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1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 503-511, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007765

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on pulmonary vascular remodeling and ADAM10/Notch3 pathway in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). PAH rat model was established, and male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group, monocrotaline (MCT) group and MCT+PNS group, with 10 rats in each group. Rats in the control group were intraperitoneally injected with equal volume of normal saline. Rats in the MCT group was injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg MCT on the first day, and then with the same volume of normal saline every day. Rats in the MCT+PNS group was injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg MCT on the first day, and then with 50 mg/kg PNS every day. The modeling time of each group lasted for 21 days. After the model was established, the mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was measured by right heart catheterization technique, the right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) was calculated, the microscopic morphology and changes of pulmonary vascular wall were observed by HE and Masson staining, and the expressions of ADAM10, Notch3, Hes-1, P27, PCNA, Caspase-3 proteins and mRNA in pulmonary vascular tissue of rats were detected by Western blot and qPCR. The expression and localization of Notch3 and α-SMA were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The protein expression of ADAM10 was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The results showed that compared with the control group, mPAP, RVHI, pulmonary vessels and collagen fibers in the MCT group were significantly increased, the expressions of ADAM10, Notch3, Hes-1, and PCNA protein and mRNA were significantly increased, while the expressions of P27 and Caspase-3 protein and mRNA were decreased significantly. Compared with the MCT group, mPAP and RVHI were significantly decreased, pulmonary vessels were significantly improved and collagen fibers were significantly reduced, the expressions of protein and mRNA of ADAM10, Notch3, Hes-1, and PCNA were decreased in MCT+PNS group, but the expressions of protein and mRNA of P27 and Caspase-3 were increased slightly. The results of immunofluorescence showed that Notch3 and α-SMA staining could overlap, which proved that Notch3 was expressed in smooth muscle cells. The expression of Notch3 in the MCT group was increased significantly compared with that in the control group, while PNS intervention decreased the expression of Notch3. Immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the control group, the amount of ADAM10 in the MCT group was increased significantly, and the expression of ADAM10 in the MCT+PNS group was decreased compared with the MCT group. These results indicate that PNS can improve the PAH induced by MCT in rats by inhibiting ADAM10/Notch3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Caspase 3/metabolism , Collagen , Disease Models, Animal , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Monocrotaline/adverse effects , Panax notoginseng/chemistry , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/pharmacology , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Pulmonary Artery/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Notch3/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Saline Solution , Signal Transduction , Saponins/pharmacology
2.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 446-454, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447616

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Sepsis and septic shock still represent great challenges in critical care medicine. Sildenafil has been largely used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, but its effects in sepsis are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that sildenafil can attenuate endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension in a porcine model of endotoxemia. Methods Twenty pigs were randomly assigned to Control group (n = 10), which received saline solution; or to Sildenafil group (n = 10), which received sildenafil orally (100 mg). After 30 minutes, both groups were submitted to endotoxemia with intravenous bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) infusion (4 µg.kg-1.h-1) for 180 minutes. We evaluated hemodynamic and oxygenation functions, and also lung histology and plasma cytokine (TNFα, IL-1β, IL6, and IL10) and troponin I response. Results Significant hemodynamic alterations were observed after 30 minutes of LPS continuous infusion, mainly in pulmonary arterial pressure (from Baseline 19 ± 2 mmHg to LPS30 52 ± 4 mmHg, p< 0.05). There was also a significant decrease in PaO2/FiO2 (from Baseline 411 ± 29 to LPS180 334 ± 49, p< 0.05). Pulmonary arterial pressure was significantly lower in the Sildenafil group (35 ± 4 mmHg at LPS30, p< 0.05). The Sildenafil group also presented lower values of systemic arterial pressure. Sildenafil maintained oxygenation with higher PaO2/FiO2 and lower oxygen extraction rate than Control group but had no effect on intrapulmonary shunt. All cytokines and troponin increased after LPS infusion in both groups similarly. Conclusion Sildenafil attenuated endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension preserving the correct heart function without improving lung lesions or inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Endotoxemia , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Swine , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Sildenafil Citrate/pharmacology , Hemodynamics , Hypertension, Pulmonary/chemically induced
3.
Florianópolis; Secretaria de Estado da Saúde; 20220000. 127 p il. color..
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SC | ID: biblio-1415287

