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Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 53-60, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397628


Hypertension in black patients is usually more frequent and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Due to demographic changes in the Chilean population, dealing with this group of patients has become more frequent. The case of a young Haitian patient with severe hypertension and target organ damage is presented.

Humans , Male , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Blood Pressure Determination , Prevalence , Black People , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 161-171, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364975


Abstract Background: There are divergences in the literature regarding the experimental model (Wistar-WIS or Wistar Kyoto-WKY) to be used as a Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) control. The characterization of these models in terms of cardiovascular parameters provides researchers with important tools at the time of selection and application in scientific research. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of WIS and WKY as a Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) control by assessing the long-term behavior of blood pressure and cardiac structure and function in these strains. Methods: To this end, WIS, WKY, and SHR underwent longitudinal experiments. Blood pressure and body mass were measured every two weeks from the 8th to the 72nd. Echocardiographic analysis was performed in all groups with 16, 48, and 72 weeks of life. After having applied the normality test, the Two-Way ANOVA of repeated measures followed by the Tukey post hoc test was used. A significance level of 5% was established. Results: The WIS group showed higher body mass (p<0.05), while the WKY and SHR presented higher body mass variation over time (p<0.05). SHR exhibited increased values of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure when compared to WKY and WIS, whereas the WKY generally showed higher values than WIS (p<0.05). Regarding the cardiac function, SHR showed reduced values, while the WKY presented an early decrease when compared to WIS with aging (p<0.05). Conclusion: WIS is a more suitable normotensive control for SHR than WKY in experiments to test blood pressure and cardiac structure and function.

Animals , Male , Rats , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Heart/anatomy & histology , Heart/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Body Weight , Echocardiography , Longitudinal Studies , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220020021, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386377


Abstract Aim: To evaluate the chronic effects of resistance training on resting blood pressure, handgrip strength, gait speed, and Timed Up and Go test (TUG) in normotensive and hypertensive elderly individuals. Methods: Experimental study based on TREND. Hypertensive patients were diagnosed by an independent doctor. Before and after 12 weeks of progressive resistance training, we evaluated blood pressure, heart rate, body composition, Timed Up and Go test, gait speed, and handgrip strength. Results: Sample consisted of 41 participants divided into two groups (normotensive n = 28; hypertensive n = 13). We observed significant values in the reduction of blood pressure levels only in the group of hypertensive participants. In functionality outcomes, we observed significant values in all tests and both groups. Outcomes contemplate effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. Conclusion: Progressive resistance training lowers resting blood pressure levels, increases handgrip strength, and improves physical functional performance. Although the normotensive group did not show a reduction in blood pressure levels, an improvement was observed in the functional physical tests.

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Exercise/physiology , Hand Strength/physiology , Physical Functional Performance , Health Services for the Aged , Hypertension/physiopathology , Intervention Studies
Motriz (Online) ; 28(spe1): e10220012821, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356494


Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the global cognitive function and depressive symptoms in hypertensive and/or diabetic middle-aged and elderly women (52-76 years old). Methods: Sixteen participants with hypertension (HT) and 12 with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (HT+DM) were included; sociodemographic data, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure were analyzed, and questionnaires for cognitive screening (Mini-Mental State Examination - MMSE) and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale - GDS-30) were administered. For statistical analysis, independent Student's t-test, chi-square test (dichotomous variables), and the Mann-Whitney test (ordinal variables) were used and p < 0.05 was adopted. Results: Results indicate that there were no significant differences pertaining to depressive symptoms (HT = 7.4 ± 5.5; HT+DM = 10.2 ± 4.6 points; p = 0.1658) and global cognitive function (HT = 22.3 ± 4.2; HT+DM = 21.0 ± 3.2 points; p = 0.4015) between hypertensive women and hypertensive and diabetic women, contradicting the hypothesis that the presence of two comorbidities would intensify cognitive impairment and mental health. However, clinically relevant cognitive decline (HT = 63%; HT+DM = 75%; χ2 = 0.4834) and depressive symptoms (HT = 38%; HT+DM = 33%; χ2 = 0.8199) were found in both groups. Conclusion: It has been shown that the presence of two comorbidities: type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, does not intensify cognitive impairment and mental health when compared to hypertension alone in middle-aged and elderly women.

Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cognition , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies
Más Vita ; 3(1): 18-31, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1253305


La hipertensión arterial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente, la importancia de controlar esta enfermedad radica en que no presenta síntomas y generalmente es diagnosticada cuando aparecen complicaciones que repercuten negativamente en la esperanza y calidad de vida de quien la padece. Siendo la adherencia terapéutica un elemento clave en el control de la enfermedad y, también, de los principales factores para de esta manera prevenir el riesgo cardiovascular y una muerte prematura. Objetivo: Desarrollar y validar un instrumento para determinar los factores que influyen en la adherencia terapéutica del paciente hipertenso. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo-cualitativo, de cohorte transversal, tipo exploratoria, descriptivo, de diseño no experimental. Utilizando una encuesta y una entrevista de saturación o a profundidad. La validación del instrumento se realizó mediante juicio de expertos y un plan piloto de 20 individuos para la cuantitativa y dos personas hipertensas en la cualitativa, escogidas por conveniencia. Resultados: Según juicio de expertos el instrumento cuantitativo con 19 ítems tiene 97.2 % de confiabilidad y el 96.6% de confiabilidad en el instrumento cualitativo constituido con tres categorías. El alfa de Cronbach es 0.811 lo cual indica un buen nivel de fiabilidad y correlación entre los ítems del cuestionario. Conclusiones: Se pone a disposición de los profesionales de la salud un instrumento válido y confiable, con 7 dimensiones y 19 ítems, siendo prometedor para determinar los factores que influyen en la adherencia terapéutica y medir el grado de adherencia terapéutica en pacientes con hipertensión arterial(AU)

Arterial hypertension is the most common chronic disease, the importance of controlling this disease lies in the fact that it has no symptoms and is generally diagnosed when complications appear that have a negative impact on the life expectancy and quality of life of the sufferer. Adherence to treatment is a key element in the control of the disease and also one of the main factors in preventing cardiovascular risk and premature death. Objective: To develop and validate an instrument to determine the factors that influence therapeutic adherence in hypertensive patients. Materials and methods: A quantitative-qualitative, cross-sectional cohort, exploratory, descriptive, non-experimental design study was carried out. A survey and a saturation or in-depth interview were used. The validation of the instrument was carried out by means of expert judgment and a pilot plan of 20 individuals for the quantitative and two hypertensive persons in the qualitative, chosen by convenience. The Results: According to expert judgment, the quantitative instrument with 19 items has 97.2% reliability and 96.6% reliability in the qualitative instrument with three categories. Cronbach's alpha is 0.811 which indicates a good level of reliability and correlation between the items of the questionnaire. Conclusions: A valid and reliable instrument, with 7 dimensions and 19 items, is made available to health professionals, being promising for determining the factors that influence therapeutic adherence and measuring the degree of therapeutic adherence in patients with arterial hypertension(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Chronic Disease , Patient Compliance , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hospitalization
Motriz (Online) ; 27: e1021020209, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287358


Abstract Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on the skeletal muscle of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR). Method: In total, 20 male rats, SHR, 12 months old, were used, distributed into 2 groups: Control Group (C) and Training Group (HIIT). The training lasted approximately 50 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was measured at the beginning and end of the study. Analysis: The medial gastrocnemius muscle was used to measure the smallest fiber diameter, after which the Shapiro-Wilk normality test was performed, followed by the Mann Whitney test to compare the medians and interquartile intervals (IQI) of the muscle fibers and Student t-test for performance. For analysis of BP, Analysis of Variance - ANOVA was used, followed by Tukey's post-test. All procedures adopted a significance value of 5% (p < 0.05). Results: The median values for the variable "smallest diameter" of muscle fibers were 29.48 (IQI: 9.96) µm in the C group and 33.45 (IQI: 9.44) µm in the HIIT group (p < 0.05). Also, the performance was increased in the trained animal group and blood pressure values decreased significantly at the end of the experiment (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The HIIT intensity promoted an increase in the median values of the muscle fibers and performance. Finally, a significant decrease was observed in blood pressure variation values.

Animals , Rats , Muscle, Skeletal , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Physical Functional Performance , Hypertension/physiopathology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880338


Recent studies have revealed an inverse association between height and cardiovascular disease. However, the background mechanism of this association has not yet been clarified. Height has also been reported to be positively associated with cancer. Therefore, well-known cardiovascular risk factors, such as increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, are not the best explanations for this inverse association because these risk factors are also related to cancer. However, impaired blood flow is the main pathological problem in cardiovascular disease, while glowing feeding vessels (angiogenesis) are the main characteristic of cancer pathologies. Therefore, endothelial maintenance activity, especially for the productivity of hematopoietic stem cells such as CD34-positive cells, could be associated with the height of an individual because this cell contributes not only to the progression of atherosclerosis but also to the development of angiogenesis. In addition, recent studies have also revealed a close connection between bone marrow activity and endothelial maintenance; bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells contribute towards endothelial maintenance. Since the absolute volume of bone marrow is positively associated with height, height could influence endothelial maintenance activity. Based on these hypotheses, we performed several studies. The aim of this review is not only to discuss the association between height and bone marrow activity, but also to describe the potential mechanism underlying endothelial maintenance. In addition, this review also aims to explain some of the reasons that implicate hypertension as a major risk factor for stroke among the Japanese population. The review also aims to clarify the anthropological reasons behind the high risk of atherosclerosis progression in Japanese individuals with acquired genetic characteristics.

Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Body Height/physiology , Bone Marrow/physiology , Disease Progression , Endothelium/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Japan/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stroke/physiopathology
Rev. bras. hipertens ; 27(4): 130-133, 10 dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368002


A anormalidade da pressão arterial durante o período de sono identificada como médias ≥ 120 x 70 mm Hg, por meio de registros da Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial de 24 horas (MAPA), está relacionada a pior prognóstico e maior risco de eventos. Essa alteração pode ser decorrência de vários fatores, mas, geralmente, independentemente da causa está fortemente relacionada a maior probabilidade de eventos e mortalidade cardiovasculares. Ainda restam dúvidas, embora evidências começam a ser oferecidas, se o tratamento medicamentoso desse estado de comportamento peculiar da pressão arterial nas 24 horas deva ser instituído. Nessa revisão esses aspectos são amplamente discutidos com base nas melhores evidências disponíveis

The abnormality of blood pressure during the sleep period identified as means ≥ 120 x 70 mm Hg, through 24-hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) records, is related to a worse prognosis and greater risk of events. This change can be due to several factors, but, generally, regardless of the cause, it is strongly related to a higher probability of cardiovascular events and mortality. Doubts remain, although evidence is beginning to be offered, whether drug treatment of this peculiar behavioral state of blood pressure within 24 hours should be instituted. In this review, these aspects are widely discussed based on the best available evidence

Humans , Sleep , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 412-418, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131724


ABSTRACT Background: Central nervous system changes associated to systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) are progressive and may cause negative effects on cognitive performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between SAH and the components of executive functions (EF), inhibitory control (IC), updating and shifting, comparing a control group (without SAH) to patients with SAH, in two levels of severity. Methods: The protocol included the following tests to evaluate EF components: T.O.V.A. Test (IC), Backward Digit Span from Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency (updating), and Trail Making Test Part B (shifting). Results: A total of 204 participants was included: 56 from the Control Group (CG), 87 SAH stage 1, and 61 SAH stage 2. The groups were not different for age (52.37±12.29) and education (10.98±4.06). As to controlled blood pressure (BP), duration of hypertension treatment and number of drugs, the SAH 2 group had a worse BP control, longer duration of hypertension treatment and use of more drugs when compared to the SAH 1. The findings revealed that patients with more severe hypertension presented worse performance in updating (Backward Digit Span, phonemic and semantics VF) and shifting (Trail Making Test Part B). Conclusion: The results suggest that patients with SAH have a significant impairment in EF, more specifically in updating and shifting. Besides that, such damage may be directly proportional to the severity of SAH. It is suggested that future studies include neuroimaging exams to exclude possible cerebrovascular diseases.

RESUMO Introdução: As alterações do sistema nervoso central associadas à hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) são progressivas e podem ocasionar efeitos negativos no desempenho cognitivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre a HAS e os componentes das funções executivas (FE), controle inibitório (CI), atualização e alternância, comparando um grupo controle (sem HAS) a pacientes com HAS, em dois níveis de gravidade. Métodos: O protocolo incluiu os seguintes testes para avaliar os componentes das FE: T.O.V.A. Test (CI), Dígitos Ordem Indireta da Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Adultos (Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale - WAIS-III), Fluência Verbal fonêmica e semântica (atualização) e Teste de Trilhas parte B (alternância). Resultados: Foram incluídos 204 participantes, sendo 56 do Grupo Controle (GC), 87 HAS estágio 1 (HAS 1) e 61 de HAS estágio 2 (HAS 2). Os grupos não foram diferentes em relação à idade (52,37±12,29) e escolaridade (10,98±4,06). Em relação à pressão arterial (PA) controlada, tempo de tratamento da HAS e número de medicações, o grupo HAS 2 apresentou pior controle de PA, mais tempo de tratamento da HAS e uso de maior número de medicações quando comparado ao grupo HAS 1. Os achados revelaram que os pacientes com HAS em estágio mais grave apresentaram pior desempenho nos testes de alternância (Teste de Trilhas parte B) e atualização (Dígitos Ordem Indireta, FV fonêmica e semântica). Conclusão: Esses resultados sugerem que pacientes com a HAS possuem prejuízo significativo em FE, especificamente em alternância e atualização, e que esse prejuízo pode ser diretamente proporcional à gravidade da HAS. Sugere-se que, em estudos futuros, incluam-se exames de neuroimagem com o objetivo de excluir possíveis doenças cerebrovasculares.

