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1.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(1): 40-56, jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1147564

ABSTRACT

Introdução:As doenças são responsáveispor maior parte das hospitalizações e mortes no mundo. Porém, a maioria delas podem ser prevenidaspor ações realizadas na Atenção Primária.Objetivo:comparar a morbidade e mortalidade por Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis, Hipertensão Arterial e Diabetes Mellitus nos anos 2012-2014 com a cobertura da Atenção Primária naregião Nordeste do Brasil.Metodologia:Trata-se de estudo ecológico, retrospectivo, realizado no nordeste brasileiro com dados dos anos de 2012 e 2014 disponíveis no Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva e analítica e correlacionada as taxas de internação e óbitos dos agravos estudados com cobertura da AtençãoPrimária.Resultados:Ao comparar a ocorrência de internação e óbito entre os anos de 2012 e 2014 observou-se redução no nordeste. Todavia, quando correlacionado com a cobertura da AtençãoPrimária, quanto maior a cobertura,maior foi a ocorrência dos agravos.Conclusões:Oestudo revelou a necessidade de reflexão e tomada de atitude pelos gestores e profissionais de saúde considerando a continuidade do cuidado ao usuário da Atenção Primária, bem como todos os investimentos financeiros realizados pelo Ministério da Saúde junto aos municípios do Nordeste do Brasil (AU).


Introduction:Diseases account for mosthospitalizations and deaths in the world. However, most of them can be prevented by actions taken in Primary Care.Objective:To compare morbidity and mortality due to Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases, Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus in 2012-2014 with Primary Care coverage in northeastern Brazil.Methodology:It is an ecological and retrospective study conducted in northeastern Brazil with data from 2012 and 2014 with data available from the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System. A descriptive and analytical analysis was conducted that correlated the rates of hospitalization and deaths of the diseases studied with the coverage of PrimaryCare.Results:Comparing the occurrence of hospitalization and death between 2012 and 2014, a reduction was observed in the Northeast. However, when you correlate with Primary Care coverage, the higher the coverage, the greater the occurrence of injuries.Conclusions:The study revealed the need for reflection and attitudes by managers and health professionals considering the continuity of care for Primary Care users, as well as all financial investments made by the Ministry of Health with the municipalities of northeastern Brazil (AU).


Introducción: Las enfermedades representan la mayoría de las hospitalizaciones y muertes en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, la mayoría de ellos se pueden prevenir mediante acciones realizadas en la Atención Primaria. Objetivo: Comparar la morbilidad y mortalidad debidas a Enfermedades Crónicas No Transmisibles, Hipertensión y Diabetes Mellitus en los años 2012-2014 con la cobertura de Atención Primaria en el noreste de Brasil. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio ecológico y retrospectivo realizado en el noreste de Brasil con datos de 2012 y 2014 con datos disponibles del Departamento de Informática del Sistema Unificado de Salud. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y analítico que correlacionó las tasas de hospitalización y muertesde las enfermedades estudiadas con la cobertura de la Atención Primaria. Resultados: Al comparar la ocurrencia de hospitalización y muerte entre 2012 y 2014, se observó una reducción en el noreste. Sin embargo, cuando se correlaciona con la cobertura de Atención Primaria, cuanto mayor sea la cobertura, mayor será la ocurrencia de las lesiones.Conclusiones: El estudio reveló la necesidad de reflexión y toma de actitudes por parte de gerentes y profesionales de la salud considerando la continuidad de la atención a los usuarios de Atención Primaria, así como todas las inversiones financieras realizadas por el Ministerio de Salud con los municipios del noreste de Brasil (AU).


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Ecological Studies
2.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 10(2): 39-51, 2020. tab, tab, graf, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123457

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar la relación entre la condición de hipertensión arterial y las caracterís-ticas sociodemográficas de los pacientes atendidos en la clínica de atención prioritaria de odontología de la Universidad del Valle, entre los años 2013 y 2016. Métodos: este es un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de corte transversal. Las variables evaluadas fueron: edad, sexo, presión arterial diastólica y sistólica al inicio y al final de la consulta de valoración, grado de escolaridad, peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, conocimiento de condición de hipertensión, y prevalencia. Para analizar la información se empleó el programa Stata13. Como prueba de normalidad para las variables numéricas, se utilizó la prueba de Shapiro Wilks, para las variables que no se comportaron normal, la prueba U de Mann Whitney y para las variables categóricas con un error aceptado de p<0,05, la prueba de chi2. Resultados: se incluyeron 1815 pacientes en la muestra, de los cuales 528 tuvieron datos de tensión arterial ≥140/90 mm Hg. Así, el 70% desconocían que tenían valores ≥140/90 mm Hg. El 36% de las mujeres y el 23% de los hombres conocían su condición de hipertensión arterial. El índice de masa corporal por encima de 25.6, ser mayor de 50 años y el sexo femenino son factores de riesgo para la HTA. Conclusión:como factores de riesgo para la tensión arterial elevada se determinan el sexo, la edad y el índice de masa corporal. El 70% de los pacientes desconocían los valores de su tensión arterial y la prevalencia de probable hipertensión encontrada fue de 29%.