ABSTRACT

Este relatório refere-se à análise crítica do documento "Diagnóstico e Tratamento de Hipertensão Pulmonar'', elaborado pela ACAPTI e enviado como proposta para elaboração de Protocolo Estadual de Hipertensão Pulmonar, contemplando o tratamento farmacológico de HP grupo 1 (HAP) e grupo 4 (HPTEC). No documento encaminhado pelo demandante consta uma breve introdução e contextualização da patologia, diagnóstico clínico e exames complementares, critérios de inclusão e exclusão, especialidades médicas, estratificação de risco e seguimento, tratamento medicamentoso, algoritmo de tratamento medicamentoso, acessos aos medicamentos e centros de referência. Os itens relacionados ao diagnóstico foram mantidos neste relatório, conforme o documento enviado pelo demandante. Este relatório visa avaliar e emitir um parecer técnico embasado em evidências científicas sobre a disponibilização do medicamento Selexipague, a disponibilização da terapia combinada (Ambrisentana, Bosentana, Sildenafila, Ilopros a e Selexipague) para o tratamento da HP grupo 1 (HAP), a disponibilização do medicamento Riociguate para tratamento de HP grupo 4 (HPTEC), algoritmo de tratamento medicamentoso e fluxo de acesso aos medicamentos, para posterior elaboração de um Protocolo Estadual para a patologia solicitada. O Protocolo Estadual será elaborado complementarmente ao protocolo do Ministério da Saúde, assim, caso os medicamentos englobados nele sejam incorporados para a patologia em questão pela CONITEC, o fornecimento dos mesmos passa a ser por meio do CEAF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Unified Health System , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , State Government , Clinical Protocols , Practice Guidelines as Topic
5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1363165

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Riociguate e outros medicamentos de controle da hipertensão pulmonar. Indicação: Tratamento de Hipertensão Pulmonar Tomboembólica Crônica (HPTEC). Pergunta: Há superioridade em eficácia e segurança do riociguate, comparado a medicamentos disponíveis no SUS, no tratamento de HPTEC inoperável ou operada com hipertensão pulmonar residual? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foram selecionadas 4 e incluídas 2 revisões sistemáticas. Conclusão: Comparado ao placebo, em tratamento de curto prazo de HPTEC, riociguate melhora a tolerância ao exercício, aumenta a chance de melhora da classificação funcional e tem similar risco de eventos adversos sérios, porém não reduz a mortalidade. Treprostinil tem efeitos similares a riociguate. Entretanto, ambrisentana, bosentana, macitentana ou sildenafila não diferem do placebo no tratamento de HPTEC


Technology: Riociguat and other drugs to control pulmonary hypertension. Indication: Treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Question: Is riociguat more effective and safe than other drugs available in the Brazilian Public Health System for the treatment of inoperable or recurrent CTEPH? Methods: Rapid review of evidence (overview) from systematic reviews, with a bibliographic search in the PUBMED database, using a structured strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed with AMSTAR-2 (Methodological Quality Assessment of Systematic Reviews). Results: Four systematic reviews were selected and two included in this study. Conclusion: Compared to placebo, in the short-term treatment of CTEPH, riociguat improves exercise tolerance, increases the chance of improving functional classification, and has a similar risk of serious adverse events, but does not reduce mortality. Treprostinil has similar effects to riociguat. However, ambrisentan, bosentan, macitentan or sildenafil do not differ from placebo in the treatment of CTEPH