Humans , Adult , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Executive Function/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Trail Making Test , Neuropsychological Tests
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 324-329, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126168


Resumen: El recién nacido prematuro se enfrenta a las condiciones extrauterinas con sistemas aún inmaduros, tanto anatómica como fisiológicamente. El riñón termina de desarrollarse a finales del tercer trimes tre del embarazo, por lo que está especialmente expuesto a alterar su desarrollo normal en caso de nacer en forma prematura. Esta situación puede condicionar, entre otras consecuencias, una menor masa renal funcional y cambios microvasculares que representan un riesgo elevado de hipertensión arterial y daño renal crónico en el largo plazo. En el presente artículo se analiza la evidencia existente actual sobre estos riesgos en los prematuros y se ofrece un esquema de seguimiento de estos niños desde el punto de vista nefrológico.

Abstract: The premature newborn faces extrauterine conditions with some systems still immature, both ana tomically and physiologically. The kidney finishes developing at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, so it is especially exposed to alter its normal development if preterm birth occurs. This si tuation may condition, among other consequences, a lower functional renal mass and microvascular changes comprising a high risk of chronic kidney disease in the long term and arterial hypertension. This article analyzes the current evidence on these risks in premature infants and offers a nephrology follow-up scheme of these children.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/therapy , Infant, Premature, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Premature, Diseases/etiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/physiopathology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/therapy , Risk , Aftercare/methods , Kidney/growth & development , Kidney/embryology , Kidney/physiopathology , Nephrology/methods
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(5): 611-617, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139345


Background: Moderate isometric handgrip exercise is an effective tool in the management of systemic hypertension. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a high intensity isometric handgrip exercise protocol for the reduction of blood pressure in older people with pre or stage-1 hypertension. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants aged 73.8 ± 6.6 years (range 61-90) completed eight weeks of high intensity isometric handgrip training 2 times per week, performing 32 contractions maintained for 5 seconds, with breaks of 5 seconds. Blood pressure (BP) was measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Results: Systolic blood pressure decreased from 141 ± 11 to 127 ± 10 mmHg (p < 0.01). The decrease in diastolic blood pressure was from 79 ± 7 to 74 ± 6 mmHg (p < 0.01). Conclusions: A blood pressure reduction was recorded in these participants after a period of high intensity isometric handgrip exercise.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hand Strength/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/therapy , Blood Pressure/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Isometric Contraction/physiology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 157-161, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125057


Un tercio de la población mundial tiene niveles anormalmente altos de presión arterial, hipertensión, responsable de casi el 50% de las muertes por accidente cerebrovascular y enfermedad coronaria. La sensibilidad a la sal es un factor de riesgo para la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular y también para otras enfermedades. En estudios previos describimos un modelo de hipertensión sal sensible (HSS) en ratas Wistar ovariectomizadas (oVx) adultas. Las ratas oVx son normotensas con ingesta normal de sal (NS, 0.24% de NaCl), pero desarrollan un perfil de HSS con una ingesta elevada de sal (HS, 1% de NaCl). En los estudios en riñón encontramos que el circuito receptor D1 de dopamina, citocromo P450 4A y Na+, K+-ATPasa está alterado por la ausencia de hormonas ováricas, lo que se asocia a menor excreción de sodio e hipertensión arterial. La ingesta HS en ratas oVx también promueve cambios en la expresión de proteínas relacionadas con el transporte de sodio en células mononucleares de sangre periférica, principalmente linfocitos periféricos. Por lo tanto, el transporte de sodio se modifica en varios niveles de la fisiología normal. En estudios recientes observamos que el estradiol aumenta la proliferación y diferenciación de células epiteliales en cultivos de corteza renal humana. Sensibilidad a la sal, inmunidad adaptativa, presión arterial y proliferación de células epiteliales en riñón son fenómenos de gran importancia biológica regulados por estradiol.