Objective: Evaluate the relationship between arterial hypertension condition and the sociodemographic characteristics of patients attended in the Priority dental care clinic at the Universidad del Valle between 2013-2016. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive study. The evaluated variables were: age, gender, diastolic and systolic BP at the beginning and at the end of the first assessment consultation, educational level, weight, size and body mass index (BMI), awareness of high blood pressure condition, and prevalence. The information was analyzed with STATA 13. The Shapiro Wilks test was used for normality in numerical variables , the Mann Whitney U test for the numerical variables which did not behave normal for frequency and distribution; and the chi square test for categorical variables with an accepted error of 5%. Results: 1815 patients were evaluated for their blood pressure levels, 528 with values ≥140/90 mm Hg. 70% were not aware they could be hypertensive, 36% of women and 23% of men were knew of their hypertension condition. Most of the patients with levels (≥140/90 mm Hg) were in the age range between 50-59 years. The variables of age, body mass index and gender showed to be risk related with HBP. Conclusions: Sex, age and body mass index were risk related with high blood pressure. The prevalence of probable hypertension in this study was 29%, and 70% of the patients ignored their possible high blood pressure condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prevalence , Hypertension/pathology , Sex , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Age Effect , Arterial Pressure
3.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249173

ABSTRACT

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious health problem worldwide; it is characterized by a group of metabolic disorders, including central obesity, insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia with accelerated atherosclerosis, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and elevated uric acid with increased risk of gout. The incidence of MS has increased considerably in recent decades and has attracted considerable attention. A number of clinical and translational laboratory studies have implicated the activation of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the development of MS, therefore establishing a strong link between chronic inflammation and metabolic diseases. This paper aims to review new developments on NLRP3 inflammasome in MS for better understanding of chronic inflammation in metabolic diseases. We will also provide new insights into using NLRP3 inflammasome as an innovative therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes/pharmacology , Metabolic Diseases/pathology , Uric Acid/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Metabolic Syndrome/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Obesity, Abdominal/pathology , Hypertension/pathology
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1183-1192, Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975679

ABSTRACT

The most prevalent pathologies during pregnancy, such as hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), can determine modifications in macro- and microscopic morphological features of the placenta and its free chorionic villi. In the fetus it may be accompanied by pathological manifestations, with the embryo's future quality of life, and even its viability, at risk. The aim of this work is to perform a review of the morphological alterations that the placenta exhibits in pregnancies with GDM. A search on the topic in the scientific literature and specialized textbooks was carried out. The terms "placenta", "diabetes mellitus gestational" and "gestational diabetes mellitus" were used to define the search. Among the morphological modifications it was found that the placental weight/fetal weight ratio is higher in GDM and is associated mainly with histological changes. The distance between maternal and fetal circulation is increased because of an increase in the chorionic villi on the surface as well as greater thickness of the syncytiotrophoblast basal membrane due to an increased type IV collagen deposition. The stroma between the villi is edematous, which modifies the metabolic and endocrinal function of these placentas. Moreover, the capillary surface is enlarged due to the phenomena of vascular neoformation and a greater penetration of these vessels within the villi. Low oxygen partial pressure (pO2) was detected, which would produce a compensatory hyperplasia of terminal chorionic villi. In GDM the placenta undergoes alterations in its formation, structure, and function. According to the review, these alterations are related to an oxygenation deficiency in the fetus and changes in the transplacental transport of nutrients and other alterations, causing fetal overgrowth by increasing their availability in addition to other consequences to the developing fetus. In the case of high blood pressure during pregnancy, this produces accelerated maturation and rapid aging of the chorionic villi, with the risk of inducing a placental abruption. In addition, placental circulation is reduced by a third, decreasing oxygen saturation in the umbilical vessels and placing the health of the fetus at risk.


