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1.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.341-355, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1344745
2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1573-1576, Nov. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143630

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing public health problem associated with many comorbid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index and complications of thyroidectomy. METHODS: Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy between January 2015 and December 2018 were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups, i.e., BMI <25 (group A) and BMI≥ 25 (group B). Demographics, operative time, and complications were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The study included 145 patients (66 in Group A and 79 in Group B). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age (p=0.330) and gender (p=0.055). No surgical site infection and bleeding complications were observed in any patients. The mean operative time was 148.4 minutes (90-235) in Group A and 153.4 minutes (85-285) in Group B (p=0.399). Transient hypocalcemia was observed in 25 (37.9%) patients in group A, and 23 (29.1%) patients in Group B (p = 0.291). Permanent hypocalcemia was not observed in any patient in group A, and in 2 patients in Group B (2.5%) (p = 0.501). Transient recurrent nerve palsy was observed in 1 (1.5%) patient in Group A and in 3 (3.8%) patients in Group B (p=0.626). None of the patients had permanent recurrent nerve palsy. Parathyroid autotransplantation was performed on 1 patient (1.5%) in group A and on 7 (8.9%) patients in Group B (p=0.055). CONCLUSION: We think there is no relationship between a high BMI and thyroidectomy complications, and surgery can also be performed safely in this patient group.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: A obesidade é um crescente problema de saúde pública associado a muitas doenças comórbidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação entre o índice de massa corporal e as complicações da tireoidectomia. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes submetidos a tireoidectomia total entre janeiro de 2015 e dezembro de 2018 foram incluidos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois como IMC <25 (grupo A) e IMC . 25 (grupo B). Demografia, tempo operatorio e complicacoes revisadas retrospectivamente. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes (66 no grupo A e 79 no grupo B). Não houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos em termos de idade (p = 0,033) e sexo (p = 0,055). Nenhuma infecção do sítio cirúrgico e complicações hemorrágicas foram observadas em nenhum paciente. O tempo operatório médio foi de 148,4 minutos (90-235) no grupo A e 153,4 minutos (85-285) no grupo B (p = 0,399). Hipocalcemia transitória foi observada em 25 (37,9%) pacientes do grupo A e 23 (29,1%) do grupo B (p = 0,291). Hipocalcemia permanente não foi observada em nenhum paciente do grupo A e em 2 pacientes do grupo B (2,5%) (p = 0,501). Paralisia nervosa recorrente transitória foi observada em 1 (1,5%) paciente no grupo A e em 3 (3,8%) pacientes no grupo B (p = 0,626). Nenhum dos pacientes apresentou paralisia nervosa recorrente permanente. O autotransplante de paratireóide foi realizado em 1 paciente (1,5%) no grupo A e em 7 (8,9%) pacientes no grupo B (p = 0,055). CONCLUSÃO:: Acreditamos que não há relação entre um IMC alto e as complicações da tireoidectomia e a cirurgia pode ser realizada com segurança também neste grupo de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies , Operative Time , Hypocalcemia/etiology
4.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 116-121, feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092796

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: En recién nacidos (RN) con encefalopatía hipóxico isquémica (EHI) en hipotermia se describen alte raciones metabólicas que se asocian a pronóstico neurológico. La hipomagnesemia ha sido reportada en la literatura, pero no es medida ni corregida en todos los centros de atención neonatal. Objeti vo: Evaluar la frecuencia de hipomagnesemia e hipocalcemia en RN con EHI en tratamiento con hipotermia corporal total y evaluar la respuesta al aporte de sulfato de magnesio. Pacientes y Méto do: Estudio prospectivo, observational y descriptivo en RN con EHI sometidos a hipotermia corporal total, hospitalizados entre los años 2016-2017. Se realizó medición seriada en sangre de magnesemia (Mg) y calcemia (Ca). Con Mg menor o igual de 1,8 mg/dl se administró suplemento como sulfato de Mg para mantener niveles entre 1,9 y 2,8 mg/dl. Se describió la frecuencia de hipomagnesemia e hipocalcemia y su presentación en el tiempo. Se realizó registro prospectivo de evolución clínica. Se hizo un análisis estadístico descriptivo, con medidas de tendencia central. Resultados: Se incluyeron 16 pacientes. Presentaron hipomagnesemia 13/16 (81,3%), la que fue precoz (6-36 h de vida), nor malizándose con aporte de sulfato de magnesio, requiriendo 2a dosis 4 de ellos. Presentaron hipo- calcemia 6/16 (37,5%). Conclusiones: La hipomagnesemia es frecuente (80%), similar a lo descrito en la literatura. Dado su importancia fisiológica debe controlarse y corregirse, de igual manera que el calcio.