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Guanylate Cyclase/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Placebos , Evidence-Informed Policy
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 718-723, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the therapeutic mechanism of tanshinone IIA in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in rats.@*METHODS@#A total of 100 male SD rats were randomized into 5 groups (n=20), and except for those in the control group with saline injection, all the rats were injected with monocrotaline (MCT) on the back of the neck to establish models of pulmonary hypertension. Two weeks after the injection, the rat models received intraperitoneal injections of tanshinone IIA (10 mg/kg), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (1 mg/kg), both tanshinone IIA and PI3K inhibitor, or saline (model group) on a daily basis. After 2 weeks of treatment, HE staining and α-SMA immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate the morphology of the pulmonary vessels of the rats. The phosphorylation levels of PI3K, protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the lung tissue were determined with Western blotting; the levels of eNOS and NO were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).@*RESULTS@#The results of HE staining and α-SMA immunofluorescence staining showed that tanshinone IIA effectively inhibited MCT-induced pulmonary artery intimamedia thickening and muscularization of the pulmonary arterioles (P < 0.01). The results of Western blotting showed that treatment with tanshinone IIA significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K, Akt and eNOS proteins in the lung tissue of PAH rats; ELISA results showed that the levels of eNOS and NO were significantly decreased in the rat models after tanshinone IIA treatment (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Treatment with tanshinone IIA can improve MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats through the PI3K/Akt-eNOS signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Abietanes , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Monocrotaline/toxicity , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/therapeutic use , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Pulmonary Artery , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
7.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 507-513, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the early risk factors for death in neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) treated with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 105 infants with PPHN (gestational age ≥34 weeks and age <7 days on admission) who received iNO treatment in the Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, from July 2017 to March 2021. Related general information and clinical data were collected. According to the clinical outcome at discharge, the infants were divided into a survival group with 79 infants and a death group with 26 infants. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the risk factors for death in infants with PPHN treated with iNO. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the cut-off values of the factors in predicting the death risk.@*RESULTS@#A total of 105 infants with PPHN treated with iNO were included, among whom 26 died (26/105, 24.8%). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that no early response to iNO (HR=8.500, 95%CI: 3.024-23.887, P<0.001), 1-minute Apgar score ≤3 points (HR=10.094, 95%CI: 2.577-39.534, P=0.001), a low value of minimum PaO2/FiO2 within 12 hours after admission (HR=0.067, 95%CI: 0.009-0.481, P=0.007), and a low value of minimum pH within 12 hours after admission (HR=0.049, 95%CI: 0.004-0.545, P=0.014) were independent risk factors for death. The ROC curve analysis showed that the lowest PaO2/FiO2 value within 12 hours after admission had an area under the ROC curve of 0.783 in predicting death risk, with a sensitivity of 84.6% and a specificity of 73.4% at the cut-off value of 50, and the lowest pH value within 12 hours after admission had an area under the ROC curve of 0.746, with a sensitivity of 76.9% and a specificity of 65.8% at the cut-off value of 7.2.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Infants with PPHN requiring iNO treatment tend to have a high mortality rate. No early response to iNO, 1-minute Apgar score ≤3 points, the lowest PaO2/FiO2 value <50 within 12 hours after admission, and the lowest pH value <7.2 within 12 hours after admission are the early risk factors for death in such infants. Monitoring and evaluation of the above indicators will help to identify high-risk infants in the early stage.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Administration, Inhalation , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide , Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 319-325, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of bosentan in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN).@*METHODS@#Chinese Journal Full-text Database, Weipu Database, Wanfang Data, China Biology Medicine disc, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for literature on bosentan in the treatment of PPHN published up to August 31, 2021.@*RESULTS@#A total of 8 randomized controlled trials were included for Meta analysis. The results of the Meta analysis showed that compared with the control group, the bosentan treatment group had a significantly lower treatment failure rate (RR=0.23, P<0.001), a significantly greater reduction in pulmonary artery pressure [mean difference (MD)=-11.79, P<0.001)], significantly greater increases in oxygen partial pressure (MD=10.21, P=0.006) and blood oxygen saturation (MD=8.30, P<0.001), and a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (MD=-1.35, P<0.001). The descriptive analysis showed that the bosentan treatment group had a lower degree of tricuspid regurgitation than the control group after treatment. The main adverse reactions of bosentan treatment included abnormal liver function, anemia and edema. The results of subgroup analysis based on treatment regimen, research area, and drug dose were consistent with those before stratification.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Bosentan is effective in the treatment of PPHN. However, when using bosentan, attention should be paid to adverse reactions such as abnormal liver function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Bosentan/therapeutic use , China , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Treatment Failure
9.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 54-59, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the change in asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in the circulation system of full-term infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and its association with treatment response, as well as the possibility of ADMA as a therapeutic target and a marker for treatment response.@*METHODS@#A prospective study was performed. A total of 30 full-term neonates who were diagnosed with PPHN within 3 days after birth were enrolled as the PPHN group, and the neonates without PPHN, matched for gestational age and age, who were treated or observed in the department of neonatology were enrolled as the control group. Serum samples were collected on days 1, 7, and 14 of treatment. The high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the serum concentrations of L-arginine, ADMA, and its isomer symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA).@*RESULTS@#For the neonates in the control group, the serum concentrations of ADMA and L-arginine continuously increased and the serum concentration of SDMA continuously decreased within the first 14 days of treatment. On days 1 and 14, there was no significant difference in the serum concentration of ADMA between the control and PPHN groups (P>0.05). On day 7, the PPHN group had a significantly higher serum concentration of ADMA than the control group (P<0.05), while there were no significant differences in serum concentrations of SDMA or L-arginine (P>0.05). Moreover, after 7 days of treatment, the PPHN neonates with a systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) of >35 mmHg had a significantly higher serum concentration of ADMA than those with an sPAP of ≤35 mm Hg.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are continuous increases in the ADMA concentration and the ADMA/SDMA ratio in the circulation system of full-term infants within the first 2 weeks after birth, and this process is accelerated by the pathological process of PPHN, suggesting that ADMA may be involved in the pathologic process of PPHN. A high level of ADMA is associated with the resistance to PPHN treatment, suggesting that inhibition of ADMA might be a potential target of drug intervention to improve the treatment response of PPHN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , Biomarkers , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Prospective Studies
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 750-764, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345224

