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1.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.788-792, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353341
2.
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; 16 nov. 2021. 39 p. tab.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, PIE | ID: biblio-1361686

ABSTRACT

Contexto: As práticas de atividade física são fortes aliadas na redução dos riscos à saúde, bem como no tratamento de doenças. Destaca-se sua relevância no cuidado a pessoas com doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, para as quais é importante investir na qualidade de vida. Esta revisão rápida aborda os efeitos não-clínicos das intervenções de atividade física em pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2, hipertensão arterial sistêmica e sobrepeso/obesidade. Pergunta: Quais são os efeitos não-clínicos de diferentes modalidades de atividade física no tratamento de pessoas com diabetes, hipertensão ou obesidade? Métodos: Seguindo protocolo prévio, foram realizadas buscas por revisões sistemáticas (RS) em oito bases eletrônicas da literatura, em setembro de 2021. Nesta revisão rápida foram incluídas RS publicadas nos últimos 10 anos, com algumas especificações quanto a contexto e população. Apenas o processo de seleção foi realizado em duplicata e de forma independente. A avaliação da qualidade das RS foi feita por um revisor e checada por outro, por meio da ferramenta AMSTAR 2. Os resultados foram reunidos em síntese narrativa conforme similaridade do tipo de atividade física e população. Resultados: De 4.421 relatos encontrados nas bases de dados, 23 RS foram incluídas após processo de seleção e elegibilidade. Na avaliação da qualidade metodológica, uma RS foi considerada de confiança moderada, uma de confiança baixa e as demais de confiança criticamente baixa. As revisões apresentaram resultados de exercícios aeróbicos, anaeróbicos, combinados e de tipo não informado, envolvendo pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2, hipertensão arterial sistêmica e sobrepeso/obesidade. O tipo de atividade mais presente foi de exercícios aeróbicos e a condição mais estudada foi diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Apenas uma RS apresentou informação a respeito da segurança da prática de atividade física, sem ocorrência de eventos adversos. Diversas modalidades de atividade física mostraram promover benefícios não-clínicos no tratamento de pessoas com diabetes, hipertensão e obesidade. Considerações finais: As evidências indicam que pessoas com diabetes ou hipertensão podem ter sua qualidade de vida melhorada com a prática de exercícios, em especial os aeróbicos. Para pessoas com obesidade ou comorbidades, as evidências são menos robustas. É importante levar em consideração algumas incertezas apontadas pelas RS, bem como as falhas metodológicas da maioria dessas RS.


Context: Physical activity practices are strong allies in reducing health risks, as well as in the treatment of diseases. Its relevance in the care of people with non-communicable chronic diseases is highlighted, for whom it is important to invest in quality of life. This rapid review addresses the non-clinical effects of physical activity interventions in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, and overweight/obesity. Question: What are the non-clinical effects of different physical activity modalities in the treatment of people with diabetes, hypertension or obesity? Methods: Following a previous protocol, searches for systematic reviews (SR) were carried out in eight electronic databases of the literature, in September 2021. This rapid review included SRs published in the last 10 years, with some specifications regarding context and population. Only the selection process was carried out in duplicate and independently. The evaluation of the quality of the SRs was carried out by one reviewer and checked by another, using the AMSTAR 2 tool. The results were gathered in a narrative synthesis according to the similarity of the type of physical activity and population. Results: Of the 4,421 reports found in the databases, 23 SRs were included after the selection and eligibility process. In the evaluation of methodological quality, one SR was considered moderately reliable, one of low confidence and the others of critically low confidence. The reviews presented results of aerobic, anaerobic, combined and unreported exercises involving people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension and overweight/obesity. The most common type of activity was aerobic exercises and the most studied condition was type 2 diabetes mellitus. Only one SR presented information about the safety of physical activity, without the occurrence of adverse events. Several modalities of physical activity have been shown to promote non-clinical benefits in the treatment of people with diabetes, hypertension and obesity. Final considerations: The evidence indicates that people with diabetes or hypertension can have their quality of life improved with the practice of exercises, especially aerobic ones. For people with obesity or comorbidities, the evidence is less robust. It is important to take into account some uncertainties pointed out by the SRs, as well as the methodological flaws of most of these SRs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Hypertension/therapy , Obesity/therapy , Quality of Life
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(5): 938-947, nov. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248907