Abstract: Introduction: In newborns with the diagnosis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with hypother mia, metabolic alterations are observed, which are associated with neurological prognosis. Hypo magnesemia has been reported frequently in the literature in these patients, but it is not measured or corrected in all neonatal healthcare centers. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of hypomag nesemia and hypocalcemia in newborns with HIE treated with whole-body hypothermia and to evaluate the response to the magnesium sulfate administration. Patients and Method: Prospective, observational and descriptive study in hospitalized newborns with the diagnosis of HIE and trea ted with whole-body hypothermia between the years 2016 and 2017. Serial blood measurement of magnesemia (Mg) and calcemia (Ca) was performed. When presenting an Mg level < 1.8 mg/dl, supplementation with magnesium sulfate was administered to maintain levels between 1.9 and 2.8 mg/dl. The frecuency of hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia and clinical evolution was registered. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed, with central tendency measures. Results: Sixteen ca ses were included, 13 of them presented hypomagnesemia (81.3%), with early-onset (6-36 hours of life), which was normalized with magnesium sulfate treatment, receiving a second dose 4 patients. Six of 16 patients presented hypocalcemia (37.5 %). Conclusions: Hypomagnesemia is frequent (80%), similar to that described in the literature, and should be controlled and corrected early, given its physiological role, in the same way that calcium is controlled.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Hypothermia, Induced , Magnesium Deficiency/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hypocalcemia/diagnosis , Hypocalcemia/drug therapy , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Magnesium/blood , Magnesium Deficiency/diagnosis , Magnesium Deficiency/drug therapy , Magnesium Deficiency/epidemiology , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 336-344, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040249

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Treating secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a common condition associated with death in patients with chronic kidney disease, is a challenge for nephrologists. Calcimimetics have allowed the introduction of drug therapies no longer based on phosphate binders and active vitamin D. This study aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of cinacalcet in managing chronic dialysis patients with severe SHPT. Methods: This retrospective study included 26 patients [age: 52 ± 12 years; 55% females; time on dialysis: 54 (4-236) months] on hemodialysis (N = 18) or peritoneal dialysis (N = 8) with severe SHPT (intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level > 600 pg/mL) and hyperphosphatemia and/or persistent hypercalcemia treated with cinacalcet. The patients were followed for 12 months. Their serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and iPTH levels were measured at baseline and on days 30, 60, 90, 180, and 365. Results: Patients with hyperphosphatemia (57.7%), hypercalcemia (23%), or both (19.3%) with iPTH > 600 pg/mL were prescribed cinacalcet. At the end of the study, decreases were observed in iPTH (1348 ± 422 vs. 440 ± 210 pg/mL; p < 0.001), Ca (9.5 ± 1.0 vs. 9.1 ± 0.6 mg/dl; p = 0.004), P (6.0 ± 1.3 vs. 4.9 ± 1.1 mg/dl; p < 0.001), and ALP (202 ± 135 vs. 155 ± 109 IU/L; p = 0.006) levels. Adverse events included hypocalcemia (26%) and digestive problems (23%). At the end of the study, 73% of the patients were on active vitamin D and cinacalcet. Three (11.5%) patients on peritoneal dialysis did not respond to therapy with cinacalcet, and their iPTH levels were never below 800 pg/mL. Conclusion: Cinacalcet combined with traditional therapy proved safe and effective and helped manage the mineral metabolism of patients with severe SHPT.


Resumo Introdução: O tratamento do hiperparatireoidismo secundário (HPTs), patologia comum e associada à mortalidade na doença renal crônica, é um desafio para o nefrologista. Advento dos calcimiméticos propiciou terapêutica medicamentosa diferente da usual, baseada em quelantes de fósforo e vitamina D ativa. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar segurança e efetividade de cinacalcete no controle do HPTs grave de pacientes em diálise crônica. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo 26 pacientes [idade: 52 ± 12 anos; 55% mulheres; tempo em diálise: 54 (4-236) meses], em hemodiálise (N = 18) ou diálise peritoneal (N = 8), com HPTs grave (nível de paratormônio intacto (PTHi) > 600 pg/mL), com hiperfosfatemia e/ou hipercalcemia persistentes, em tratamento com cinacalcete. Período de seguimento de 12 meses. Avaliados níveis séricos de cálcio (Ca), fósforo (P), fosfatase alcalina (FA) e PTHi no início do seguimento, 30, 60, 90, 180 e 365 dias. Resultados: Indicações para início do cinacalcete: hiperfosfatemia (57,7%), hipercalcemia (23%), ou ambos (19,3%) com PTH > 600 pg/mL. Ao final do seguimento, observada redução dos níveis PTHi (1348 ± 422 vs. 440 ± 210 pg/mL; p < 0,001), Ca (9,5 ± 1,0 vs. 9,1 ± 0,6 mg/dl; p = 0,004), P (6,0 ± 1,3 vs. 4,9 ± 1,1 mg/dl; p < 0,001) e FA (202 ± 135 vs. 155 ± 109 UI/L; p = 0,006). Eventos adversos: hipocalcemia (26%) e queixas digestivas (23%). No fim do estudo, 73% pacientes utilizavam vitamina D ativada associada ao cinacalcete. Três (11,5%) pacientes, todos em DP, não responderam ao cinacalcete, mantendo níveis PTHi > 800 pg/mL. Conclusão: Utilização de cinacalcete, associado à terapia tradicional, em pacientes com HPTs grave foi segura, eficiente e associada a melhor controle do metabolismo mineral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Dialysis , Calcimimetic Agents/therapeutic use , Cinacalcet/therapeutic use , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/drug therapy , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/blood , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Phosphorus/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Calcium/blood , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Hyperphosphatemia/drug therapy , Calcimimetic Agents/adverse effects , Cinacalcet/adverse effects , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy
6.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 304-305, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012531