ABSTRACT

Resumo Muitos avanços ocorreram nas últimas décadas na terapêutica da hipertensão arterial pulmonar (HAP), uma doença grave, progressiva, incurável e potencialmente fatal. Para seu tratamento adequado, são fundamentais o diagnóstico hemodinâmico e a classificação de sua etiologia, em que várias delas (colagenoses, hipertensão portal, cardiopatia congênitas, esquistossomose) requerem medidas específicas, além do tratamento farmacológico característico para HAP. O tratamento com fármacos-alvo para HAP baseia-se em produtos farmacêuticos que interferem em três vias fisiopatológicas moleculares: da prostaciclina, da endotelina e do óxido nítrico. Tais fármacos apresentam múltiplas apresentações (oral, endovenosa, subcutânea e inalatória) e mudaram a história da HAP. Essas medicações e suas estratégias de uso, assim como particularidades das diferentes formas de HAP, são o foco desta revisão.


Abstract In the last decades, important advances have been made in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a severe, progressive, incurable, and potentially fatal disease. For an adequate therapy, correct hemodynamic diagnosis and etiology classification are fundamental. Many etiologies - rheumatic disease, portal hypertension, congenital heart diseases, schistosomiasis - require specific measures, in addition to drug therapy for PAH. The specific therapy for PAH is based on medications that act on three pathophysiological pathways - prostacyclin, endothelin, and nitric oxide pathways. These drugs have multiple presentations (oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, and inhaled) and have changed the history of PAH. This review presents an overview of drug therapy strategies and different forms and peculiarities of PAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hemodynamics
11.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(5): 1345-1359, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352115

