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Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 536-543, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985524


Objective: To describe the distribution characteristics of hypertension among adult twins in the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR) and to provide clues for exploring the role of genetic and environmental factors on hypertension. Methods: A total of 69 220 (34 610 pairs) of twins aged 18 and above with hypertension information were selected from CNTR registered from 2010 to 2018. Random effect models were used to describe the population and regional distribution of hypertension in twins. To estimate the heritability, the concordance rates of hypertension were calculated and compared between monozygotic twins (MZ) and dizygotic twins (DZ). Results: The age of all participants was (34.1±12.4) years. The overall self-reported prevalence of hypertension was 3.8%(2 610/69 220). Twin pairs who were older, living in urban areas, married, overweight or obese, current smokers or ex-smokers, and current drinkers or abstainers had a higher self-reported prevalence of hypertension (P<0.05). Analysis within the same-sex twin pairs found that the concordance rate of hypertension was 43.2% in MZ and 27.0% in DZ, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). The heritability of hypertension was 22.1% (95%CI: 16.3%- 28.0%). Stratified by gender, age, and region, the concordance rate of hypertension in MZ was still higher than that in DZ. The heritability of hypertension was higher in female participants. Conclusions: There were differences in the distribution of hypertension among twins with different demographic and regional characteristics. It is indicated that genetic factors play a crucial role in hypertension in different genders, ages, and regions, while the magnitude of genetic effects may vary.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Alcohol Drinking , Diseases in Twins/genetics , Hypertension/genetics , Twins, Dizygotic/genetics , Twins, Monozygotic/genetics
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 382-390, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375647


Abstract Background: A family history of arterial hypertension (AH), combined with environmental risk factors, is directly related to the development of AH. Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of AH, anthropometric indicators and level of physical activity and their association with a family history (FH) of AH in school children. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 118 students, aged between 11 and 17 years, of both sexes. Waist circumference (WC), weight, height, level of physical activity and FH of HA were collected. Body mass index z score (BMI-z) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Binary logistic regression model was used to verify the chance risk, with significance p <0.05. Results: Of the 118 parents who answered the questionnaire, 34.7% had a positive FH of AH. Girls with a positive FH had higher means of WC (p= 0,004), BMI (p=0,020), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p=0,006) than boys, and a higher risk of being overweight (OR=4,48; 95%CI:1,55-12,94), and having elevated WHtR (OR=5.98; 95%CI:1.66- 21.47) and SBP (OR=3,07; 95%CI:1,03-9,13) than girls without a FH, but they practice more vigorours moderate physical activity (MVPA) (p=0,039). On the other hand, no differences in these parameters were observed between boys with and without a FM of AH. Conclusion: Overweight and a FH of hypertension were associated with an increased risk for AH in girls. This was not observed among boys, perhaps due to more active lifestyle.

Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Exercise , Anthropometry , Heredity , Arterial Pressure , Hypertension/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Abdominal Fat , Obesity
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928646


OBJECTIVES@#To study the distribution characteristics of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism in children with primary hypertension, and to explore the association between MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and H-type hypertension in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 121 children with primary hypertension who were hospitalized in the department of cardiovascular medicine from January to July 2021, newly diagnosed, and untreated were retrospectively selected as the subjects. The children were divided into three groups: CC genotype (19 children), CT genotype (51 children), and TT genotype (51 children). According to the serum homocysteine (Hcy) level, they were divided two groups: H-type hypertension (47 children) and simple hypertension (74 children). The medical data were compared between the groups. The association between MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and H-type hypertension was evaluated.@*RESULTS@#The mutation frequency of T allele in children with primary hypertension was significantly higher than that in healthy adults in Beijing and Chinese Han adults (P<0.001). The serum Hcy level in the TT genotype group was significantly higher than that in the CC and CT genotype groups (P<0.001). The serum Hcy level in the H-type hypertension group was significantly higher than that in the simple hypertension group (P<0.001), and MTHFR C677T was mostly TT genotype, which was associated with the risk of H-type hypertension (OR=12.71, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of target organ damage between the H-type hypertension and simple hypertension groups (P>0.05). However, multiple organ involvement was observed in the H-type hypertension group at diagnosis, accounting for 11% (5/47).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The mutation rate of MTHFR C677T T allele in children with primary hypertension is high and associated with the serum Hcy level. TT genotype is an independent risk factor for H-type hypertension in children, and it may be related to the severity of early target organ damage.