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A hipertensão sustentada pode levar ao remodelamento vascular e lesão das células endoteliais, o que pode explicar a disfunção endotelial encontrada em hipertensos. O treinamento físico pode melhorar a saúde vascular em indivíduos com risco cardiovascular, mas pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos em pré-hipertensos e hipertensos. Objetivo: Revisar a literatura mostrando evidências de alterações da função endotelial em resposta a diferentes modalidades de treinamento físico em pré-hipertensos e hipertensos. Métodos: Realizamos uma revisão sistemática de estudos nas bases de dados MEDLINE, Cochrane, LILACS, EMBASE e SciELO seguindo tanto as diretrizes PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes) quanto a estratégia PICO (paciente/população, intervenção, comparação e resultados). Os ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) publicados até abril de 2019 foram selecionados e avaliados por quatro revisores independentes. A qualidade metodológica foi avaliada por meio da escala PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database). Resultados: Nossa busca rendeu 598 resumos, e 10 estudos foram elegíveis para revisão. Todos eles apresentaram qualidade metodológica aceitável pela escala PEDro. Dos 10 estudos, 7 envolveram treinamento aeróbico, 1 treinamento resistido isométrico e 2 treinamento aeróbico e treinamento resistido dinâmico separadamente. Sete estudos usaram dilatação fluxo-mediada (DFM) para avaliar a saúde vascular, e três usaram pletismografia. A maioria dos protocolos de treinamento envolveu indivíduos hipertensos e consistiu em exercícios de baixa e moderada intensidade. Conclusão: Nossa revisão sistemática mostrou que o treinamento aeróbico contínuo moderado é eficaz para melhorar a saúde vascular em indivíduos hipertensos. Em pré-hipertensos, o treinamento aeróbico intervalado vigoroso parece ser uma alternativa para benefícios à saúde vascular. O treinamento físico resistido isométrico ou dinâmico pode ser usado como alternativa secundária, mas ainda requer mais investigação.


Abstract Background: Sustained high blood pressure can lead to vascular remodeling and endothelial cell injury, which may explain the endothelial dysfunction found in hypertensive individuals. Exercise training can improve vascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk, but little is known about its effects in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Objective: To review the literature showing evidence of changes in endothelial function in response to different modalities of exercise training in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies in the MEDLINE, Cochrane, LILACS, EMBASE, and SciELO databases following both the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and the PICO framework (patient/population, intervention, comparison and outcomes). Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published up to April 2019 were selected and assessed by four independent reviewers. The methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) scale. Results: Our search yielded 598 abstracts, and 10 studies were eligible for review. All of them had acceptable methodological quality by PEDro scale. Of the 10 studies, 7 involved aerobic training, 1 isometric resistance training, and 2 aerobic training and dynamic resistance training separately. Seven studies used flow-mediated dilation (FMD) to assess the vascular health, and three used plethysmography. Most training protocols involved hypertensive individuals and consisted of low and moderate-intensity exercise. Conclusion: Our systematic review showed that moderate continuous aerobic training is effective to improve vascular health in hypertensive individuals. In prehypertensive individuals, vigorous interval aerobic training seems to be an alternative to determine vascular health benefits. Resistance exercise training, either isometric or dynamic, can be used as a secondary alternative, but still requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Resistance Training , Hypertension/therapy , Exercise , Exercise Therapy
5.
Medisan ; 25(4): 868-881, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1340210

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El tema de la tensión arterial en niños y adolescentes ha cobrado un marcado interés en los últimos años, debido al incremento de su prevalencia en este grupo poblacional Objetivo: Evaluar la prescripción de medicamentos en niños y adolescentes con hipertensión arterial atendidos en el Hospital Infantil Norte Dr. Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira de Santiago de Cuba. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación observacional, descriptiva y transversal, que se corresponde con un estudio de utilización de medicamentos, del tipo indicación-prescripción, esquemas terapéuticos y consecuencias prácticas, de 39 pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial atendidos en el Servicio de Cardiología del mencionado centro hospitalario, desde enero hasta diciembre de 2018, quienes cumplieron los criterios de selección establecidos. Se utilizaron variables principales (prescripción y reacciones adversas) y de control (edad, color de la piel, sexo y factores de riesgo). Resultados: Predominaron el sexo masculino (79,4 %), el grupo etario de 15-18 años (66,6 %), la hipertensión arterial primaria (estadio 1), los pacientes de piel negra y la obesidad como factor de riesgo mayormente identificado (58,9 %). Conclusiones: Las prescripciones fueron evaluadas en su mayoría como adecuadas, lo que demuestra el enfoque preventivo y el uso racional de los medicamentos.