Female sex hormones participate in the regulation of blood pressure and renal epithelial proliferation, effects not related to their reproductive function. About one-third of the world's population has abnormally high levels of blood pressure, hypertension, which is responsible for almost 50% of deaths from stroke and coronary heart disease. Salt sensitivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and other diseases as well. We reported a model of salt sensitive hypertension in adult ovariectomized (oVx) Wistar rats. oVx rats are normotensive under normal salt intake (NS, 0.24% NaCl), but upon a high salt intake (HS, 1% NaCl) oVx rats developed a blood pressure profile of salt-sensitive hypertension. Our studies on kidney molecules related to sodium balance found that the circuit dopamine D1-like receptor, cytochrome P450 4A and Na+, K+-ATPase is altered by the absence of ovary hormones which is accompanied by a reduced ability to excrete sodium. In oVx rats HS intake also promotes changes in the expression of proteins related to sodium transport in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mainly peripheral lymphocytes. Therefore, sodium transport is modified at several levels of normal physiology. Lately, we described that estradiol increases the rate of renal epithelial cell proliferation in primary cultures developed from human renal cortex. Thus, salt sensitivity, adaptive immunity, blood pressure and renal cell proliferation are complex biological responses regulated by female sex hormones.

Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Estradiol/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Blood Pressure , Sodium Chloride/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Cell Proliferation , Hypertension/physiopathology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5227, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056054


ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the efficacy of a behavior change program named Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients. Methods Ninety hypertensive patients aged over 40 years were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde or Control (n=45 respectively). Patients in the Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde group took part in a behavior change program aimed to encourage changes in physical activity levels and eating habits, according to the Social Cognitive Theory. The program consisted of 90-minute weekly group meetings conducted by a physical therapist and a dietitian. One chapter of the educational material (workbook) provided was discussed per meeting. Participants in the Control Group attended a single educative lecture on lifestyle changes. Brachial and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness and endothelial function parameters were measured pre- and post-intervention. Results Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde led to reduction of brachial (131.3±15.8mmHg to 125.1±17.3mmHg; p<0.01) and central (123.6±16.3mmHg to 119.0±20.6mmHg; p=0.02) systolic and brachial diastolic (123.6±16.3mmHg to 119.0±20.6mmHg; p<0.01) blood pressure values, and improvement of post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (from 5.7±2.5mL·100mL−1 to 6.5±2.1mL·100mL−1 tissue·min−1; p=0.04). No changes in body composition, heart rate and arterial stiffness parameters were detected in both groups (p>0.05). Conclusion Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde program improved blood pressure and microvascular reactivity in hypertensive patients. Trial registration: NCT02257268

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a eficácia do programa de mudança de comportamento Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde sobre parâmetros cardiovasculares em pacientes hipertensos. Métodos Noventa pacientes hipertensos ≥40 anos foram aleatoriamente randomizados em dois grupos: Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde (n=45) e Controle (n=45). O Grupo Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde participou de um programa de mudança de comportamento que objetiva motivar mudanças na atividade física e nos hábitos alimentares, de acordo com a teoria sociocognitiva. O programa foi conduzido em grupos, durante 12 semanas consecutivas, em encontros semanais (~90 minutos), conduzidos por um profissional de edução física e um nutricionista. Um capítulo do material didático era discutido em cada um desses encontros. O Grupo Controle participou de uma única palestra educativa sobre mudanças de estilo de vida. Medidas de pressão arterial braquial e central, rigidez arterial, e de função endotelial foram realizadas nos momentos pré e pós-intervenção. Resultados O Grupo Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde reduziu a pressão arterial sistólica braquial (de 131,3±15,8mmHg a 125,1±17,3mmHg; p<0,01) e central (de 123,6±16,3mmHg a 119,0±20,6mmHg; p=0,02) e a pressão arterial diastólica braquial (123,6±16,3mmHg a 119,0±20,6mmHg; p<0,01) e apresentou melhora na hiperemia reativa pós-oclusão (de 5,7±2,5mL·100mL−1a 6,5±2,1mL·100mL−1tecido·min−1; p=0,04). Não houve modificação na composição corporal, na frequência cardíaca e nem nos parâmetros de rigidez arterial em ambos os grupos (p>0,05). Conclusão O Programa Vida Ativa Melhorando a Saúde melhorou a pressão arterial e a reatividade microvascular em pacientes hipertensos. Registro do estudo: NCT02257268

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Health Behavior/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Composition , Exercise/physiology , Program Evaluation , Treatment Outcome , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Hyperemia/physiopathology , Hypertension/psychology , Life Style , Middle Aged
Motriz (Online) ; 26(3): e10200140, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1135319


Abstract Aim: To evaluate the subacute effects of the number of Pilates exercise series (one and three) on the cardiovascular responses of medicated hypertensive women. Methods: Eight hypertensive and nine normotensive women underwent a Pilates session with low and high volume, and cardiovascular responses were measured. Aged sample of 50-65 years old underwent to anthropometrical measurements previously to the experimental procedures. The cardiovascular assessment was performed before and after every experimental session. The experimental procedures consisted of two familiarization sessions, load determination, and two experimental sessions (one or three series) for each group. Results: In the intragroup analysis, HR was found to be reduced in the normotensive group. In the hypertensive group, a reduction in the double product was observed after both Pilates sessions, and in the normotensive group only after the session with one series. The volume of exercises of the Pilates method did not interfere in the responses of systolic and diastolic BP after exercise. However, a more prominent area under the curve was seen in the systolic BP of hypertensive subjects who performed three series. Conclusion: The present study shows that performing one or three series of the Pilates exercise does not induce hypotension post-exercise and did not interfere in the cardiovascular responses of medicated hypertensive women.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Postmenopause/physiology , Exercise Movement Techniques/methods , Muscle Strength , Hypertension/physiopathology , Anthropometry/instrumentation , Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101870


ABSTRACT The coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic has caused a public health emergency worldwide. Risk, severity and mortality of the disease have been associated with non-communicable chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. Accumulated evidence has caused great concern in countries with high prevalence of this morbidity, such as Brazil. This text shows the picture of diabetes in Brazil, followed by epidemiological data and explanatory hypothesis for the association between diabetes and covid-19. We emphasized how the burden of these two morbidities in a middle-income country has aggravated this pandemic scenario. The comprehension of this association and biological plausibility may help face this pandemic and future challenges.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/epidemiology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(12): 848-854, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055204


ABSTRACT Vitamin D is a pleiotropic steroid hormone that modulates the autonomic balance. Its deficiency has been described as an environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D receptors (VDR) and to evaluate cardiac dysautonomia in MS patients due to bidirectional interaction between vitamin D and the autonomic nervous system. Methods: The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 26 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and on 24 healthy controls. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure variability (BPV) was calculated and the participants were evaluated for orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. Serum levels of vitamin D, VDBP and VDR were measured. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level was significantly lower in MS patients than in controls (p = 0.044); however there was no significant difference in terms of VDR and VDBP levels between the groups. Supine hypertension and orthostatic hypotension were significant and the 24-hour systolic BPV was significantly decreased in patients with MS (p < 0.05) compared to controls. No correlation was found between vitamin D, VDBP and VDR with supine hypertension, orthostatic hypotension and systolic BPV values (p > 0.05). Also, there was a negative correlation between VDBP and the EDSS (p = 0.039, r = −0.406). Conclusion: There was no correlation between orthostatic hypotension, supine hypertension and systolic BPV values and serum vitamin D, VDBP and VDR in MS patients. Future prospective studies with large number of patients may help us to better understand the relationship between vitamin D and the autonomic nervous system.

RESUMO A vitamina D é um hormônio esteroide pleiotrópico que modula o equilíbrio autonômico. Sua deficiência tem sido descrita como fator de risco ambiental para esclerose múltipla (EM). O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os níveis séricos de vitamina D, proteína de ligação à vitamina D (VDBP) e receptor de vitamina D (VDR) e avaliar a disautonomia cardíaca em pacientes com EM devida à interação bidirecional entre vitamina D e sistema nervoso autônomo. Métodos: O presente estudo transversal foi realizado em 26 pacientes com EM remitente-recorrente e em 24 controles saudáveis. A variabilidade da pressão arterial ambulatorial (BPV) por 24 horas foi calculada e os participantes foram avaliados quanto à hipotensão ortostática e hipertensão supina. Os níveis séricos de vitamina D, VDBP e VDR foram medidos. Resultados: O nível sérico médio de vitamina D foi significativamente menor nos pacientes com EM do que nos controles (p = 0,044); no entanto, não houve diferença significativa em termos de níveis de VDR e VDBP entre os grupos. Hipertensão supina e hipotensão ortostática foram significativas e a BPV sistólica de 24 horas diminuiu significativamente em pacientes com EM (p < 0,05) em comparação aos controles. Não foi encontrada correlação entre vitamina D, VDBP e VDR com hipertensão supina, hipotensão ortostática e BPV sistólica (p > 0,05). Também houve correlação negativa entre VDBP e EDSS (p = 0,039, r = −0,406). Conclusão: Não houve correlação entre hipotensão ortostática, hipertensão supina e valores de BPV sistólica e vitamina D sérica, VDBP e VDR em pacientes com EM. Futuros estudos prospectivos com grande número de pacientes podem nos ajudar a entender melhor a relação entre vitamina D e sistema nervoso autônomo.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/blood , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D-Binding Protein/blood , Receptors, Calcitriol/blood , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/blood , Primary Dysautonomias/blood , Reference Values , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Blood Pressure/physiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Supine Position/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/physiopathology , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology , Primary Dysautonomias/physiopathology , Heart Rate/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/blood , Hypotension, Orthostatic/physiopathology , Hypotension, Orthostatic/blood
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 451-461, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056616