Las patologías de la gestación más prevalentes, como hipertensión, diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) y restricción del crecimiento uterino, pueden determinar modificaciones en las características morfológicas macro y microscópicas de la placenta y sus vellosidades coriales libres,y en el feto se puede acompañar de manifestaciones patológicas, con riesgo para su calidad de vida futura, e incluso su viabilidad. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en realizar una revisión acerca de las alteraciones morfológicas que presenta la placenta en gestaciones con DMG. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda sobre la temática en literatura científica y libros de texto especializados. Se utilizaron los términos "placenta", "diabetes mellitus gestacional" y "gestational diabetes mellitus" para orientar la búsqueda. Entre las modificaciones morfológicas se encontró que la relación peso placentario/peso fetal está aumentado en la DMG y se asocia principalmente a cambios histológicos. La distancia entre la circulación materna y la fetal está aumentada debido a un aumento de la superficie entre las vellosidades coriales, así como al mayor grosor de la membrana basal del sincitiotrofoblasto por un depósito elevado de colágeno tipo IV. El estroma entre las vellosidades se encuentra edematoso lo que va a modificar la función metabólica y endocrina de estas placentas. También hay aumento de la superficie capilar por fenómenos de neoformación vascular y una mayor penetración de estos vasos dentro de las vellosidades. Se detectó baja presión parcial de oxígeno (pO2), que produciría una hiperplasia compensatoria de vellosidades coriónicas terminales. En la DMG la placenta experimenta alteraciones en su formación, estructura y función. Según lo revisado, estas alteraciones están relacionadas con déficit en la oxigenación del feto, cambios en el transporte transplacentario de los nutrientes y otras alteraciones, ocasionando sobrecrecimiento fetal por aumento de su disponibilidad, entre otras consecuencias al feto en desarrollo. Y en el caso de la hipertensión arterial durante la gestación produce una maduración acelerada y envejecimiento rápido de las vellosidades coriales, con el riesgo de inducir un desprendimiento prematuro de placenta. Además se reduce la circulación placentaria en un tercio, disminuyendo la saturación de oxígeno en los vasos umbilicales del, poniendo en riesgo la salud del feto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placenta/pathology , Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Hypertension/pathology , Chorionic Villi/pathology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/pathology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 551-556, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954153

ABSTRACT

Las patologías de la gestación como la hipertensión, diabetes mellitus gestacional, o restricción del crecimiento intrauterino, pueden determinar modificaciones en las características morfológicas macro y microscópicas de la placenta y sus vellosidades coriales libres, y en el feto se puede acompañar de manifestaciones patológicas, con riesgo para su calidad de vida futura, e incluso su viabilidad. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en describir aspectos morfométricos e histológicos de las vellosidades coriales libres en gestas normales, con diabetes e hipertensión arterial. Se utilizaron 30 placentas humanas y fueron separadas, según presencia o ausencia de patologías en el embarazo, en tres grupos: Normal (N), Síndrome Hipertensivo del Embarazo (SHE), Diabetes (D) y Restricción del Crecimiento Intrauterino (RCIU). Se usó ficha para registrar peso placentario y del recién nacido Todas las muestras fueron fijadas en formalina tamponada al 10 %. De cada una fueron extraídas 5 muestras, obteniendo 25 cortes por cada placenta. Posteriormente, fueron teñidas con H&E, Azul Alcián y Tricrómico de Masson. Además, se efectuó el análisis histológico y morfométrico (ImageJ®) de las vellosidades coriales. El análisis estadístico fue realizado utilizando ANOVA. Entre los cambios morfológicos, se encontró una relación peso placentario/peso del recién nacido aumentada en la Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional asociada a cambios histológicos. No hubo cambios morfométricos significativos entre placentas N, SHE y D. Hubo un aumento en el número de vasos coriales en placentas del grupo D (P < 0,05) y de la superficie entre las vellosidades coriales. En el grupo SHE hubo aumento moderado de nudos sinciciales y presencia de fibrina en el estroma. Las placentas con Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional experimentan alteraciones histológicas, como consecuencia de cambios estructurales y funcionales. Además, el aumento de vasos sanguíneos en placentas con diabetes se produce por neoformación vascular y mayor penetración de vasos sanguíneos dentro de las vellosidades. En el caso del SHE las alteraciones placentarias se relacionan con la gravedad de la enfermedad.


Gestational pathologies such as hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus and restriction of intrauterine growth can determine changes in the macro and microscopic morphological characteristics of the placenta and its free chorionic villi. In the fetus it can be accompanied by pathological manifestations with risk to its viability and future quality of life. The aim of this work was to describe morphometric and histological aspects of free chorionic villi in normal pregnancies associated with diabetes, hypertension and restriction of intrauterine growth. Thirty human placentas were used and were separated into three groups: Normal (N), Hypertensive Pregnancy Syndrome (SHE), Diabetes (D), and Restriction of Intrauterine Growth (RIG) according to evident pathologies or absence thereof during pregnancy. Tab was used to record placental and newborn weight. All samples were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin. From each, 5 samples were extracted, obtaining 25 cuts for each placenta. Subsequently, they were stained with H & E, Alcian Blue and Masson's Trichrome. In addition, histological and morphometric analysis (ImageJ®) of the chorion villus was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. Among the morphological changes, an increased placental weight / weight ratio of the newborn was found in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus associated with histological changes. There were no significant morphometric changes between placentas N, SHE and D. There was an increase in the number of corial vessels in placentas of group D (P <0.05) and of the surface between the chorion villi. In the SHE group there was a moderate increase in syncytial nodes and presence of fibrin in the stroma. Placentas with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus experience histological alterations, as a consequence of structural and functional changes. In addition, the increase of blood vessels in placentas D is produced by vascular neoformation and increased penetration of blood vessels into the villi. In the case of SHE, placental alterations are related to the severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Chorionic Villi/pathology , Diabetes, Gestational/pathology , Fetal Growth Retardation/pathology , Hypertension/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(3): 309-315, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951550

