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1.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 593-599, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040360

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to illustrate the association between vascular endothelial growth factor level and pulmonary artery hypertension in children with β-thalassemia major. Method: This case-control study was conducted on 116 children with β-thalassemia major; 58 of them had pulmonary artery hypertension. They were compared to 58 healthy children who were age and sex-matched (control group). Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and echocardiographic assessment were done for all children. Results: Vascular endothelial growth factor serum level was significantly higher in children with β-thalassemia major with pulmonary artery hypertension than in those without pulmonary artery hypertension, as well as in control groups (p < 0.001). Vascular endothelial growth factor serum level had a significant positive correlation with pulmonary artery pressure and serum ferritin, as well as a significant negative correlation with the duration of chelation therapy. Logistic regression analysis revealed that elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (Odd Ratio = 1.5; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.137-2.065; p = 0.005) was an independent risk factor of pulmonary artery hypertension in such children. Vascular endothelial growth factor serum level at a cutoff point of >169 pg/mL had 93.1% sensitivity and 93.1% specificity for the presence of pulmonary artery hypertension in children with β-thalassemia major. Conclusion: Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor serum level is associated with pulmonary artery hypertension in children with β-thalassemia.


Resumo: Objetivo: A finalidade deste estudo foi exemplificar a associação entre o nível de fator de crescimento endotelial vascular e a hipertensão arterial pulmonar em crianças com talassemia beta maior. Método: Este estudo caso-controle foi realizado em 116 crianças com talassemia beta maior; 58 das quais apresentaram hipertensão arterial pulmonar em comparação com 58 crianças saudáveis pareadas por idade e sexo (grupo de controle). Os níveis séricos do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular e a avaliação ecocardiográfica foram realizados em todas as crianças. Resultados: O nível sérico do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular foi significativamente maior em crianças com talassemia beta maior com hipertensão arterial pulmonar que as crianças sem hipertensão arterial pulmonar e os grupos de controle (p < 0,001). O nível sérico do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular apresentou uma correlação positiva significativa com a pressão arterial pulmonar e a ferritina sérica e correlação negativa significativa com a duração da terapia de quelação. A análise de regressão logística revelou que o fator de crescimento endotelial vascular elevado (RC = 1,5; IC de 95%: 1,137-2,065; p = 0,005) foi um fator de risco independente de hipertensão arterial pulmonar nessas crianças. O nível sérico do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular no ponto de corte > 169 (pg/mL) apresentou 93,1% de sensibilidade e 93,1% de especificidade na presença de hipertensão arterial pulmonar em crianças com talassemia beta maior. Conclusão: O nível sérico do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular elevado está associado à hipertensão arterial pulmonar em crianças com talassemia beta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , beta-Thalassemia/blood , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood , Hypertension, Pulmonary/blood , Reference Values , Splenectomy , Time Factors , Echocardiography, Doppler , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Analysis of Variance , beta-Thalassemia/physiopathology , Age of Onset , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 419-428, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038559

ABSTRACT

Abstract The finding of pulmonary hypertension (PH) by echocardiography is common and of concern. However, echocardiography is just a suggestive and non-diagnostic assessment of PH. When direct involvement of pulmonary circulation is suspected, invasive hemodynamic monitoring is recommended to establish the diagnosis. This assessent provides, in addition to the diagnostic confirmation, the correct identification of the vascular territory predominantly involved (arterial pulmonary or postcapillary). Treatment with specific medication for PH (phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists and prostacyclin analogues) has been proven effective in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, but its use in patients with PH due to left heart disease can even be damaging. In this review, we discuss the diagnosis criteria, how etiological investigation should be carried out, the clinical classification and, finally, the therapeutic recommendations for PH.


Resumo O achado de hipertensão pulmonar (HP) em avaliação ecocardiográfica é frequente e preocupante. No entanto, o ecocardiograma é apenas um exame sugestivo e não diagnóstico de HP. Quando se suspeita de acometimento direto da circulação pulmonar, está indicada medida hemodinâmica invasiva para estabelecer o diagnóstico. Essa avaliação permite, além da confirmação diagnóstica, a correta identificação do território vascular predominantemente acometido (arterial pulmonar ou pós-capilar). O tratamento com as medicações específicas de HP (inibidores da fosfodiestarese 5, antagonistas do receptor de endotelina, análogos da prostaciclina e estimulador da guanilil ciclase solúvel) é comprovadamente eficaz para pacientes com hipertensão arterial pulmonar, mas seu uso em pacientes com HP decorrente de doença cardíaca de câmaras esquerdas pode até mesmo ser prejudicial. Discutiremos nesta revisão o critério diagnóstico, a maneira de proceder a investigação etiológica, a classificação clínica e, finalmente, as recomendações terapêuticas na HP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Pulmonary Circulation , Risk Assessment , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Heart Diseases/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy
3.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(2): 87-95, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042601