Child , Humans , Alleles , Genotype , Hypertension/genetics , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878904


Hypertension is a clinical syndrome characterized by elevated systemic arterial blood pressure, which may be accompanied by functional or organic damage of heart, brain, kidney and other organs. The pathogenesis and development of hypertension are affected by genetic, environmental, epigenetic, intestinal microbiota and other factors. They are the result of multiple factors that promote the change of blood pressure level and vascular resistance. G protein coupled receptors(GPCRs) are the largest and most diverse superfamily of transmembrane receptors that transmit signals across cell membranes and mediate a large number of cellular responses required by human physiology. A variety of GPCRs are involved in the control of blood pressure and the maintenance of normal function of cardiovascular system. Hypertension contributes to the damages of heart, brain, kidney, intestine and other organs. Many GPCRs are expressed in various organs to regulate blood pressure. Although many GPCRs have been used as therapeutic targets for hypertension, their efficacy has not been fully studied. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the role of GPCRs in blood pressure regulation and its distribution in target organs. The relationship between GPCRs related to intestinal microorganisms and blood pressure is emphasized. It is proposed that traditional Chinese medicine may be a new way to treat hypertension by regulating the related GPCRs via intestinal microbial metabolites.

Humans , Blood Pressure , GTP-Binding Proteins , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hypertension/genetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(1): 52-58, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131252


Resumo Fundamento A história familiar de hipertensão (HFH) é um fator de risco consistente para diversas doenças crônicas que são acompanhadas por hipertensão. Além disso, a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) e a vasodilatação mediada pelo fluxo (VMF), ambas relacionadas ao consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max), são geralmente prejudicadas durante a hipertensão. Objetivo Comparar a modulação autonômica, a função endotelial (FE) e o consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max) de jovens atletas, separados de acordo com a história de pressão arterial (PA) dos seus pais, a fim de investigar a influência da ascendência genética nesses parâmetros. Métodos Quarenta e seis jovens jogadores de futebol do sexo masculino (18±2 anos) foram divididos em quatro grupos: 1- pai e mãe normotensos (FM-N); 2- apenas pai hipertenso (F-H); 3- apenas mãe hipertensa (M-H); 4- pai e mãe hipertensos (FM-H). Foram realizadas medições da PA, VMF, VFC e do VO2max. Na análise estatística, foi adotado o nível de significância de 5%. Resultados O desvio padrão dos intervalos RR normais (SDNN; FM-N=314±185; FM-H=182,4± 57,8), a raiz quadrada das médias quadráticas das diferenças dos intervalos R-R sucessivos (RMSSD; FM-N=248±134; FM-H=87±51), o número de diferenças entre intervalos NN sucessivos maiores que 50 ms (NN50; FM-N=367±83,4; FM-H=229±55), a proporção de NN50 dividida pelo número total de NNs (pNN50; FM-N=32,4±6,2; FM-H=21,1±5,3) e os componentes de alta (HF; FM-N=49±8,9; FM-H=35,3±12) e baixa frequência (LF; FM-N=50,9±8,9; FM-H=64,6±12), em unidades normalizadas (%), foram significativamente mais baixos no grupo FM-H do que no grupo FM-N (p<0,05). Por outro lado, a relação LF/HF (ms2) foi significativamente maior (p<0,05). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no VO2max e na VMF entre os grupos (p<0,05). Conclusão Em jovens jogadores de futebol do sexo masculino, a HFH desempenha um papel potencialmente importante no comprometimento do balanço autonômico, principalmente quando ambos os pais são hipertensos, mas não apresentam alterações no VO2max e na VMF. Nesse caso, há uma diminuição no controle simpatovagal, que parece preceder o dano endotelial. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(1):52-58)

Abstract Background The family history of hypertension (FHH) imposes consistent risk for diverse chronic diseases that are accompanied by hypertension. Furthermore, the heart rate variability (HRV) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) are both related to maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and are usually impaired during hypertension Objective To compare the autonomic modulation, the endothelial function (EF) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of young athletes, separated according to their parents' blood pressure (BP) history, in order to study the influence of their genetic background on those parameters. Methods A total of 46 young male soccer players (18±2 years of age) were divided into four groups: 1-normotensive father and mother (FM-N); 2-only father was hypertensive (F-H); 3-only mother was hypertensive (M-H); 4-father and mother were hypertensive (FM-H). Measurements of BP, FMD, HRV and VO2maxwere performed. The significance level adopted in the statistical analysis was 5%. Results The standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN; FM-N=314±185; FM-H=182.4± 57.8), the square root of the mean squared differences in successive RR intervals (RMSSD; FM-N=248±134; FM-H=87±51), the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50ms (NN50; FM-N=367±83.4; FM-H=229±55), the ratio derived by dividing NN50 by the total number of NN intervals (pNN50; FM-N=32.4±6.2; FM-H=21.1±5.3) and the high (HF; FM-N=49±8.9; FM-H=35.3±12) and low-frequency (LF; FM-N=50.9±8.9; FM-H=64.6±12) components, in normalized units (%), were significantly lower in the FM-H group than in the FM-N group (p<0.05). On the other hand, the LF/HF ratio (ms2) was significantly higher (p<0.05). We found no significant difference between the groups in VO2maxand FMD (p<0.05). Conclusions In young male soccer players, the FHH plays a potentially role in autonomic balance impairment, especially when both parents are hypertensive, but present no changes in VO2maxand FMD. In this case, there is a decrease in the sympathetic-vagal control, which seems to precede the endothelial damage (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(1):52-58)