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mineral bone disorder is a common feature of chronic kidney disease. Lion face syndrome is rare complication of severe hyperparathyroidism in end-stage renal disease patients, which has been less commonly reported due to dialysis and medical treatment advances in the last decade. The early recognition of the characteristic facial deformity is crucial to prompt management and prevent severe disfigurement. The authors present a rare case of severe hyperparathyroidism presenting with lion face syndrome and bone fractures.


Resumo O distúrbio mineral e ósseo é uma característica comum da doença renal crônica. A síndrome da face leonina é uma complicação rara do hiperparatireoidismo grave em pacientes com doença renal terminal, que tem sido menos relatada devido aos avanços na diálise e tratamento médico na última década. O reconhecimento precoce da deformidade facial característica é crucial para estimular o tratamento precoce e prevenir a desfiguração severa. Os autores apresentam um caso raro de hiperparatireoidismo grave, apresentando síndrome da face leonina e fraturas ósseas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/complications , Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna/diagnosis , Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Bone Density , Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna/surgery , Ergocalciferols/therapeutic use , Calcium/therapeutic use , Parathyroidectomy/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis , Treatment Outcome , Teriparatide/therapeutic use , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Hypocalcemia/drug therapy
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(3): 241-247, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020959

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The relationship between preoperative vitamin D deficiency and postoperative hypocalcemia in cases of total thyroidectomy (TT) is a matter of controversy and may vary according to geographical scenarios and populations. OBJECTIVE: The objective here was to evaluate whether preoperative vitamin D deficiency was associated with postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia in a population in South America. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study on data from all patients undergoing total thyroidectomy, with or without central compartment lymph node dissection, from January 2014 to December 2017, at the A. C. Camargo Cancer Center. METHODS: Patients with benign thyroid disease (Graves' disease, multinodular goiter or hyperthyroidism) or thyroid cancer who underwent primary total thyroidectomy with or without central compartment lymph node dissection were included. The exclusion criteria were simultaneous parathyroidectomy and conditions that could affect serum calcium levels. The data collected included patient demographics, thyroid pathology, extent of the surgical procedure and complications. Information on preoperative and postoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D levels were retrieved from the medical records. RESULTS: 1,347 patients were assessed and postoperative hypocalcemia was diagnosed in 284 patients (21%). The vitamin D levels were considered deficient in 243 patients (18%). Postoperative hypocalcemia was diagnosed in 357 patients (31.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that central compartment dissection and preoperative total calcium and deficient vitamin D levels were significant risk factors for postoperative hypocalcemia. CONCLUSION: Deficient preoperative vitamin D levels were a significant risk factor for postoperative hypocalcemia. Preoperative oral supplementation should be considered, to minimize this risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Diseases/surgery , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Postoperative Complications , Preoperative Care , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(1): 125-129, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991383

ABSTRACT

Rhabdomyolysis (RD) is the process that leads to cell destruction of striated muscle. Causes include inherited metabolic defects or acquired disorders. RD is frequently associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and disorders of calcium metabolism. We report a 33 year old man that after amphetamine consumption and an uninterrupted 3,000 km driving presented vomiting, muscle pain and dark urine. He had elevated creatinkinase levels, severe hypocalcemia and an acute renal failure. He was treated with hemodialysis and calcitriol. He was transferred to our hospital and on admission a serum calcium of 18 mg/dl was detected. He continued on hemodialysis, recovering renal function and with normalization of creatinkinase levels and serum calcium level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Rhabdomyolysis/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Hypercalcemia/etiology , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Calcium/blood , Renal Dialysis/methods , Creatine Kinase/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hypercalcemia/diagnostic imaging , Hypocalcemia/etiology
9.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000235

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Pretendemos analizar qué factores son los que determinan la aparición de hipocalcemia en el postoperatorio de la tiroidectomía total, mediante análisis estadístico, utilizando el paquete SPSS versión 25. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se han estudiado 105 pacientes intervenidos de tiroidectomía total en nuestro centro durante los años 2015 a 2017. RESULTADOS: Se trataba de 85 mujeres (81%) y 20 hombres (19%), con edades comprendidas entre 30 y 91 años, con media de 57 años. El diagnóstico anatomopatológico más frecuente fue patología benigna (82,9%), con 87 casos...