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate salivary levels of TGFβ1 and proliferation/ maturation of epithelial mucosa cells in diabetic and hypertensive patients. Design: in this cross-sectional study, whole stimulated saliva and oral mucosa exfoliative cytology specimens were collected from 39 patients that were healthy (control, n=10) or presented history of arterial hypertension (HAS, n=9), diabetes mellitus (DM, n=10) or both (DM+HAS, n=10). Salivary flow rate (SFR), TGFβ1 level in saliva, AgNORs and the epithelial maturation were evaluated. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-test and the Spearman test correlation analysis were used. SFR showed a significant decreased in DM and DM+HAS (0.47±0.11 and 0.64±0.43 mL/min) when compared to control (1.4±0.38 mL/min). DM+HAS presented the highest value of TGFβ1 concentration (24.72±5.89 pg/mL). It was observed a positive correlation between TGFβ1 and glycaemia (R=0.6371; p<0.001) and a negative correlation between TGFβ1 and saliva (R=-0.6162; p<0.001) and glycaemia and SFR (R=-0.5654; P=0.001). AgNORs number and status of maturation of mucosa cells were similar for all conditions. DM and DM+HAS presented the lowest SFR, which correlated with increased TGFβ1 levels. Despite the higher TGFβ1 secretion it was not observed changes in the morphology or proliferation of epithelial cells when diabetes or hypertension was present.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os níveis de TGFβ1 na saliva e a proliferação/maturação das células epiteliais da mucosa em paciente diabéticos e hipertensos. Neste estudo transversal, saliva estimulada e amostras de citologia exfoliativa de mucosa oral foram coletadas de um total de 39 pacientes que se apresentavam saudáveis (controle, n=10) ou com história de hipertensão arterial (HAS, n=9), diabetes mellitus (DM, n=10) ou ambos (DM+HAS, n=10). Taxa de fluxo salivar (SFR), níveis de TGFβ1 na saliva, AgNORs e maturação epitelial foram avaliados. Teste não-paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, seguido de comparação múltipla de Dunn e correlação de Spearman foram utilizados para as análises. SFR diminuiu significantemente em DM e DM+HAS (0,47±0,11 e 0,64±0,43 mL/min) quando comparado ao controle (1,4±0,38 mL/min). DM+HAS apresentou os maiores valores de concentração de TGFβ1 (24,72±5,89 pg/mL). Foi observada uma correlação positiva entre TGFβ1 e glicemia (R=0,6371; p<0,001) e uma correlação negativa entre TGFβ1 e saliva (R=-0,6162; p<0,001) e glicemia e SFR (R=-0,5654; p=0,001). Número de AgNORs e o padrão da maturação das células epiteliais foram similares entre os todos grupos. DM e DM+HAS apresentaram os menores valores de SFR, os quais foram correlacionados com o aumento nos níveis de TGFβ1. Apesar da maior secreção de TGFβ1, não foram observadas mudanças na morfologia ou proliferação das células epiteliais quando o paciente apresentava diabetes ou hipertensão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Salivation , Secretory Rate , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Antigens, Nuclear , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Hypertension/pathology
8.
Rev. salud pública ; 19(5): 609-616, sep.-oct. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-962046

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Determinar la frecuencia y factores de riesgo para Síndrome Metabólico (SM) en adultos con Diabetes mellitus, hipertensión arterial y sin diabetes-hipertensión. Material y Métodos Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico en derechohabientes de ambos sexos y mayores de 20 años de los servicios de consulta externa del HGZ No. 1 IMSS Colima, México. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, IMC, diámetro de la cintura, grado de escolaridad, estado socioeconómico, grado de actividad física, tabaquismo, antecedentes familiares para diabetes e hipertensión arterial (HTA) y parámetros bioquímicos como glucosa, colesterol HDL, triglicéridos. Resultados Se estudiaron 417 pacientes (170 hombres y 247 mujeres), con un promedio de edad 53,2 ± 13,4 años (intervalo 20 a 86 años). La frecuencia global del SM fue del 52,3 % (56 % mujeres y 46,4 % hombres). Mientras que la frecuencia del SM fue de 50 % en DM2, 42% en HTA, 80 % DM2 + HTA y 28,2 % sin DM o HTA. La frecuencia del tabaquismo fue del 27,8 % y fue un factor de riesgo importante para la totalidad de pacientes con SM, en DM2 y en DM2+HAT. Conclusiones La frecuencia del SM en adultos fue del 52,3 %, las mujeres fueron más afectadas y el tabaquismo fue el factor de riesgo más importante.(AU)