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Soccer , Endothelium/physiopathology , Hypertension/genetics , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption , Autonomic Nervous System/parasitology , Heart Rate
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878774


This study aimed to explore the optimal indications and mechanism of Uncariae Ramulus cum Uncis(UR)-Eucommiae Cortex(EC) in lowering blood pressure based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. Chemical constituents were collected and screened by TCMSP database. Swiss Target Prediction platform was used to predict the related targets of the drug. OMIM, TCMIP and GeneCards databases were used to collect hypertension-related genes, and the intersections were taken to obtain potential targets for anti-hypertensive treatment of UR-EC. FunRich software was used to enrich the clinical phenotype and expression site of potential target of lowering blood pressure to analyze and predict the optimal indications of UR-EC. STRING database was used for KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and Cytoscape 3.7.2 was used to construct the network of "composition-target-pathway". The key targets and their corresponding components in the network were analyzed and obtained, and then molecular docking was applied for preliminary verification. Twenty potential active components of UR and 24 potential active components of EC were respectively collected, and 92 anti-hypertensive potential targets of UR-EC were obtained. According to FunRich enrichment results, the optimal indication of UR-EC was pregnancy hypertension, which involved calcium signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand receptor interaction, renin vascular tightening, VEGF signaling pathway, etc. In addition, AKT1, NOS2, ADRB2, F2, NOS3, SCN5 A, HTR2 A and JAK2 were considered as the key targets in the network. The molecular docking results showed that the screened potential active components had high binding activity with the key targets. This study preliminarily revealed that UR-EC may have therapeutic effects on pregnancy hypertension in terms of sedation, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, improvement of vascular endothelial function and so on.

Humans , Pregnancy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Hypertension/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(12): 1527-1534, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094186


Background Losartan is widely used in many clinicals settings. Its dosage is related to the genetic characteristics of CYP2C9 enzymatic activity, which metabolizes losartan to its active form E-3174, responsible for the antihypertensive effect. Aims To identify the frequency of allelic variants CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 in hypertensive patients and to compare genotypes with a healthy Chilean population. To relate polymorphisms with the losartan dosing to obtain an optimal blood pressure. Material and Methods We studied 30 patients with controlled essential hypertension using losartan with normal liver function, and 202 healthy people. Peripheral blood DNA genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction to identify the polymorphisms. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared. Results In hypertensive patients, allelic frequencies were 0.85 (CYP2C9*1), 0.05 (CYP2C9*2) and 0.1 (CYP2C9*3). Genotypic frequencies were 73.3% (CYP2C9*1/*1), 6.7% (CYP2C9*1/*2), 16.7% (CYP2C9*1/*3) and 3.3% (CYP2C9*2/3); observing a significantly higher frequency of the allele CYP2C9*3 (p=0.041) and CYP2C9*1/*3 genotype (p=0.04). A non-significant tendency to need a larger dose of losartan was observed with the CYP2C9 * 3 allele, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.46 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.01-18.64). The same tendency was observed with the need to use losartan twice a day, obtaining an OR of 5.88 (CI 0.54 -62.14). Conclusions There could be a relationship between the presence of CYP2C9 polymorphisms and the pathogenesis of hypertension. The presence of CYP2C9*3 is associated with the need for higher doses of losartan, possibly due to a decrease in the conversion of losartan to E-3174.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Losartan/administration & dosage , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9/genetics , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , Gene Frequency , Genotype
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(2): 166-174, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888024


Abstract Background: Individuals with a family history of systemic arterial hypertension (FHSAH) and / or prehypertension have a higher risk of developing this pathology. Objective: To evaluate the autonomic and vascular functions of prehypertensive patients with FHSAH. Methods: Twenty-five young volunteers with FHSAH, 14 normotensive and 11 prehypertensive subjects were submitted to vascular function evaluation by forearm vascular conductance(VC) during resting and reactive hyperemia (Hokanson®) and cardiac and peripheral autonomic modulation, quantified, respectively, by spectral analysis of heart rate (ECG) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (FinometerPRO®). The transfer function analysis was used to measure the gain and response time of baroreflex. The statistical significance adopted was p ≤ 0.05. Results: Pre-hypertensive individuals, in relation to normotensive individuals, have higher VC both at rest (3.48 ± 1.26 vs. 2.67 ± 0.72 units, p = 0.05) and peak reactive hyperemia (25, 02 ± 8.18 vs. 18.66 ± 6.07 units, p = 0.04). The indices of cardiac autonomic modulation were similar between the groups. However, in the peripheral autonomic modulation, greater variability was observed in prehypertensive patients compared to normotensive individuals (9.4 [4.9-12.7] vs. 18.3 [14.8-26.7] mmHg2; p < 0.01) and higher spectral components of very low (6.9 [2.0-11.1] vs. 13.5 [10.7-22.4] mmHg2, p = 0.01) and low frequencies (1.7 [1.0-3.0] vs. 3.0 [2.0-4.0] mmHg2, p = 0.04) of SBP. Additionally, we observed a lower gain of baroreflex control in prehypertensive patients compared to normotensive patients (12.16 ± 4.18 vs. 18.23 ± 7.11 ms/mmHg, p = 0.03), but similar delay time (-1.55 ± 0.66 vs. -1.58 ± 0.72 s, p = 0.90). Conclusion: Prehypertensive patients with FHSAH have autonomic dysfunction and increased vascular conductance when compared to normotensive patients with the same risk factor.