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Antecedentes: La presión media arterial pulmonar (PMAP) es una variable hemodinámica indispensable para el diagnóstico, clasificación y pronóstico de la Hipertensión Pulmonar (HP). Su cuantificación se realiza en forma invasiva por cateterismo cardíaco derecho (CCD) y no invasivamente por ecocardiografía Doppler. Masuyama propuso su medición mediante el gradiente transvalvular pulmonar diastólico derivado de la velocidad máxima inicial de la regurgitación pulmonar (∆RPi2) correspondiendo cercanamente a la medición invasiva. Objetivos: Revalidar 3 métodos ecocardiográficos que estiman la PMAP y valorar la utilidad del método de Chemla en el Test de Reactividad Vascular Pulmonar (TRVP). Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, observacional, doble ciego divido en dos etapas. A) o I) 30 pacientes se realizó ecocardiografía Doppler diagnóstica en nuestro centro. Se midieron regurgitación tricuspídea (RT) y tiempo de aceleración pulmonar (TAP) para derivar las siguientes ecuaciones: 1) 0.61xPSAP+1.95 (Chemla) 2) Gradiente presión media RT (∆PmRT) +PAD (presión-aurícula derecha) (Aduen) y 3) 79-0.45xTAP o 90-0.60xTAP, según sea el valor del TAP. B) o II) 10 pacientes enrolados para realizar el TRVP comparando la medición ecocardiográfica (Chemla) con CCD. Resultados: En la primera parte del estudio se encontró alta correlación entre las 3 ecuaciones: ChemlaAduen, R2=0.91; Chemla-Kitabatake, R2=0.87; Aduen-Kitabatake, R2=0,91. En la segunda parte comparando la PMAP-Chemla y Cateterismo derecho (CD) obtuvimos alta correlación: en tiempo 0, 30 min y recuperación:(R2=0.87, 0.99, 0.98, respectivamente). Ambas partes del estudio mostraron límites de concordancia satisfactoria con valor medio de la diferencia entre los métodos cercano a 1 en el t30 y tR del TRVP. Conclusión: los métodos dependientes de la medición de la RT son efectivos y confiables para estimar la PMAP. El método de Chemla es útil en el TRVP.


ABSTRACTS: Background: Mean Pulmonary arterial pressure (PMAP)is an indispensable hemodynamic variable for the diagnosis, classification and prognosis of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). Its quantification is performed invasively by cardiac catheterization and non-invasively by Doppler echocardiography. Masuyama proposed its measurement by the transvalvular diastolic pulmonary gradient derived from the initial maximum velocity of pulmonary regurgitation(ΔPRi2) corresponding closely to the invasive measurement. Objectives: to compare 3 known echocardiographic methods to estimate MPAP and demonstrate the usefulness of the Chemla method in the Pulmonary Vascular Reactivity Test (PVRT). Methods: prospective, observational, double-blind study divided into two stages. A) 30 patients underwent diagnostic Doppler echocardiography. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and pulmonary acceleration time (PAT) were measured to derive the equations: 1) 0.61xSPAP + 1.95 (Chemla) 2) Gradient mean pressure TR (ΔPmTR) + RAP (right atrium pressure) (Aduen).3) 79-0.45xPAT o 90-0.60xPAT depending on the value of PAT. B) 10 patients enrolled to PVRT comparing the echocardiographic measurement (Chemla) with right catheterization. Results: in the first part of the study a high correlation between the 3 equations was found : ChemlaAduen, R2 = 0.91; Chemla-Kitabatake, R2=0.87; Aduen-Kitabatake, R2=0.91. In the second part comparing the MPAP-Chemla and RHC we obtained a high correlation in time 0, 30 min and recovery: (R2=0.87,0,99,0.98, respectively). Both parts of the study showed satisfactory limits concordance with mean value of the difference between the methods close to 1 in the t30 and tR of the TRVP. Conclusion: the methods dependent on the measurement of the TR are effective and reliable for estimating MPAP. The Chemla method is useful in the PVRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Artery/physiology , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Vascular Resistance , Blood Flow Velocity , Cardiac Catheterization , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Linear Models , Double-Blind Method , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Prospective Studies , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Acceleration , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Lung/blood supply
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 113-121, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013758

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a transferência de energia do ventilador mecânico para os pulmões; o acoplamento entre a transferência de oxigênio por oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea venovenosa (ECMO-VV) e o consumo de oxigênio do paciente; a remoção de dióxido de carbono com ECMO; e o efeito potencial da oxigenação venosa sistêmica na pressão arterial pulmonar. Métodos: Modelo matemático com cenários hipotéticos e utilização de simulações matemáticas por computador. Resultados: A transição de ventilação protetora para ventilação ultraprotetora em um paciente com síndrome da angústia respiratória aguda grave e complacência respiratória estática de 20mL/cmH2O reduziu a transferência de energia do ventilador para os pulmões de 35,3 para 2,6 joules por minuto. Em um paciente hipotético, hiperdinâmico e ligeiramente anêmico com consumo de oxigênio de 200mL/minuto, é possível atingir saturação arterial de oxigênio de 80%, ao mesmo tempo em que se mantém o equilíbrio entre a transferência de oxigênio pela ECMO e o consumo de oxigênio do paciente. O dióxido de carbono é facilmente removido e a pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono normal é facilmente obtida. A oxigenação do sangue venoso, por meio do circuito da ECMO, pode direcionar o estímulo da pressão parcial de oxigênio na vasoconstrição pulmonar por hipóxia para valores normais. Conclusão: A ventilação ultraprotetora reduz amplamente a transferência de energia do ventilador para os pulmões. A hipoxemia grave no suporte com ECMO-VV pode ocorrer, a despeito do acoplamento entre a transferência de oxigênio, por meio da ECMO, e o consumo de oxigênio do paciente. A faixa normal de pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono é fácil de atingir. O suporte com ECMO-VV potencialmente alivia a vasoconstrição pulmonar hipóxica.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe (1) the energy transfer from the ventilator to the lungs, (2) the match between venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) oxygen transfer and patient oxygen consumption (VO2), (3) carbon dioxide removal with ECMO, and (4) the potential effect of systemic venous oxygenation on pulmonary artery pressure. Methods: Mathematical modeling approach with hypothetical scenarios using computer simulation. Results: The transition from protective ventilation to ultraprotective ventilation in a patient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and a static respiratory compliance of 20mL/cm H2O reduced the energy transfer from the ventilator to the lungs from 35.3 to 2.6 joules/minute. A hypothetical patient, hyperdynamic and slightly anemic with VO2 = 200mL/minute, can reach an arterial oxygen saturation of 80%, while maintaining the match between the oxygen transfer by ECMO and the VO2 of the patient. Carbon dioxide is easily removed, and normal PaCO2 is easily reached. Venous blood oxygenation through the ECMO circuit may drive the PO2 stimulus of pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction to normal values. Conclusion: Ultraprotective ventilation largely reduces the energy transfer from the ventilator to the lungs. Severe hypoxemia on venous-venous-ECMO support may occur despite the matching between the oxygen transfer by ECMO and the VO2 of the patient. The normal range of PaCO2 is easy to reach. Venous-venous-ECMO support potentially relieves hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Oxygen/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Models, Theoretical , Oxygen Consumption , Computer Simulation , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , Energy Transfer , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(4): 426-436, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014243