ABSTRACT Objective Determinate the frequency and the risk factors for Metabolic Syndrome in adults with diabetes mellitus, Hypertension and without Diabetes- Hypertension. Materials and Methods We realized a cross-sectional study in patients of both sexes and older than 20 years of the "Hospital General de Zona 1 IMSS" in Colima, Mexico. The variables studied were: age, BMI, waist circumference, cigarette smoking, and family history of diabetes and hypertension, and biochemical parameters, such as glucose, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Results A total of 417 persons were enrolled (170 men and 247 women), with an age average of 53.2 ± 13.4 years (age range, 20 to 86 years). The global frequency of the metabolic syndrome was 52.3 % (56 % in women and 46.4 % in men). While the MS frequency was 50 % in DM2, 42 % in hypertension, 80 % in DM2+hypertension and 28.2 % without DM2 and hypertension. The cigarette smoking frequency was 27.8 %, and it was an important risk factor for the totally of patients with MS, in DM2 and in DM2+hypertension. Conclusions The frequency of MS in adults was 52.3 %, women were the most affected, and cigarette smoking was the most important risk factor.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Hypertension/pathology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation
10.
Salvador; s.n; 2017. 105 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000997

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A hipertensão arterial tem sido considerada como sendo a principal causa da redução da qualidade e expectativa de vida dos indivíduos por ser importante fator de risco para doenças que envolvem a aterosclerose e a trombose com consequente acometimento cardíaco, cerebral, renal e vascular. Estudos têm demonstrado a ação dos monoterpenos em diferentes atividades farmacológicas, entre elas sobre o sistema cardiovascular. Foi observado que o carvacrol, um monoterpeno característico da família Labiateae, apresenta ação hipotensora em ratos Wistar anestesiados tratados previamente com L-NAME e em ratos não anestesiados. OBJETIVOS: a) avaliar a ação periférica do carvacrol na pressão arterial e na frequência cardíaca em animais com hipertensão arterial vascular; b) avaliar a ação periférica do carvacrol na pressão arterial e na frequência cardíaca em ratos com hipertensão renovascular; c) avaliar a ação periférica do carvacrol sobre a pressão arterial e a frequência cardíaca em ratos espontaneamente hipertensos; d) avaliar a ação central do carvacrol sobre a pressão arterial e a frequência cardíaca em animais espontaneamente hipertensos; e) avaliar a ação central do carvacrol no apetite por sódio em animais espontaneamente hipertensos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar (200-250g)...


INTRODUCTION: Hypertension has been regarded as the primary cause of the reduction of the quality and life expectancy of individuals for being important factor ate risk for diseases that involve the atherosclerosis and thrombosis with consequent cardiac involvement, cerebral, renal and vascular. Studies have demonstrated the action of monoterpenes in different pharmacological activities, among them on the cardiovascular system. It was observed that the carvacrol, a characteristic of the monoterpene Labiateae family, presents hypotensive action in anesthetized Wistar rats pretreated with L-NAME and not anesthetized rats. AIM: a) evaluate the peripheral action of carvacrol on blood pressure and heart rate in animals with vascular arterial hypertension; b) evaluate the peripheral action of carvacrol on blood pressure and heart rate in rats with renovascular hypertension; c) evaluate the peripheral action of carvacrol on blood pressure and heart rate in animals spontaneously hypertensive; d) evaluate the central action of carvacrol on blood pressure and heart rate in animals spontaneously hypertensive; e) evaluate the action of carvacrol in central appetite for sodium in spontaneosuly hypertensive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Were used Wistar rats (200-250g)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/pathology , Hypertension/prevention & control
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e00217, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889393

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In Brazil, 80% of hypertensive patients have no blood pressure controlled, this fact has caused severe financial consequences for the public health system (PHS) and the Pharmaceutical Care (PC) has emerged as an effective alternative. The aim of this study was to analyze the costs and outcomes of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) for conventional assistance compared to assistance with PC in the PHS. This is a pharmacoeconomic study with cost-consequence analysis nested to clinical trial. Hypertensives patients were followed-up from 2006 to 2012. During 2009 they were assisted by the PC program in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. Clinical indicators, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC) and its fractions and healthcare indicators, consumption of antihypertensive medication and consultations were analyzed. Costs were listed as direct medical and direct non-medical. The average cost of conventional care for 104 patients followed-up was US$ 198.97, in the PC period and after discharge was US$ 407.91 and US$ 214.96 patient/year. After discharge of patients from PC there was reduction of SBP, DBP, TC and cardiovascular risk, 9.4 mmHg, 4.6 mmHg, 12.0 mg/dL, and 23% [p<0.005], respectively. The PC program optimized clinical and healthcare indicators and impacted in the SAH costs for the PHS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Health Expenditures , Costs and Cost Analysis/methods , Hypertension/pathology , Pharmaceutical Services/statistics & numerical data , Economics, Pharmaceutical/standards , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/classification
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e78, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951984