Resumo Fundamento: Indivíduos com histórico familiar de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HFHAS) e/ou pré-hipertensão apresentam maior risco de desenvolver essa patologia. Objetivo: Avaliar as funções autonômica e vascular de pré-hipertensos com HFHAS. Métodos: Vinte e cinco voluntários jovens com HFHAS, sendo 14 normotensos e 11 pré-hipertensos foram submetidos à avaliação da função vascular, por meio da condutância vascular do antebraço (CV) durante repouso e hiperemia reativa (Hokanson®), e da modulação autonômica cardíaca e periférica, quantificada, respectivamente, por meio da análise espectral da frequência cardíaca (ECG) e da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) (FinometerPRO®). A análise da função de transferência foi utilizada para mensurar o ganho e o tempo de resposta do barorreflexo. A significância estatística adotada foi p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: Pré-hipertensos, em relação aos normotensos, tem maior CV tanto em repouso (3,48 ± 1,26 vs. 2,67 ± 0,72 unidades; p = 0,05) quanto no pico hiperemia reativa (25,02 ± 8,18 vs. 18,66 ± 6,07 unidades; p = 0,04). Os índices da modulação autonômica cardíaca foram semelhantes entre os grupos. Entretanto, na modulação autonômica periférica, foi observado, nos pré-hipertensos em relação aos normotensos, maior variabilidade (9,4 [4,9-12,7] vs. 18,3 [14,8-26,7] mmHg2; p < 0,01) e maiores componentes espectrais de muito baixa (6,9 [2,0-11,1] vs. 13,5 [10,7-22,4] mmHg2; p = 0,01) e baixa frequências (1,7 [1,0-3,0] vs. 3,0 [2,0-4,0] mmHg2; p = 0,04) da PAS. Adicionalmente, observamos menor ganho do controle barorreflexo nos pré-hipertensos em relação aos normotensos (12,16 ± 4,18 vs. 18,23 ± 7,11 ms/mmHg; p = 0,03), porém, tempo de retardo semelhante (-1,55 ± 0,66 vs. -1,58 ± 0.72 s; p = 0,90). Conclusão: Pré-hipertensos com HFHAS tem disfunção autonômica e condutância vascular aumentada quando comparados a normotensos com o mesmo fator de risco.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/physiopathology , Prehypertension/physiopathology , Heart Rate/physiology , Hypertension/genetics , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Exercise/physiology , Risk Factors , Hypertension/physiopathology
In. Ramires, José Antonio Franchini; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Casella Filho, Antonio. Dislipidemias e prevenção da Aterosclerose / Dyslipidemias and prevention of Atherosclerosis. Rio de janeiro, Atheneu, 2018. p.69-75.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-880894
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(4): 326-331, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887570


ABSTRACT Objective Obesity can cause systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) factor that is also influenced by genetic variability. The present study aims to investigate the association between gene polymorphisms related with obesity on the prevalence of SAH and DM2 in the preoperative period and 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Subjects and methods In total, 351 obese women in a Brazilian cohort completed the study. The clinical diagnosis of SAH and DM2 was monitored from medical records. Twelve gene polymorphisms (rs26802; rs572169; rs7799039; rs1137101; rs3813929; rs659366; rs660339; rs1800849; rs7498665; rs35874116; rs9701796; and rs9939609) were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan assay. Results In the preoperative period, prevalence of SAH and DM2 was 57% and 22%, respectively. One year postoperatively, 86.8% subjects had remission of DM2 and 99.5% had control of SAH. Subjects with T allele from the serotonin receptor gene (5-HT2C, rs3813929) had five times greater chance of DM2, and the CC genotype from uncoupling protein 3 gene (UCP3, rs1800849) had three times greater chance in the preoperative period. Conclusion These findings indicate that polymorphisms rs3813929 and rs1800849 from 5-HT2C and UCP3 genes were related to DM2 prevalence among the Brazilian obese women candidates for bariatric surgery.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Polymorphism, Genetic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/genetics , Postoperative Period , Gastric Bypass , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Preoperative Period , Uncoupling Protein 3/genetics , Obesity/surgery , Obesity/complications
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6211, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888961