ABSTRACT

Background: Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is a therapeutic alternative for patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Aim: To report the initial experience with the "refined BPA technique" with the use of intravascular images. Patients and Methods: Between June 2015 and June 2016 we selected fourteen patients with CTEPH who were considered candidates for BPA. Lesions targeted for treatment were further analyzed using intravascular imaging with optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI). We report the immediate hemodynamic results and four weeks of follow-up of the first eight patients of this series. Results: We performed 16 BPA in eight patients aged 61 ± 14 years (88% women). Mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAPm) was 48.6 ± 5.8 mmHg. Success was achieved in seven patients (88%). A mean of 2.3 segments per patient were intervened in 11 sessions (1.6 sessions/ patient). Only one patient developed lung reperfusion injury. No mortality was associated with the procedure. After the last BPA session, PAPm decreased to 37.4 ± 8.6 mmHg (p=0.02). Pulmonary vascular resistance (RVP) decreased from 858,6 ± 377,0 at baseline to 516,6 ± 323,3 Dynes/sec/cm−5 (p<0.01) and the cardiac index increased from 2.4±0.6 at baseline to 2.8±0.3 L/min/m2 (p=0.01). At 4 weeks after the last BPA, WHO functional class improved from 3.3±0.5 to 2.5±0.5 (p<0,01) and six minutes walking distance from 331±92 to 451±149 m (p=0.01). Conclusions: BPA guided by OFDI for the treatment of inoperable CTEPH patients is a safe alternative with excellent immediate hemodynamic and clinical results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Angioplasty, Balloon/methods , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Angiography/methods , Chronic Disease , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Hemodynamics , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20180332, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012579

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) as an instrument to evaluate the perception of symptoms, functional limitation, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subjects diagnosed with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) in Colombia. Methods: The adaptation process involved 3 phases: translation, cognitive debriefing interviews, and a validation survey. To evaluate the psychometric properties, we recruited individuals ≥ 18 years of age who had been diagnosed with PAH or CTEPH to take part in the latter two stages of the adaptation process. All individuals were being followed on an outpatient basis by the pulmonary hypertension programs at Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Fundación Clínica Shaio,and Clínicos IPS, all located in the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Results: A Spanish-language version of the CAMPHOR was developed for use in Colombia. The internal consistency was excellent for the symptoms, functioning, and quality of life scales (Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.92, 0.87, and 0.93, respectively). Test-retest reliability was above 0.70. The evaluation of the convergent validity and known group validity of the CAMPHOR scales confirmed that there were moderate and strong correlations with the related constructs of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, version 2, as well as showing their capacity to discriminate disease severity. Conclusions: The Spanish-language version of the CAMPHOR developed for use in Colombia was the result of a translation and cultural adaptation process that allows us to consider it equivalent to the original version, having shown good psychometric properties in the study sample. Therefore, its use to assess the impact of interventions on the HRQoL of patients with PAH or CTEPH is recommended, in research and clinical practice.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Realizar la adaptación transcultural del cuestionario Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) como instrumento para evaluar la percepción de síntomas, la limitación funcional y la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) en una población colombiana de sujetos con diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HAP) e hipertensión pulmonar tromboembólica crónica (HPTEC). Métodos: Estudio de validación de pruebas de determinación de precisión y propiedades psicométricas desarrollado en 3 fases: traducción con adaptación cultural mediante panel bilingüe, aplicación inicial y general para la evaluación de características psicométricas en una cohorte de pacientes > 18 años, con diagnóstico de HAP e HPTEC, en seguimiento por consulta externa de programas de hipertensión pulmonar del Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Fundación Clínica Shaio y Clínicos IPS. Resultados: Se obtuvo una versión en castellano de la escala CAMPHOR. La consistencia interna observada para los dominios de síntomas, actividades y calidad de vida (valores del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach de 0,92, 0,87 y 0,93 respectivamente) fue adecuada. La confiabilidad prueba-reprueba estuvo por encima de 0,70 y la evaluación de la validez convergente y de grupos conocidos de las subescalas confirmó las correlaciones moderadas y fuertes con constructos relacionados del SF36v2, así como la capacidad discriminatoria según la severidad de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: La versión en castellano de la escala CAMPHOR presentó un proceso de traducción lingüística y adaptación cultural que permite considerarla equivalente a la versión original, demostrando adecuadas propiedades psicométricas en la muestra estudiada. Por ello se recomienda su utilización tanto en la investigación como en la práctica clínica, con el fin de evaluar el impacto de las intervenciones en la CVRS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Psychometrics , Pulmonary Embolism/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Reference Values , Translations , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Reproducibility of Results , Colombia , Statistics, Nonparametric , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Hypertension, Pulmonary/psychology , Language
7.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(4): e20170355, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012572

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To characterise the degree of disability in pulmonary hypertension (PH) patients based on the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). Method: A prospective and observational study of patients with documented PH (N = 46). Patients completed the WHODAS 2.0 questionnaire during a scheduled routine clinical visit, and their demographic and clinical characteristics were retrieved from electronic medical records (EMR). In subsequent visits, selected clinical variables were registered to assess disease progression. Results: WHODAS 2.0 scores were indicative of mild to moderate disability for the domains of mobility (22.0 ± 23.2), life activities (23.7 ± 25.5), and participation in society (17.2 ± 15.9), as well as total WHODAS 2.0 score (15.3 ± 15.2). For the domains of cognition (9.1 ± 14.1), self-care (8.3 ± 14.4), and interpersonal relationships (11.7 ± 15.7), scores were lower. Disability scores were, generally, proportional to the PH severity. The main baseline correlates of disability were World Health Organisation (WHO) functional class, fatigue, dyspnoea, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP). Baseline WHODAS 2.0 scores showed significant associations with disease progression. However, this effect was not transversal to all domains, with only a few domains significantly associated with disease progression variables. Conclusions: This PH population shows mild disability, with higher degree of disability in the domains of mobility and life activities. This study is the first one to assess disability in PH using WHODAS 2.0. Further studies should apply this scale to larger PH populations with suitable representations of more severe PH forms.


RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar o nível de deficiência em pacientes com hipertensão pulmonar (HP) com base no World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). Método: Estudo prospectivo e observacional em pacientes com HP documentada (N = 46). Os pacientes completaram o questionário WHODAS 2.0 durante uma consulta de rotina, e seus dados demográficos e clínicos foram retirados de prontuários médicos eletrônicos. Nas visitas subsequentes, variáveis clínicas específicas foram registradas para avaliar a progressão da doença. Resultados: a pontuação no WHODAS 2.0 indicaram deficiência leve a moderada para os domínios de mobilidade (22,0 ± 23,2), atividades da vida (23,7 ± 25,5) e participação em sociedade (17,2 ± 15,9), assim como a pontuação total do WHODAS 2.0 (15,3 ± 15,2). Para os domínios de cognição (9,1 ± 14,1), autocuidado (8,3 ± 14,4) e relações interpessoais (11,7 ± 15,7), a pontuação foi mais baixa. Os pontos referentes à deficiência foram, em geral, proporcionais à gravidade da HP. Os principais parâmetros da deficiência foram a classificação de funcionalidade da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), fatiga, dispneia, teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6M), e a porção N-terminal do pró-hormônio do peptídeo natriurético do tipo B (NT-proBNP). Os valores de parâmetro do WHODAS 2.0 mostraram associações significativas com a progressão da doença. Porém, este efeito não foi transversal a todos os domínios; apenas alguns estiveram significativamente associados às variáveis da progressão da doença. Conclusão: Esta população com HP mostra deficiência leve, com níveis mais altos nos domínios de mobilidade e atividades da vida diária. Este estudo é o primeiro a avaliar a deficiência em HP usando o WHODAS 2.0. Outros estudos devem aplicar esta escala em populações maiores com HP, com representações de formas mais graves da HP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , World Health Organization , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Disability Evaluation , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Disease Progression , Walk Test
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(8): e8513, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011602

ABSTRACT

Phenotypic differences have been described between patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) and SSc-associated pulmonary hypertension, including performance differences in the 6-min walk test (6MWT). Moreover, the correlations between the 6MWT and traditional pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are weak, indicating the need to search for new parameters that explain exercise performance. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the impact of ventilation distribution heterogeneity assessed by the nitrogen single-breath washout (N2SBW) test and peripheral muscle dysfunction on the exercise capacity in patients with SSc-ILD and limited involvement of the pulmonary parenchyma. In this cross-sectional study, 20 women with SSc-ILD and 20 matched controls underwent PFTs (including spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), and the N2SBW test) and performed the 6MWT and knee isometric dynamometry. The 6-min walking distance (6MWD, % predicted) was strongly correlated with the phase III slope of the single-breath nitrogen washout (phase III slopeN2SBW) (r=−0.753, P<0.0001) and reasonably correlated with the forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=0.466, P=0.008) and DLco (r=0.398, P=0.011). The peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) during exercise was not significantly correlated with any of the pulmonary or muscle function parameters. The phase III slopeN2SBW was the only predictive variable for the 6MWD, whereas quadriceps strength and FVC/DLco were predictive variables for SpO2. Ventilation distribution heterogeneity is one factor that contributes to a lower 6MWD in SSc-ILD patients. In addition, muscle dysfunction and abnormal lung diffusion at least partly explain the decreased SpO2 of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Raynaud Disease/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Case-Control Studies , Vital Capacity/physiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Pulmonary Ventilation , Walk Test/methods , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Volume Measurements/methods
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(6): 443-446, Dec. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976144

ABSTRACT

El mieloma múltiple es una enfermedad oncohematológica, que representa el 15% de las enfermedades hematológicas malignas. La edad media de aparición es entre los 65-70 años, siendo muy poco frecuente en pacientes jóvenes; 2% son menores de 40 años. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 36 años con antecedente de tabaquismo de 20 paquetes año. Consultó por disnea asociada a signos de insuficiencia cardíaca derecha, anemia, proteinuria, elevación de reactantes de fase aguda y patrón sugestivo de restricción moderadamente grave en la espirometría y caída de la capacidad de difusión de monóxido de carbono (DLco). El ecocardiograma doppler evidenció dilatación de cavidades derechas y signos de hipertensión pulmonar que se confirmó con cateterismo cardiaco derecho. En busca de la etiología se arribó al diagnóstico de mieloma múltiple.