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la hipertensión pulmonar es un hallazgo frecuente en la insuficiencia cardíaca. El uso del sildenafilo en estos casos es una práctica habitual, pero aún controversial por lo limitado de los estudios realizados. Objetivo: comparar las variables ecocardiográficas de hemodinamia pulmonar, en pacientes con disfunción sistólica ventricular izquierda e hipertensión pulmonar secundaria severa, antes y después del uso del sildenafilo. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte, donde se incluyeron 19 pacientes; se realizó un seguimiento de dos años. Se analizaron variables clínicas, de laboratorio y ecocardiográficas. Se evaluaron las principales variables de hemodinamia pulmonar antes del uso del sildenafilo y a las doce semanas de su indicación. Se realizó una curva de supervivencia al concluir el seguimiento. El nivel de significación estadístico empleado fue de p < 0,05. Resultados: la edad promedio fue de 56,16 ± 15,77 años y predominó el sexo masculino, con un 73,7 %. La supervivencia al término del seguimiento fue de 78,9 %. Las principales variables ecocardiográficas de hemodinamia pulmonar mostraron una reducción significativa a las doce semanas del tratamiento con sildenafilo. La supervivencia de los pacientes con una reducción del 25 % de las presiones pulmonares en el ecocardiograma realizado a las doce semanas del tratamiento, fue mayor al terminar el estudio (100 % vs 33 %, log-rank test p = 0,001). Conclusiones: posterior al uso del sildenafilo se encontró una reducción significativa de las variables de hemodinamia pulmonar en el ecocardiograma evolutivo. La sobrevida fue mayor en los pacientes que presentaron dicha reducción (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: pulmonary hypertension is a common finding in heart failure. The use of sildenafil in these cases is a common practice, but still controversial due to the limited number of studies carried out. Objective: to compare echocardiographic variables of pulmonary hemodynamics, in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and severe secondary pulmonary hypertension, before and after the use of sildenafil. Materials and methods: a cohort study was led, including 19 patients; a two-year follow-up was carried out. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic variables were analyzed. The main pulmonary hemodynamics variables were evaluated before the use of sildenafil and 12 weeks after its indication. A survival curve was performed at the end of the follow-up. The statistical significance level used was p < 0.05. Results: the average age was 56.16 ± 15.77 years, and male sex predominated with 73.3 %. Survival at the end of the follow up was 78.9 %. The main echocardiographic variables of pulmonary hemodinamics showed a significant reduction at 12 weeks of treatment with sildenafil. The survival of patients with a 25 % reduction in pulmonary pressures in the echocardiogram performed at 12 weeks of treatment was greater at the end of the study (100 % vs 33 %, log-rank test p = 0.001). Conclusions: after using sildenafil, a significant reduction of pulmonary hemodynamics variables was found in the evolutionary echocardiogram. Survival was higher in patients who had this reduction (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Patients , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy , Sildenafil Citrate/supply & distribution , Sildenafil Citrate/therapeutic use , Sildenafil Citrate/pharmacology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 624-636, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346516

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HAP) requiere procesos estructurados de diagnóstico y estratificación de riesgo, siendo la función del ventrículo derecho (VD) un marcador pronóstico central. Los principales objetivos terapéuticos en la HAP son mejorar y/o intentar revertir la disfunción del VD y mantener condición de bajo riesgo. Actualmente existen múltiples fármacos con diferentes mecanismos de acción cuya combinación en doble o triple terapia ha mostrado mejores resultados que la monoterapia. Evidencia actual demuestra la importancia de incorporar tempranamente prostanoides parenterales al esquema, mejorando la funcionalidad del VD y la supervivencia. En esta revisión se refleja el papel de la función del VD en el diagnós tico, pronóstico y seguimiento de la HAP. Se recomienda la evaluación sistemática y estandarizada del VD, así como el inicio temprano de tratamiento combinado en riesgo intermedio-alto para obtener las metas de alcanzar y mantener un riesgo bajo y/o evitar la progresión de la HAP.


Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) requires structured processes of diagnosis and risk stratifica tion, being the function of the right ventricle (RV) a hallmark prognosis determinant. The main therapeutic goals in PAH are to improve and try to revert RV dysfunction and maintaining a low risk. Currently, there are multiple treatments with different mechanisms of action, the combination of which in double or triple therapy has shown improved results compared to monotherapy. Recent clinical evidence shows the importance of early incorpora tion of parenteral prostanoids to the scheme, improving RV function and survival. In this review, we discuss the role of the RV function in the diagnosis, prognosis, and follow-up of PAH. We recommend the systematic and standardised evaluation of the RV as well as the early initiation of combined treatment in cases of intermediate-high risk to try to reach and keep the patient with PAH at a low risk and / or avoid the progression of PAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Ventricular Function, Right , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging
13.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 40(1): 54-58, abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388078

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Los tumores cardíacos pueden ser primarios o, más frecuentemente secundarios o metastásicos. Entre los tumores primarios es más frecuente el mixoma, cuya ubicación más común es en la aurícula izquierda. Las manifestaciones clínicas son diversas, producidas principalmente por obstrucción mecánica, embolizaciones, y manifestaciones constitucionales. Se comunica el caso de un paciente de 32 años, con cuadro clínico de insuficiencia cardíaca, hipertensión pulmonar severa y tromboembolismo pulmonar bilateral. Se hizo el diagnóstico de mixoma auricular izquierdo. Se resecó el tumor y se manejó la hipertensión pulmonar desde el ingreso al hospital con inhibidores de la fosfodiesterasa asociado a anticoagulación. Se discute el tema dando énfasis a aspectos fisiopatológicos involucrados tanto en la hipertensión pulmonar como en la presencia de tromboembolia pulmonar.


