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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): S1-S7, feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147352

ABSTRACT

El hipertiroidismo es el cuadro clínico resultante del exceso de hormonas tiroideas debido a hiperfunción glandular. Es una enfermedad rara en niños y adolescentes, pero con una alta morbilidad. La causa más frecuente es la enfermedad de Graves. El objetivo de esta publicación es realizar una revisión y actualización del hipertiroidismo infantojuvenil para guiar su detección y derivación temprana al endocrinólogo pediatra. Debe ser considerado cuando el niño o adolescente presente síntomas asociados a esta patología y bocio de grado variable. Se confirma con el perfil bioquímico característico.El tratamiento consiste, inicialmente, en bloquear los efectos del exceso de hormonas tiroideas con betabloqueantes y, además, disminuir su producción con drogas antitiroideas como primera elección. Ante efectos secundarios a su administración, recidivas o ausencia de remisión de la enfermedad, se optará por el tratamiento definitivo: yodo radioactivo o cirugía con el objetivo de lograr el hipotiroidismo o eutiroidismo


Hyperthyroidism is a serious and rare disorder in childhood characterized by the overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Graves disease is the most common cause. The objective of this paper is to review and update hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents aiming to guide its early detection and referral to the pediatric endocrinologist. The disease should be suspected if typical symptoms and goiter are present and has to be confirmed with the characteristic biochemical profile. Initially, treatment to block the effect of the thyroid excess is needed. Antithyroid drugs are the recommended first-line treatment to diminish hormone production. Alternative treatments, such us radioactive iodine or thyroidectomy, are considered in cases of adverse effects to drugs, relapse or non-remission of the disease, in order to achieve hypothyroidism or euthyroidism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/drug therapy , Antithyroid Agents/therapeutic use , Graves Disease , Hyperthyroidism/etiology , Hyperthyroidism/therapy , Iodine/therapeutic use
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(5): 419-423, oct. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056744

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de una paciente que, durante los estudios por búsqueda de fertilidad y posterior embarazo, mostraba un perfil tiroideo alterado con niveles elevados de T4 libre y TSH normal. Luego de descartar un adenoma tirotropo y ante la ausencia de sintomatología clínica de hipertiroidismo, se investigó la posibilidad de interferencias analíticas en los inmunoensayos utilizados para la medición de las hormonas. Se han descrito interferencias causadas por anticuerpos heterófilos, macro TSH, anticuerpos anti-tiroideos, biotina, y en menor medida anticuerpos anti-estreptavidina y anti-rutenio. Los análisis de la paciente se realizaron en autoanalizador cuya plataforma emplea el sistema estreptavidina-biotina que es muy susceptible a varios interferentes. Un algoritmo propuesto incluye una serie de pruebas simples de realizar e interpretar que permiten detectar o descartar la presencia de interferentes. De acuerdo al mismo, se efectuó la comparación con una plataforma analítica diferente (que no utiliza el sistema estreptavidina-biotina), diluciones seriadas, precipitación con polietilenglicol 6000 y tratamiento con micropartículas recubiertas con estreptavidina. Los resultados obtenidos confirmaron la presencia de anticuerpos anti-estreptavidina en el suero de la paciente. Ante discordancias entre las manifestaciones clínicas y los resultados de laboratorio, se debe investigar la posibilidad de interferencias metodológicas para evitar el riesgo iatrogénico potencial que implica una interpretación bioquímica errónea.


We present the case of a patient who, during studies for fertility and subsequent pregnancy, showed an altered thyroid profile with elevated levels of free T4 and normal TSH. After ruling out a thyrotropic adenoma and in the absence of clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism, the possibility of analytical interference in the immunoassays used to measure hormones was investigated. Interferences caused by heterophile antibodies, macro TSH, anti-thyroid antibodies, biotin, and to a lesser extent anti-streptavidin and anti-ruthenium antibodies have been described. The analysis of the patient was carried out in a self-analyzer whose platform uses the streptavidin-biotin system that is very susceptible to several interferents. A proposed algorithm includes a series of simple tests to perform and interpret that allow detecting or ruling out the presence of interferents. Accordingly, a comparison was made with a different analytical platform (which does not use the streptavidin-biotin system), serial dilutions, precipitation with polyethylene glycol 6000 and treatment with microparticles coated with streptavidin. Results obtained confirmed the presence of anti-streptavidin antibodies in the patient's serum. In the case of disagreements between clinical manifestations and laboratory results, the possibility of methodological interferences should be investigated in order to avoid the potential iatrogenic risk involved in an erroneous biochemical interpretation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adenoma/diagnosis , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/immunology , Streptavidin/immunology , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/immunology , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Adenoma/immunology , Diagnostic Errors , Hyperthyroidism/immunology
3.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(6): 753-760, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978151