Multiple myeloma is a hematologic disease, which accounts for 15% of hematologic malignancies. The average age of onset is between 65-70 years and is very rare in young patients, as 2% are under 40 years old. We present a case of 36-year-old women with history of 20 pack years (p/y) smoking, who complaints of dyspnea associated with signs of right cardiac overload, anemia, proteinuria, elevated acute phase reactants and spirometry pattern suggestive of moderately-severe restriction and severe drop in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Echocardiogram evidence dilated right heart cavities and signs of pulmonary hypertension which is confirmed by right heart catheterization. In search of the etiology we arrive to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Biopsy , Cardiac Catheterization , Radiography, Thoracic , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/pathology , Multiple Myeloma/physiopathology , Multiple Myeloma/pathology
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7437, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974252

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), characterized by localized increased arterial blood pressure in the lungs, is a slow developing long-term disease that can be fatal. PAH is characterized by inflammation, vascular tone imbalance, pathological pulmonary vascular remodeling, and right-sided heart failure. Current treatments for PAH are palliative and development of new therapies is necessary. Recent and relevant studies have demonstrated that epigenetic processes may exert key influences on the pathogenesis of PAH and may be promising therapeutic targets in the prevention and/or cure of this condition. The aim of the present mini-review is to summarize the occurrence of epigenetic-based mechanisms in the context of PAH physiopathology, focusing on the roles of DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications and non-coding RNAs. We also discuss the potential of epigenetic-based therapies for PAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Methylation/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Histone Code/genetics , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/genetics , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Down-Regulation/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics , Ubiquitination/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy
12.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 503-506, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142162

ABSTRACT

Resumen El desarrollo de hipertensión arterial pulmonar asociada al virus de inmunodeficiencia humana reduce la probabilidad de sobrevivencia en el paciente afectado en comparación con el que no presenta esta alteración cardiopulmonar. La fisiopatogenia aún es incierta. Existen varias líneas de investigación para asociar las diferentes proteínas del virus en la lesión endo- telial. Desde el punto de vista terapéutico, existen modalidades de tratamiento que permiten una expectativa de vida aceptable.


Abstract The development of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus reduces the probability of survival in the patient affected compared to those without cardiopulmonary disease. The pathophysiology is uncertain. There are several lines of research to associate the different proteins of the virus in the endothelial lesion. From a therapeutic point of view there are treatment modalities that allow an acceptable life expectancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Viral Proteins/metabolism , HIV Infections/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , HIV Infections/mortality , Life Expectancy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy
13.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 87(1): 26-34, ene.-mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-887491

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La hipertensión pulmonar tromboembólica crónica (HPTEC) es un subtipo de hipertensión pulmonar (HP) caracterizada por la obstrucción mecánica de las arterias pulmonares causada por una tromboembolia pulmonar. Sin tratamiento es una enfermedad progresiva y devastadora, y es el único subgrupo de HP potencialmente curable mediante la endarterectomía pulmonar. La magnitud, así como la recurrencia de la embolia pulmonar, son determinantes y contribuyen al desarrollo de la HPTEC aun cuando está asociada solo a algunos factores trombofílicos. Una hipótesis es que la enfermedad es consecuencia de la resolución incompleta y la organización del trombo, favorecido por fenómenos de inflamación, inmunitarios y/o genéticos que promueven el desarrollo de estenosis de tipo fibroso que culminan con el remodelado vascular oclusivo de vasos proximales y distales. Los mecanismos involucrados en la fallida resolución del trombo aún no están esclarecidos. Los pacientes con HPTEC con frecuencia exhiben HP severa que no puede ser explicada por el grado de obstrucción vascular demostrada en estudios por imagen. En tales casos la arteriopatía pulmonar y las lesiones trombóticas obstructivas, distales al nivel subsegmentario, pueden contribuir al incremento fuera de proporción de las resistencias vasculares pulmonares. Los procesos que llevan al desarrollo de la arteriopatía pulmonar y los cambios microvasculares que ocurren en la HPTEC explican el comportamiento progresivo de la HP y el deterioro clínico gradual con pobre pronóstico para los pacientes, así como también la falta de correlación entre la magnitud de la obstrucción vascular y la medición de parámetros hemodinámicos, aun en ausencia de tromboembolismo venoso recurrente. Esta revisión resume los aspectos más relevantes y actuales de la patobiología y fisiopatología de la HPTEC.


Abstract: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) represents a unique subtype of pulmonary hypertension characterized by the presence of mechanical obstruction of the major pulmonary vessels caused by venous thromboembolism. CTEPH is a progressive and devastating disease if not treated, and is the only subset of PH potentially curable by a surgical procedure known as pulmonary endarterectomy. The clot burden and pulmonary embolism recurrence may contribute to the development of CTEPH however only few thrombophilic factors have been found to be associated. A current hypothesis is that CTEPH results from the incomplete resolution and organization of thrombus modified by inflammatory, immunologic and genetic mechanisms, leading to the development of fibrotic stenosis and adaptive vascular remodeling of resistance vessels. The causes of thrombus non-resolution have yet to be fully clarified. CTEPH patients often display severe PH that cannot be fully explained by the degree of pulmonary vascular obstruction apparent on imaging studies. In such cases, the small vessel disease and distal obstructive thrombotic lesions beyond the sub-segmental level may contribute for out of proportion elevated PVR. The processes implicated in the development of arteriopathy and microvascular changes might explain the progressive nature of PH and gradual clinical deterioration with poor prognosis, as well as lack of correlation between measurable hemodynamic parameters and vascular obstruction even in the absence of recurrent venous thromboembolism. This review summarizes the most relevant up-to-date aspects on pathobiology and pathophysiology of CTEPH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 194-198, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842844

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) is progressive and incapacitating, especially when cardiopulmonary function is affected. For example, respiratory muscle weakness can cause dyspnea upon exertion and fatigue, which may be exacerbated when it is associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The present study aimed to evaluate respiratory musculature, quality of life, anxiety, and depression among patients with indeterminate chronic CD and symptoms of PH. METHODS: All individuals completed a clinical evaluation, spirometry, a 6-min walking test, respiratory musculature testing using maximum inspiratory pressure (PImax) and maximum expiratory pressure (PEmax), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the SF-36 questionnaire. RESULTS: We evaluated 107 patients who were assigned to a control group with only CD (G1, 8 patients), a group with CD and possible PH (G2, 93 patients), and a group with CD and echocardiography evidence of PH (G3, 6 patients). The three groups had similar values for PImax and PEmax. Compared to the G1 and G2 groups, the G3 group covered significantly less distance during the 6-min walking test and had a significantly shorter predicted distance (p < 0.05 vs. the G1 group). All three groups had similar values for their spirometry results, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, and SF-36 questionnaire results. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with indeterminate chronic CD and symptoms of PH did not experience significant impairment in the studied variables, with the exception of the 6-min walking test, which suggests a low exercise tolerance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Depression/etiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Spirometry , Echocardiography , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Chagas Disease/psychology , Depression/psychology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Walk Test , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Middle Aged
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(11): e6237, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888952