Introduction: The topic of blood pressure in children and adolescents has taken a marked interest in the last years, due to the increment of its prevalence in this population group Objective: To evaluate the prescription of medications in children and adolescents with hypertension assisted in Dr. Juan de la Cruz Martínez Maceira Northern Children Hospital in Santiago de Cuba. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional investigation that squared with a medications use study, of indication-prescription type, therapeutic outlines and practical consequences, of 39 patients with diagnosis of hypertension assisted in the Cardiology Service of the hospital abovementioned, was carried out from January to December, 2018, who fulfilled the established selection approaches. Main variables (prescription and adverse reactions) and control variables (age, skin colour, sex and risk factors) were used. Results: There was a prevalence of the male sex (79.4 %), 15-18 age group (66.6% ), primary hypertension (stage 1), black skin patients and obesity as the risk factor mostly identified (58.9 %). Conclusions: The prescriptions were evaluated in their majority as appropriate, what demonstrates the preventive approach and the rational use of medications.


Subject(s)
Drug Prescriptions , Adolescent , Hypertension/therapy , Child , Cardiology Service, Hospital
7.
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; 15 mar. 2021. 33 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, PIE | ID: biblio-1358530

ABSTRACT

Esta revisão rápida de recomendações foi comissionada e subsidiada pelo Ministério da Saúde, no âmbito do projeto GEREB-010-FIO-20 e faz parte da Coleção "Rapid response for health promotion". Contexto: A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) é um problema global de saúde pública, considerada um dos principais determinantes para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares. Trata-se de uma doença crônica cujo acompanhamento prioritário é realizado por equipes de atenção primária à saúde (APS), responsáveis por garantir a coordenação de um cuidado integral à pessoa com HAS. Pergunta: Quais são as intervenções efetivas para o tratamento de adultos e idosos com HAS na APS? Métodos: Nove bases da literatura eletrônica foram buscadas em março de 2021 por revisões sistemáticas (RS) e guias de prática clínica (GPC) sobre o tratamento de HAS. Utilizando atalhos de revisão rápida para simplificar o processo, foi realizada seleção e extração dos dados com posterior avaliação da qualidade das RS. Em seguida, os resultados foram reunidos em síntese narrativa conforme similaridade. Resultados: A busca retornou 771 referências únicas, que após seleção resultaram na inclusão de três GPC e 13 RS. Os guias apresentaram 33 recomendações sobre tratamento farmacológico e não farmacológico, além de metas pressóricas para o tratamento. As recomendações referem-se ao início do tratamento de pacientes sem contraindicações, fármacos em situações de saúde e populações específicas, como a afro-americana, mulheres e idosos; no tratamento não farmacológico são descritas recomendações direcionadas ao estilo de vida; metas pressóricas são indicadas para casos distintos. Nas RS foram identificadas estratégias para apoiar as recomendações dos guias, como monitoramento da pressão arterial, educação em saúde, e também intervenções incidindo diretamente sobre a gestão do trabalho das equipes de saúde ou programas complexos para controle da hipertensão. Conclusão: Esta revisão rápida apresenta recomendações de GPC elaboradas com base em evidências científicas, bem como a força dessas evidências. As RS incluídas mostram resultados positivos de várias estratégias para melhorar o tratamento da HAS. No entanto, esses achados devem ser analisados com cautela, considerando as falhas metodológicas da RS. Na tomada de decisão, também é necessário analisar os contextos em que foram realizados os estudos primários e as características das intervenções.