Abstract: Cardiac tumors may be primary or, more frequently secondary or associated to metastasis. Atril myxoma es the most frequent primary tumor, usually located in the left atrium. Clinical manifestations include those due to mitral valve occlusión, emboli and general non spedific symptoms and signs. Herein we report the clinical case of a 32 year old patient with severe pulmonary hypertension and bilateral pulmonary embolism. The tumor was extirpated, and he received phosphoro-diesterase inhiborts and anticoagulants. Subsequent clinical course was satisfactory. A brief discussion of this condicion is included.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Heart Neoplasms/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Myxoma/complications , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Heart Neoplasms/surgery , Heart Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Myxoma/surgery , Myxoma/diagnostic imaging
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 219-226, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153005

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A resistência vascular pulmonar elevada ainda é um grande problema na seleção de candidatos ao transplante cardíaco. Objetivo Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o efeito da administração de sildenafila pré-transplante cardíaco em pacientes com hipertensão pulmonar fixa. Métodos O estudo retrospectivo, de centro único, incluiu 300 candidatos a transplante cardíaco consecutivos tratados entre 2003 e 2013. Destes, 95 pacientes tinham hipertensão pulmonar fixa e, dentre eles, 30 pacientes foram tratados com sildenafila e acabaram passando pelo transplante, formando o Grupo A. O Grupo B incluiu 205 pacientes sem hipertensão pulmonar que passaram pelo transplante cardíaco. A hemodinâmica pulmonar foi avaliada antes do transplante, 1 semana e 1 ano após o transplante. A taxa de sobrevivência foi comparada entre os grupos. Neste estudo, um P valor < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Após o tratamento com sildenafila, mas antes do TxC, a RVP (-39%) e a PAPs (-10%) diminuíram significativamente. A PAPs diminuiu após o TxC em ambos os grupos, mas permaneceu significativamente alta no grupo A em relação ao grupo B (40,3 ± 8,0 mmHg versus 36,5 ± 11,5 mmHg, P=0,022). Um ano após o TxC, a PAPs era 32,4 ± 6,3 mmHg no Grupo A versus 30,5 ± 8,2 mmHg no Grupo B (P=0,274). O índice de sobrevivência após o TxC 30 dias (97% no grupo A versus 96% no grupo B), 6 meses (87% versus 93%) e um ano (80% versus 91%) após o TxC não foi estatisticamente significativo (Log-rank P=0,063). Depois do primeiro ano, o índice de mortalidade era similar entre os dois grupos (sobrevivência condicional após 1 ano, Log-rank p=0,321). Conclusão Nos pacientes com HP pré-tratados com sildenafila, a hemodinâmica pós-operatória inicial e o prognóstico são numericamente piores em pacientes sem HP, mas depois de 1 ano, a mortalidade em médio e longo prazo são semelhantes. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):219-226)


Abstract Background Elevated pulmonary vascular resistance remains a major problem for heart transplant (HT) candidate selection. Objective This study sought at assess the effect of pre-HT sildenafil administration in patients with fixed pulmonary hypertension. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 300 consecutive, HT candidates treated between 2003 and 2013, in which 95 patients had fixed PH, and of these, 30 patients were treated with sildenafil and eventually received a transplant, forming Group A. Group B included 205 patients without PH who underwent HT. Pulmonary hemodynamics were evaluated before HT, as well as 1 week after and 1 year after HT. Survival was compared between the groups. In this study, a p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results After treatment with sildenafil but before HT, PVR (-39%) and sPAP (-10%) decreased significantly. sPAP decreased after HT in both groups, but it remained significantly higher in group A vs. group B (40.3 ± 8.0 mmHg vs 36.5 ± 11.5 mmHg, p=0.022). One year after HT, sPAP was 32.4 ± 6.3 mmHg in group A vs 30.5 ± 8.2 mmHg in group B (p=0.274). The survival rate after HT at 30 days (97% in group A versus 96% in group B), at 6 months (87% versus 93%) and at one year (80% vs 91%) were not statistically significant (Log-rank p=0.063). After this first year, the attrition rate was similar among both groups (conditional survival after 1 year, Log-rank p=0.321). Conclusion In patients with severe PH pre-treated with sildenafil, early post-operative hemodynamics and prognosis are numerically worse than in patients without PH, but after 1 year, the medium to long-term mortality proved to be similar. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):219-226)