ABSTRACT Hypertension and Diabetes mellitus are the two main causes of chronic kidney disease that culminate in the final stage of kidney disease. Since these two risk factors are common and can overlap, new approaches to prevent or treat them are needed. Macitentan (MAC) is a new non-selective antagonist of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic blockade of ET-1 receptor with MAC on the alteration of renal function observed in hypertensive and hyperglycemic animals. Genetically hypertensive rats were divided into control hypertensive (HT-CTL) group, hypertensive and hyperglycemic (HT+DIAB) group, and hypertensive and hyperglycemic group that received 25 mg/kg macitentan (HT-DIAB+MAC25) via gavage for 60 days. Kidney function and parameters associated with oxidative and nitrosative stress were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), ET-1, and catalase in the renal cortex was performed. The HT+DIAB group showed a decrease in kidney function and an increase in NGAL expression in the renal cortex, as well as an increase in oxidative stress. MAC treatment was associated with attenuated ET-1 and NGAL production and increases in antioxidant defense (catalase expression) and nitric oxide production. In addition, MAC prevented an increase in oxidant injury (as measured by urinary hydroperoxide and lipid peroxidation), thus improving renal function. Our results suggest that the antioxidant effect of the ET-1 receptor antagonist MAC is involved in the improvement of kidney function observed in hypertensive and hyperglycemic rats.

RESUMO Hipertensão e Diabetes Mellitus figuram como as duas principais causas de doença renal crônica que culmina em doença renal terminal. Uma vez que os dois fatores de risco são comuns e podem se sobrepor, novas abordagens preventivas e terapêuticas se fazem necessárias. O macitentan (MAC) é um novo antagonista não-seletivo dos receptores da endotelina-1 (ET-1). O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do bloqueio crônico dos receptores da ET-1 com MAC sobre a alteração da função renal em animais hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos. Ratos geneticamente hipertensos foram divididos em grupos com animais hipertensos de controle (HT-CTL), hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos (HT+DIAB) e hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos tratados com 25 mg/kg de macitentan (HT-DIAB+MAC25) via gavagem por 60 dias. Foram avaliados função renal e parâmetros associados ao estresse oxidativo e nitrosativo. Exames de imunoistoquímica foram realizados para lipocalina associada à gelatinase neutrofílica (NGAL), ET-1 e catalase no córtex renal. O grupo HT+DIAB exibiu diminuição da função renal e aumento na expressão de NGAL no córtex renal, bem como estresse oxidativo aumentado. O tratamento com MAC foi associado a atenuação da produção de ET-1 e NGAL e maior ativação das defesas antioxidantes (expressão de catalase) e elevação da produção de óxido nítrico. Além disso, o MAC evitou exacerbação da lesão oxidante (medida por hidroperóxidos urinários e peroxidação lipídica), melhorando assim a função renal. Nossos resultados sugerem que o efeito antioxidante do antagonista dos receptores da ET-1 MAC esteja imbricado no aprimoramento da função renal observada em ratos hipertensos e hiperglicêmicos.

Humans , Animals , Male , Hyperglycemia/complications , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Rats/genetics , Risk Factors , Endothelin-1/metabolism , Administration, Intravenous , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/injuries , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(6): 696-704, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056663


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the carotid intima-media thickness and factors associated with cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease. Material and methods: Observational, cross-sectional study carried out at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (chronic kidney disease outpatient clinics) with 55 patients (60% males) with a median age of 11.9 years (I25-I75: 9.2-14.8 years). Of the 55 patients, 43 were on conservative treatment and 12 were on dialysis. Serum laboratory parameters (creatinine, uric acid, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol and fractions, and triglycerides), nutritional status (z-score of body mass index, z-score of height/age), body fat (fat percentage and waist circumference), and blood pressure levels were evaluated. The carotid intima-media thickness measure was evaluated by a single ultrasonographer and compared with percentiles established according to gender and height. Data collection was performed between May 2015 and March 2016. Results: Of the children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease, 74.5% (95% CI: 61.0; 85.3) showed an increase (>P95) in carotid intima-media thickness. In patients with stages I and II hypertension, 90.9% had increased carotid intima-media thickness. Nutritional status, body fat and laboratory tests were not associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness. After multivariate adjustment, only puberty (PR = 1.30, p = 0.037) and stages I and II arterial hypertension (PR = 1.42, p = 0.011) were independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness alterations. Conclusion: The prevalence of increased carotid thickness was high in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease. Puberty and arterial hypertension were independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a espessura médio-intimal da carótida e os fatores associados à doença cardiovascular em crianças e adolescentes com doença renal crônica. Material e métodos: Estudo observacional transversal feito na Universidade Federal de São Paulo (ambulatórios de doença renal crônica) com 55 pacientes (60% do sexo masculino) com mediana de 11,9 anos (I25-I75: 9,2-14,8). Dos 55 pacientes, 43 estavam em tratamento conservador e 12 em terapia dialítica. Foram avaliados os parâmetros laboratoriais séricos (creatinina, ácido úrico, proteína C-reativa, colesterol total e frações e triglicérides), estado nutricional (escore z de índice de massa corpórea, escore z de estatura/idade), gordura corporal (percentual de gordura e circunferência abdominal) e pressão arterial. A medida da espessura médio-intimal da carótida foi avaliada por um único ultrassonografista e comparada com percentis estabelecidos de acordo com o sexo e a estatura. A coleta de dados foi feita entre maio de 2015 e março de 2016. Resultados: Das crianças e adolescentes com doença renal crônica, 74,5% (IC 95%: 61,0; 85,3) apresentaram aumento (> P95) da espessura médio-intimal da carótida. Nos pacientes com hipertensão arterial estágios I e II, 90,9% apresentaram aumento da espessura médio-intimal da carótida. O estado nutricional, a gordura corporal e os exames laboratoriais não apresentaram associação com o aumento da espessura médio-intimal da carótida. Após ajuste multivariado, apenas a puberdade (RP = 1,30; p = 0,037) e a hipertensão arterial estágios I e II (RP = 1,42; p = 0,011) mostraram-se independentemente associados à alteração da espessura médio-intimal da carótida. Conclusão: A prevalência do aumento da espessura da carótida foi elevada em crianças e adolescentes com doença renal crônica. A puberdade e a hipertensão arterial mostraram-se independentemente associadas ao aumento da espessura médio-intimal da carótida.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Carotid Arteries/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Sexual Maturation , Blood Pressure , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Puberty , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1204-1208, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056338


ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aims to assess the association between CHA2DS2-VASc score and erectile dysfunction in patients who were admitted to cardiology outpatient clinics. Materials and methods: One hundred and two male patients who were admitted to the cardiology outpatient clinic were included to the study. Erectile dysfunction was evaluated in the urology outpatient clinic in the same hospital and scored using Turkish Version of The International Index of Erectile Function. CHA2DS2-VASc score was calculated for every patient using the current associated guidelines. Results: There was a negative correlation between The International Index of Erectile Function score and CHA2DS2-VASc score, age, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke respectively. Smoking and dislipidemia were not correlated with The International Index of Erectile Function score (p>0.05). Conclusion: CHA2DS2-VASc score can be used to detect Erectile dysfunction in patients who are admitted to the cardiology outpatient clinics.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Risk Assessment/methods , Erectile Dysfunction/diagnosis , Erectile Dysfunction/physiopathology , Reference Values , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Middle Aged
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(6): 1227-1237, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056325


ABSTRACT Introduction: Children with a solitary post-nephrectomy kidney (SNK) are at potential risk of developing kidney disease later in life. In response to the global decline in the number of nephrons, adaptive mechanisms lead to renal injury. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and time of onset of high blood pressure (HBP), proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) disruption and renal tubular acidosis (RTA) in children with SNK. Materials and methods: After obtaining the approval from our institution's ethics committee, we reviewed the medical records of patients under 18 years of age who underwent unilateral nephrectomy between January 2005 and December 2015 in three university hospitals. Results: We identified 43 patients, 35 (81.4%) cases of unilateral nephrectomy (UNP) were due to a non-oncologic pathology and Wilm's tumor was identified in 8 (18.6%) cases. In patients with non-oncologic disease, 9.3% developed de novo hypertension, with an average time of onset of 7.1 years, 25% developed proteinuria de novo, with an average time of onset of 2.2 years. For GFR, 21.8% presented deterioration of the GFR in an average time of 3.4 years. Ten (43.5%) patients developed some type of de novo renal injury after UNP. Patients with oncologic disease developed the conditions slowly and none of them developed proteinuria. Conclusions: Taking into account the high rate of long term postoperative renal injury, it can be considered that nephrectomy does not prevent this disease. The follow-up of children with SNK requires a multidisciplinary approach and long-term surveillance to detect renal injury.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Solitary Kidney/physiopathology , Solitary Kidney/epidemiology , Nephrectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , Proteinuria/physiopathology , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Acidosis, Renal Tubular/physiopathology , Acidosis, Renal Tubular/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Age of Onset , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/epidemiology