ABSTRACT

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with the development of adult-onset diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism of the early nutritional insult that results in pulmonary vascular dysfunction later in life is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of voltage-gated potassium channel 1.5 (Kv1.5) in this prenatal event that results in exaggerated adult vascular dysfunction. A rat model of chronic hypoxia (2 weeks of hypoxia at 12 weeks old) following IUGR was used to investigate the physiological and structural effect of intrauterine malnutrition on the pulmonary artery by evaluating pulmonary artery systolic pressure and vascular diameter in male rats. Kv1.5 expression and tyrosine phosphorylation in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were determined. We found that IUGR increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and resulted in thicker pulmonary artery smooth muscle layer in 14-week-old rats after 2 weeks of hypoxia, while no difference was observed in normoxia groups. In the PASMCs of IUGR-hypoxia rats, Kv1.5 mRNA and protein expression decreased while that of tyrosine-phosphorylated Kv1.5 significantly increased. These results demonstrate that IUGR leads to exaggerated chronic hypoxia pulmonary arterial hypertension (CH-PAH) in association with decreased Kv1.5 expression in PASMCs. This phenomenon may be mediated by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.5 in PASMCs and it provides new insight into the prevention and treatment of IUGR-related CH-PAH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Organophosphates/metabolism , Polymers/metabolism , Kv1.5 Potassium Channel/analysis , Fetal Hypoxia/complications , Fetal Hypoxia/physiopathology , Fetal Growth Retardation/metabolism , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/chemistry , Phosphorylation , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/metabolism , Pulmonary Artery/physiopathology , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Time Factors , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Immunoblotting , Random Allocation , Up-Regulation , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Malnutrition/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/pathology , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 29(5): f:390-l:395, set.-out. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-832725

ABSTRACT

O teste cardiopulmonar de exercício (TCPE) é um exame complementar que fornece importantes dados sobre a real capacidade funcional e respostas do metabolismo, ventilação e trocas gasosas do paciente. Deste modo, o TCPE permite classificar a aptidão cardiorrespiratória de um indivíduo e identificar distúrbios que limitam a continuidade do exercício, através da análise de diversas variáveis extraídas deste método propedêutico diagnóstico e prognóstico. Neste sentido, situações relativamente comuns mas pouco identificadas na prática clínica, como a hipertensão pulmonar (HP), podem ser melhor abordadas, avaliadas e mensuradas. Assim, a análise de gases expirados através do TCPE pode proporcionar melhor gerenciamento da HP, classificando a capacidade aeróbica e a resposta ventilatória e de troca gasosa nos pacientes com tal distúrbio vascular pulmonar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Breathing Exercises/methods , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Therapeutics/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Evaluation of Results of Therapeutic Interventions/methods , Risk Factors , Diagnosis, Differential , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(1): 33-39, July 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792492

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Right-sided heart failure has high morbidity and mortality, and may be caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension. Fractal dimension is a differentiated and innovative method used in histological evaluations that allows the characterization of irregular and complex structures and the quantification of structural tissue changes. Objective: To assess the use of fractal dimension in cardiomyocytes of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension, in addition to providing histological and functional analysis. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: control (C; n = 8) and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (M; n = 8). Five weeks after pulmonary arterial hypertension induction with monocrotaline, echocardiography was performed and the animals were euthanized. The heart was dissected, the ventricles weighed to assess anatomical parameters, and histological slides were prepared and stained with hematoxylin/eosin for fractal dimension analysis, performed using box-counting method. Data normality was tested (Shapiro-Wilk test), and the groups were compared with non-paired Student t test or Mann Whitney test (p < 0.05). Results: Higher fractal dimension values were observed in group M as compared to group C (1.39 ± 0.05 vs. 1.37 ± 0.04; p < 0.05). Echocardiography showed lower pulmonary artery flow velocity, pulmonary acceleration time and ejection time values in group M, suggesting function worsening in those animals. Conclusion: The changes observed confirm pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-induced cardiac dysfunction, and point to fractal dimension as an effective method to evaluate cardiac morphological changes induced by ventricular dysfunction.


Resumo Fundamento: Insuficiência cardíaca direita apresenta grande morbimortalidade e pode ser causada por hipertensão arterial pulmonar. Um método diferenciado e inovador utilizado em avaliações histológicas é a dimensão fractal, que permite a caracterização de estruturas irregulares e complexas e pode quantificar alterações estruturais dos tecidos. Objetivo: Avaliar a utilização do método da dimensão fractal nos cardiomiócitos de ratos com hipertensão arterial pulmonar induzida por monocrotalina, associada com análise histológica e funcional. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 2 grupos: controle (C; n = 8) e hipertensão arterial pulmonar induzida por monocrotalina (M; n = 8). Após 5 semanas da indução da hipertensão arterial pulmonar pela monocrotalina, foi realizado ecocardiograma. Os animais foram eutanasiados, o coração dissecado e os ventrículos pesados para avaliação dos parâmetros anatômicos. Lâminas histológicas foram confeccionadas, coradas com hematoxilina/eosina para análise da dimensão fractal, realizada pelo método box-counting . Inicialmente foi testada a normalidade dos dados (teste Shapiro Wilk) e a comparação entre os grupos foi por meio do teste t de Student não pareado ou teste de Mann Whitney (p < 0,05). Resultados: Maiores valores da dimensão fractal foram observados no grupo M em comparação ao C (1,43 ± 0,06 vs. 1,37 ± 0,04; p < 0,05). O ecocardiograma apontou menores valores no grupo M para velocidade máxima pulmonar, tempo de aceleração pulmonar e tempo de ejeção, sugerindo piora funcional nesses animais, que também apresentaram hipertrofia cardíaca. Conclusão: As alterações observadas comprovam a disfunção cardíaca induzida pela hipertensão arterial pulmonar e apontam que a dimensão fractal é um método eficaz para avaliar alterações morfológicas cardíacas induzidas pela disfunção ventricular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Fractals , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/pathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Hypertension, Pulmonary/pathology , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography , Reproducibility of Results , Monocrotaline , Rats, Wistar , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/pathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology
18.
Lima; s.n; jul. 2016.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-847651