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Transplantation , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Sildenafil Citrate , Hemodynamics
16.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 2021. 1-11 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1526723

ABSTRACT

Este Protocolo Estadual e o PCDT do Ministério da Saúde, devem ser usados como referência diagnóstica e terapêutica pelos profissionais de saúde, em Goiás, para o atendimento de pessoas com hipertensão pulmonar tromboembólica crônica. A hipertensão pulmonar tromboembólica crônica (HPTEC) está classificada dentro do Grupo IV da Classificação de Hipertensão Pulmonar. Trata-se de uma forma de hioertensão pulmonar causada pela obstrução da vasculatura pulmonar por material tromboembólico fibrótico organizado que leva ao aumento da ressitência vascular pulmonar (RVP), aumento progressivo da pressão na artéria pulmonar e insuficiência cardíaca direita


State Protocol and the Ministry of Health's PCDT should be used as a diagnostic and therapeutic reference by health professionals in Goiás to care for people with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is classified within Group IV of the Pulmonary Hypertension Classification. This is a form of pulmonary hypertension caused by obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature by organized fibrotic thromboembolic material that leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), progressive increase in pressure in the pulmonary artery and right heart failure


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy
17.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 801-814, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922763

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe pathophysiological condition characterized by pulmonary artery remodeling and continuous increases in pulmonary artery pressure, which may eventually develop to right heart failure and death. Although newly discovered and incredible treatment strategies in recent years have improved the prognosis of PH, limited types of effective and economical drugs for PH still makes it as a life-threatening disease. Some drugs from Chinese materia medica (CMM) have been traditionally applied in the treatment of lung diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) derived from those medicines brings promising future for the prevention and treatment of PH. In this review, we summarized the pharmacological effects of APIs derived from CMM which are potent in treating PH, so as to provide new thoughts for initial drug discovery and identification of potential therapeutic strategies in alternative medicine for PH.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
18.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 77(4): 202-206, Jul.-Aug. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131977

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hipertensión arterial pulmonar es una enfermedad multifactorial que incrementa la mortalidad en el neonato como consecuencia de falla cardiaca. Los vasodilatadores pulmonares son la piedra angular del tratamiento, de los cuales el sildenafil es el fármaco más empleado. A continuación, se resumen los resultados de una revisión sistemática Cochrane en la que se evaluaron la eficacia y la seguridad del sildenafil para el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial pulmonar en neonatos.


Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a multifactorial nosological entity that increases neonatal mortality as a result of heart failure. Pulmonary vasodilators are the cornerstone of treatment, of which sildenafil is the most commonly used drug. Therefore, the results of a recently updated Cochrane systematic review are summarized, in which the efficacy and safety of sildenafil for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in neonates was evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Sildenafil Citrate/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Hypertension, Pulmonary/mortality
19.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(1): 41-47, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115461

