary methods, such as ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM), that are less widespread in pediatrics, which may be helpful to make an adequate diagnosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Argentina/epidemiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/instrumentation , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy
12.
Med. infant ; 26(2): 168-176, Junio 2019. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016785

ABSTRACT

La hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HAP) en pediatría comparte características comunes de la enfermedad en adultos, pero está asociada con varios trastornos y desafíos adicionales que requieren enfoques diferentes. En este artículo se analizan los avances recientes, los desafíos actuales y los distintos enfoques para el cuidado de niños con HAP. Se actualizan la definición, epidemiología, clasificación, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Se plantea el uso del cateterismo cardíaco como diagnóstico y las definiciones hemodinámicas de HAP, incluido el test de vasorreactividad. Se proporcionan actualizaciones sobre los enfoques pediátricos específicos del manejo médico e intervencionista de la HAP (incluyendo la derivación de Potts). Aunque la falta de datos de ensayos clínicos para el uso de la terapia dirigida a la HAP, los datos emergentes están mejorando la identificación de objetivos adecuados para la terapia orientada a objetivos en niños.(AU)


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in children shares the typical features of the disease in adults, but is associated with different disorders and additional challenges that require different approaches. This article discusses recent developments, current challenges, and different approaches to PAH care in children. Definition, epidemiology, classification, diagnosis, and treatment are updated. The use of cardiac catheterization as a diagnostic tool and hemodynamic definitions of PAH are proposed, including the vasoreactivity test. Updates are provided on specific pediatric approaches to the medical and interventional management of PAH (including Potts shunt). In spite of the lack of clinical trial data for the use of PAH-targeted therapy, emerging data are improving the identification of appropriate targets for therapy in children (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Hypertension, Pulmonary/classification , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Cardiac Catheterization
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(3): 281-288, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004348

ABSTRACT

Background: Living above 2,500 meters in hypobaric conditions induces pulmonary arterial hypertension of the neonate (PAHN), a syndrome whose main features are: pathological remodeling of the pulmonary vessels, abnormal vascular reactivity and increased oxidative stress. Melatonin could have pulmonary antioxidant, anti-remodeling and vasodilating properties for this condition. Aim: To determine the effect of melatonin at the transcript level of prostanoid pathways in the lung of neonatal lambs gestated and born under hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods: Vehicle (1.4% of ethanol, n = 6) or melatonin (1 mg * kg1, n = 5) were administered from the postnatal day 4 to 21 to lambs gestated and born at 3,600 meters above sea level. After one week of treatment completion, lung tissue was obtained, the transcript and protein levels of prostanoid synthases and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results: Melatonin induced the expression of prostacyclin synthase transcript and increased protein expression of the prostacyclin receptor. In addition, the treatment decreased the expression of transcript and protein of cyclooxygenase-2, without changes in the expression of the prostanoid vasoconstrictor (thromboxane) pathway. Conclusions: Postnatal treatment with melatonin increases the expression of the prostacyclin-vasodilator pathway without changing the vasoconstrictor thromboxane pathway. Further, the decreased COX-2 induced by melatonin could be an index of lesser oxidative stress and inflammation in the lung.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostaglandins/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pulmonary Artery/drug effects , Sheep , Hypertension, Pulmonary/metabolism , Animals, Newborn , Hypoxia
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 437-441, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950022

ABSTRACT

La hipertensión pulmonar asociada a la infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana es una enfermedad sumamente infrecuente en pediatría, por lo que requiere alta sospecha clínica para llegar a su diagnóstico. Su aparición es de pronóstico desfavorable, pero el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento específico pueden mejorar su evolución. Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente de 15 años con diagnóstico de infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana de transmisión vertical, sin tratamiento antirretroviral, con tos y disnea de esfuerzo progresiva asociadas a signos de falla cardíaca derecha en el cual se diagnosticó hipertensión pulmonar grave. Luego de descartarse otras causas, se asumió la hipertensión pulmonar asociada a la infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. Se realizó el tratamiento con sildenafil y presentó buena respuesta.


Pulmonary hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection is an extremely rare disease in pediatrics; it requires a high clinical suspicion to reach a diagnosis. Its appearance poses an unfavorable prognostic, but early diagnosis and specific treatment can improve outcomes. We report the clinical case of a fifteen-year-old patient diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus infection of vertical transmission, without antiretroviral treatment, with cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, associated with signs of right heart failure in which severe pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed. After discarding other causes, it was assumed pulmonary hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Treatment was performed with sildenafil with good response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , Sildenafil Citrate/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , HIV Infections/transmission , Treatment Outcome , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/virology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/virology
15.
Clinics ; 73: e216, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890747