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente dictamen expone la evaluación de tecnología de la eficacia y seguridad de Bosentan en pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada, candidatos a trasplante cardiaco. Esta evaluación es específica para pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada clase NYHA III a IV que no son reactivos al test vasodilatador por cateterización cardiaca derecha. Aspectos Generales: Datos de la Sociedad Internacional para el Trasplante Cardiaco y Pulmonar (ISHLT, por sus siglas en inglés) indican que aproximadamente 20% de las muertes tempranas después de un trasplante cardiaco son atribuibles a falla ventricular derecha (1). Asimismo, el aumento de la resistencia vascular pulmonar (PVR, por sus siglas en inglés) está asociada con falla cardiaca derecha y mortalidad después de un trasplante cardiaco. Tecnología Sanitaria de Interés: El rol de la endotelina en la enfermedad cardiovascular ha sido intensivamente estudiado. La activación del sistema de endotelina es considerada parte de la respuesta neurohormonal en la insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva. La endotelina es producida por las células vasculares endoteliales y tiene efectos vasoconstrictores potentes. Los niveles elevados de endotelina inducen remodelación cardiaca adversa y causan el deterioro progresivo de la insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva influenciando las condiciones de carga del corazón y reduciendo el flujo coronario. Asimismo, tiene efectos tóxicos directos sobre el miocardio. METODOLOGÍA: Estrategia de Búsqueda: Se realizó una estrategia de búsqueda sistemática de la evidencia científica con respecto al uso de Bosentan en pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada y candidatos a trasplante cardiaco. Esta evaluación es específica para insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada clase NYHA III a IV que no son reactivos al test vasodilatador por cateterización cardiaca derecha. Se realizó una estrategia de búsqueda sistemática de la evidencia científica con respecto al uso de Bosentan en pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada y candidatos a trasplante cardiaco. Esta evaluación es específica para insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada clase NYHA III a IV que no son reactivos al test vasodilatador por cateterización cardiaca derecha. Se realizó una búsqueda de estudios en humanos que mostraron evidencia científica en relación a los puntos desarrollados en la pregunta PICO. Se dio preferencia a estudios de tipo meta-análisis, revisiones sistemáticas de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y ensayos clínicos aleatorizados; así como a guías de práctica clínica de grupos o instituciones relevantes al tema analizado. RESULTADOS: Sinopsis de la Evidencia: Se realizó la búsqueda y revisión de la evidencia científica actual para la evaluación de la eficacia y seguridad de Bosentan en pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada y candidatos a trasplante cardiaco. Se presenta la información encontrada de acuerdo al tipo de evidencia revisada: Guías de Práctica Clínica, Evaluaciones de Tecnologías Sanitarias (ETS), Revisiones Sistemáticas (RS) o Meta-análisis, Estudios Primarios. CONCLUSIONES: La población de interés de la presente evaluación de tecnología sanitaria comprende los pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada (hipertensión poscapilar), condición en la cual, el origen del aumento de la presión es la falla cardíaca (clasificación II OMS) siendo el mecanismo fisiopatológico distinto al de la hipertensión pulmonar primaria. el Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación ­ IETSI, no aprueba el uso de Bosentan para el tratamiento de pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar asociada a insuficiencia cardiaca avanzada, no reactivos a test vasodilatador y candidatos a trasplante cardiaco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Transplantation/rehabilitation , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
19.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 134(1): 34-39, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777448

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: P2 hyperphonesis is considered to be a valuable finding in semiological diagnoses of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The aim here was to evaluate the accuracy of the pulmonary component of second heart sounds for predicting PH in patients with interstitial lung disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the University of Brasilia and Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. METHODS: Heart sounds were acquired using an electronic stethoscope and were analyzed using phonocardiography. Clinical signs suggestive of PH, such as second heart sound (S2) in pulmonary area louder than in aortic area; P2 > A2 in pulmonary area and P2 present in mitral area, were compared with Doppler echocardiographic parameters suggestive of PH. Sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp) and positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios were evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between S2 or P2 amplitude and PASP (pulmonary artery systolic pressure) (P = 0.185 and 0.115; P= 0.13 and 0.34, respectively). Higher S2 in pulmonary area than in aortic area, compared with all the criteria suggestive of PH, showed S = 60%, Sp= 22%; LR+ = 0.7; LR- = 1.7; while P2> A2 showed S= 57%, Sp = 39%; LR+ = 0.9; LR- = 1.1; and P2 in mitral area showed: S= 68%, Sp = 41%; LR+ = 1.1; LR- = 0.7. All these signals together showed: S= 50%, Sp = 56%. CONCLUSIONS: The semiological signs indicative of PH presented low sensitivity and specificity levels for clinically diagnosing this comorbidity.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Hiperfonese de P2 tem sido considerada como achado valoroso no diagnóstico semiológico de hipertensão pulmonar (HP). O objetivo foi de avaliar a acurácia do componente pulmonar da segunda bulha cardíaca em predizer HP nos pacientes portadores de doenças intersticiais pulmonares. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal na Universidade de Brasília e Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. MÉTODOS: Os sons cardíacos foram adquiridos com estetoscópio eletrônico e analisados por fonocardiografia. Os sinais clínicos sugestivos de HP, como B2 mais intensamente audível em área pulmonar que aórtica, P2 > A2 na área pulmonar e P2 presente em área mitral foram confrontados com parâmetros cardiográficos no exame de Doppler sugestivos de HP. Sensibilidade (S), especificidade (E), razões de verossimilhança positiva (RV+) e negativa (RV-) foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: Não houve correlação significativa entre amplitude de B2 e P2 e a PSAP (pressão sistólica arterial pulmonar) (P = 0,185 e 0,115; P = 0,13 e 0,34; respectivamente). A análise da presença de B2 mais intensa na área pulmonar que aórtica, quando comparada a todos os critérios sugestivos de HP, mostrou S = 60%; E = 22%; RV+ = 0,7; RV- = 1,7; enquanto P2 > A2 mostrou: S = 57%; E = 39%; RV+ = 0,9; RV- = 1,1; e P2 no foco mitral mostrou: S = 68%; E = 41%; RV+ = 1,1; RV- = 0,7. Todos os sinais juntos mostraram S = 50%; E = 56%. CONCLUSÃO: Os sinais semiológicos indicativos de HP apresentam baixos valores de especificidade e sensibilidade para diagnóstico clínico dessa comorbidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Heart Sounds/physiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Phonocardiography , Pulmonary Artery/physiology , Echocardiography , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(2): 121-129, Feb. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-775096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Heart failure is accompanied by abnormalities in ventricular-vascular interaction due to increased myocardial and arterial stiffness. Galectin-3 is a recently discovered biomarker that plays an important role in myocardial and vascular fibrosis and heart failure progression. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether galectin-3 is correlated with arterial stiffening markers and impaired ventricular-arterial coupling in decompensated heart failure patients. Methods: A total of 79 inpatients with acute decompensated heart failure were evaluated. Serum galectin-3 was determined at baseline, and during admission, transthoracic echocardiography and measurements of vascular indices by Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Results: Elevated pulse wave velocity and low arterial carotid distensibility are associated with heart failure in patients with preserved ejection fraction (p = 0.04, p = 0.009). Pulse wave velocity, carotid distensibility and Young’s modulus did not correlate with serum galectin-3 levels. Conversely, raised galectin-3 levels correlated with an increased ventricular-arterial coupling ratio (Ea/Elv) p = 0.047, OR = 1.9, 95% CI (1.0‑3.6). Increased galectin-3 levels were associated with lower rates of left ventricular pressure rise in early systole (dp/dt) (p=0.018) and raised pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.046). High galectin-3 levels (p = 0.038, HR = 3.07) and arterial pulmonary pressure (p = 0.007, HR = 1.06) were found to be independent risk factors for all-cause mortality and readmissions. Conclusions: This study showed no significant correlation between serum galectin-3 levels and arterial stiffening markers. Instead, high galectin-3 levels predicted impaired ventricular-arterial coupling. Galectin-3 may be predictive of raised pulmonary artery pressures. Elevated galectin-3 levels correlate with severe systolic dysfunction and together with pulmonary hypertension are independent markers of outcome.


Resumo Fundamento: A insuficiência cardíaca é acompanhada por anormalidades na interação ventrículo-vascular devido à rigidez miocárdica e arterial aumentada. A galectina-3 é um biomarcador recentemente descoberto que exerce um importante papel na fibrose miocárdica e vascular, e na progressão da insuficiência cardíaca. Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se a galectina-3 está correlacionada com marcadores de rigidez arterial e acoplamento ventriculoarterial deficiente em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada. Métodos: Um total de 79 pacientes internados com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada foi avaliado. Galectina-3 sérica basal foi determinada e, durante a admissão hospitalar, foram realizadas ecocardiografia transtorácica e medidas de índices vasculares por ultrassonografia Doppler. Resultados: Velocidade de onda de pulso elevada e baixa distensibilidade da artéria carótida estão associadas com insuficiência cardíaca em pacientes com fração de ejeção preservada (p = 0,04, p = 0,009). Velocidade de pulso, distensibilidade da artéria carótida e módulo de Young não se correlacionaram com níveis séricos de galectina-3. Por outro lado, níveis elevados de galectina-3 correlacionaram com razão de acoplamento ventriculoarterial aumentada (Ea/Elv) p = 0,047, OR = 1,9, IC 95% (1,0-3,6). Níveis aumentados de galectina-3 estavam associados com taxas mais baixas de pressão ventricular esquerda na fase inicial da sístole (dp/dt) (p = 0,018), e pressão arterial pulmonar aumentada (p = 0,046). Os resultados mostraram que níveis elevados de galectina-3 (p = 0,038, HR = 3,07) e pressão pulmonar arterial (p = 0,007, HR = 1,06) são fatores de risco independentes para mortalidade de todas as causas e reinternações hospitalares. Conclusões: O estudo mostrou que não houve correlação significativa entre níveis séricos de galectina-3 e marcadores de rigidez arterial. Altos níveis de galectina-3, por outro lado, foi um preditor de acoplamento ventriculoarterial deficiente. A galectina-3 pode ser um preditor de pressões arteriais pulmonares aumentadas. Níveis elevados de galectina-3 correlacionam-se com disfunção sistólica grave e, juntamente com hipertensão pulmonar, é um marcador independente de desfecho.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /blood , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Pressure/physiology , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Echocardiography, Doppler , Heart Failure , Hypertension, Pulmonary/blood , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Predictive Value of Tests , Pulse Wave Analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke Volume/physiology , Vascular Remodeling/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
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