Recent evidence suggests that cell-derived circulating miRNAs may serve as biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases. However, a few studies have investigated the potential of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In this study, we aimed to characterize the miRNA profiles that could distinguish hypertensive patients with LHV, hypertensive patients without LVH and control subjects, and identify potential miRNAs as biomarkers of LVH. LVH was defined by left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area >125 g/m2 in men and >110 g/m2 in women and patients were classified as hypertensive when presenting a systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or more, or a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or more. We employed miRNA PCR array to screen serum miRNAs profiles of patients with LVH, essential hypertension and healthy subjects. We identified 75 differentially expressed miRNAs, including 49 upregulated miRNAs and 26 downregulated miRNAs between LVH and control patients. We chose 2 miRNAs with significant differences for further testing in 59 patients. RT-PCR analysis of serum samples confirmed that miR-7-5p and miR-26b-5p were upregulated in the serum of LVH hypertensive patients compared with healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that these miRNAs may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertensive LVH and may represent novel biomarkers for this disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Hypertension/blood , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/blood , MicroRNAs/blood , Analysis of Variance , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/genetics , Predictive Value of Tests , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Up-Regulation
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 20(4): 248-258, oct.-dic. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-797512


La hipertensión arterial es una enfermedad común, que constituye un factor de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular, y causa alrededor de 13,5 millones de muertes anuales en el mundo. Más de 65 millones de personas en los Estados Unidos, y un billón en el mundo padecen de hipertensión arterial; en Cuba, en el momento actual, el 33,8 % de los mayores de 18 años presentan esta condición. Varios estudios realizados han demostrado que los niveles individuales de presión sanguínea dependen de la predisposición genética y de factores ambientales. Su componente hereditario ha sido documentado en estudios de familiares, de gemelos, poblacionales, de adopción y, además, se ha descrito una lista de genes candidatos de predisposición. Mediante el desarrollo del proyecto Genoma Humano y con la disponibilidad del mapeo genético, se han identificado cientos de miles de marcadores polimórficos, lo que ha permitido mapear alrededor de 400 marcadores genéticos relacionados con esta enfermedad; por ello, resulta de gran importancia conocer sobre los mecanismos relacionados con las causas de su aparición, incluidas las genéticas y moleculares, para poder trabajar en su prevención y en el mejoramiento de las conductas terapéuticas.

Arterial hypertension is a common disease that constitutes a risk factor of cardiovascular disease and causes about 13.5 million deaths around the world every year. More than 65 million people in the United States and a billion in the world suffer from arterial hypertension; nowadays, in Cuba there are 33.8 % of people older than 18 years with this condition. Some previous studies have demonstrated that individual levels of blood pressure depend on genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Its hereditary component has been documented in family, twin and adoption studies, as well as, a list of predisposing candidate genes has been also described. Hundreds of thousands of polymorphic markers have been identified through the development of the Human Genome Project and the availability of genetic mapping, which has allowed mapping around 400 genetic markers related to this disease; that's why, knowledge about the mechanisms related to the emerging causes of this disease, including molecular and genetic bases, is of great importance in order to work in favor of its prevention and the improvement in therapeutic behaviors.

Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785236


ABSTRACT Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. Thus, genetic variants related with these conditions may modulate its development. We evaluated the effect of polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on metabolic syndrome risk in a cohort of Chilean subjects. Subjects and methods A total of 152 subjects, 83 with MetS (51.2 ± 9.6 years) and 69 without MetS (49.5 ± 9.3 years) of both genders were included, according to the ATP III update criteria. The rs4340 Insertion/Deletion (I/D), rs699 (T>C) and rs5186 (A>C) of the ACE, AGT and AGTR1 genes, respectively, were genotyped. Results After adjusting for age and gender, we observed the DD genotype of rs4340 associated with MetS (p = 0.02). Specifically, the DD genotype was associated with MetS risk in women (OR = 4.62, 95%CI, 1.41 – 15.04; p < 0.01). In males, the AA genotype for rs5186 variant was associated with an increased risk for developing MetS when compared with women carrying the same genotype (OR = 3.2; 95%CI, 1.03 – 9.89; p = 0.04). In subjects without MetS, DD genotype was associated with increased waist circumference (p = 0.023) while subjects with MetS carrying the rs5186 TT genotype showed higher levels of HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.031). Conclusion The present study contributes data highlighting the role for RAS polymorphisms in predisposing to metabolic syndrome in Chilean subjects.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , Metabolic Syndrome/genetics , Hypertension/genetics , Chile , Sex Factors , Angiotensinogen/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Gene Deletion , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Genotype
Colomb. med ; 47(2): 76-80, Apr.June 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-791142


Background: Renal function declines according to age and vascular risk factors, whereas few data are available regarding geneticallymediated effects of anti-hypertensives over renal function. Objective: To estimate urea and creatinine variations in dementia due to Alzheimer disease (AD) by way of a pharmacogenetic analysis of the anti-hypertensive effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis). Methods: Consecutive outpatients older than 60 years-old with AD and no history of kidney transplant or dialytic therapy were recruited for prospective correlations regarding variations in fasting blood levels of urea and creatinine in one year, considering ACE genotypes of rs1800764 and rs4291 and their respective haplotypes, and treatment with ACEis along with blood pressure variations. Results: For 190 patients, 152 had arterial hypertension, and 122 used ACEis. Minor allele frequencies were 0.492 for rs1800764-C and 0.337 for rs4291-T, both in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were no overall significant yearly variations in levels of urea and creatinine, but their concurrent variations were positively correlated (ρ <0.0001). Each A allele of rs4291 led to an yearly urea increase of 3.074 mg/ dL, and an yearly creatinine increase of 0.044 mg/dL, while the use of ACEis was protective regarding creatinine variations. The use of ACEis was also protective for carriers of rs1800764-CT/rs4291-AA, while carriers of rs1800764-CT/rs4291-AT had steeper reductions in creatinine levels, particularly when they were treated with ACEis. Conclusions: Effects of ACEis over creatinine variations are genetically mediated and independent of blood pressure variations in older people with AD.

Antecedentes: El deterioro de la función renal depende de la edad y los factores vasculares. La literatura sobre los efectos de fármacos antihipertensivos mediada genéticamente en la función renal es pobre. Objetivo: Estimar las variaciones de urea y creatinina a través del análisis farmacogenético de los efectos antihipertensivos de los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (iECA) en pacientes con demencia debido a la enfermedad de Alzhaimer. Métodos: Fueron reclutados pacientes consecutivos mayores de 60 años de edad con enfermedad de Alzheimer y sin antecedentes de trasplante renal o diálisis. Se determinaron correlaciones prospectivas durante un año entre los cambios en los niveles sanguíneos de urea y creatinina, considerando genotipos y haplotipos de ACE (rs1800764 y rs4291) y el tratamiento con iECA a y las variaciones en la presión arterial. Resultados: De 190 pacientes, 152 presenaron hipertensión, 122 usaron iECA. Las frecuencias de alelos polimórficos fueron de 0.492 para rs1800764-C y 0.337 para rs4291-T, los dos alelos en equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg. No se determinaron fluctuaciones anuales significativas en los niveles de urea o creatinina, pero sus variaciones concomitantes se asociaron fuertemente (ρ= <0.0001). Cada alelo A de rs4291 condujo a aumentos anuales de 3.074 mg/dL en urea y 0.044 mg/dL en creatinina, mientras que el uso de iECA fue protector para las variaciones en la creatinina. El uso de iECA también fue protector para las personas con rs1800764-CT/rs4291-AA, mientras que los portadores de rs1800764-CT/rs4291-AT tuvieron reducciones de creatinina más altas, particularmente cuando se usó iECA. Conclusión: Los efectos de iECA en la variación de la creatinina son genéticamente mediadas e independiente de las variaciones en la presión arterial en pacientes de edad avanzada con la enfermedad de Alzheimer.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Urea/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Creatinine/blood , Alzheimer Disease/blood , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/genetics , Age Factors , Fasting/blood , Alleles , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/drug therapy
São Paulo med. j ; 134(3): 205-210, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785810


CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase enzymes (DDAH), which are encoded by the genes DDAH1 and DDAH2, play a fundamental role in maintaining endothelial function. We conducted a case-control study on a Chinese population that included three ethnic groups (Han, Kazakh and Uygur), to systemically investigate associations between variations in the genes DDAH1 and DDAH2 and hypertension. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study at the Department of Internal Medicine and Genetic Diagnosis, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. METHODS: This case-control study included 1,224 patients with hypertension and 967 healthy unrelated individuals as controls. DDAH1 -396 4N (GCGT) del>ins, rs3087894, rs805304 and rs9267551 were genotyped using the TaqMan 5' nuclease assay. RESULTS: The G/C genotype of rs3087894 in DDAH1 was a risk factor for hypertension in the Kazakh group in the co-dominant model (G/C versus G/G) (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.88; P < 0.05), with the same result in the dominant model (G/C + C/C versus G/G) (OR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.03-1.84; P < 0.05). In contrast, the C/C genotype of rs3087894 seemed to be a protective factor against hypertension in the Uygur group in the recessive model (C/C versus G/G + G/C) (OR 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39- 0.97; P < 0.05). Similar findings for rs3087894 were also observed after adjusting the variable for the age covariate. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the C-allele of rs3087894 in DDAH1 was a risk factor for hypertension in the Kazakh group but a protective factor in the Uygur group.

RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Enzimas dimetilarginina dimetilaminohidrolase (DDAH), codificadas por genes DDAH1 e DDAH2, desempenham papel fundamental na manutenção da função endotelial. Realizamos estudo tipo caso-controle na população chinesa, com três grupos étnicos (han, kazakh e uygur) para investigar sistematicamente a associação entre a variação de genes DDAH1 e DDAH2 e a hipertensão. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo tipo caso-controle no Departamento de Medicina Interna e Diagnóstico Genético, Hospital de Tongji, Tongji Medical College, Universidade de Ciência e Tecnologia de Huazhong. MÉTODOS: Este estudo incluiu 1.224 pacientes com hipertensão e 967 indivíduos saudáveis, sem parentesco, como controles. DDAH1 -396 4 N (GCGT) del > ins, rs3087894, rs805304 and rs9267551 foram genotipados usando o ensaio nuclease TaqMan 5'. RESULTADOS: O genótipo G/C de rs3087894 no DDAH1 foi um fator de risco para a hipertensão arterial no grupo kazakh em modelo codominante (G/C versus G/G; OR 1,39; IC 95%: 1,02-1,88; P < 0,05), com o mesmo resultado no modelo dominante (G/C + C/C versus G/G; OR 1,38; IC 95%: 1,03-1,84; P < 0,05). Em contraste, o genótipo C/C de rs3087894 parecia ser um fator de proteção para a hipertensão no grupo uygur no modelo recessivo (C/C versus G/G + G/C; OR 0,62; IC 95%: 0,39-0,97; P < 0,05). Achado semelhante para rs3087894 também foi observado depois de se ajustar a variante à covariante idade. CONCLUSÃO: Os nossos resultados indicaram que o C-alelo de rs3087894 no DDAH1 foi fator de risco para a hipertensão no grupo de kazakh, mas fator de proteção no grupo de uygur.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Genetic Variation , Asian People/genetics , Amidohydrolases/genetics , Hypertension/genetics , Base Sequence , Ethnicity/genetics , Case-Control Studies , China/ethnology , Risk Factors , Genotype , Hypertension/epidemiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(5): 411-418, May 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784175


Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR) was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI) indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6). Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28) had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

Resumo Fundamento: A hipertensão arterial é um grave problema de saúde pública e, nos últimos anos, tem aumentado consideravelmente em jovens. A identificação de fatores associados com essa condição é importante para guiar estratégias de intervenção nessa população. Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados com a pressão arterial alterada em adolescentes. Métodos: Foi selecionada amostra probabilística de 1.242 adolescentes da rede pública de ensino de Curitiba (PR). Por meio de questionários, foram obtidos o histórico familiar de hipertensão, o gasto energético diário, informações sobre tabagismo, o consumo diário de gorduras e a classificação econômica. A circunferência da cintura foi medida por procedimentos padronizados. A pressão arterial foi aferida com manguitos adequados em 2 dias consecutivos para a confirmação da pressão arterial alterada. Frequências relativas e intervalos de confiança (IC95%) indicaram a prevalência de pressão arterial alterada. Regressões logística bivariadas e multivariadas testaram a associação dos fatores de risco com a pressão arterial alterada. Resultados: A prevalência de pressão arterial alterada foi de 18,2% (IC95% 15,2-21,6). Mais chances de pressão arterial alterada foram encontradas nos indivíduos que possuíam ambos os pais com hipertensão arterial [odds ratio (OR), 2,22; IC95% 1,28-3,85] e naqueles com a circunferência da cintura aumentada (OR, 2,1; IC95% 1,34-3,28). Conclusão: O histórico familiar positivo de hipertensão arterial e a circunferência da cintura aumentada estiveram associados a pressão arterial alterada em adolescentes. Esses fatores são importantes para guiar intervenções futuras nessa população.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Blood Pressure/physiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Epidemiologic Methods , Sex Distribution , Hypertension/genetics
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 9(1): 19-26, ene. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-831339


Background: Treatment of dendritic cells (DC) with aldosterone induces the secretion of IL-6 and TGF-beta. The polarization of naïve T cells to helper 17 T lymphocytes with DCs pre-incubated with aldosterone, has been described in vivo, generating an IL-17 hyper-secreting phenotype, a cytokine associated with cardiac and renal fibrosis. There are mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in immune cells and their activation may determine the inflammatory (M1) or adaptive (M2) macrophage phenotype. Aldosterone levels could regulate immunogenic gene expression in these cells, modulating the liberation of specific cytokines. Aim: To assess in humans the association of aldosterone levels and IL-17 with inflammatory markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Material and Methods: In blood samples of 176 participants aged 18 to 67 years (61 percent women) with a body mass index of 27.1 +/- 4.8 kg/m2, aldosterone, plasma renin activity (ARP), cortisol, C reactive protein, andIL-17 were measured. mRNA was isolated from PBMCs to measure the expression of MR RAC-1, HO-1, TLR-4, CD-14, NGAL and IL-17 by real time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Aldosterone correlated positively with ARP and the expression of CD-14 in PBMCs. Plasma levels of IL-17 were positively associated with the expression of MR, Rac1a and NGAL. Conclusions: Aldosterone and IL-17 levels were associated with inflammatory activation markers in PBMC, which could activate MRand promote a subclinical inflammatory status inducing hypertension.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aldosterone/genetics , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/blood , /genetics , Aldosterone/blood , Biomarkers , Gene Amplification , /blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(3): 234-239, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753176


Summary Objectives: to analyze factors that might indicate familial predisposition for ovarian cancer in patients diagnosed with this disease. Methods: in a prospective single center cohort study at the Institute of Cancer of the State of São Paulo (ICESP), 51 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer were included. Familial predisposition for ovarian cancer was defined as having a higher than 10% chance of having a BRCA1/2 mutation according to the Manchester scoring system, a validated method to assess the likelihood of mutation detection. Each patient was interviewed with a standardized questionnaire on established risk factors for ovarian cancer and other factors that might influence the risk to develop ovarian cancer. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the impact of the evaluated factors on the likelihood of mutation detection, by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: seventeen out of 51 patients had a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, four patients had a history of breast or endometrial cancer, 11 were diagnosed before the age of 50, and 12 presented a risk of familial predisposition to ovarian cancer higher than 10%. Patients with comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, hormonal disorders, dyslipidemia and psychiatric conditions, presented a lower chance of having a familial predisposition for ovarian cancer (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.06-0.88; p=0.03). Conclusion: in this study, having comorbidities was associated with a lower risk of having a familial predisposition for ovarian cancer. Other factors associated with the risk of ovarian cancer did not have an impact on this predisposition. .

Resumo Objetivos: analisar fatores que possam indicar uma predisposição familiar ao câncer de ovário em pacientes com este diagnóstico. Métodos: em estudo de coorte prospectiva realizado no Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP), foram incluídas 51 mulheres diagnosticadas com câncer de ovário entre janeiro de 2009 e dezembro de 2011. Predisposição familiar para câncer de ovário foi definida como um risco maior de 10% de apresentar uma mutação em BRCA1/2, de acordo com o sistema de pontes de Manchester, um método validado para avaliar a probabilidade de detecção de mutação nesses genes. Cada paciente foi entrevistada com um questionário padronizado, abordando fatores de risco para câncer de ovário e outros fatores que pudessem influenciar o risco de desenvolver a doença. O impacto dos fatores avaliados na probabilidade de detecção da mutação foi avaliado com regressões logísticas. Resultados: dezessete das 51 pacientes referiram história familiar de câncer de mama e/ou ovário, quatro pacientes apresentavam antecedente pessoal de câncer de mama ou endométrio, 11 haviam sido diagnosticadas antes dos 50 anos e 12 apresentaram um risco maior que 10% de predisposição familiar a câncer de ovário. Pacientes com comorbidades como hipertensão, diabetes, disfunções hormonais, dislipidemia e distúrbios psiquiátricos apresentaram menor risco de predisposição familiar ao câncer de ovário (OR: 0.22; IC 95%: 0.06-0.88; p=0.03). Conclusão: neste estudo, apresentar alguma comorbidade foi associado a um menor risco de ter uma predisposição familiar ao câncer de ovário. Outros fatores associados ao risco de câncer de ovário não tiveram nenhum impacto sobre esta predisposição. .

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome/genetics , Hypertension/genetics , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Genes, BRCA1 , Life Style , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 227-234, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174629


PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between the renin gene (REN) and the risk of essential hypertension and blood pressure (BP) levels in Koreans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To outline the functional role of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the transcription of the REN gene, we conducted a case-control study of 1975 individuals: 646 hypertension (HT) patients and 1329 ethnically and age-matched normotensive subjects. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis indicated that the genotypes AA/AG were strongly associated with risk of HT (odds ratio, 1.493; 95% confidence interval, 1.069-2.086, p=0.018) in female subjects. The genotypes AA/AG also showed significant association with higher blood pressure levels, both systolic and diastolic, in postmenopausal HT women (p=0.003 and p=0.017, respectively). Analysis of the promoter containing rs6682082 revealed a 2.4+/-0.01-fold higher activity in the A variant promoter than the G variant promoter, suggesting that rs6682082 is itself a functional variant. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the A allele of rs6682082 is a positive genetic marker for predisposition to essential hypertension and high BP in Korean women and may be mediated through the transcriptional activation of REN.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Alleles , Asian People/genetics , Blood Pressure/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Diastole/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Hypertension/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Renin/genetics , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Systole/genetics , Transfection