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is one of the most prevalent forms of pulmonary hypertension and is a major complication of acute pulmonary embolism. One mainstay of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension treatment is lifelong anticoagulation. The recent advent of direct oral anticoagulants for acute pulmonary embolism treatment has provided a viable and effective alternative for treating this condition. However, little is known about the efficacy of this new class of drugs for treating chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants in the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: A cohort of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients who initiated treatment with direct oral anticoagulants between June 2015 and November 2016 were enrolled in this study. RESULTS: Sixteen patients used rivaroxaban, three used dabigatran and one used apixaban for a mean follow-up of 20.9 months. The mean age was 51 years, and eighteen patients were classified as functional class II/III. Eight patients underwent a pulmonary endarterectomy and exhibited clinical, hemodynamic and functional improvement and currently continue to use direct oral anticoagulants. No episode of venous thromboembolism recurrence was identified during the follow-up period, but there was one episode of major bleeding after a traumatic fall. CONCLUSIONS: Although direct oral anticoagulants appear to be a safe and effective alternative for treating chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, larger studies are needed to support their routine use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Antithrombins/administration & dosage , Dabigatran/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Chronic Disease , Administration, Oral , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
17.
Santiago; Chile. Ministerio de Salud; 2017. ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-882246

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar (HAP) es una enfermedad crónica y progresiva, de baja prevalencia pero con un alto impacto debido a su curso grave y potencialmente letal. La HAP se define desde el punto de vista hemodinámico invasivo como el aumento de la presión media de la arteria pulmonar ≥ 25 mmHg, (PAPm ≥ 25 mmHg) con presión capilar pulmonar ≤ 15 mmHg. Se estima para la HAP un promedio de sobrevida de 2,8 años o una sobrevida promedio de 40% a dos años en pacientes adultos, y de 10 meses en población pediátrica sin tratamiento. Una de las características de la HAP es que es una condición poco reconocida, cuyo diagnóstico suele ser tardío, siendo los síntomas más comunes: disnea, dolor torácico, fatiga y síncope. Actualmente, la HAP se encuentra considerada dentro de las condiciones de salud que cubre el Sistema de Protección Financiera para Diagnóstico y Tratamientos de Alto Costo (Ley 20.850). En particular, se entrega cobertura para los medicamentos Ambrisentan, Bosentán e Iloprost para pacientes con HAP del Grupo 1 de la OMS. Se evalúa la potencial extensión de cobertura de Ambrisentan y Bosentan a otros grupos de pacientes, y la incorporación de los medicamentos Macitentan y Riociguat. TECNOLOGÍAS SANITARIAS ANALIZADAS: Ambrisentan, Bosentan, Riociguat y Macitentan. EFICACIA DE LOS TRATAMIENTOS: Para Ambrisentan no se cuenta con evidencia de eficacia/efectividad para pacientes distintos al Grupo 1 de OMS, esto de acuerdo a la metodología de búsqueda empleada. En el caso de Bosentan, se encuentra evidencia de eficacia para el Grupo 3 (HAP asociada a Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva) y para el Grupo 4 (HAP Tromboembólica Crónica). En general, la evidencia es calificada como de baja calidad. En la mayor parte de los outcomes, no hay una diferencia relevante entre los grupos en tratamiento y control para ambos tipos de pacientes (Grupo 3 y Grupo 4). Para Macitentan solo se encuentra evidencia de eficacia para pacientes del Grupo 1 de OMS. El uso de Macitentan probablemente aumenta levemente el número de metros recorridos en test de marcha de 6 minutos, genera una mejora de la funcionalidad, disminuye la resistencia vascular pulmonar y reduce el número de pacientes con empeoramiento clínico. Por último, para Riociguat se encuentra evidencia de eficacia para HAP Grupo 1, Grupo 2 (HAP debido a Cardiopatía Izquierda) y a Grupo 4. Tanto para el Grupo 1 como Grupo 2, la evidencia es calificada como baja o muy baja y los efectos de Riociguat en relación a placebo resultan inciertos. Para el Grupo 4, Riociguat aumenta levemente el número de metros en test de marcha de 6 minutos y probablemente mejora la funcionalidad, esto con una calidad de evidencia alta y moderada, respectivamente. ANÁLISIS ECONÓMICO: En el caso de Macitentan, los estudios encontrados fueron principalmente de costo minimización y concluyen que se requiere sustantivos recortes de precios para hacer competitivo en términos de costos a Macitentan con otras alternativas terapéuticas, recomendándose su inclusión en esquemas de riesgo compartidos. En el mismo sentido, para Riociguat los resultados no son favorables en términos de costo efectividad al compararse con Bosentan, Macitentan y Ambrisentan. Sin embargo, se cuestiona los datos de efectividad debido a que provienen de comparaciones indirectas. El impacto presupuestario para el año 2018 de Macitentan se estima en $MM 469.620 para los casos incidentes de HAP Grupo 1. Para Riociguat para el año 2018 el impacto presupuestario estimado es de $MM 725. CONCLUSIÓN: Los tratamientos Ambisentan y Bosentan no resultan favorable dado que no se considera que la evidencia de eficacia respalde su utilización. Por ende, no siguen en análisis en las etapas posteriores. Por otra parte, Riociguat y Macitentan se consideran favorables. Para dar cumplimiento al artículo 28° del Reglamento que establece el proceso destinado a determinar los diagnósticos y tratamientos de alto costo con Sistema de Protección Financiera, según lo establecido en los artículos 7°y 8° de la ley N°20.850, aprobado por el decreto N°13 del Ministerio de Salud, se concluye que el presente informe de evaluación considera favorables los tratamientos riociguar y macitentan, de acuerdo a lo establecido en el Título III. de las Evaluaciones Favorables de la Norma Técnica N° 0192 de este mismo ministerio.