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La causa más frecuente de hipertiroidismo congénito es la enfermedad de Basedow Graves (EG) materna, en la que anticuerpos anti receptor de hormona tiroestimulante (TSH) (TRAb) atraviesan la placenta estimulando al receptor de TSH fetal y/o neonatal para producir hormonas ti roideas. La disfunción tiroidea en estos pacientes se confirma con el aumento de las concentraciones de tiroxina (T4) y triyodotironina (T3) acompañado de niveles de TSH suprimida. Objetivos: Carac terizar la evolución clínica y bioquímica de los recién nacidos (RN) hijos de madres con EG, y sugerir recomendaciones respecto al tratamiento y seguimiento. Material y Método: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura usando la base de datos MEDLINE, identificando artículos que incluyeran más de 30 RN de madres con EG y describieran su evolución. Se agregaron además revisiones del tema enfati zando la evaluación y manejo de los hijos de madres con EG. Resultados: Se incluyeron 9 estudios de cohorte que incorporaron 790 embarazadas. Hubo heterogeneidad entre los trabajos; un porcentaje variable de los hijos desarrolló tirotoxicosis neonatal, la que fue más frecuente cuando las madres presentaron concentraciones elevadas de TRAb. El tratamiento de los RN se inició según diferentes criterios. La literatura recomienda tratar los casos de hipertiroidismo clínico y considerarlo en casos de hipertiroidismo bioquímico. Conclusión: Los hijos de madres con EG y TRAb elevados deben ser evaluados por la probabilidad de desarrollar tirotoxicosis neonatal. Se sugiere controlar función tiroidea periódicamente durante el primer mes de vida y tratar los pacientes con hipertiroidismo clínico y bioquímico.


Abstract: Introduction: The most frequent cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is maternal Graves' disease (GD), in which thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TRAb) cross the placenta and stimulate the fetal and/or neonatal TSH receptor to produce thyroid hormones. Thyroid dys function in these patients is confirmed by increased thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels accompanied by suppressed TSH levels. Objective: To characterize the clinical and biochemical evo lution of newborns of mothers with GD and to suggest recommendations regarding treatment and follow-up. Material and Method: A literature review using the MEDLINE database was made, iden tifying scientific articles that included more than 30 neonates of mothers with GD and described their evolution. In addition, a review of the topic with an emphasis on the evaluation and management of these patients was included. Results: Nine cohort studies were included, with a total of 790 pregnant women. There was high heterogeneity among the studies. A variable percentage of newborns deve loped neonatal thyrotoxicosis, which was more frequent in those patients whose mothers had high levels of TRAb. The treatment of newborns was initiated according to different criteria. The literature recommends treating cases of clinical hyperthyroidism and considers it in cases of biochemical hy perthyroidism. Conclusion: Children of mothers with GD and high TRAb should be evaluated due to the likelihood of developing neonatal thyrotoxicosis. It is suggested to monitor thyroid function periodically during the first month of life and treat patients with clinical and biochemical hyper thyroidism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications , Graves Disease , Hyperthyroidism/congenital , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/therapy
4.
Acta méd. costarric ; 60(1): 45-47, ene.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886401

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los pacientes con hipertiroidismo tienen varias opciones de tratamiento. El tratamiento de la enfermedad de Graves consiste en bloquear el exceso de hormonas tiroideas empleando tionamidas, tiroidectomía o terapia con I131. Los agentes antitiroideos como el metimazol, carbimazole, propiltiuracilo, son efectivos para controlar el hipertirodismo en pacientes con enfermedad de Graves, pero tienen efectos adversos incluyendo, alergias, gastritis, hepatitis y agranulocitosis. Se presenta un paciente hipertiroideo con neutropenia severa durante tratamiento con propiltiuracilo.