This rapid review of recommendations was commissioned and supported by the Ministry of Health, under the project GEREB-010-FIO-20 and is part of the "Rapid response for health promotion" Collection. Context: Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is a global public health problem, considered one of the main determinants for the development of cardiovascular diseases. It is a chronic disease whose priority monitoring is carried out by teams of primary health care (PHC), responsible for ensuring the coordination of comprehensive care for people with SAH. Question: What are the effective interventions for the treatment of adults and elderly people with SAH in PHC? Methods: Nine electronic literature databases were searched in March 2021 for systematic reviews (RS) and clinical practice guides (GPC) on the treatment of SAH. Using quick review shortcuts to simplify the process, data selection and extraction were performed with subsequent evaluation of the quality of the SRs. Then, the results were gathered in narrative synthesis according to similarity. Results: The search returned 771 unique references, which after selection resulted in the inclusion of three GPC and 13 RS. The guides presented 33 recommendations on pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, in addition to blood pressure targets for treatment. The recommendations refer to the initiation of treatment of patients without contraindications, drugs in health situations and specific populations, such as African Americans, women and the elderly; in the non-pharmacological treatment, recommendations directed to the lifestyle are described; pressure targets are indicated for different cases. Strategies were identified in the SRs to support the recommendations of the guides, such as blood pressure monitoring, health education, as well as interventions directly focusing on the management of the work of health teams or complex programs to control hypertension. Conclusion: This rapid review presents GPC recommendations based on scientific evidence, as well as the strength of that evidence. The SRs included show positive results from several strategies to improve the treatment of SAH. However, these findings must be analyzed with caution, considering the methodological flaws of RS. In decision making, it is also necessary to analyze the contexts in which the primary studies were carried out and the characteristics of the interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Primary Health Care/standards , Hypertension/prevention & control , Exercise , Hypertension/therapy
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19061, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350245

ABSTRACT

Proteins and peptides are the most diverse biomolecules found in nature and make our interest due to their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) plays a major role in controlling blood pressure. The inhibition of ACE with peptides is a main target in the regulation of hypertension. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of soy bean. This was accomplished by isolation of ACE inhibitory peptides using response surface methodology (RSM) and characterization of these bioactive peptides by mass spectrometry. 31 hydrolyzed fractions were isolated and evaluated for their ACE inhibition potential. Hydrolyzed fraction having highest ACE inhibitory activity was characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique. RSM results showed maximum ACE inhibition potential (64%) by hydrolyzate was obtained at 45 ºC temperature, pH 8.0, E/S 0.2 in 2 hours hydrolysis time. Results of LC-MS analysis revealed Ser-Gly, Ser-Pro, Met-Ala, His-Ala, Lys-Pro, Phe-Thr, Met-Leu, Pro-Arg, Ala-Pro-Val, Pro-Ala-Leu, Val-Met-Gly, Pro-Leu-Val, Pro-Pro-Gln, His-Arg-Gly, Ser-Phe-Val-Leu, Ala-Val-His-Try, Arg-Thr-Val-Arg, His-His-Tyr-Leu-Val, Asp-Gly-Ala-Cys-Ser-Ala-Asn and MetVal-Thr-Gly-Pro-Gly-Cys-His bioactive peptides in hydrolyzed fraction of soy bean. Our data provide evidence that response surface methodology is a good approach for isolation of antihypertensive bioactive peptides with more potent activity as nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals. Therefore soy bean can be use for industrial production of pharmaceutical grade natural medicines for handling high blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Peptides/pharmacology , Proteins/pharmacology , Soybean Proteins/pharmacology , Dietary Supplements , Protein Hydrolysates/pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Process Optimization/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypertension/therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/analysis
10.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(9): 545-549, 20200000.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362902

ABSTRACT

The new SARS-CoV2 pandemic has ignited research worldwide, regarding its parameters. Hypertension, a comorbidity with high prevalence among patients with COVID-19 infection, is being extensively studied in the setting of the pandemic. Futhermore, RAAS inhibitors, drugs widely used among hypertensive patients, are on the spotlight regarding their safety during the COVID-19 era. In this review, we present current knowledge regarding both these aspects, as well as the new guidelines for the treatment of hypertensive patients during the pandemic


Subject(s)
Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Hypertension/therapy
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 324-329, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126168

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El recién nacido prematuro se enfrenta a las condiciones extrauterinas con sistemas aún inmaduros, tanto anatómica como fisiológicamente. El riñón termina de desarrollarse a finales del tercer trimes tre del embarazo, por lo que está especialmente expuesto a alterar su desarrollo normal en caso de nacer en forma prematura. Esta situación puede condicionar, entre otras consecuencias, una menor masa renal funcional y cambios microvasculares que representan un riesgo elevado de hipertensión arterial y daño renal crónico en el largo plazo. En el presente artículo se analiza la evidencia existente actual sobre estos riesgos en los prematuros y se ofrece un esquema de seguimiento de estos niños desde el punto de vista nefrológico.