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to compare potential aspects of periapical lesion formation in hypertensive and normotensive conditions using hypertensive (BPH/2J) and wild-type control (BPN/3J) mice. The mandibular first molars of both strains had their dental pulp exposed. At day 21 the mice were euthanized and right mandibular molars were used to evaluate the size and phenotype of apical periodontitis by microCT. Proteins were extracted from periapical lesion on the left side and the expressions of IL1α, IL1β and TNFα were analyzed by ELISA. Bone marrow stem cells were isolated from adult mice femurs from 2 strains and osteoclast differentiation was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in vitro. The amount of differentiated osteoclastic cells was nearly double in hypertensive mice when compared to the normotensive strain (p < 0.03). Periapical lesion size did not differ between hypertensive and normotensive strains (p > 0.7). IL1α, IL1β and TNFα cytokines expressions were similar for both systemic conditions (p > 0.05). Despite the fact that no differences could be observed in periapical lesion size and cytokines expressions on the systemic conditions tested, hypertension showed an elevated number of osteoclast differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Periapical Diseases/pathology , Bone Marrow Cells/pathology , RANK Ligand/analysis , Hypertension/pathology , Periapical Diseases/etiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Interleukin-1alpha/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase , Hypertension/complications
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an optimal blood suppression inversion time (BSP TI) can boost arterial visibility and whether the optimal BSP TI is related to breathing rate (BR) and heart rate (HR) for hypertension subjects in spatial labeling with multiple inversion pulses (SLEEK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 10 volunteers and 93 consecutive hypertension patients who had undergone SLEEK at 1.5T MRI system. Firstly, suitable BSP TIs for displaying clearly renal artery were determined in 10 volunteers. Secondly, non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography with the suitable BSP TIs were performed on those hypertension patients. Then, renal artery was evaluated and an optimal BSP TI to increase arterial visibility was determined for each patient. Patients' BRs and HRs were recorded and their relationships with the optimal BSP TI were analyzed. RESULTS: The optimal BSP TI was negatively correlated with BR (r1 = -0.536, P1 < 0.001; and r2 = -0.535, P2 < 0.001) and HR (r1 = -0.432, P1 = 0.001; and r2 = -0.419, P2 = 0.001) for 2 readers (kappa = 0.93). For improving renal arterial visibility, BSP TI = 800 ms could be applied as the optimal BSP TI when the 95% confidence interval were 17-19/min (BR1) and 74-82 bpm (HR1) for reader#1 and 17-19/min (BR2) and 74-83 bpm (HR2) for reader#2; BSP TI = 1100 ms while 14-15/min (BR1, 2) and 71-76 bpm (HR1, 2) for both readers; and BSP TI = 1400 ms when 13-16/min (BR1) and 63-68 bpm (HR1) for reader#1 and 14-15/min (BR2) and 64-70 bpm (HR2) for reader#2. CONCLUSION: In SLEEK, BSP TI is affected by patients' BRs and HRs. Adopting the optimal BSP TI based on BR and HR can improve the renal arterial visibility and consequently the working efficiency.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Hypertension/pathology , Kidney/blood supply , Magnetic Resonance Angiography/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Renal Artery/physiology , Respiratory Rate
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(4): 1411-1418, Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772331

ABSTRACT

This study aims at establishing whether transverse diameter (TD) and cross sectional-area (CSA) of the ascending aorta (AA), descending aorta (DA) and pulmonary trunk (PT) measured by computerized tomographic angiography (CTA) altered by sex, age, hypertension, smoking and diabetes. CTA examinations of the TD and CSA of the AA, DA and PT of 100 patients aged 49.5±16.9 years (range 16­78 years) selected between January 2009 to May 2011 from those referred to Radiology Department, Jordan University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan for advanced evaluation. Measurements were made in the axial plane at the upper border of the six thoracic vertebrae. Patients were divided into three age groups. Significance of differences in parameters between age groups was calculated. Assessment ratios were considered. It was found that parameters of the three arteries were significantly larger in men than in women (P= < 0.05) and increased with age. Hypertension increased diameters of AA and DA in both genders (P= 0.001) and of PT in men (P= 0.01). Smoking significantly decreased parameters of PT in men (P= 0.01). Diabetes increased parameters of the three arteries in both genders, significantly increased parameters of PT in men (P= <0.05) and parameters of DA in women (P= <0.05). It is concluded that studied parameters were larger in men and increased with age of our patients. Distinctive differences in measurements appeared in hypertensive, smokers, and diabetic patients.


