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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 4-11, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152983

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O treino de força tem efeitos benéficos em doenças renais, além de ajudar a melhorar a defesa antioxidante em animais saudáveis. Objetivo Verificar se o treino de força reduz o dano oxidativo ao coração e rim contralateral para cirurgia de indução de hipertensão renovascular, bem como avaliar as alterações na atividade das enzimas antioxidantes endógenas superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) e glutationa peroxidase (GPx). Métodos Dezoito ratos machos foram divididos em três grupos (n=6/grupo): placebo, hipertenso e hipertenso treinado. Os animais foram induzidos a hipertensão renovascular através da ligação da artéria renal esquerda. O treino de força foi iniciado quatro semanas após a indução da hipertensão renovascular, teve 12 semanas de duração e foi realizada a 70% de 1RM. Depois do período de treino, os animais foram submetidos a eutanásia e o rim esquerdo e o coração foram retirados para realizar a quantificação de peróxidos de hidrogênio, malondialdeído e grupos sulfidrílicos, que são marcadores de danos oxidativos. Além disso, foram medidas as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados Depois do treino de força, houve redução de danos oxidativos a lipídios e proteínas, como pode-se observar pela redução de peróxidos de hidrogênio e níveis sulfidrílicos totais, respectivamente. Além disso, houve um aumento nas atividades das enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase. Conclusão O treino de força tem o potencial de reduzir danos oxidativos, aumentando a atividades de enzimas antioxidantes. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):4-11)


Abstract Background Strength training has beneficial effects on kidney disease, in addition to helping improve antioxidant defenses in healthy animals. Objective To verify if strength training reduces oxidative damage to the heart and contralateral kidney caused by the renovascular hypertension induction surgery, as well as to evaluate alterations in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Methods Eighteen male rats were divided into three groups (n=6/group): sham, hypertensive, and trained hypertensive. The animals were induced to renovascular hypertension through left renal artery ligation. Strength training was initiated four weeks after the induction of renovascular hypertension, continued for a 12-weeks period, and was performed at 70% of 1RM. After the training period, the animals were euthanized and the right kidney and heart were removed for quantitation of hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde and sulfhydryl groups, which are markers of oxidative damage. In addition, the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx antioxidant enzymes was also measured. The adopted significance level was 5% (p < 0.05). Results After strength training, a reduction in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins was observed, as could be seen by reducing hydroperoxides and total sulfhydryl levels, respectively. Furthermore, an increased activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase antioxidant enzymes was observed. Conclusion Strength training is able to potentially reduce oxidative damage by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(1):4-11)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Hypertension, Renovascular/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Resistance Training , Kidney , Antioxidants/metabolism
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 905-912, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055041

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a precursor to the development of heart and renal failure, furthermore is associated with elevated oxidative markers. Environmental enrichment of rodents increases performance in memory tasks, also appears to exert an antioxidant effect in the hippocampus of normotensive rats. Objectives: Evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on oxidative stress in the ventrolateral medulla, heart, and kidneys of renovascular hypertensive rats. Methods: Forty male Fischer rats (6 weeks old) were divided into four groups: normotensive standard condition (Sham-St), normotensive enriched environment (Sham-EE), hypertensive standard condition (2K1C-St), and hypertensive enriched environment (2K1C-EE). Animals were kept in enriched or standard cages for four weeks after all animals were euthanized. The level of significance was at p < 0.05. Results: 2K1C-St group presented higher mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 147.0 (122.0; 187.0) compared to Sham-St 101.0 (94.0; 109.0) and Sham-EE 106.0 (90.8; 117.8). Ventrolateral medulla from 2K1C-EE had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) (49.1 ± 7.9 U/mg ptn) and catalase activity (0.8 ± 0.4 U/mg ptn) compared to SOD (24.1 ± 9.8 U/mg ptn) and catalase activity (0.3 ± 0.1 U/mg ptn) in 2K1C-St. 2K1C-EE presented lower lipid oxidation (0.39 ± 0.06 nmol/mg ptn) than 2K1C-St (0.53 ± 0.22 nmol/mg ptn) in ventrolateral medulla. Furthermore, the kidneys of 2K1C-EE (11.9 ± 2.3 U/mg ptn) animals presented higher superoxide-dismutase activity than those of 2K1C-St animals (9.1 ± 2.3 U/mg ptn). Conclusion: Environmental enrichment induced an antioxidant effect in the ventrolateral medulla and kidneys that contributes to reducing oxidative damage among hypertensive rats.


Resumo Fundamento: A hipertensão arterial é um precursor para o desenvolvimento da insuficiência cardíaca e renal e, além disso, está associada com o aumento dos marcadores oxidativos. O enriquecimento ambiental dos roedores melhora o desempenho em tarefas de memória, e também parece ter um efeito antioxidante sobre o hipocampo dos ratos normotensos. Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito do enriquecimento ambiental sobre o estresse oxidativo no bulbo ventrolateral, coração, e rins de ratos com hipertensão renovascular. Métodos: Quarenta ratos machos, tipo Fischer (6 semanas de idade), foram divididos em quatro grupos: normotensos em condições padrão (Sham-CP), normotensos em ambiente enriquecido (Sham-AE), hipertensos em condições padrão (2R1C-CP), e hipertensos em ambiente enriquecido (2R1C-AE). Os animais foram mantidos em gaiolas enriquecidas ou padrão durante quatro semanas e, por fim, todos os animais foram eutanasiados. O nível de significância foi p < 0,05. Resultados: O grupo 2R1C-CP apresentou pressão arterial média maior (mmHg) 147,0 (122,0; 187,0) quando comparado com os grupos Sham-CP 101,0 (94,0; 109,0) e Sham-AE 106,0 (90,8; 117,8). Observou-se maior atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase (SOD) (49,1 ± 7,9 U/mg ptn) e da catalase (0,8 ± 0,4 U/mg ptn) no bulbo ventrolateral do grupo 2R1C-AE, em relação à atividade da SOD (24,1 ± 9,8 U/mg ptn) e da catalase (0,3 ± 0,1 U/mg ptn) no grupo 2R1C-CP. No grupo 2R1C-AE, a oxidação lipídica no bulbo ventrolateral foi menor (0,39 ± 0,06 nmol/mg ptn) quando comparado com o grupo 2R1C-CP (0,53 ± 0,22 nmol/mg ptn). Ademais, foi observada maior atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase nos rins dos animais 2R1C-AE (11,9 ± 2,3 U/mg ptn) em relação aos animais 2R1C-CP (9,1 ± 2,3 U/mg ptn). Conclusão: O enriquecimento ambiental provocou efeito antioxidante no bulbo ventrolateral e nos rins, o que contribuiu para a redução do dano oxidante nos ratos hipertensos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Medulla Oblongata/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Environment , Housing, Animal , Hypertension, Renovascular/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Rats, Inbred F344 , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Medulla Oblongata/enzymology , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase/metabolism , Protein Carbonylation , Arterial Pressure , Heart Ventricles/enzymology , Hypertension, Renovascular/chemically induced , Kidney/enzymology
3.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(3): 215-219, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751319

ABSTRACT

Objective The association between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and dyslipidemia (DLP) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of dyslipidemia in young T1D patients.Materials and methods The study design was cross-sectional and descriptive. We reviewed medical records of T1D patients followed at an endocrinology service, from 1998-2012. Data collected: gender, actual age and age at diagnosis, duration of T1D since diagnosis, body mass index (BMI), pubertal stage, glycemic control (GC) determined by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, triglycerides (TG). To analyze lipid profile and metabolic control, we used the Brazilian Society of Diabetes Guidelines.Results Were included 239 T1D patients, 136 (56.9%) females; mean ± SD: actual age 15.7 ± 5.0 years and at T1D diagnosis 7.3 ± 3.9; T1D duration 10.6 ± 6.4 years, 86.6% puberty, 15.1% overweight. The prevalence of DLP was 72.5%, 63.3% females, 86.6% puberty, mean ± SD: actual age 15.4 ± 4.8 years and at T1D diagnosis 7.2 ± 4.1 years, duration of T1D 10.7 ± 6.1 years. We found high-CT in 56.7%, low-HDL = 21.7%, high LDL = 44.0%, high-TG = 11.8%. Between females with DLP, 83.5% was in puberty. We find correlation between the presence of DLP, a poor GC and BMC.Conclusion We found a high prevalence of DLP in young patients with T1D, particularly in puberty females. Programs targeting the prevention of dyslipidemia should be adopted, especially for this group, in order to prevent/delay chronic complications and cardiovascular disease. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):215-9.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cardiomyopathies/drug therapy , Hypertension, Renovascular/therapy , Mitochondria, Heart/metabolism , Peptides/pharmacology , Angioplasty , Apoptosis , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Collagen/metabolism , Fibrosis , Heart Function Tests , Hypertension, Renovascular/complications , Hypertension, Renovascular/metabolism , Kidney Function Tests , Microvessels/ultrastructure , Oxidative Stress , Oxygen/metabolism , Peptides/metabolism , Swine
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 34(8): 1065-1077, Aug. 2001. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-290156

ABSTRACT

Ouabain increases vascular resistance and may induce hypertension by inhibiting the Na+ pump. The effects of 0.18 and 18 æg/kg, and 1.8 mg/kg ouabain pretreatment on the phenylephrine (PHE; 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 æg, in bolus)-evoked pressor responses were investigated using anesthetized normotensive (control and uninephrectomized) and hypertensive (1K1C and DOCA-salt treated) rats. Treatment with 18 æg/kg ouabain increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in all groups studied. However, the magnitude of this increase was larger for the hypertensive 1K1C and DOCA-salt rats than for normotensive animals, while the pressor effect of 0.18 æg/kg ouabain was greater only in DOCA-salt rats. A very large dose (1.8 mg/kg) produced toxic effects on the normotensive control but not on uninephrectomized or 1K1C rats. Rat tail vascular beds were perfused to analyze the effects of 10 nM ouabain on the pressor response to PHE. In all animals, 10 nM ouabain increased the PHE pressor response, but this increase was larger in hypertensive DOCA-salt rats than in normotensive and 1K1C rats. Results suggested that a) increases in diastolic blood pressure induced by 18 æg/kg ouabain were larger in hypertensive than normotensive rats; b) in DOCA-salt rats, smaller ouabain doses had a stronger effect than in other groups; c) hypertensive and uninephrectomized rats were less sensitive to toxic doses of ouabain, and d) after treatment with 10 nM ouabain isolated tail vascular beds from DOCA-salt rats were more sensitive to the pressor effect of PHE than those from normotensive and 1K1C hypertensive rats. These data suggest that very small doses of ouabain, which might produce nanomolar plasma concentrations, enhance pressor reactivity in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, supporting the idea that endogenous ouabain may contribute to the increase and maintenance of vascular tone in hypertension


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cardiotonic Agents/administration & dosage , Hypertension/drug therapy , Ouabain/administration & dosage , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Desoxycorticosterone , Disease Models, Animal , Hypertension, Renovascular/metabolism , Hypertension/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79887

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed at examining the regulation of aquaporin (AQP)-2 water channels in the kidney in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) hypertension. Rats were made 2K1C hypertensive for 6 weeks, and their expression of AQP2 channel proteins was determined in the clipped and contralateral kidneys. To examine the upstream affecting AQP2 channels, adenylyl cyclase activity was also determined. Along with the hypertension, in the clipped kidney, the abundance of AQP2 proteins was significantly decreased in the cortex, outer and inner medulla, while their trafficking remained unaltered. Concomitantly with the reversal of the blood pressure at 24 hours following removal of the clip, the AQP2 abundance also returned to the control level. The arginine vasopressin-evoked generation of cAMP was decreased in the clipped kidney, which again was reversed to the control level following removal of the clip. In contrast, the expression of AQP2 channels as well as the activity of adenylyl cyclase remained unaltered in the contralateral kidney. These results indicate an altered regulation of AQP2 water channels in the clipped kidney in 2K1C hypertension.


Subject(s)
Adenylyl Cyclases/metabolism , Animals , Aquaporins/analysis , Blood Pressure , Cyclic AMP/biosynthesis , Hypertension, Renovascular/metabolism , Kidney/chemistry , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 58(2): 165-70, 1998. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-212789

ABSTRACT

Hig levels of circulating atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) have been reported in several physiopathologic conditions like hypertension, heart and renal failure, pregnancy and high sodium intake. Nevertheless, neither relationships with water-sodium space regulation nor the role of an ANF vascular relaxant effect have been yet defined. The aim of present experiments was to characterize the contribution of circulating ANF and its vascular relaxing effects in the two kidney-two clip (2K2C) experimental model of renovascular hypertension. Complementary, plasma metabolites nitrite/nitrate of nitric oxide (NO) was examined because of mediation for both (NO an ANF) through cGMP. The results showed (two-four weeks after surgery): indirect sistolic blood pressure (mmHg), 186 + 4 in HT and 122 + 1 in SH (p<0.001); a significant increase of plasma ANF (fmol/ml) in HT (n = 7, 1221 + 253) vs. SH (n = 9, 476 + 82; p < 0.02). Nitrate/nitrite plasma concentrations (mumol/l) were mpt different between SH and. The relaxant effect of ANF (10(-9), 10(-8) and 10(-7) M) on phenylephrine (3,5 x 10(-6) M) contracted rings from HT rats was smaller than SH rats (10(-8) M, p < 0.05). Contractions to phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (seven weeks after surgery) were significantly higher in rings from HT rats (p < 0.001). We conclude: 1) in addition to decreased granularity in atrial myocardiocytes, high circulating values of ANF here described suggest an increased turnover of the peptide in 2K2C hypertensive rats; 2) lower significant vascular relaxant effects in HT rats would indicate down regulation of ANF receptors in this model; the latter would derive from high plasma ANF concentration and, tentatively, because of greater activity of protein kinase C in the vascular wall; 39 similar values of plasma nitrite/nitrate in SH and HT rats would indicate a comparable NO circulating availability in both groups.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/blood , Hypertension, Renovascular/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/blood , Aorta, Abdominal/metabolism , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/metabolism , Blood Pressure , Disease Models, Animal , Hypertension, Renovascular/blood , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/metabolism , Nitrates/blood , Nitrates/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitrites/blood , Nitrites/metabolism , Rats, Wistar
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-16458

ABSTRACT

A study was undertaken on the role of brainstem renin-angiotensin system in maintenance of hypertension in chronic renovascular hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by unilateral renal artery clamping, while the contralateral kidney was left intact (2 KIC). Blood pressure (BP), plasma renin activity (PRA) and brainstem angiotensin (ang-I) levels were measured after 24 days, in hypertensive and sham-operated animals. In separate subgroups of these animals, the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of captopril on the parameters listed was studied. The results showed high ang-I levels in 2 KIC rats as compared to controls (P less than 0.05). Captopril administration (500 micrograms/50 microliters icv) caused a fall in BP and increase in brainstem ang-I levels (P less than 0.01). In control animals, however, captopril produced a rise in BP without any significant change in brainstem ang-I levels. Peripheral plasma renin activity was normal, despite significant sodium retention in 2 KIC rats. The results are suggestive of activation of brainstem renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in chronic 2 KIC hypertension.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin I/metabolism , Animals , Brain Stem/metabolism , Captopril/pharmacology , Hypertension, Renovascular/metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains
10.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-89433

ABSTRACT

O jejum provoca alteraçöes significatias em vários parâmetros hemodinâmicos. No presente trabalho analisamos a participaçäo dos íons sódio, do balanço hídrico e a ingestäo de glicose em ratos com hipertensäo renal, privados de alimentaçäo sólida. Ratos com hipertensäo modelo Goldblatt 2 rins, clipe (HG2) foram privados de raçäo por três dias, mantendo-se o consumo de água da fase controle pré-jejum. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos: I. recebendo água; II recebendo íons sódio dissolvidos em água; III. recebendo glicose (2g/100g de massa corporal) dissolvidos em água. Os resultados mostram que houve reduçöes significativas da pressäo arterial e massa corporal nos três grupos, no entanto, o coeficiente de correlaçäo entre ambas reduçöes näo foi significativo. A excreçäo fracional de água se manteve no grupo I e aumentou nos grupos II e III; o balanço de ions sódio foi negativo nos grupos I e III, mantendo-se sem alteraçöes significativas no grupo II. Estes resultados sugerem que durante a privaçäo de alimentos sólidos, a ingestäo de glicose, a manutençäo do balanço hídrico do organismo, ou de íons sódio, de per si, säo incapazes de impedir a reduçäo da pressäo arterial em ratos HG2


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Arterial Pressure , Food Deprivation , Hypertension, Renovascular/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Inbred Strains
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