Abstract: The premature newborn faces extrauterine conditions with some systems still immature, both ana tomically and physiologically. The kidney finishes developing at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, so it is especially exposed to alter its normal development if preterm birth occurs. This si tuation may condition, among other consequences, a lower functional renal mass and microvascular changes comprising a high risk of chronic kidney disease in the long term and arterial hypertension. This article analyzes the current evidence on these risks in premature infants and offers a nephrology follow-up scheme of these children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/etiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/therapy , Infant, Premature, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Premature, Diseases/etiology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/physiopathology , Infant, Premature, Diseases/therapy , Risk , Aftercare/methods , Kidney/growth & development , Kidney/embryology , Kidney/physiopathology , Nephrology/methods
13.
Medisan ; 24(3)mayo.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1125128

ABSTRACT

La COVID-19 es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, que afecta de forma más grave a personas en edades avanzadas de la vida y a pacientes con inmunodepresión y/o afecciones crónicas, como la hipertensión arterial, de gran significación en la mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares. Con este artículo se buscó actualizar los conocimientos sobre el nivel de gravedad de la COVID-19 en pacientes hipertensos y su asociación con el consumo de fármacos antihipertensivos de los grupos de los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina y los antagonistas de los receptores de la angiotensina II. Asimismo, se ofrecen evidencias científicas acerca de que la hipertensión arterial es un predictor clínico de gravedad en pacientes con dicha enfermedad infecciosa, lo cual se manifiesta sobre todo en las edades mayores de 60 años, y de que la suspensión de forma preventiva de los mencionados tratamientos antihipertensivos puede conducir a inestabilidad clínica y a resultados desfavorables.


COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that affects people in advanced ages of life, patients with immunodepression and/or chronic affections, as hypertension, in a more serious way, being the latter of great significance in the mortality due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. With this work we wanted to update the knowledge on the COVID-19 serious condition level in hypertensive patients and its association with the consumption of antihypertensive drugs of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and antagonists of angiotensin II receptors groups. In the same way, scientific evidences are offered on the fact that hypertension is a clinical predictor of a serious condition in patients with this infectious disease, that is manifested mainly in people older than 60 years, and that the suspension in a preventive way of the mentioned antihypertensive treatments can lead to clinical instability and unfavorable results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(5): 611-617, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139345

ABSTRACT

Background: Moderate isometric handgrip exercise is an effective tool in the management of systemic hypertension. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a high intensity isometric handgrip exercise protocol for the reduction of blood pressure in older people with pre or stage-1 hypertension. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants aged 73.8 ± 6.6 years (range 61-90) completed eight weeks of high intensity isometric handgrip training 2 times per week, performing 32 contractions maintained for 5 seconds, with breaks of 5 seconds. Blood pressure (BP) was measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Results: Systolic blood pressure decreased from 141 ± 11 to 127 ± 10 mmHg (p < 0.01). The decrease in diastolic blood pressure was from 79 ± 7 to 74 ± 6 mmHg (p < 0.01). Conclusions: A blood pressure reduction was recorded in these participants after a period of high intensity isometric handgrip exercise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hand Strength/physiology , High-Intensity Interval Training , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/therapy , Blood Pressure/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Isometric Contraction/physiology
15.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(1): 21-27, ene.-feb. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223317

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son muy frecuentes en la población anciana (pacientes mayores de 75 años). El enfrentamiento y manejo de ellas es distinto al indicado en pacientes jóvenes. Son escasos los estudios que incluyen población mayor de 75 años, con evidencia acerca de las diferencias que existen en la respuesta terapéutica en comparación al paciente joven. El anciano tiene mayor fragilidad y múltiples comorbilidades, con reserva cardiaca disminuida, lo que obliga a un manejo integral y acucioso. Los cambios propios de la edad repercuten tanto en riñón, cerebro, hígado, musculatura y corazón, lo que los hace pacientes más proclives a presentar complicaciones de la terapia farmacológica o intervencional. El objetivo de este artículo es resumir las recomendaciones sobre el manejo de las cardiopatías más frecuentes en el anciano, incluyendo insuficiencia cardiaca crónica, cardiopatía coronaria, hipertensión arterial, estenosis aórtica valvular y fibrilación auricular no valvular.


Cardiovascular diseases are very common in the elderly population, and their management is different. There are few studies that include population older than 75 years, with little evidence about the differences in the therapeutic response compared to the young patient. The elderly have greater fragility and multiple comorbidities, with diminished cardiac reserve, which requires a comprehensive and careful management. Changes due to advanced age, in kidney, brain, liver and musculature (among others), make them more vulnerable to complications of the pharmacological or interventional treatment. The objective of this article is to summarize the recommendations on the management of the most frequent heart diseases in the elderly, including chronic heart failure, coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension, valvular aortic stenosis, and non-valvular atrial fibrillation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Aortic Valve Stenosis , Pacemaker, Artificial , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrial Fibrillation , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/therapy , Defibrillators , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy
16.
Rev. chil. salud pública ; 24(1): 11-22, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121586

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Generar evidencia sobre los efectos de la posición social en la adhe-rencia terapéutica en personas con hipertensión arterial (HTA) en Colombia. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal, a partir de mediciones cuan-titativas del Programa de Determinantes Sociales e Inequidades en el Control de la HTA en Colombia. Se desarrollaron análisis descriptivos e inferenciales (regresión logística) para modelar las asociaciones. RESULTADOS: Se evidenció una alta proporción de adherencia, siendo mayor para cumplimiento farmacológico y las citas (>50%). Las personas con menor educación e ingresos tienen menor posibilidad de adherirse al tratamiento farmacológico; mientras que quienes tienen mejor posición socioeconómica tienen menor posibilidad de adherirse a las citas y a las conductas saludables. Los afrocolombianos tienen menor posibilidad de adherirse al tratamiento farmacológico, a las citas y a la actividad física. DISCUSIÓN: Existe una brecha en el logro de la adherencia a tratamiento de HTA en Colombia, debido a condiciones socioeconómicas y étnica/raciales.


INTRODUCTION: To generate evidence on the effects of social position on therapeutic adherence among individuals with hypertension (HT) in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, using quantitative data from the Social Determinants and Inequities in the Control of HT Program in Colombia. Descriptive and inferential analyses (logistic regression) were developed to model the associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of adherence was high, especially for pharmacological treat-ment and compliance with appointments (>50%). Individuals with less education and lower income are less likely to adhere to pharmacological treatment, while tho-se with higher socioeconomic status are less likely to adhere to appointments and healthy behaviors. Afro-Colombians were less likely to adhere to pharmacological treatment, appointments, and indications regarding physical activity. DISCUSSION: There is a gap in HT treatment adherence in Colombia, due to socioeco-nomic and ethnic/racial conditions


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Economic Status , Hypertension/psychology , Hypertension/therapy , Social Class , Exercise , Health Behavior , Ethnic Groups , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia , Medication Adherence , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/psychology
17.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 30(supl.4): S5-S10, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152167

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Verificar a relação entre a adesão ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo e a presença de alexitimia. Métodos. Estudo transversal, realizado com hipertensos do município de Barbacena ­ Minas Gerais. Foram empregadas duas escalas: Escala de Adesão ao Tratamento Anti-hipertensivo e Escala de Alexitimia de Toronto. Foram utilizados o teste de quiquadrado e o teste t de Student. A correlação entre as duas escalas foi verificada por meio do Coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5% Resultados. A amostra foi composta majoritariamente por indivíduos do sexo feminino (68,2%), casados (64,6%), com pouca escolaridade (82%) e renda média baixa. Quase a metade dos participantes (46,4%) apresentou escores indicativos da presença de alexitimia. Não foi observada correlação estatisticamente significativa entre adesão ao tratamento da hipertensão arterial e a presença de alexitimia. No entanto, baixa adesão e escores elevados sugestivos de alexitimia foram mais observados em indivíduos com baixa escolaridade e baixa renda. Conclusão. Apesar de não ter sido encontrada correlação entre as duas condições pesquisadas, verificou-se prevalência elevada de alexitimia na amostra estudada, sugerindo a realização de estudos prospectivos com maior tamanho amostral para determinar, de forma mais robusta, a existência de tal relação. (AU)


Objective. To verify the relationship between adherence to antihypertensive treatment and the presence of alexithymia. Methods. Cross-sectional study, conducted with hypertensive in the city of Barbacena - Minas Gerais. Two scales were used, the Antihypertensive Treatment Adherence Scale (QATHAS) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS). The existence of the relationship between the variables studied was assessed by the chi-square test and the Student t test. To verify the correlation between the two scales, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used. The adopted significance level was 5%. Results.The sample consisted mainly of females (68.2%), married (64.6%), low education (82%) and low average income. Almost half of the participants (46.4%) had scores indicating the presence of alexithymia. Only 5.1% of the individuals assessed me't the criteria of high adherence to hypertension treatment. No statistically significant correlation was observed between adherence to hypertension treatment and the presence of alexithymia. However, low adherence and high scores suggestive of alexithymia were more observed in individuals with low education and low income. Conclusion. Although no correlation was found between the two conditions surveyed, there was a high prevalence of alexithymia in the study sample, suggesting that prospective studies with a larger sample size should be conducted to more robustly determine the existence of such relation. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Affective Symptoms , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Hypertension/therapy , Affective Symptoms/complications , Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents
18.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4723, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056049