INTRODUCTION: We intend to analyze which factors are responsible for the appearance of hypocalcemia in the postoperative period of total thyroidectomy, using statistical analysis with the SPSS version 25 package. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We studied 105 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy in our center during the years 2015 to 2017. RESULTS: There were 85 women (81%) and 20 men (19%), aged between 30 and 91 years, with an average of 57 years. The most frequent anatomopathological diagnosis was benign pathology (82.9%), with 87 cases…


INTRODUÇÃO: Pretendemos analisar quais são os fatores que determinam a ocorrência de hipocalcemia na tireoidectomia total no pós-operatório, utilizando análise estatística usando SPSS versão 25. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 105 pacientes que foram submetidos a tireoidectomia total em nosso centro ao longo dos anos 2015 a 2017. RESULTADOS: Foram 85 mulheres (81%) e 20 homens (19%), com idade entre 30 e 91 anos, com média de 57 anos. O diagnóstico anatomopatológico mais frequente foi a patologia benigna (82,9%), com 87 casos...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hypocalcemia/prevention & control , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(5): 465-471, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798179

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) is a common endocrine disease, and its most effective treatment is surgery. Postoperative hypocalcemia is a morbidity of parathyroid surgeries, and it may extend hospitalization durations. The purpose of this study is to determine the predictive factors related to the development of hypocalcemia and hungry bone syndrome (HBS) in patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHP. Materials and methods Laboratory data comprising parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphate, 25-OHD, albumin, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of the patients were recorded preoperatively, on the 1st and 4th days postoperatively, and in the 6th postoperative month, and their neck ultrasound (US) and bone densitometry data were also recorded. Results Hypocalcemia was seen in 63 patients (38.4%) on the 1st day after parathyroidectomy. Ten patients (6.1%) had permanent hypocalcemia in the 6th month after surgery. Out of the patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHP, 22 (13.4%) had HBS. The incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia was higher in patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHP, who had parathyroid hyperplasia, and who had osteoporosis. Preoperative PTH, ALP, and BUN values were higher in those patients who developed HBS. Furthermore, HBS was more common in patients who had osteoporosis, who had parathyroid hyperplasia, and who underwent thyroidectomy simultaneously with parathyroidectomy. Conclusions As a result, patients who have the risk factors for development of hypocalcemia and HBS should be monitored more attentively during the perioperative period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Parathyroidectomy/adverse effects , Hyperparathyroidism/surgery , Hyperparathyroidism/complications , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Phosphates/blood , Postoperative Period , Reference Values , Time Factors , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Calcifediol/blood , Calcium/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment/methods , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Magnesium/blood
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 14(3): 156-158, jul. 2016. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-2128

ABSTRACT

A síndrome do QT longo é uma doença caracterizada por um atraso na repolarização ventricular, que se manifesta como síncope cardíaca até morte súbita. Alguns distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos podem corresponder à forma adquirida da síndrome, como a hipocalcemia. A hipocalcemia pode ocorrer em função do hipoparatireoidismo, que, em um quadro crônico, pode determinar calcificação em núcleos da base no sistema nervoso central, caracterizando a doença de Fahr. Paciente ISC, sexo feminino, 71 anos, referiu episódio de perda súbita da consciência associado a movimentos tônico-clônicos e relaxamento esfincteriano.Os achados do exame físico foram hipotensão arterial (80x60mmHg) e bradipsiquismo. Foi realizado eletrocardiograma, que mostrou alargamento do segmento QT, corrigido em 0,57'' pela fórmula de Bazett. Na história pregressa, referiu tiroidectomia parcial à direita há 20 anos, hipotireoidismo e hipertensão arterial. Fazia uso de quatro anti-hipertensivos e de um tireoestimulante. A análise da tomografia de crânio mostrou densos componentes calcificados nas regiões dos gânglios da base. A ultrassonografia de tireoide mostrou lobotomização à direita. O diagnóstico de hipoparatireoidismo foi suspeitado pelos sintomas de fadiga, sonolência, e sinais de Chvostek e Trousseau positivos, e confirmado por exames que demonstraram hipocalcemia significativa, hiperfosfatemia e níveis reduzidos de hormônio paratireóideo. Por se tratar de um quadro insidioso, o diagnóstico de hipoparatireoidismo é pouco elucidado apenas pela clínica. Neste caso, o alargamento do QT foi imprescindível para esclarecer e tratar sua etiologia. Além disso, a doença de Fahr, apesar de rara, deve ser considerada diante de um paciente com hipoparatireoidismo e história clínica compatível


Long QT syndrome is a disease characterized by a delay in ventricular repolarization that is manifested as cardiac syncope or even as sudden death. Some water and electrolyte disturbances can reflect the acquired form of the syndrome, such as hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia can arise because of hypoparathyroidism, which in a chronic setting can determine basal ganglia calcification in the central nervous system, featuring Fahr's disease. ISC, female, 71, reported an episode of sudden loss of consciousness associated with tonic-clonic movements, and sphincter relaxation. Physical examination findings were hypotension (80x60mm Hg) and bradypsychism. The electrocardiogram (ECG) showed QT interval prolongation, corrected for 0.57'' by Bazett's formula. In her previous history she reported right partial thyroidectomy 20 years ago, hypothyroidism and high blood pressure. She made use of four anti-hypertensive drugs and one thyroid stimulating hormone. CT scan analysis showed dense calcified componentes in the regions of basal ganglia. Thyroid ultrasound showed right lobotomization. The diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism was suspected due to symptoms of fatigue, sleepiness, and positive signs of Chvostek and Trousseau, and confirmed by tests that showed significant hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) Because of its insidious picture, the diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism is only slightly elucidated by the clinical exam. In this case, QT prolongation was essential to clarify and treat its etiology. Furthermore, Fahr's disease, although rare, should be considered in a patient with hypoparathyroidism and consistent clinical history.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Basal Ganglia Diseases/complications , Long QT Syndrome/etiology , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Hypoparathyroidism/complications
12.
Rev. chil. cir ; 67(2): 147-152, abr. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-745074

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The most frequent complication after total thyroidectomy is hypocalcemia. It is difficult to predict it. The objective of this paper is determinate if measurement of parathormone 6 hours after total thyroidectomy can predict symptomatic hypocalcemia, and determinate associated factors in the development of this complication. Material and Method: Prospective case series. Patients that underwent total thyroidectomy between 2006 and 2008 in our Hospital. We registered epidemiological data, related surgery factors and measurement of parathormone 6 hours after surgery. Hypocalcemia symptoms were registered. We used statistical analysis considering significant p < 0.05. Results: We included 82 patients. Median age was 53.2 years. 79.3 percent were female. The average of parathormone 6 hours after surgery was 28.7 pg/dL. Sensibility was 100 percent, specificity 79.4 percent, positive predictive value 59.4 percent, negative predictive value 100 percent and accuracy 84.1 percent to predict symptomatic hypocalcaemia. A statistical association among levels under the normal base line of parathormone and symptomatic hypocalcemia was detected (p < 0.0001). Relative risk was 4.84. Univariated analysis showed association between hypocalcemia and pre-operative thyroid cancer diagnosis (p = 0.01), cervical dissection (p = 0.03) and level of parathormone (p = 0.002). Multivariated analysis showed that only the level of parathormone associates with hypocalcemia (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The measurement of parathormone allows identifying which patients are at risk of presenting symptomatic hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy.


Introducción: La complicación más frecuente de la tiroidectomía total es la hipocalcemia. Su predicción es difícil. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar si la medición de parathormona a las 6 h posterior a una tiroidectomía total es un factor que pueda predecir la aparición de hipocalcemia sintomática y determinar los factores asociados al desarrollo de esta complicación. Material y Método: Serie de casos prospectiva. Pacientes intervenidos de tiroidectomía total entre 2006 y 2008 en el Hospital FACH. Se registraron datos epidemiológicos, factores relacionados a la cirugía y la medición de parathormona a las 6 h. Se registraron los síntomas de hipocalcemia. Se utilizó estadística analítica considerando significativo p < 0,05. Resultados: Se enrolaron 82 pacientes. La edad media fue 53,2 años. El 79,3 por ciento fue de sexo femenino. El promedio de parathormona a las 6 h fue 28,7 pg/dL. Se obtuvo sensibilidad 100 por ciento, especificidad 79,4 por ciento, valor predictivo positivo 59,4 por ciento, negativo 100 por ciento y precisión 84,1 por ciento para predecir hipocalcemia. Cuando los valores de PTH estaban bajo el margen normal, el riesgo relativo de hipocalcemia sintomática fue 4,84 (p < 0,0001). El análisis univariado mostró asociación entre hipocalcemia y el diagnóstico pre operatorio de cáncer (p = 0,01), la disección cervical (p = 0,03) y el nivel de parathormona a las 6 h (p = 0,002). El análisis multivariado demostró que sólo el nivel de parathormona se asocia con hipocalcemia (p = 0,002). Conclusión: La medición de parathormona es un elemento que permite estimar de manera adecuada qué pacientes están en riesgo de presentar hipocalcemia sintomática en el post-operatorio precoz de tiroidectomía total.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hypocalcemia/diagnosis , Hypocalcemia/blood , Parathyroid Hormone/analysis , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Analysis of Variance , Follow-Up Studies , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Postoperative Complications , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
14.
West Indian med. j ; 62(3): 201-204, Mar. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045626

ABSTRACT

AIM: Hypocalcaemia evaluation of the clinical, biochemical and radiological features of 91 infants with rickets who presented as hypocalcaemic convulsions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety-one hypocalcaemic infants who were brought to hospital with convulsion and diag-nosed with rickets related to vitamin D deficiency according to their clinical, biochemical and radio-logical features were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Mean values of the laboratory data were as follows: calcium 5.55 ± 0.79 mg/dL, phosphorus 4.77 ± 1.66 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase 1525.5 ± 925.4 U/L and parathormone 256.8 ± 158.3 pg/mL. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were below normal (< 20 ng/mL) in 37 infants. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency should be considered in infants presenting with hypocalcaemia. To avoid complications such as convulsions, clinicians should give vitamin D supplementation to such infants.


OBJETIVO: Evaluación hipocalcémica de los aspectos clínicos, bioquímicos y radiológicos de 91 lactantes con raquitismo, que presentaron convulsiones por hipocalcemia. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Noventa y un lactantes hipocalcémicos llevados al hospital con convulsiones y a quienes se les diagnosticó raquitismo asociado a la deficiencia de vitamina D de acuerdo con sus características, bioquímicas y radiológicas, fueron revisados retrospectivamente. RESULTADOS: Los valores medios de los datos de laboratorio fueron los siguientes: calcio 5.55 ± 0.79 mg/dL, fósforo 4.77 ± 1.66 mg/dL, fosfatasa alcalina 1525.5 ± 925.4 U/L, y paratohormona 256.8± 158.3 pg/mL. Los niveles séricos de la vitamina 25 (OH) D estuvieron por debajo de lo normal en 37 lactantes (< 20 ng/mL). CONCLUSIÓN: La deficiencia de vitamina D debe considerarse en los infantes que se presentan con hipocalcemia. A fin de evitar complicaciones tales como convulsiones, se les debe dar suplementos de vitamina D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Rickets/etiology , Seizures/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Phosphorus/blood , Seizures/blood , Vitamin D/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Calcium/blood , Retrospective Studies , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood
15.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(1): 79-86, fev. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665766

ABSTRACT

We hereby report two patients with parathyroid carcinoma presenting extremely high calcium and PTH levels, severe bone disease, and palpable neck mass at diagnosis. They both underwent parathyroidectomy, and one of them evolved to lung metastasis. Important hypocalcemia was observed after surgery in both: after parathyroidectomy in one patient, and only after surgical removal of the metastasis in the other. Both required intravenous calcium replacement, thus revealing hungry bone syndrome (HBS). HBS usually reflects rapid mineralization after correction of hyperparathyroidism. The more severe the bone disease before surgery, the more prone the patient is to HBS after surgery. Despite being an unfavorable outcome, HBS state suggests that surgical removal of hypersecretory parathyroid tissue was accomplished. In this study, HBS was observed in both patients, who presented severe bone disease prior to surgery. HBS would be expected post-operatively in successful parathyroid carcinoma removal.


O presente artigo descreve o relato de dois pacientes com carcinoma de paratiroide que apresentavam valores intensamente elevados de cálcio sérico e de PTH, associado a doença óssea e presença de nódulo cervical palpável ao diagnóstico. Ambos foram submetidos à paratiroidectomia, sendo que um evoluiu com metástases pulmonares. Hipocalcemia importante foi observada após a paratiroidectomia em um paciente e somente após remoção cirúrgica das metástases pulmonares em outro. Ambos necessitaram de reposição endovenosa de cálcio, revelando, assim, o estado de fome óssea (FO). A presença da FO usualmente reflete rápida mineralização óssea após correção do hiperparatiroidismo; assim, quanto mais severa a doença óssea previa à cirurgia, maior será a FO observada no pós-operatório desses pacientes. Embora inicialmente considerada um evento indesejável, a FO representa a bem-sucedida remoção cirúrgica do tecido paratiroideano hipersecretor. Fome óssea deve ser esperada no pós-operatório do tratamento cirúrgico bem-sucedido do carcinoma de paratiroide.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Parathyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Parathyroidectomy/adverse effects , Calcium/administration & dosage , Carcinoma/secondary , Carcinoma/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Postoperative Period , Parathyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Syndrome
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 110(6): e123-e125, dic. 2012. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-662136

ABSTRACT

La deficiencia de vitamina D y el raquitismo son problemas de salud importantes en los países en desarrollo. El raquitismo congénito es una forma infrecuente de raquitismo. La deficiencia materna de vitamina D es el factor de riesgo más importante para la deficiencia de vitamina D y el raquitismo en los recién nacidos y lactantes. Presentamos el caso de un niño de 2 meses de edad, con convulsiones durante su hospitalización por neumonía. Se diagnosticó raquitismo congénito asociado a deficiencia materna de vitamina D.


Vitamin D deficiency and rickets are major health problems in developing countries. Congenital rickets is a rare form of rickets. Maternal vitamin D deficiency is the most important risk factor for vitamin D deficiency and rickets in newborns and early infancy. In this report, we presented a two-monthold infant with seizures while hospitalized for pulmonary infection. Finally, congenital rickets due to maternal vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Rickets/complications , Rickets/congenital , Seizures/etiology , Developing Countries , Vitamin D Deficiency
17.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 39(6): 476-482, nov.-dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662775

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência e os fatores preditores da hipocalcemia e hipoparatireodismo definitivo pós-tireoidectomia. MÉTODOS: Foi dosado cálcio iônico no pré e no pós-operatório (primeiro, segundo e 30ºdia) em 333 pacientes submetidos à tireoidectomia. Naqueles que apresentaram hipocalcemia, as dosagens foram feitas também aos 90 e 180 dias de pós-operatório, quando se dosou também o paratormônio. Os pacientes foram agrupados segundo a presença ou ausência de hipocalcemia e avaliados segundo idade, sexo, função tireoidiana, volume tireoidiano, número de paratireoides identificadas e necessidade de reimplante de paratireoides, tipo de operação, tempo operatório e diagnóstico histopatológico. RESULTADOS: A incidência de hipocalcemia temporária foi de 40,8% (136 pacientes), e hipoparatireoidismo definitivo de 4,2% (14 pacientes). Tireoidectomia total ou reoperação, esvaziamento cervical, hipertireoidismo, tempo operatório e idade acima de 50 anos foram fatores determinantes de incidência significativamente maior de hipocalcemia e hipoparatireodismo definitivo (p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: os fatores preditores da hipocalcemia pós-operatória incluem idade (>50 anos), tireoidectomia total, reoperação, esvaziamento cervical e tempo operatório. Os fatores preditores do hipoparatireoidismo definitivo pós-tireoidectomia incluíram tipo de operação, diagnóstico histológico e hipertireoidismo.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and predictors of post-thyroidectomy definitive hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. METHODS: We assessed ionic calcium preoperatively and postoperatively (first, second and 30th day) in 333 patients undergoing thyroidectomy. In those presenting hypocalcemia, measurements were also made 90 and 180 days after surgery, when parathormone was also dosed. Patients were grouped according to the presence or absence of hypocalcemia and evaluated according to age, gender, thyroid function, thyroid volume, number of parathyroid glands identified and need to parathyroid reimplantation, type of operation, operative time, and histopathological diagnosis. RESULTS: The incidence of temporary hypocalcemia was 40.8% (136 patients), and of definitive hypoparathyroidism 4.2% (14 patients). Reoperation or total thyroidectomy, neck dissection, hyperthyroidism, operative time and age above 50 years were factors related to higher incidence of hypocalcemia and definitive hypoparathyroidism (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: predictors of postoperative hypocalcemia included age (> 50 years), total thyroidectomy, reoperation, neck dissection and operative time. The predictors of post-thyroidectomy definitive hypoparathyroidism included type of operation, histological diagnosis and hyperthyroidism.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Incidence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
18.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 78(5): 78-82, set.-out. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-654290

ABSTRACT

Hipocalcemia é a complicação mais comum após tireoidectomia total. A dosagem de paratormônio intacto é eficaz para detectar pacientes com risco de desenvolver hipocalcemia sintomática pós-operatória. Todavia, existem divergências sobre qual momento seria mais adequado para a realização deste exame após a cirurgia. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a relação entre níveis séricos de paratormônio intacto dosados em diferentes momentos após tireoidectomia total e risco de hipocalcemia sintomática. MÉTODO:110 pacientes submetidos à tireoidectomia total foram observados para ocorrência de hipocalcemia sintomática associado à dosagem de paratormônio intacto (PTHi) 4h e 12h após a cirurgia. Realizada estimativa de probabilidade de hipocalcemia e avaliação dos resultados de desempenho para os diferentes tempos de dosagem de PTHi isoladamente e de forma seriada. Desenho: Estudo retrospectivo de série de casos. RESULTADOS: Dosagem de PTHi apresentou sensibilidade entre 90,3% e 96,8% para hipocalcemia sintomática e especificidade variando entre 77,2% e 87,3%. Não houve diferença significativa entre a sensibilidade do exame realizado após 4h, 12h ou seriada. Contudo, PTHi colhido 12h após a cirurgia apresentou a maior especificidade (p < 0,007) entre as dosagens. CONCLUSÃO: Dosagem única de PTHi colhida 12h após tireoidectomia pode ser utilizada como triagem para o risco de hipocalcemia sintomática.


Hypocalcemia is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. Intact parathyroid hormone (i-PTH) testing is a proven effective method to detect patients at risk for postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia. However, there is still uncertainty as to the timing of i-PTH testing in a clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: This study looked into the correlation between serum i-PTH levels measured at different times after total thyroidectomy and the risk of symptomatic hypocalcemia. METHODS: This retrospective case series studied a group of 110 consecutive for hypocalcemia and intact parathyroid hormone (PTHi) levels four and twelve hours following total thyroidectomy. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the performance of isolated and serial i-PTH measurements to determine the likelihood of symptomatic hypocalcemia. RESULTS: I-PTH is highly sensitive (90.3%-96.8%) and specific (77.2%-87.3%) for symptomatic hypocalcemia. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity levels of the tests done four and twelve hours after surgery or in a serial fashion. However, the 12-hour i-PTH level was more specific (p < 0.0007). CONCLUSION: Single i-PTH testing done 12 hours after total thyroidectomy may be used as a screening test to detect patients at risk for symptomatic hypocalcemia.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hypocalcemia/diagnosis , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Algorithms , Epidemiologic Methods , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Postoperative Period , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
19.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 56(3): 168-172, Apr. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the measurement of peri-operative parathyroid hormone (PTH) is able to identify patients with increased risk of developing symptoms of hypocalcemia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty patients who underwent total thyroidectomy were studied prospectively. Ionized serum calcium and PTH were measured after induction of anesthesia, one hour (PTH1) and one day after surgery (PTH24). Patients were evaluated for symptoms of hypocalcemia and treated with calcium and vitamin D supplementation as necessary. RESULTS: Symptomatic hypocalcemia developed in 16 patients. Symptomatic patients had significant lower PTH1 and greater drops in PTH levels. The selection of 12.1 ng/L as PTH1 level cutoff level divided patients with and without symptoms with 93.7% sensitivity and 91.6% specificity. The selection of 73.5% as the cutoff value for PTH decrease resulted in 91.6% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. CONCLUSION: PTH1 levels and the drop in PTH levels are reliable predictors of developing symptomatic hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy.


OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar se a medida perioperatória do hormônio da paratireoide (PTH) pode identificar os pacientes com maior risco de desenvolver sintomas de hipocalcemia. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados quarenta pacientes submetidos à tireodiectomia total. A medida do cálcio sérico e do PTH foi feita após a indução anestésica, uma hora (PTH1) e um dia após a cirurgia. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto à presença de sintomas de hipocalcemia e tratados com suplementação de cálcio e vitamina D quando necessário. RESULTADOS: Dezesseis pacientes apresentaram sintomas de hipocalcemia. Os pacientes sintomáticos apresentaram PTH1 significantemente menor e queda no PTH significativamente maior. Usando o valor de 12,1 ng/L como corte, conseguimos distinguir pacientes com e sem sintomas de hipocalcemia com sensibilidade de 93,7% e especificidade de 91,6%. Utilizando como corte a queda de 73,5% no valor do PTH, temos sensibilidade de 91,6% e especificidade de 87,5%. CONCLUSÃO: O PTH1 e a queda no PTH são bons preditores de hipocalcemia no pós-operatório de tireoidectomia total.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Calcium/blood , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , Calcium/administration & dosage , Hypocalcemia/diagnosis , Hypocalcemia/therapy , Parathyroid Glands , Predictive Value of Tests , Preoperative Care , Prospective Studies , Risk , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage
20.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 5(2): 73-75, abr. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-640617

ABSTRACT

We report a 56 years old woman that presented a severe hypocalcemia, with a serum calcium of 4.7 mg/dl, after the intake of bisphosphonates. Laboratory examination showed elevated PTH levels (167 pg/ml), hyperphosphatemia, hypomagnesemia and normal phosphate tubular reabsorption. Therefore, the diagnosis of pseudohypoparathyroidism was considered (PHP). However, further studies showed low levels of 25 OH Vitamin D (13.6 ng /ml), osteoporosis, positive anti endomysium antibodies and an endoscopic biopsy, that confirmed the presence of a celiac disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Magnesium Deficiency/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/etiology , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Pseudohypoparathyroidism/diagnosis
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