Abstract Patients with hyperthyroidism have several treatment options. The treatment of Graves' disease consists of blocking the excess of thyroid hormones using thionamides, thyroidectomy or I131 therapy. Antithyroid agents such as methimazole, carbimazole, propylthiuracil are effective in controlling hyperthyroidism in patients with Graves' disease, but they have adverse effects including, allergies, gastritis, hepatitis and agranulocytosis. We present a hyperthyroid patient with severe neutropenia during treatment with propylthiuracil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Propylthiouracil/therapeutic use , Graves Disease/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Costa Rica
5.
Med. Afr. noire (En ligne) ; 65(03): 131-136, 2018.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1266293

ABSTRACT

Introduction : L'hyperthyroïdie est une pathologie fréquemment rencontrée dans notre pratique clinique. Elle est la conséquence d'une hyperproduction des hormones thyroïdiennes. Patients et méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive, rétrospective et prospective de 3 ans et 3 mois ayant inclus 523 patients présentant des signes cliniques et biologiques d'hyperthyroïdie. Les données ont été recueillies à partir des dossiers médicaux des patients.Résultats : La fréquence hospitalière de l'hyperthyroïdie était de 9,5%. L'âge moyen de nos patients était de 40,27 ± 15,77 ans. Il y avait 461 femmes (88,1%) et 62 hommes (11,9%) soit un sex-ratio de 0,13. Le goitre (36,3%) et les palpitations (13,2%) dominaient les motifs de consultations. Les signes cardiovasculaires étaient au premier plan avec les palpitations (61%) et la tachycardie (51,8%). La maladie de Basedow (56,4%) était l'étiologie la plus rencontrée et fréquemment observée avant l'âge de 40 ans. Les goitres multinodulaires toxiques et les adénomes toxiques étaient l'apanage des sujets de plus de 40 ans (p < 0,001). Les antithyroïdiens de synthèse étaient utilisés chez tous nos patients exceptés ceux présentant une thyroïdite qui ont reçu un antiinflammatoire stéroïdien ou non-stéroïdien. Seul neuf de nos patients (1,7%) ont subi une thyroïdectomie.Conclusion : L'hyperthyroïdie est une pathologie avec une symptomatologie cardiovasculaire bruyante. Les causes périphériques sont de loin les plus fréquentes. Ainsi, le dosage de la TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) seule suffit au diagnostic


Subject(s)
Graves Disease/etiology , Hospitals , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/therapy , Mali , Prevalence
6.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 33(4): 197-207, 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1008939

ABSTRACT

La disfunción tiroidea subclínica es una alteración funcional de alta prevalencia en las consultas médicas de los centros de salud, observable solo mediante la realización de pruebas complementarias de laboratorios, caracterizadas por una elevación de la TSH mayor a 4.0mU/L ó menor a 0.4mU/L con valores normales de T3 y T4 libres, aunque existe la tendencia actual a la disminución de estos rangos de referencia según estudios epidemiológicos en cada población en particular; su tratamiento y control por el especialista son mandatorios en aquellos individuos con valores séricos de TSH superiores a 10mU/L ó menores de 0.1mU/L. La presente revisión bibliográfica tiene como propósito resumir los conocimientos actuales con relación a la prevalencia, factores de riesgo, diagnóstico, clasificación, tratamiento y seguimiento de las patologías incluidas en la disfunción tiroidea subclínica (hipotiroidismo e hipertiroidismo) y sus consecuencias sistémicas(AU)


Thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent in the health consultation and it is only proven by laboratory essays, were TSH is higher than 4 mU/L, with a normal T3 and free T4; although there is a current tendency to take in account lower values depending of the epidemiological studies of each population. The diagnosis and treatment are mandatory in subjects with a TSH higher than 10 mU/L or lower than 0,1mU/L. This review has the purpose of summarizing the current knowledge of prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of hypo and hyperthyroidism, as well as their sistemic consequences(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Endocrine System Diseases , Internal Medicine
7.
Porto Alegre; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Telessaúde; 2017. ilus.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995638

ABSTRACT

Hipertireoidismo é o excesso de função da glândula tireoide. É a principal causa de tireotoxicose, que, por sua vez, é a manifestação clínica do excesso de hormônios tireoidianos. O hipertireoidismo é mais comum em mulheres do que em homens (razão de 5:1), tendo como principais causas a Doença de Graves (60 % a 80% dos casos), etiologia típica em mulheres jovens com idade entre 20 a 40 anos, e o bócio multinodular tóxico (10 % a 30% dos casos), mais frequente em idosos. O adenoma tóxico e as tireoidites são menos comuns (1%). Hipertireoidismo e tireotoxicose também podem ser induzidos por medicamentos como amiodarona, interferon, levotiroxina e lítio. A doença deve ser investigada em pacientes com manifestações clínicas, não havendo recomendação para rastreamento populacional. Informações sobre tireotoxicose induzida por levotiroxina (TSH reduzido em paciente que faz uso de levotiroxina) podem ser obtidas no material TeleCondutas Hipotireoidismo. Esta guia apresenta informação que orienta a conduta para casos de hipertiroidismo no contexto da Atenção Primária à Saúde, incluindo: sinais e sintomas, diagnóstico do hipertireoidismo, tratamento do hipertireoidismo, tratamento do hipertireoidismo subclínico, hipertireoidismo na gestação, encaminhamento para serviço especializado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/therapy , Primary Health Care , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Referral and Consultation , Atenolol/therapeutic use , Iodine Radioisotopes , Methimazole/therapeutic use , Metoprolol/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. méd. hered ; 26(3): 141-146, jul.-sept.2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-781610