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To identify interventions aimed to improve adherence to medical and non-medical antihypertensive and antidiabetic therapy. Methods Scientometric study conducted in February and March 2018, based on data collected on PubMed ® and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: "interventions to improve adherence to diabetes therapy", "interventions to improve adherence to hypertension therapy" and "interventions to improve adherence to therapy for hypertension and diabetes". Results A total of 95 articles were selected. Scientific production increased as of 2009, with a higher number of studies published between 2015 and 2017. Most interventions described in literature were aimed at diabetic patients (46.31%). Face-to-face interventions were more common (46.31%), followed by telephone-based (31.58%) and digital (26.31%) interventions. North America stood out as the continent with the highest number of publications (68.42%), followed by Europe (14.74%). Most studies (63.16%) were based on a single type of intervention. Conclusion Traditional intervention methods were more widely used to promote adherence to antihypertensive and antidiabetic therapy; digital technology emerged as a trend in interventions aimed to improve hypertension and diabetes-related health behaviors.


RESUMO Objetivo Identificar as intervenções utilizadas para melhorar a adesão de terapias medicamentosas e não medicamentosas de pacientes hipertensos e diabéticos. Métodos Estudo cienciométrico realizado nos meses de fevereiro e março de 2018, utilizando os termos "intervenções para melhorar a adesão à terapia do diabetes", "intervenções para melhorar a adesão à terapia de hipertensão" e "intervenções para melhorar a adesão à terapia da hipertensão e diabetes", nas bases de dados PubMed®e SciELO. Resultados Foram selecionados 95 artigos. A partir do ano 2009, observou-se crescimento da produção científica com maior volume entre os anos 2015 e 2017. O maior número de intervenções encontradas na literatura foi para pacientes com diabetes (46,31%). A intervenções mais utilizadas foram a face a face (46,31%), por chamada telefônica (31,58%) e a digital (26,31%). A América do Norte destacou-se no número de pesquisas, com 68,42% das publicações, seguida pela Europa, com 14,74%. Dentre os estudos, a maioria (63,16%) utilizou apenas um tipo de intervenção. Conclusão Métodos de intervenção tradicionais foram mais empregados para promover a adesão às terapias anti-hipertensão e antidiabetes, embora o uso de tecnologias digitais desponte como tendência para melhorar esses comportamentos de saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bibliometrics , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Salud colect ; 16: e2407, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139502

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo fue estimar la prevalencia de las prácticas autoreferidas para controlar la hipertensión y la diabetes, con y sin medicamentos, en adultos mayores de Campinas, Brasil, en tres períodos. Se analizaron los datos de las encuestas de salud realizadas en tres períodos: 2001-2002, 2008-2009 y 2014-2015. La prevalencia de hipertensión, de diabetes, del uso de medicación continua y las prácticas comportamentales aumentaron durante el período analizado, con una caída significativa en el uso no regular de medicamentos y las consultas médicas de rutina en individuos sin plan de salud privado. Los resultados evidenciaron avances en las prácticas relacionadas con la dieta en aquellas personas sin plan de salud y en quienes declararon contar con plan de salud, destacando mejoras en el tratamiento con medicamentos y la práctica de actividad física. La adherencia al uso de medicamentos y a prácticas comportamentales para controlar las morbilidades se mostró consistente en el período evaluado. Estos indicadores refuerzan la necesidad de mantener y ampliar las políticas dirigidas a la educación sanitaria y la asistencia farmacéutica en el país.


ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-care management practices - both with and without medication - in elderly hypertensive and diabetic patients in Campinas, Brazil, in three periods. Data from health surveys conducted in three periods 2001-2002, 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 were analyzed. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, the continuous use of medication, and all behavioral practices showed an overall increase in the period analyzed, with a significant drop in both the non-regular use of medications and routine doctor visits on the part of individuals without a private health plan. The results evidenced advances in diet-related practices among individuals without health plans as well as those who reported having healthcare coverage, highlighting improvements in drug treatment and physical activity. Adherence to medication and health behaviors for the management of morbidities was shown to be consistent in the period evaluated. These indicators reinforce the need to maintain and expand policies directed at health education and pharmaceutical assistance in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Self Care/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Hypertension/therapy , Self Care/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Exercise , Confidence Intervals , Prevalence , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , Health Promotion , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Homeopatia Méx ; 89(722): 11-26, 2020. ILUS
Article in Spanish | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1352858

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: la hipertensión arterial es el cuarto principal factor de riesgo de muerte e incapacidad, así como el responsable de más de 1.6 millones de fallecimientos en la India. Los informes de casos clínicos, los estudios observacionales y los ECA evidencian los efectos de los medicamentos homeopáticos en la hipertensión. Objetivos: los resultados de este estudio se añaden a la evidencia de la eficacia del uso de los medicamentos homeopáticos individualizados en la hipertensión de estadio I. Materiales y métodos: Se ha realizado un ensayo aleatorizado, simple ciego y controlado por placebo entre octubre de 2013 y marzo de 2018. El parámetro primario fue evaluar los cambios en la presión sistólica (PS) y la presión diastólica (PD) mensualmente durante tres meses. 217 pacientes de los 2,127 pacientes examinados cumplieron los criterios de selección y fueron aleatorizados para recibir un medicamento en potencias Q (o potencias LM) más indicaciones para la modificación del estilo de vida (MEV) (116 pacientes) o bien placebo + MEV (101 pacientes). La modificación del estilo de vida incluyó actividad física y dieta como parte de la pauta terapéutica. El análisis fue de intención de tratamiento. Resultados: Las mediciones ANOVA repetidas entre los grupos mostraron una diferencia estadística significativa (Lambda de Wilks 0.85, F=12.12, dF=213, P=0.0001) tanto en la PS como en la PD a favor de la Homeopatía individualizada. La prueba t independiente post hoc mostró una reducción media significativa de la PS [diferencia media 7.12 mmHg, IC del 95%; CI 4.72 a 9.53, P=0.0001] y un descenso medio de la PD [diferencia media 5.76 mmHg, IC del 95%: 4.18 a 7.23, P=0.0001] a favor del grupo con Homeopatía más MEV. Los medicamentos más utilizados fueron: Sulphur (n=24), Natrium muriaticum (n=21), Lycopodium (n=16), Nux vomica (n=12) y Phosphorus (n=10). Conclusiones: Se ha constatado que la Homeopatía individualizada junto con la MEV fue más eficaz que el placebo junto con la MEV en los pacientes que sufren hipertensión en estadio I. Se precisan más ensayos en un marco estricto. (AU)


Background: Hypertension (HTN) is a leading risk factor for death and disability and responsible for over 1.6 million deaths in India. Clinical case reports, observational studies and randomised controlled trials show the effects of homoeopathic medicine in HTN. Objectives: The results of this study will add to the evidence of effectiveness of individualised homoeopathic medicine in Stage I HTN. Methods: A single-blind, randomised, placebocontrolled trial was undertaken from October 2013 to March 2018. The primary outcome measure was to evaluate the change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) every month for 3 months. Of 2,127 patients screened, 217 patients who fitted the inclusion criteria were randomised to receive either homoeopathic Q potencies (or LM potencies) plus lifestyle modification (LSM)=116 or placebo + LSM=101. LSM included physical activity and diet as part of the treatment regimen. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results: Repeated-measure ANOVA between the groups showed statistically significant difference (Wilk lambda 0.85, F=12.12, df=213, P=0.0001), in both SBP and DBP favouring Individualised Homoeopathy (IH) along with LSM. Post hoc independent t-test showed a significant mean reduction in SBP (mean difference 7.12 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.72-9.53, P=0.0001) and DBP (mean difference 5.76 mmHg, 95% CI: 4.18-7.23, P=0.0001) favouring Homoeopathy plus LSM group. Sulphur (n=24), Natrum muriaticum (n=21), Lycopodium (n=16), Nux vomica (n=12) and Phosphorus (n=10) were the most useful medicines. Conclusion: IH in LM potency along with LSM was found effective over placebo along with LSM in the patients suffering from Stage I HTN. Further trials in rigorous setting are warranted. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Homeopathic Therapeutics , Homeopathy , Hypertension/therapy , Life Style
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