ABSTRACT

En los pacientes con Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar (HAP) de alto riesgo, en clase funcional (CF)IV, la terapia específica debe ser combinada y debe incluir una prostaciclina (PGI2) de uso sistémico en espera de trasplante bipulmonar (TBP). En el sistema público la única PGI2 disponible para asociar a Sildenafil y algún inhibidor de endotelina (Ambrisentan o Bosentan) es Iloprost nebulizado, que si bien es efectiva, no logra estabilizar los casos graves con severa disfunción del ventrículo derecho (VD). Se presenta el primer caso en el Instituto del Tórax, centro de referencia nacional de HAP, del uso de treprostinil en una paciente de 24 años con HAP grave e indicación de TBP. Treprostinil es un análogo sintético de PGI2 de uso subcutáneo en dosis desde 1 a 40 ng/kg/min. La paciente presentaba una situación de extrema gravedad: CF IV, distancia recorrida en el test de caminata de 6 min (DRTC 6 min) < 300 m,derrame pericárdico y severa disfunción del VD con TAPSE (índice de disfunción del VD) de 13 cm/s asociado a ProBNP >2.500 pg/ml. Luego de 6 meses de hospitalización en intermedio, terapia triple (Sildenafil, Ambrisentan e Iloprost nebulizado) asociado a O2,diuréticos y milrinona, logró ser dada de alta a las 3 semanas del inicio de treprostinil, regresando al trabajo a los 2 meses y estabilizando su condición en CF III, con DRTC 6 min > 440 m, mejoría de la función del VD(TAPSE 19). El ProBNP persistió elevado, 1.491 pg/ml, indicando que su enfermedad es grave y progresiva; sin embargo, ha logrado un nivel de estabilidad clínica que le permite una adecuada vida de relación familiar y laboral.


In high risk Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) patients with functional class (FC) IV, specific therapy must be combined and must include systemic prostacyclin (PGI2), meanwhile they are enlisted for double lung transplant (DLT). In Chilean Public Health System, nebulized Iloprost is the only PGI2 available to combine with Sildenafil and either Ambrisentan or Bosentan as endothelin receptor antagonist. This association is not enough for severe cases with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. The first case from the National Institute of Thorax as a referral center is presented now in a 24 years-old lady treated with treprostinil. She has severe PAH with DLT indication. Treprostinil is a PGI2 analog, for subcutaneous use in a dose from 1 to 40 ng/kg/min. She was extremely sick, with FC IV, she walked < 300 m at 6 min walking test (6 MWT), presented pericardial effusion and severe RV dysfunction, with TAPSE (echocardiography index for RV dysfunction)=13 cm/s, ProBNP > 2,500 pg/ml. Six months after being at intensive care unit with triple therapy (Sildenafil, ambrisentan and nebulized Iloprost) plus oxygen, diuretics and milrinone, she was finally discharged after receiving a 3 weeks treprostinil course. She came back to work two months later and her condition was more stable: FC III, she walked > 440 m at 6MWT, with a significant improvement in RV function with TAPSE = 19. Although ProBNP decreased to 1,491pg/ml, it was still high, pointing out the progressive nature of her disease. However, she met a better clinical condition which allows her to reach a much better quality of life from a personal, familial and social point of view.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Epoprostenol/analogs & derivatives , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Phenylpropionates/therapeutic use , Pyridazines/therapeutic use , Radiography, Thoracic , Epoprostenol/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Sildenafil Citrate/therapeutic use , Computed Tomography Angiography , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging
20.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 541-550, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878199

ABSTRACT

The occurrence and development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is closely related to the genetic mutation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPRII) encoding gene and the inflammatory response mediated by nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. This paper was aimed to investigate the effect of NF-κB pathway inhibitors on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary artery endothelial cell injury. Human pulmonary artery endothelial cells were treated with 1 μg/mL of LPS. The expression levels of BMPRII and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were detected by Western blot and qPCR. The rat PAH model was established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of monocrotaline (MCT). The expression levels of BMPRII and IL-8 in pulmonary artery endothelial cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining. Cardiac hemodynamic changes and pulmonary vascular remodeling were detected in the MCT-PAH model rats. The results showed that LPS caused down-regulation of BMPRII expression and up-regulation of IL-8 expression in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 (10 μmol/L) reversed the effect of LPS. In the pulmonary artery endothelial cells of MCT-PAH model, BMPRII expression was down-regulated, IL-8 expression was up-regulated, weight ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum [RV/(LV+S)] and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) were significantly increased, cardiac output (CO) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) were significantly reduced, and pulmonary vessel wall was significantly thickened. BAY11-7082 (5 mg/kg, i.p., 21 consecutive days) reversed the above changes in the MCT-PAH model rats. These results suggest that LPS down-regulates the expression level of BMPRII through NF-κB signaling pathway, promoting the occurrence and development of PAH. Therefore, the NF-κB pathway can be used as a potential therapeutic target for PAH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II , Down-Regulation , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Lipopolysaccharides , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Vascular Remodeling
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