ABSTRACT

Describir las características clínicas y las causas de hospitalización en pacientes con hipertiroidismo en un hospital general de Lima, Perú. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, tipo serie de casos. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por todos los pacientes hospitalizados con el diagnóstico de hipertiroidismo entre enero de 1989 y diciembre de 2005 en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. La fuente de datos fue el libro de interconsultas del Servicio de Endocrinología. Se exploraron las características clínicas y demográficas de los pacientes de acuerdo a su etiología. Resultados: Se identificaron 230 pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertiroidismo y se revisaron 162 historias clínicas. La mediana de la edad fue 36 años, el 79% eran mujeres y la causa más frecuente fue la enfermedad de Graves (EG) (87,65%), seguida por la enfermedad nodular tiroidea (ENT) (12,35%). Las pacientes con EG fueron más jóvenes, habían nacido en la costa; mientras que las pacientes con ENT eran mayores y habían nacido en la sierra. Las causas más frecuentes de hospitalización fueron el compromiso cardiovascular (insuficiencia cardíaca y fibrilación auricular), las infecciones y las complicaciones gineco-obstétricas. La mayoría de pacientes fueron tratadas con tionamidas y beta bloqueadores. La mortalidad fue 1,23%. Conclusiones: De manera similar a otros estudios nacionales, la causa más frecuente de hospitalización por hipertiroidismo fue la EG con compromiso cardiovascular. La mortalidad fue menor al de estudios previos...


To describe the clinical features and causes of hospitalization in patients with hyperthyroidism in a general hospital in Lima, Peru. Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study was carried out. The study population was all patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism from January 1989 to December 2005 at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Source data was the consultation book-record of the Endocrinology service. Clinical and demographic features were gathered. Results: 230 patients were identified, 162 clinical charts were reviewed. Median age was 36 years of age; 79% of patients were female, and Graves disease (GD) was the most common cause of hyperthyroidism (87.65%), followed by nodular thyroid disease (NTD, 12.35%). Patients with GD were younger and had been borne in the coast, while patients with NTD were older and had been born in the highlands. The most common reasons for hospitalization were cardiovascular involvement (heart failure and atrial fibrillation), infections and gyneco-obstetric complications. Most of the patients were treated with thioamides and beta- blockers. Mortality was 1.2%. Conclusions: As reported in other national studies the most common cause for hospitalization was GD with cardiovascular involvement. Mortality was lower than previously reported...


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(8): 751-758, 08/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753055

ABSTRACT

Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Brazil , Continental Population Groups , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hyperthyroidism/drug therapy , Longitudinal Studies , Sex Distribution , Socioeconomic Factors
12.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(7): 779-781, 10/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-726264

ABSTRACT

A paralisia periódica hipocalêmica tireotóxica (PPHT) é uma urgência endocrinológica caracterizada por ataques recorrentes de fraqueza muscular, associados à hipocalemia e à tireotoxicose. Essa patologia ocorre mais frequentemente em pacientes do sexo masculino, de origem asiática, sendo rara sua apresentação em pessoas de ascendência africana. O caso descrito mostra um paciente afrodescendente que apresentou tetraparesia associada à hipocalemia. Durante esse episódio foi realizado o diagnóstico de hipertireoidismo. A PPHT, embora rara, é potencialmente letal. Portanto, em casos de crises de paresias flácidas, essa hipótese diagnóstica deve ser sempre considerada, principalmente se associada à hipocalemia. Nessa situação, se não houver diagnóstico prévio de hipertireoidismo, este também deve ser considerado.


Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) is an endocrine emergency marked by recurrent attacks of muscle weakness associated with hypokalemia and thyrotoxicosis. Asiatic male patients are most often affected. On the other hand, African descents rarely present this disease. The case described shows an afrodescendant patient with hypokalemia and tetraparesis, whose diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was considered during this crisis. The THPP, although rare, is potentially lethal. Therefore, in cases of flaccid paresis crisis this diagnosis should always be considered, especially if associated with hypokalemia. In this situation, if no previous diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, this should also be regarded.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Graves Disease/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hypokalemia/blood , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis/ethnology , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Paresis/diagnosis , Potassium/blood
13.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 85(2): 207-212, abr. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-711582

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Hipertiroidismo neonatal es una condición usualmente autolimitada, generalmente asociada al paso transplacentario de anticuerpos estimulantes de tiroides, secundario a enfermedades autoinmunes maternas. Detectar oportunamente a las madres con estos antecedentes, permitirá disminuir el riesgo de eventos adversos fetales. Objetivo: Presentar un caso de hipertiroidismo neonatal, asociado a falla cardíaca y restricción del crecimiento intrauterino, Caso clínico: Recién nacido de 36 semanas, peso de nacimiento 1.240 g. Evolucionó con taquicardia, frialdad distal, exoftalmos, hepatomegalia y temblores. Ecocardiograma descartó alteración cardíaca estructural. Por hallazgos maternos sugerentes de hipertiroidismo, se realizaron exámenes encontrando TSH de 0,01 uUI/ml, T4 libre de 7,7 ng/dl, con lo que se confirmó el diagnóstico de hipertiroidismo neonatal. Se manejó con metimazol y propanolol con resolución de los síntomas y descenso de los niveles de T4 libre. Conclusiones: Conocer los antecedentes maternos permite identificar y manejar las complicaciones neonatales del hipertiroidismo. La falla cardíaca y otras alteraciones cardiopulmonares son los factores determinantes de la mortalidad en el período neonatal temprano. Debe haber un seguimiento a los recién nacidos de riesgo.


Neonatal hyperthyroidism is usually a self-limited condition frequently associated with transplacental passage of thyroid stimulating antibodies secondary to maternal autoimmune disorders. To timely detect mothers with this medical antecedents decreases the risk for fetal adverse events. Objective: To report a case of neonatal hyperthyroidism associated with intrauterine growth restriction and heart failure. Case report: A 36 week-old newborn with birth weight of 1,240 g. Symptoms were tachycardia, distal coldness, exophthalmos, hepatomegaly and tremors. Echocardiogram ruled out structural heart disorders. Due to maternal symptoms suggestive of hyperthyroidism, TSH tests were performed showing 0.01 ulU/ml, free T4 7.7 ng/dl, so the diagnosis of neonatal hyperthyroidism was confirmed. It was treated with methimazole and propanol, alleviating the symptoms and decreasing the levels of free T4. Conclusions: To know the maternal history helps identify and manage neonatal complications of hyperthyroidism. Heart failure and other cardiopulmonary disorders are determinants of mortality during early neonatal period. High-risk newborns should receive follow up assessments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Hyperthyroidism/complications , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Antithyroid Agents , Graves Disease , Hyperthyroidism/drug therapy , Methimazole/therapeutic use , Phenotype
14.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 24(3): 258-269, sep.-dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-705642

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la orbitopatía asociada al tiroides es una complicación frecuente del hipertiroidismo. Objetivo: describir la frecuencia y características de la orbitopatía asociada a la enfermedad autoinmune del tiroides, en pacientes con diagnóstico reciente de hipertiroidismo. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal. A cada caso se le determinó al diagnóstico hormonas tiroideas, y anticuerpos antiperoxidasa. Se examinaron al diagnóstico para evaluar la presencia de orbitopatía, y se identificaron los síntomas y signos oculares presentes en los que la presentaron. Se compararon los resultados a través de estadística descriptiva, utilizando chi². La significación estadística fue para una p< 0,05. Resultados: el 70 por ciento de los pacientes presentó orbitopatía tiroidea al diagnóstico. Predominó el sexo femenino y la raza blanca en el grupo de estudio. La forma leve inactiva prevaleció en los pacientes con orbitopatía, y ninguno presentó la forma severa de esta. El signo más frecuente fue la retracción palpebral, con 90,32 por ciento. No hubo asociación estadística con la edad, el hábito de fumar, el color de piel, las hormonas tiroideas ni los anticuerpos. Conclusiones: la orbitopatía es frecuente al diagnóstico del hipertiroidismo, la retracción palpebral es su signo más común, y no se asoció con los factores clínicos y bioquímicos estudiados(AU)


Introduction: thyroid-associated orbitopathy is a frequent complication of hyperthyroidism. Objective: to describe the frequency and the characteristics of orbitopathy related to autoimmune disease of thyroids in patients who were recently diagnosed as hyperthyroidism cases. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study. Every case was detected thyroid hormones and antiperoxidase antibodies at time of diagnosis. They were examined to evaluate the possible presence of orbitopathy whose ocular symptoms and signs were identified in those who had it. The comparison of results was made through summary statistics by using chi-square test. The statistical significance was p< 0.05. Results: seventy percent of patients had thyroid orbitopathy at the time of diagnosis. Females and Caucasians prevailed in the study group. The slight inactive form prevailed whereas the severe form was absent. The most common sign was palpebral retraction accounting for 90.32 percent. There was no statistical association with age, smoking, race, thyroid hormone or antibody presence. Conclusions: orbitopathy is common at time of diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, palpebral retraction is the commonest sign and it was not associated to the studied clinical and biochemical factors(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Graves Ophthalmopathy/complications , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 52(2): 108-117, abr.-jun. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-687712

ABSTRACT

Introducción: se hace recuento del hipertiroidismo y sus dos causas principales donde prima la enfermedad de Graves Basedow. Se mencionan su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de la cirugía en el bocio tóxico en un grupo de trabajo del servicio de cirugía del Hospital Universitario Amalia Simoni de Camagüey. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo transversal sobre bocio tóxico en 12 años con una muestra conformada por 57 pacientes operados en un grupo de trabajo. Se tuvieron en cuenta, aspectos clínicos, de diagnóstico y terapéuticos. Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino en un rango de edades de 21 a 40 años, así como la positividad de los complementarios realizados. Se expuso la preparación preoperatoria más utilizada, la técnica quirúrgica realizada y las complicaciones en el orden del 29,81 porciento. Conclusiones: la mayoría fueron mujeres, con edad media de 35 años, se subutilizaron algunos medios diagnósticos, la preparación preoperatoria más usada fue propiltiuracilo, propanolol y lugol. El proceder más realizado fue la tiroidectomía subtotal y las complicaciones no fueron ni elevadas ni graves(AU)


Introduction: a recount of hyperthyroidism and its two principal causes in which Graves-Basedow disease takes priority is made. Its diagnosis and treatment are also mentioned. Objective: to determine the surgical behavior of toxic goiter in a work group of the Surgery Service at Amalia Simony University Hospital in Camaguey. Methods: a transversal retrospective study about toxic goiter was conducted during 12 years. The sample was composed of 57 patients who were operated on by a work group. Clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects were considered. Results: the female sex predominated between the ages of 21 and 40 years, as well as the positive results of the complementary tests performed. The most used preoperative preparation, the surgical technique applied and the complications were shown in the order of 29.81 percent. Conclusions: most of the patients were women, with a mean age of 35 years; some diagnostic methods were sub-utilized; the most used preoperative preparations were propylthiouracil, propranolol and lugol. The most preformed procedure was the subtotal thyroidectomy and the complications were neither high nor serious(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Graves Disease/surgery , Graves Disease/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/surgery , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Thyroidectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods
16.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(3): 205-232, abr. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-674212

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O hipertireoidismo é caracterizado pelo aumento da síntese e liberação dos hormônios tireoidianos pela glândula tireoide. A tireotoxicose refere-se à síndrome clínica decorrente do excesso de hormônios tireoidianos circulantes, secundário ao hipertireoidismo ou não. Este artigo descreve diretrizes baseadas em evidências clínicas para o manejo da tireotoxicose. OBJETIVO: O presente consenso, elaborado por especialistas brasileiros e patrocinado pelo Departamento de Tireoide da Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, visa abordar o manejo, diagnóstico e tratamento dos pacientes com tireotoxicose, de acordo com as evidências mais recentes da literatura e adequadas para a realidade clínica do país. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Após estruturação das questões clínicas, foi realizada busca das evidências disponíveis na literatura, inicialmente na base de dados do MedLine-PubMed e posteriormente nas bases Embase e SciELO - Lilacs. A força das evidências, avaliada pelo sistema de classificação de Oxford, foi estabelecida a partir do desenho de estudo utilizado, considerando-se a melhor evidência disponível para cada questão. RESULTADOS: Foram definidas 13 questões sobre a abordagem clínica inicial visando ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento que resultaram em 53 recomendações, incluindo investigação etiológica, tratamento com drogas antitireoidianas, iodo radioativo e cirurgia. Foram abordados ainda o hipertireoidismo em crianças, adolescentes ou pacientes grávidas e o manejo do hipertireoidismo em pacientes com oftalmopatia de Graves e com outras causas diversas de tireotoxicose. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico clínico do hipertireoidismo, geralmente, não oferece dificuldade e a confirmação diagnóstica deverá ser feita com as dosagens das concentrações séricas de TSH e hormônios tireoidianos. O tratamento pode ser realizado com drogas antitireoidianas, administração de radioiodoterapia ou cirurgia de acordo com a etiologia da tireotoxicose, as características clínicas, disponibilidade local de métodos e preferências do médico-assistente e paciente.


INTRODUCTION: Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased synthesis and release of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis refers to the clinical syndrome resulting from excessive circulating thyroid hormones, secondary to hyperthyroidism or due to other causes. This article describes evidence-based guidelines for the clinical management of thyrotoxicosis. OBJECTIVE: This consensus, developed by Brazilian experts and sponsored by the Department of Thyroid Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism, aims to address the management, diagnosis and treatment of patients with thyrotoxicosis, according to the most recent evidence from the literature and appropriate for the clinical reality of Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After structuring clinical questions, search for evidence was made available in the literature, initially in the database MedLine, PubMed and Embase databases and subsequently in SciELO - Lilacs. The strength of evidence was evaluated by Oxford classification system was established from the study design used, considering the best available evidence for each question. RESULTS: We have defined 13 questions about the initial clinical approach for the diagnosis and treatment that resulted in 53 recommendations, including the etiology, treatment with antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine and surgery. We also addressed hyperthyroidism in children, teenagers or pregnant patients, and management of hyperthyroidism in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and various other causes of thyrotoxicosis. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism usually offers no difficulty and should be made with measurements of serum TSH and thyroid hormones. The treatment can be performed with antithyroid drugs, surgery or administration of radioactive iodine according to the etiology of thyrotoxicosis, local availability of methods and preferences of the attending physician and patient.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Goiter/therapy , Hyperthyroidism , Thyroid Nodule/therapy , Thyroidectomy/standards , Graves Disease/diagnosis , Graves Disease/therapy , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/therapy , Thyroiditis/therapy , Thyrotoxicosis/diagnosis , Thyrotoxicosis/therapy
17.
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 34: [5], 20130.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-880505

ABSTRACT

O hipertireoidismo neonatal é uma condição rara, porém com elevada morbi-mortalidade e com diagnóstico nem sempre claro. Este artigo tem o objetivo revisar as causas, manifestações clínicas, diagnóstico e tratamento das diferentes formas de hipertireoidismo neonatal.


Although neonatal hyperthyroidism is a rare condition, it has high morbidity and mortality rates and a not always easy diagnosis. This article reviews causes, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the different forms of neonatal hyperthyroidism.


Subject(s)
Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Graves Disease , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Thyrotoxicosis
18.
J. bras. med ; 100(5): 27-33, nov.-dez. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-668653

ABSTRACT

A tireotoxicose é um estado hipermetabólico decorrente dos efeitos de níveis teciduais elevados de hormônios tireoideanos (HTs). O hipertireoidismo é a causa mais comum, e decorre do excesso de hormônios produzidos pela tireoide. Outras causas de tireotoxicose ocorrem por produção extratireoideana ou administração exógena de hormônios tireoideanos. A principal causa de tireotoxicose, o bócio difuso tóxico (BDT) de causa autoimune, responsável por até 80% dos casos, é aqui abordado, assim como as demais causas. O tratamento é realizado com drogas antitireoideanas, iodo radioativo ou cirurgia e exige acompanhamento de longo prazo, tanto pela possibilidade de recidivas como do desenvolvimento de hipotireoidismo.


Thyrotoxicosis is a hypermetabolic state due to the effects of high tissue levels of thyroid hormones (TH). Hyperthyroidism is the most common cause and results from excess hormones produced by the thyroid. Other causes of thyrotoxicosis occur extra thyroid production or exogenous administration of thyroid hormones. The main cause of thyrotoxicosis, the diffuse toxic goiter (DTG) of autoimmune cause, accounting for up to 80% of cases, is discussed here, as well as other causes. The treatment is performed with antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine or surgery and requires long-term follow-up, due to both the possibility of recurrence and the development of hypothyroidism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Goiter/surgery , Goiter/therapy , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/etiology , Hyperthyroidism , Antithyroid Agents/therapeutic use , Thyroid Gland/surgery , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism , Eye Diseases/complications , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Thyrotoxicosis , Thyroiditis/etiology
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(2): 241-248, mar.-abr. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-587659

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: O vitiligo é considerado a hipomelanose adquirida mais frequente. Apesar de sua etiopatogenia ser incerta, acredita-se que a etiologia autoimune seja a mais plausível, teoria que se fundamenta na concomitância de vitiligo com doenças autoimunes. OBJETIVOS: Traçar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes com vitiligo e estimar a prevalência da associação de vitiligo com doenças autoimunes da tireoide. MÉTODOS: Efetuou-se um estudo transversal, analisando-se prontuários dos pacientes com diagnóstico de vitiligo atendidos no Ambulatório de Dermatologia AME-Unisul e do HU-UFSC. Avaliaram-se as características clínicas e laboratoriais desses pacientes. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 85 prontuários, sendo 56 do sexo feminino, com idade média de 37,14 anos e idade média de início de 25,25 anos. O vitiligo vulgar ocorreu em 70,6 por cento dos casos. As doenças autoimunes da tireoide foram encontradas em 22,4 por cento dos casos. Outras doenças autoimunes foram identificadas em 5,9 por cento dos casos. Os pacientes com anticorpos antitireoidianos positivos revelaram uma probabilidade elevada de extensão do vitiligo maior que 25 por cento. Não houve diferença estatística quanto às características clínicas do vitiligo em portadores ou não de tireoidite autoimune com alteração hormonal. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo são similares aos de outros autores, mostrando que as doenças autoimunes da tireoide são mais frequentes nos pacientes com vitiligo.


BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is considered the most frequent acquired hypomelanosis. Although its pathogenesis is uncertain, it is believed that autoimmune etiology is the most plausible. This theory is based on the coexistence of vitiligo with autoimmune diseases. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological profile of vitiligo patients and to estimate the prevalence of the association of vitiligo with autoimmune thyroid diseases. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through analysis of the medical records of patients diagnosed with vitiligo in the AME-UNISUL Outpatient Clinic of Dermatology and at HU-UFSC. The clinical and laboratorial characteristics of these patients were assessed. RESULTS: 85 medical records were evaluated; 56 patients were female, with a mean age of 37.14 years and mean onset age of 25.25 years. Vitiligo vulgaris occurred in 70.6 percent. Autoimmune thyroid diseases were found in 22.4 percent. Other autoimmune diseases were identified in 5.9 percent. Patients with positive thyroid autoantibodies showed a probability of extension of vitiligo greater than 25 percent. There was no statistical difference with regard to the clinical characteristics of vitiligo in patients with or without autoimmune thyroiditis with hormonal change. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study are similar to those obtained by other authors, showing that autoimmune thyroid diseases are more common in patients with vitiligo.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Hyperthyroidism/epidemiology , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Vitiligo/epidemiology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis
20.
Rev. méd. hered ; 22(1): 34-37, ene.-mar. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-593423

ABSTRACT

Se reporta el caso de una mujer de 62 años con antecedente de cáncer de recto curado, con Enfermedad de Graves de reciente diagnóstico. El examen físico mostró un bocio difuso y presencia de un nódulo en el polo inferior del lóbulo derecho. El perfil tiroideo mostró un TSH suprimido y hormonas tiroideas aumentadas. Los anticuerpos antitiroideos fueron negativos. La ecografía de tiroides confirmó la presencia de un nódulo sólido en la tiroides y ganglios linfáticos aumentados de tamaño. La gammagrafía de tiroides mostró una glándula aumentada de tamaño, hipercaptadora, con presencia de un nódulo frío en el lóbulo derecho. El estudio histopatológico luego de la tiroidectomía total mostró cáncer papilar moderadamente diferenciado, con invasión local y metástasis ganglionares. La coexistencia de enfermedad de Graves y cáncer de tiroides ha sido reportada hasta en 9% de los pacientes. El tumor es más agresivo presentando metástasis a ganglios o a distancia. En general, se debería incluir a la cografía tiroidea en la evaluación inicial de los pacientes con enfermedad de Graves, especialmente, en los que presentan nódulos tiroideos palpables.


We report the case a 62-year-old woman with recent history of hyperthyroidism due to GravesÆ disease. Her medical history included treated rectal cancer. Physical exam showed a diffuse goiter with a nodule in the right thyroid lobe. Her thyroid profile was suppressed TSH and elevated thyroid hormones. Thyroid ultrasound confirmed a solid nodule in the right lobe, and thyroid scan showed increased uptake throughout the gland with a cold nodule in the lower level of right lobe. Histopatology study after thyroidectomy showed a moderately differentiated papillary thyroid cancer with local invasion and lymph node metastasis. Thyroid cancer with GravesÆ disease has been reported in up to 9% of patients. In these cases, thyroid cancer is more aggressive as compared with those arising in patients with non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism or in euthyroid patients. Therefore, we suggest that patients with GravesÆ disease should undergo an accurate examination of the thyroid gland not only by palpation but also by ultrasound.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Graves Disease , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis
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