El objetivo fue determinar si el sexo, edad, hipertensión, tabaquismo y la diabetes alteran el diámetro transversal (DT) y área transversal (AT) de la parte ascendente de la aorta (AA), parte descendente de la aorta (AD) y tronco pulmonar (TP), medidos por angiografía por tomografía computadorizada (ATC). Exámenes de ATC de 100 pacientes de 49,5±16,9 años (rango 16­78 años) fueron seleccionados entre enero del año 2009 a mayo del año 2011 por el Departamento de Radiología, Hospital de la Universidad de Jordania, Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Jordania, Amman, Jordania para una evaluación avanzada del DT y AT de la AA, AD y TP. Las mediciones se realizaron en el plano axial en el margen superior de las seis vértebras torácicas. Los pacientes fueron divididos en tres grupos según edad. Se determinó la existencia de significancia estadística de los diferentes parámetros entre los grupos etarios. La evaluación de las razones también fueron consideradas. Se encontró que los parámetros de las tres arterias fueron significativamente mayores en los hombres que en las mujeres (p= <0,05) y que aumentaron con la edad. La hipertensión aumentó los diámetros de la AA y AD en ambos sexos (p= 0,001) y del TP en los hombres (p= 0,01). En fumadores disminuyeron significativamente los parámetros del TP en los hombres (p= 0,01). La diabetes aumentó los parámetros de las tres arterias en ambos sexos. Ademas, aumentaron significativamente los parámetros del TP en los hombres (p= <0,05) y los parámetros de la AD en las mujeres (p = <0,05). Se concluye que los parámetros estudiados eran mayores en los hombres y aumentaron con la edad de nuestros pacientes. Diferencias distintivas en las mediciones aparecieron en hipertensos, fumadores y pacientes diabéticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Aorta/diagnostic imaging , Aorta/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Age Factors , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aorta, Thoracic/pathology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Hypertension/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Sex Factors , Tobacco Use Disorder/pathology
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(1): 96-100, ene. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742556

ABSTRACT

After years of discussion by the Chilean legislature, the Law Nº 20.584, which regulates health care related rights and duties of people, entered into force in Chile in October 2012. This bill represents an important step in the recognition and protection of health care related rights, welfare, dignity and duties of persons. It also intends to protect potential participants in clinical research. However such protective measures include explicit prohibitions such as the review of clinical records or the inclusion of people with mental or psychological handicaps as research participants. We herein discuss the implications of this law in medical research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Gene Expression Regulation , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Glomerulonephritis/metabolism , Hypertension/pathology , Kidney Glomerulus/metabolism , Kidney Tubules/metabolism , Kidney/injuries , Kidney/metabolism , Rats, Inbred WKY , Time Factors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Ureter/pathology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29324

ABSTRACT

Sodium and potassium intake was assessed on the basis of its respective excretion levels in 24 hr urine samples. However, owing to the inconvenience of collection, we evaluated random spot urine for alternative sodium and potassium excretion markers. We included 250 patients who submitted 24 hr- and spot urine for clinical tests. However, 22 patients who showed 24 hr urine creatinine excretion levels <500 mg/day were excluded, because these samples possibly resulted from incomplete urine collection. Moreover, 24 patients were excluded because of their use of diuretics during the urine collection period. We observed significant correlations between 24 hr urine sodium excretion and both the sodium/creatinine (r=0.34, P<0.0001) and the sodium/specific gravity unit (SGU) ratios (r=0.19, P=0.007) in random urine samples. Similarly, 24 hr urine potassium excretion and both the spot urine potassium/creatinine (r=0.47, P<0.0001) and potassium/SGU ratios (r=0.28, P<0.0001) were significantly correlated. Although the estimated sodium/creatinine and potassium/creatinine ratios showed a significant correlation with 24 hr urine sodium and potassium excretion, respectively, further studies are required to develop a spot urine test for individualized monitoring of sodium and potassium excretion.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/urine , Creatinine/urine , Humans , Hypertension/pathology , Potassium/urine , Sodium/urine , Urinalysis , Urine Specimen Collection
19.
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 39(1): 17-24, abr. 2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-712174

ABSTRACT

Currently, chronic noncommunicable diseases occupy priority space in healthcare. In 2007, approximately 72% of the deaths occurred in Brazil were attributed to these diseases. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of some risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases in adults living in the municipality of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 292 adults. Obesity was classified according to the standardization of the World Health Organization (BMI ? 30kg/m2). All individuals with blood pressure ? 140/90mmHg and/or those who reported the use of antihyperten¬sive medication were considered hypertensive; while those who reported having no physical activity during leisure time were considered sedentary. Alcohol consumption was expressed in grams of ethanol, considering consumption above 30g and 15g per day as risk values for men and women, respectively. Individuals who reported smoking cigarettes at the time of the survey were considered smokers. The risk factor with the highest prevalence was sedentary leisure. Men showed higher percentages for smoking and alcohol consumption, while women did for obesity. Hypertension and obesity were the most prevalent risk factors in the older age group.


Actualmente, las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles ocupan un espacio prioritario en el área de la salud, dado que en el 2007 se les atribuyeron alrededor del 72% de las muertes producidas en Brasil. El objetivo de este estudio es el de estimar la prevalencia de algunos factores de riesgo de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en los adultos que viven en la ciudad de Alta Floresta, MT. Se trata de un estudio transversal con base poblacional de 292 adultos. La obesidad se clasificó según la estandarización de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (IMC ? 30kg/m2). Se consideraron hipertensos todos aquellos pacientes con presión arterial ? 140/90mmHg y/o todos aquellos que utilizaban antihipertensivos, mientras que se consideraron sedentarios aquellos pacientes que no practicaban actividad física durante su tiempo libre. El consumo de alcohol se expresó en gramos de etanol, considerándose como valores de riesgo los situados por encima de 30g de etanol al día para los hombres y 15g/día para las mujeres. Se consideraron fumadores aquellos que declararon fumar cigarrillos en el momento de la investigación. El factor de riesgo que presentó una mayor prevalencia fue el de sedentarismo en su tiempo libre. Los hombres mostraron un porcentaje más elevado en el consumo de tabaco y bebidas alcohólicas, mientras que las mujeres lo hicieron en el de obesidad. La hipertensión arterial y la obesidad fueron los factores de riesgo con mayor prevalencia en el grupo de mayor edad.


Atualmente, as Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis ocupam espaço prioritário na área da saúde, sendo que, em 2007, cerca de 72% das mortes no Brasil foram atribuídas às mesmas. Este estudo tem como objetivo estimar a prevalência de alguns fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em adultos residentes no município de Alta Floresta-MT. Trata-se de um estudo transversal de base populacional, com 292 adultos. A obesidade foi classificada segundo padronização da Organização Mundial de Saúde (IMC ? 30kg/m2). Foram considerados hipertensos todos os indivíduos com pressão arterial ? 140/90mmHg e/ou aqueles que referiram uso de anti-hipertensivo, e sedentários aqueles que relataram não praticar atividade física no lazer. O consumo de bebida alcoólica foi expresso em gramas de etanol, considerando como risco valores acima de 30g e 15g de etanol por dia, para homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Foram considerados fumantes aqueles que declararam fumar cigarros na ocasião da pesquisa. O fator de risco que apresentou maior prevalência foi o sedentarismo no lazer. Os homens apresentaram percentuais mais elevados para tabagismo e consumo de bebida alcoólica, e as mulheres, para a obesidade. A hipertensão arterial e a obesidade foram os fatores de risco de maior prevalência na faixa etária mais avançada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Chronic Disease/classification , Risk Factors , Hypertension/pathology , Obesity/pathology , Sedentary Behavior , Smoking/pathology
20.
J. vasc. bras ; 13(2): 94-100, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720883

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The majority of cases of stenosis or occlusion of central veins are the result of central catheters, arteriovenous fistulas, neoplasms or traumas and these conditions can cause severe cases of venous hypertension or reduce the flow through fistulas. The objective of this study is to analyze the results of central venous angioplasties conducted at our hospital. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study to analyze the results of central venous angioplasties conducted from 2010 to 2012 at a university hospital run by the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Brazil. We calculated primary and secondary success rates and analyzed whether or not stents were used and complications occurred during a 6-month follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 25 central venous angioplasties were conducted. Twenty-four (96%) of these were because of catheter-related intimal hyperplasia and one was to treat the effects of compression by a tumor. Fifteen (60%) angioplasties were to correct stenosis and ten (40%) were because of occlusions, with a one-hundred percent success rate for all stenosis-related procedures. However, none of the cases of occlusion could be treated endovascularly. Patency during the 6-months follow-up period was 80% after reinterventions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite good results observed after primary interventions for stenoses, it must be accepted that all current treatment options for chronic occlusive venous disease will, sooner or later, lead to restenosis or occlusion. Venous occlusions constitute a challenge demanding the development of new techniques and new materials. Prevention is paramount, through avoidance of central catheterization and early creation of arteriovenous fistulas...


INTRODUÇÃO: A estenose ou a oclusão de veias centrais ocorre, na maioria das vezes, em consequência de catéteres centrais, fístulas arteriovenosas, neoplasias e traumas, podendo levar a quadros severos de hipertensão venosa e de redução do débito dessas fístulas. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os resultados obtidos nas angioplastias venosas centrais em nosso hospital. METODOLOGIA: Realizamos um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, analisando os resultados obtidos nas angioplastias venosas centrais realizadas no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina durante os anos de 2010 a 2012. Verificamos as taxas de sucesso primário e secundário, a utilização ou não de stents e as complicações, analisadas durante um período de acompanhamento de seis meses. RESULTADOS: Foram realizadas 25 angioplastias venosas centrais, sendo 24 (96%) por hiperplasia intimal relacionada ao uso de catéteres e uma por compressão tumoral. Destas, 15 (60%) eram estenoses e dez (40%) eram oclusões, obtendo-se sucesso primário técnico em todos os procedimentos relacionados à estenose. Contudo, nenhum caso de oclusão pode ser tratado por via endovascular. No acompanhamento de seis meses, após reintervenções, observamos perviedade de 80%. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar dos bons resultados observados nas intervenções primárias sobre as estenoses, indiscutivelmente todas as opções atuais para o tratamento da doença venosa oclusiva crônica irão levar, precoce ou tardiamente, à reestenose ou à oclusão. As oclusões venosas constituem uma incitação para o desenvolvimento de novas técnicas e novos materiais. A prevenção assume papel preponderante, com redução da implantação de catéteres...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Angioplasty/rehabilitation , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Hypertension/pathology , Endovascular Procedures/rehabilitation , Treatment Outcome , Risk Factors , Stents , Time Factors , Upper Extremity
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