Subject(s)
Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Guanylate Kinases/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Health Evaluation/economics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical/economics
18.
In. Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Rios, Isabel Cristina; Takaoka, Flávio. Anestesia e bioética / Anesthesia and bioethics. São Paulo, Atheneu, 8; 2017. p.885-895.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847829
19.
Lima; s.n; jul. 2016.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-847651

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente dictamen expone la evaluación de tecnología de la eficacia y seguridad de Bosentan en pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada, candidatos a trasplante cardiaco. Esta evaluación es específica para pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada clase NYHA III a IV que no son reactivos al test vasodilatador por cateterización cardiaca derecha. Aspectos Generales: Datos de la Sociedad Internacional para el Trasplante Cardiaco y Pulmonar (ISHLT, por sus siglas en inglés) indican que aproximadamente 20% de las muertes tempranas después de un trasplante cardiaco son atribuibles a falla ventricular derecha (1). Asimismo, el aumento de la resistencia vascular pulmonar (PVR, por sus siglas en inglés) está asociada con falla cardiaca derecha y mortalidad después de un trasplante cardiaco. Tecnología Sanitaria de Interés: El rol de la endotelina en la enfermedad cardiovascular ha sido intensivamente estudiado. La activación del sistema de endotelina es considerada parte de la respuesta neurohormonal en la insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva. La endotelina es producida por las células vasculares endoteliales y tiene efectos vasoconstrictores potentes. Los niveles elevados de endotelina inducen remodelación cardiaca adversa y causan el deterioro progresivo de la insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva influenciando las condiciones de carga del corazón y reduciendo el flujo coronario. Asimismo, tiene efectos tóxicos directos sobre el miocardio. METODOLOGÍA: Estrategia de Búsqueda: Se realizó una estrategia de búsqueda sistemática de la evidencia científica con respecto al uso de Bosentan en pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada y candidatos a trasplante cardiaco. Esta evaluación es específica para insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada clase NYHA III a IV que no son reactivos al test vasodilatador por cateterización cardiaca derecha. Se realizó una estrategia de búsqueda sistemática de la evidencia científica con respecto al uso de Bosentan en pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada y candidatos a trasplante cardiaco. Esta evaluación es específica para insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada clase NYHA III a IV que no son reactivos al test vasodilatador por cateterización cardiaca derecha. Se realizó una búsqueda de estudios en humanos que mostraron evidencia científica en relación a los puntos desarrollados en la pregunta PICO. Se dio preferencia a estudios de tipo meta-análisis, revisiones sistemáticas de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y ensayos clínicos aleatorizados; así como a guías de práctica clínica de grupos o instituciones relevantes al tema analizado. RESULTADOS: Sinopsis de la Evidencia: Se realizó la búsqueda y revisión de la evidencia científica actual para la evaluación de la eficacia y seguridad de Bosentan en pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada y candidatos a trasplante cardiaco. Se presenta la información encontrada de acuerdo al tipo de evidencia revisada: Guías de Práctica Clínica, Evaluaciones de Tecnologías Sanitarias (ETS), Revisiones Sistemáticas (RS) o Meta-análisis, Estudios Primarios. CONCLUSIONES: La población de interés de la presente evaluación de tecnología sanitaria comprende los pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada (hipertensión poscapilar), condición en la cual, el origen del aumento de la presión es la falla cardíaca (clasificación II OMS) siendo el mecanismo fisiopatológico distinto al de la hipertensión pulmonar primaria. el Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación ­ IETSI, no aprueba el uso de Bosentan para el tratamiento de pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada, no reactivos a test vasodilatador y candidatos a trasplante cardiaco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Transplantation/rehabilitation , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(7): 829-836, jul. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-793995

ABSTRACT

Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and progressive disease. Long-term survival remains poor despite of advances in specific vasodilator therapy. Aim: To describe the survival rate in a cohort of PAH patients in two referral centers in Chile. Patients and Methods: One hundred fifteen patients aged 43 ± 15.6 years (85% females) with PAH qualified for this study. Their median pulmonary artery pressure was 55.4 ± 14 mmHg and their six minutes walking capacity was 368 ± 119 m. They were followed for 58 ± 0.4 months and their actual survival rates were compared with the estimated survival using the equation proposed by the French registry of PAH. Results: One, two and three year survival rates were 97, 94 and 89%, respectively. The observed survival rates were greater than the estimated survival. Conclusions: The improvement in survival rates observed in this cohort of patients is similar to what has been described in literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Pulmonary/mortality , Chile , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL