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Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 23-32, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362667


O descarte inadequado de medicamentos pode levar a impactos ambientais negativos e deve ser considerado um problema de saúde pública. O presente estudo teve como objetivo levantar dados quantitativos e qualitativos relacionados ao perfil dos medicamentos descartados no município de Governador Valadares - MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido nas UAPS/ESF que possuíam farmácias, e também na Farmácia Central/Policlínica Municipal. Nesses locais, foi realizada uma análise dos medicamentos descartados no período de julho de 2017 a maio de 2018. Por meio dos dados obtidos nesse período foi possível perceber que as principais classes de medicamentos descartadas foram os inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina, antagonistas da angiotensina II, agentes betabloqueadores, diuréticos, hipoglicemiantes, contraceptivos hormonais e agentes modificadores de lipídeos. Além disso, foi realizada uma ação de educação em saúde e aplicado um questionário semiestruturado aos usuários participantes dos grupos operativos. Dos 34 usuários respondentes do questionário, 23 (69,70%) não tinham acesso a informação sobre o local correto de descarte e armazenamento de medicamentos. Após a ação de educação em saúde verificou-se um aumento no quantitativo de medicamentos descartados pelos usuários nas UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I e II, Altinópolis III e IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I e II e Esperança e Nossa Senhora das Graças. O trabalho desenvolvido permitiu apresentar dados relevantes para a gestão municipal demonstrando a importância do farmacêutico no cuidado em saúde e o caráter epidemiológico local da prevalência das doenças crônico não transmissíveis.

The inadequate disposal of drugs can lead to negative environmental impacts and should be treated as a public health problem. This study aimed at surveying quantitative and qualitative data related to the profile of drugs discarded in the city of Governador Valadares - MG. The work was developed in the UAPS / ESF that had pharmacies, and also in the Central Pharmacy/Municipal Polyclinic. In these locations, an analysis of the drugs discarded between July 2017 and May 2018 was carried out. Through the data obtained in this period, it was possible to notice that the main classes of drugs discarded were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, beta-blocking agents, diuretics, hypoglycemic agents, hormonal contraceptives, and lipid-modifying agents. In addition, a health education action was carried out and a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to users participating in the operating groups. From the 34 users who responded the questionnaire, 23 (69.70%) did not have access to information on the correct place to dispose and store medicines. After the health education action, there was an increase in the amount of drugs discarded by users in the UAPS/ESF Mãe de Deus I and II, Altinópolis III and IV, Santa Rita II, São Pedro I and II, and Esperança and Nossa Senhora das Graças. The work carried out made it possible to present relevant data for municipal management, demonstrating the importance of the pharmacist in health care and the local epidemiological character of the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases.

Humans , Male , Female , Pharmacies/supply & distribution , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Patients , Pharmacists/supply & distribution , Tablets/supply & distribution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/supply & distribution , Health Centers , Public Health/education , Health Education , Municipal Management/legislation & jurisprudence , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Drug Storage , Environment , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/supply & distribution , Lipids/supply & distribution
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 68-76, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364297


ABSTRACT The lowest dosage of empagliflozin (10 mg) showed similar benefits on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, body weight, blood pressure, and total and cardiovascular mortality in comparison with the highest available dose (25 mg) in the EMPAREG trial. These findings have not been clearly demonstrated for canagliflozin and dapagliflozin. The objective was to compare the effect of different doses of SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Brazil on HbA1c and body weight of patients with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched from inception until 11th October 2021 for randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes patients, lasting at least 12 weeks. HbA1c and body weight variations were described using standard mean difference. We performed direct and indirect meta-analysis, as well as a meta-regression with medication doses as covariates. Eighteen studies were included, comprising 16,095 patients. In the direct meta-analysis, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced HbA1c by 0.62% (95% CI −0.66 to −0.59) and body weight by 0.60 kg (95% CI −0.64 to −0.55). In the indirect meta-analysis, canagliflozin 300 mg ranked the highest regarding reductions in HbA1c and body weight. The remaining medications and dosages were clinically similar, despite some statistically significant differences among them. Canagliflozin 300 mg seems to be more potent in reducing HbA1c and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. The remaining SGLT2 inhibitors at different doses lead to similar effects for both outcomes. Whether these glycemic and weight effects are reflected in lower mortality and cardiovascular events is still uncertain and may be a topic for further studies.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood , Body Weight , Brazil , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18672, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360164


The use of plants in disease treatment is cost effective and relatively safe. This study was designed to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus alone and in combination therapy in hyperlipidemic & diabetic mice. Eight groups comprising five mice each were used. Group A was hyperlipidemic control, group B, C, D received atorvastatin (20 mg/kg), leaf extract (200 mg/kg) and leaf extract in combination with atorvastatin (200 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) orally for 15 days. Group E was diabetic control. Group F, G, H received sitagliptin (40 mg/kg), leaf extract (200 mg/kg) and extract in combination with sitagliptin (200 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) orally for 7 days. Blood cholesterol levels were measured at 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th day and fasting blood sugar levels were measured at 2, 12, 24, 72 and 168 hours during treatment. One-way ANOVA with tukey- kramer multiple comparison test was used. The chemical characterization of ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus leaves showed presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Ethanolic extract of Catharanthus roseus has significant anti-hyperlipidemic & anti-diabetic effects (p<0.05, p<0.01) when compared with control but had not cause significantly increase in anti-hyperlipidemic effects of atorvastatin. While significantly increased the antidiabetic effect of sitagliptin (p<0.05)

Plant Leaves/classification , Catharanthus/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol/blood , Disease/classification , Alkaloids/blood , Hyperlipidemias/blood
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18628, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364417


Abstract Degenerative diseases diabetes and oxidative stress constitute a major health concern worldwide. Medicinal plants are expected to provide effective and affordable remedies. The present research explored antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of extracts of Carissa opaca roots. Methanolic extract (ME) was prepared through maceration. Its fractions were obtained, sequentially, in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. An aqueous decoction (AD) of the finely ground roots was obtained by boiling in distilled water. The leftover biomass with methanol was boiled in water to obtain biomass aqueous decoction (BAD). The extracts and fractions showed considerable porcine pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 in the range of 5.38-7.12 mg/mL while acarbose had 0.31 mg/mL. The iron chelating activity in terms of EC50 was 0.2939, 0.3429, 0.1876, and 0.1099 mg/mL for AD, BAD, ME, and EDTA, respectively. The EC50 of beta-carotene bleaching activity for AD, BAD, ME, and standard BHA were 4.10, 4.71, 3.48, and 2.79 mg/mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of AD and BAD were also considerable. In general, ethyl acetate fraction proved to be the most potent. Thus, the C. opaca roots had excellent antioxidant activity while having moderate α-amylase inhibitory potentia

Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/analysis , Iron Chelating Agents/analysis , beta Carotene/analysis , Apocynaceae/classification , Disease , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eRW6155, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360404


ABSTRACT Objective To compare the major outcomes of use of metformin and glyburide in treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods Studies published in English, in the last 10 years, in the databases MEDLINE®, SciELO, LILACS and Cochrane Library were analyzed, and randomized controlled trials were selected. Health Sciences Descriptors were used to compose the search phrase, and the keywords "Gestational diabetes", "Glyburide", "Metformin" and their variations were searched in the Medical Subject Headings. PRISMA systematization was used to prepare this review, and a meta-analysis was conducted aiming to mathematically show the results of fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, birth weight and weight gain during pregnancy after using metformin and glyburide. Results The studies evaluated birth weight, neonatal hypoglycemia, mode of delivery, need for intensive care, Apgar score, macrosomia, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose and weight gain during pregnancy. In 60% of studies, there were no statistically significant differences regarding safety and efficacy of administration of metformin and glyburide. Meta-analysis demonstrated the absence of statistical differences between these drugs in fasting blood glucose (p=0.821), postprandial blood glucose (p=0.217) and birth weight (p=0.194). However, significant differences were shown in weight gain during pregnancy (p=0.036). Conclusion The methods are effective, but the adverse effects of glyburide are more common; therefore, the use of metformin should be recommended, if in monotherapy.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Metformin/adverse effects , Metformin/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Glyburide/adverse effects , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(supl.3): 5081-5088, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345760


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o uso e o acesso aos medicamentos para o diabetes mellitus tipo 2 em idosos atendidos na Estratégia Saúde da Família de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo. Trata-se de um inquérito domiciliar de base populacional realizado com 338 idosos, em amostragem por conglomerados. Investigou-se a farmacoterapia do diabetes e o acesso por meio de um questionário estruturado em entrevistas face a face. O número de medicamentos usados no tratamento do diabetes variou de um a quatro. Observou-se o predomínio de antidiabéticos orais, sendo o uso de apenas metformina autorreferido por 37,9% dos idosos, e 9,8% usavam sulfonilureia isoladamente. No grupo de idosos com idade igual ou superior a 80 anos, percebeu-se maior frequência (38,9%) no uso de insulina do que nos outros grupos etários. O acesso total foi estimado em 96,4%, a forma de financiamento gratuita correspondeu a 78,1% e as farmácias do Sistema Único de Saúde foram os principais locais de provisão dos medicamentos (74,8%). A metformina foi o antidiabético oral mais usado pelos idosos, em conformidade com as atuais recomendações para o tratamento da doença. Contudo, verificou-se usos inapropriados, especificamente na utilização isolada de sulfonilureia. Além disso, evidenciou-se a importância do sistema público de saúde para o fornecimento dos medicamentos.

Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the use and access to medications for type 2 diabetes among older people registered in the family health strategy in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo. A population-based household survey was undertaken with 338 older adults selected using two-stage cluster sampling. Pharmacotherapy of diabetes and access to medications was investigated using a structured questionnaire administered by means of face-to-face interviews. The number of medicines used to treat diabetes ranged between 1 and 4. Respondents predominantly used only oral antidiabetic agents. The use of metformin and sulfonylureas on their own was reported by 37.9% and 9.8% of respondents, respectively. Frequency of insulin use was greatest in the 80 years and overage group (38.9%). The large majority of respondents (96.4%) had full access to medicines. Means of payment was "free of charge" in 78.1% of the respondents and public pharmacies were the main source of medication (74.8%). The most commonly used oral antidiabetic was metformin, which is consistent with current treatment guidelines. However, the findings show inappropriate medication use among older people, more specifically the use of sulfonylureas on their own. The findings of this study highlight the important role played by the public health service in providing medications for type 2 diabetes.

Humans , Aged , Pharmacies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Brazil , Health Services Accessibility , Hypoglycemic Agents
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 80-83, 13 oct. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342237


El suicidio es un problema de salud pública grave, vincula frecuentemente al consumo de medicamentos. La metformina es un fármaco antihiperglicemiante de fácil acceso y la sobredosis implica riesgos metabólicos, entre ellos, la acidosis láctica es el principal. Teniendo en cuenta la frecuencia de su consumo, es necesario que el personal de salud conozca los riesgos que implica la intoxicación y los signos y síntomas iniciales, pues del manejo adecuado dependerá un pronóstico favorable. El objetivo de este reporte es evidenciar los riesgos metabólicos renales-hemodinámicos, asociados a la toxicidad por metformina, además de resaltar la necesidad de considerar el uso temprano de la terapia de remplazo renal y de concientizar a los clínicos de que exponer a los pacientes a un medicamento, es también exponerlo a efectos adversos o a abuso con fines autolesivos.

Suicide is a serious public health problem that increases worldwide. In Medellín, its incidence is on the rise, and the most frequent mechanism is the ingestion of drugs. Metformin is an antihyperglycemic medication that is easily accessible and frequently used, because it is part of the first line of management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. One of the complications associated with its use is lactic acidosis, which can lead to serious toxicity. Therefore, it is necessary for the health personnel to be aware of the signs and symptoms that can initially appear in the case of intoxication, since a favorable prognosis depends on adequate management. The objective of this report is to present two clinical cases that evidence the wide spectrum of toxicity secondary to the use of metformin and to review the available evidence of the approach to this poisoning, emphasizing the importance of early use of renal replacement therapy.

O suicídio é um grave problema de saúde pública, frequentemente relacionado ao consu-mo de drogas. A metformina é um anti-hiperglicêmico de fácil acesso e a sobredosagem envolve riscos metabólicos, entre eles, a acidose láctica é o principal. Considerando a frequência de seu consumo, é necessário que o pessoal de saúde conheça os riscos das intoxicações e os sinais e sintomas iniciais, pois um prognóstico favorável dependerá de manejo adequado. O objetivo deste relatório é demonstrar os riscos metabólicos renais-hemodinâmicos associados à toxicidade da metformina, além de destacar a necessidade de considerar o uso precoce da terapia de substituição renal e alertar os médicos sobre o que expor os pacientes a um medicamento. a efeitos adversos ou abuso para fins autolesivos.

Humans , Suicide , Metformin , Acidosis, Lactic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Toxicity , Hypoglycemic Agents
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 621-631, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153391


Abstract Campomanesia xanthocarpa, a plant belonging to the Myrtaceae family, is popularly known as gabiroba. Leaves of gabiroba has been popularly used to treat various diseases, including inflammatory, renal, and digestive, among others. Additionally, studies have shown an effect to reduce blood cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Campomanesia xanthocarpa seed extract in hyperglycemic rats. The results showed that 400 mg/kg of seed extract was able to decrease blood glucose levels and to increase the muscular and hepatic glycogen content as well as to inhibit the sucrase and maltase activity. At doses of 200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg, the activity of these enzymes was also reduced. In the lipid profile 400 mg/kg produced a decrease in total and LDL cholesterol serum levels; and with 200 mg/kg there was an increase in HDL cholesterol levels. The extract did not present hepatic and renal toxic effects at the different doses tested. The results suggest that the treatment with Campomanesia xanthocarpa seeds extract is useful in reducing glycemia, total cholesterol and LDL levels with potential adjuvant therapeutic in the treatment of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, however, additional pharmacological and toxicological studies are still required.

Resumo Campomanesia xanthocarpa, planta pertencente à família Mirtaceae, é popularmente conhecida como gabiroba. Folhas da gabiroba são popularmente usadas para tratar de doenças inflamatórias, renais, digestivas entre outras. Além disso, estudos têm mostrado um efeito redutor dos níveis de colesterol. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos anti-hiperglicêmico e hipolipidêmico do extrato de sementes de Campomanesia xanthocarpa em ratos hiperglicêmicos. Os resultados mostraram que 400 mg/kg do extrato da semente foi capaz de reduzir os níveis de glicose sanguínea e aumentar o conteúdo de glicogênio hepático e muscular, bem como inibir a atividade da maltase e sacarase. Na dose de 200 mg/kg e 800 mg/kg, a atividade das enzimas também foi reduzida. No perfil lipídico, 400 mg/kg produziu uma redução nos níveis séricos de colesterol total e LDL e com 200 mg/kg houve um aumento nos níveis de colesterol HDL. O extrato não apresentou efeitos tóxicos hepáticos e renais nas doses testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o tratamento com o extrato de Campomanesia xanthocarpa é eficaz na redução da glicemia, de colesterol total e LDL com potencial para tratamento adjuvante do diabetes e hipercolesterolemia, no entanto estudos farmacológicos e toxicológicos adicionais são necessários.

Animals , Rats , Carbon Dioxide , Myrtaceae , Seeds , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 524-535, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369071


Microsechium helleri (Cucurbitaceae) has been used in ethnopharmacological as a lotion to prevent hair loss, diuretic and cathartic, in the region of central Veracruz, Mexico is used as antidiabetic. The antioxidant properties of the hexanic (EHex), chloroformic (ECHCl3) and ethanolic (EEtOH) extracts, were evaluated by 2,2diphenyl-1-pychrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, the Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and the total phenolic content test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in the acute ear edema induced with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA) in mouse and the hypoglycemic and cardioprotective effects of the EEtOH were determined in rats. The EEtOH was the most active in the antioxidant potential DPPH test and the ECHCl3 was the best in the FRAP assay and the total polyphenols content. In the anti-inflammatory assay, the ECHCl3 showed the most activity. The EEtOH had the decreased the glucose levels and reduced myocardial damage. The results support the use of this plant in folk medicine in Mexico as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and cardioprotective.

Microsechium helleri (Cucurbitaceae) se utiliza en etnofarmacología como una loción para prevenir la caída del cabello, como diurético y catártico, en la región del centro de Veracruz, México es usado como antidiabético. Las propiedades antioxidantes de los extractos hexánico (EHex), clorofórmico (ECHCl3) y etanólico (EEtOH), se evaluaron mediante la prueba de 2,2difenil-1-psililhidrazilo (DPPH), el poder reductor férrico/poder antioxidante (FRAP) y el contenido fenólico total. El efecto anti-inflamatorio se evaluó en el edema agudo de la oreja inducido con forbol 12-miristato 13-acetato (TPA) en ratones y se determinaron los efectos hipoglucémicos y cardioprotectores del EEtOH en ratas. El EEtOH fue el más activo en la prueba DPPH de potencial antioxidante y el ECHCl3 fue el mejor en el ensayo FRAP y el contenido total de polifenoles. En el ensayo antiinflamatorio, el ECHCl3 mostró la mayor actividad. El EEtOH disminuyó los niveles de glucosa y redujo el daño miocárdico. Los efectos hipoglucémicos y cardioprotector del extracto de EEtOH se determinaron en ratas, donde el extracto disminuyó los niveles de glucosa y redujo el daño miocárdico. Los resultados apoyan el uso de esta planta en la medicina popular en México como antioxidante, anti-inflamatorio, hipoglucemiante y cardioprotector.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cardiotonic Agents/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Mexico , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(2): e401, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1289997


La diabetes mellitus, la insuficiencia cardíaca y la enfermedad renal crónica tienen alta prevalencia en la población. Asimismo, estas patologías están comprendidas en un "círculo vicioso" porque comparten mecanismos fisiopatológicos que predisponen a su coexistencia en un mismo paciente, incrementando significativamente el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares. Recientemente se han agregado al arsenal terapéutico las gliflozinas, un grupo de fármacos con beneficios en las tres enfermedades mencionadas. Saber cómo se desarrolló la investigación con estos fármacos y sus mecanismos de acción es fundamental para optimizar el tratamiento de los pacientes.

Diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease are highly prevalent in the population. Likewise, these pathologies are included in a "vicious circle" because they share pathophysiological mechanisms that predispose to their coexistence in the same patient, significantly increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. Gliflozins, a group of drugs with benefits in the three mentioned pathologies, have recently been added to the therapeutic arsenal. Knowing how research with these drugs and its mechanisms of action is essential to optimize the treatment of patients.

Diabetes mellitus, insuficiência cardíaca e doença renal crônica são altamente prevalentes na população. Estas patologias fazem parte de um "círculo vicioso", compartilhando mecanismos fisiopatológicos que predispõem à coexistência no mesmo paciente, e aumentando significativamente o risco de eventos cardiovasculares. As gliflozinas, são un grupo de drogas com benefícios das três patologias citadas, foram adicionadas recentemente ao arsenal terapêutico. Saber como foram desenvolvidas as pesquisas com esses medicamentos e seus mecanismos de ação é essencial para otimizar o tratamento dos pacientes.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(6): 2301-2310, jun. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278708


Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease marked by elevated blood glucose levels. Controlling DM involves adequate diet, physical exercises, medicines and monitoring the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. This was a retrospective study of the process of dispensing long-acting insulin analogues to users with diabetes (types 1 and 2) who were registered at high-cost public pharmacies in public health system in a southeast state of Brazil, that sought to evaluate the fulfillment of the criteria of all the clinical protocol to provide these analogs. Of the 987 users registered in the health service, 315 met the inclusion criteria for the study. The evaluation of the dispensing processes of the long-acting insulin analogues revealed that the inclusion, exclusion, and suspension criteria of the protocol related with these insulin analogues were in some extend only partially fulfilled. Additionally, there was no difference between the initial and final fasting glycemic and HbA1c levels. It is concluded that the established criteria for dispensing long-acting insulin analogues were partly fulfilled by pharmacies, compromising the rational use of these analogues. It can directly impact the cost of maintaining the public health service and users' health.

Resumo Diabetes mellitus (DM) é uma doença crônica marcada por níveis sanguíneos elevados de glicose. O controle do DM envolve dieta adequada, exercícios físicos, medicamentos e monitoramento dos níveis sanguíneos de glicose e de hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c). Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo do processo de dispensação de análogos de insulina de ação prolongada a usuários com diabetes (tipos 1 e 2) cadastrados em farmácias públicas de alto custo do sistema público de saúde de um estado do Sudeste do Brasil, que buscou avaliar o cumprimento dos critérios do protocolo clínico para fornecimento desses análogos. Dos 987 usuários cadastrados no serviço de saúde, 315 preencheram os critérios de inclusão. A avaliação dos processos de dispensação dos análogos de insulina de ação prolongada revelou que os critérios de inclusão, exclusão e suspensão do protocolo dos análogos de insulina eram parcialmente cumpridos. Além disso, não houve diferença entre os níveis inicial e final de glicemia em jejum e HbA1c. Conclui-se que os critérios estabelecidos para dispensação de análogos de insulina de ação prolongada foram parcialmente cumpridos pelas farmácias, comprometendo o uso racional dos análogos. Os achados podem impactar diretamente no custo de manutenção do serviço público de saúde e na saúde do usuário.

Humans , Pharmacies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose , Brazil , Clinical Protocols , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Insulin, Long-Acting , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-14, jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284430


En el nivel primario de atención se detectan errores en la prescripción del tratamiento farmacológico de la diabetes tipo 2. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la calidad de la prescripción de hipoglucemiantes orales en pacientes atendidos en consultorios del médico de la familia del Policlínico Universitario Hermanos Cruz, municipio Pinar del Río, Cuba. Se realizó un estudio de utilización de medicamentos de tipo descriptivo y transversal clasificado dentro de estos como de indicación-prescripción con elementos de esquema terapéutico y de factores que condicionan los hábitos de prescripción. El universo estuvo conformado por 1575 pacientes con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tratados con hipoglucemiantes orales que pertenecían a los 20 consultorios médicos de la familia.La muestra de estudio se obtuvo por el método de muestreo no probabilístico (por conveniencia) (n=846). La información se obtuvo de la historia clínica y tarjeta control de los pacientes para adquirir estos medicamentos. Predominó la edad de 40-49 años, el sexo femenino y entre 5-10 años de evolución de la enfermedad. No se usó la primera línea de tratamiento en el 43,6 % de los casos, ningún caso tenía estudios de laboratorio para el uso de la Metformina. La prescripción y dosis fue adecuada no así su uso racional. Las interacciones más frecuentes fueron las farmacocinéticas.El uso racional de hipoglucemiantes orales fue deficiente lo que hace necesario ampliar la divulgación de un protocolo de tratamiento para mejorar el uso de estos fármacos en el nivel primario de atención.

Errors in the prescription of drug treatment for type 2 diabetes are detected at the primary level of care. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the prescription of oral hypoglycemic agents in patients attended in the family doctor's offices of the Hermanos Cruz University Polyclinic, Pinar del Río distrit, Cuba. A descriptive and cross-sectional study of the use of medications was carried out, classified within these as indication-prescription with elements of the therapeutic scheme and factors that condition prescription habits. The universe was made up of 1575 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral hypoglycemic agents who belonged to the 20 family medical offices. The study sample was carried out by the non-probabilistic sampling method (for convenience) (n = 846). The information was obtained from the clinical history and control card of the patients to acquire these medications. The age of 40-49 years, the female sex and between 5-10 years of evolution of the disease predominated. The first line of treatment was not used in 43.6% of the cases; no case had laboratory studies for the use of Metformin. The prescription and dose was adequate, but not its rational use. The most frequent interactions were pharmacokinetic ones.The rational use of oral hypoglycemic agents was deficient, which makes it necessary to expand the dissemination of a treatment protocol to improve the use of these drugs at the primary level of care.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Drug Prescriptions , Primary Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Administration, Oral , Age Factors , Cuba , Drug Interactions , Drug Utilization
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(1): e36104, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1252413


La diabetes mellitus es una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial. Este grupo de pacientes generalmente representa una población con alto o muy alto riesgo cardiovascular, razón por la cual se realiza una estratificación precoz del riesgo, buscando enfocarse objetivamente en el abordaje farmacológico y no farmacológico con una estrategia intensiva. La enfermedad cardiovascular representa la principal causa de mortalidad, pero en los últimos años se han producido avances en la terapéutica que han demostrado reducir los eventos cardiovasculares mayores. Este artículo revisa la interacción entre diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares y su tratamiento.

Diabetes mellitus is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This group of patients generally represents a population with high or very high cardiovascular risk, that is the reason for an early stratification of risk, seeking to objectively focus on pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach with an intensive strategy. Cardiovascular disease represents the main cause of mortality, but in recent years there have been advances in therapeutics that have been shown to reduce major cardiovascular events. This article reviews the interaction between diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and their treatment.

A diabetes mellitus é uma das principais causas de morbimortalidade em todo o mundo. Esse grupo de pacientes geralmente representa uma população com alto ou muito alto risco cardiovascular, razão pela qual se estratifica precocemente o risco, buscando enfocar objetivamente a abordagem farmacológica e não farmacológica com estratégia intensiva. A doença cardiovascular representa a principal causa de mortalidade, mas nos últimos anos houve avanços na terapêutica que mostraram reduzir os eventos cardiovasculares maiores. Este artigo analisa a interação entre diabetes, doenças cardiovasculares e seu tratamento.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Risk Assessment , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
Femina ; 49(4): 251-256, 20210430.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224096


O diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) é uma complicação que atinge o metabolismo da gestante, resultando em intolerância à glicose e consequente hiperglicemia, originada pela insuficiência de insulina materna. Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar os tratamentos disponíveis e mais utilizados para o DMG. Trata-se de um uma revisão de literatura, feita a partir de 22 referências, acerca dos tratamentos para o DMG. As bases de dados escolhidas foram Google Acadêmico, UpToDate, SciELO e o acervo da Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Estudos apontam a insulina humana ­ NPH e regular ­ como a principal escolha, quando comparada aos seus análogos, apesar de ainda existirem muitas controvérsias quanto ao início do tratamento, o esquema terapêutico e os ajustes das doses. Pesquisas têm demonstrado bons resultados sobre a eficácia e a segurança dos hipoglicemiantes orais ­ gliburida e metformina ­ no tratamento de gestantes diabéticas, mas é evidente a necessidade de mais estudos para confirmar a efetividade deles e garantir um bom desenvolvimento do concepto. Concluiu-se que o controle dietético e o exercício físico são a primeira opção de tratamento para o DMG. Todavia, caso a euglicemia não seja atingida, opta-se pelo tratamento medicamentoso por meio da insulinoterapia ou hipoglicemiantes orais, o que possibilita a redução da incidência dos efeitos adversos ao binômio materno-fetal.(AU)

Gestational diabetes mellitus (DMG) is a complication that affects the pregnant woman's metabolism, resulting in glucose intolerance and consequent hyperglycemia, caused by insufficient maternal insulin. This study aims to identify the available and most used treatments for DMG. This is a literature review, based on 22 references, about treatments for Gestational Diabetes; the databases chosen were Google Scholar, UpToDate, SciELO and the collection of the Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Studies point to human insulin ­ NPH and regular ­ as the main choice when compared to its analogues, although there are still many controversies about the beginning of treatment, therapeutic scheme and dose adjustments. Researches have shown good results on the efficacy and safety of oral hypoglycemic agents ­ glyburide and metformin ­ in the treatment of diabetic pregnant women, but it is evident the need for further studies to confirm their effectiveness and to guarantee a good development of the fetus. It was concluded that dietary control and physical exercise are the first treatment option for DGM. However, if euglycemia is not achieved, drug treatment is chosen through insulin therapy or oral hypoglycemic agents, which makes it possible to reduce the incidence of adverse effects to the maternal-fetal binomial.(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/diet therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Exercise , Databases, Bibliographic , Glyburide/adverse effects , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metformin/adverse effects , Metformin/therapeutic use
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 164-171, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248819


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hypoglycemia and the treatment satisfaction in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using insulin analogues. Subjects and methods: This observational retrospective study included 516 adult patients with T1D from 38 cities in Southern Brazil. Demographics and clinical data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Hypoglycemia was defined as an event based on either symptoms or self-monitored blood glucose < 70 mg/dL. Treatment satisfaction was evaluated using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire status version (DTSQs) and with a specific question with scores ranging from 0-10. Common mental disorders were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: Overall, the mean age was 38 ± 14 years and 52% of the participants were women. The median diabetes duration was 18 years. The scores for insulin analogue treatment satisfaction were higher than those for previous treatments. DTSQ scores had a median value of 32 (interquartile range 29-35) and remained unchanged over time. The percentage of patients with hypoglycemia (including severe and nocturnal) was comparable across groups divided according to duration of use of insulin analogues. Most patients (n=395, 77%) screened positive for common mental disorders. Conclusions: Patient satisfaction with insulin analogue treatment was high and remained unchanged with time. Episodes of hypoglycemia also remained unchanged over time among patients using insulin analogues.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Insulins/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Middle Aged
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 185-197, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248805


ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of the study was to evaluate the patients' glycemic control and adherence to self-care tasks. Materials and methods: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA) using a multiple daily injection (MDI) regimen with carbohydrate counting (n = 25, Subgroup B) or fixed insulin dose (n = 25, Subgroup C) were allocated to use the application (app) for 12 weeks. Both subgroups were compared with each other and against a control group (n = 25, Group A) comprising patients with T1DM or LADA treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in a parallel-group, open-label, clinical treatment trial. All patients had glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels measured and were asked to fill out the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) questionnaire at study start and end. The patients were instructed to measure capillary glucose six times daily in study weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: Mean A1C levels decreased 0.725% in Subgroup C in intragroup analysis (p = 0.0063), and had a mean variation of 0.834% compared with Group A (p = 0.003). Mean DSMP scores increased 5.77 points in Subgroup B in intragroup analysis (p = 0.0004) and increased by a mean of 6.815 points in relation to Group A (p = 0.002). Conclusion: OneTouch Reveal improved both A1C levels and DSMP scores in patients with T1DM or LADA compared with standard treatment (CSII).

Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Mobile Applications , Self Care , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Insulin Infusion Systems , Glycemic Control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
Rev. ciênc. méd., (Campinas) ; 30: e215075, 10 mar. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151684


A quantidade de pessoas obesas vem crescendo significativamente em todo o mundo.Esse fato representa um risco para o aumento do número de portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. A farmacoterapia do diabetes pode alterar o peso corporal, auxiliando tanto na perda como no ganho ponderal. Diante disso, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi revisar os fármacos utilizados no tratamento da diabetes tipo 2 que podem interferir no peso corporal, a fim de auxiliar os profissionais na orientação de indivíduos portadoresda doença. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão integrativa nas bases de dados: SciELO, Scholar Google, PubMed, BVS e Portal de Periódicos Capes, a partir de trabalhos publicados entre 2010 e 2019. Observou-se que as biguanidas, os inibidores da α-glicosidade, os análogos de incretinas, os análogos da amilina e os inibidores do cotransportador de sódio/glicose acarretam perda de peso. Por outro lado, as sulfonilureias, as meglitinidas e as glitazonas conferem ganho de peso ao paciente. Sendo assim, a prescrição desses fármacos deve ser feita de maneira individualizada

Obesity has been growing significantly worldwide, representing a risk for the increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pharmacotherapy of diabetes can alter body weight, aiding in weight loss as well as in weight gain. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to review studies on the drugs used in type 2 diabetes that may interfere with body weight, in order to assist professionals in guiding individuals with diabetes. For this, an integrative review was performed in the SciELO, Scholar Google, PubMed, VHL, and Portal of Capes journals databases, considering works published between 2010 and 2019. We observed that biguanides, α-glucosity inhibitors, analogues of incretins, amylin analogues, and sodium / glucose co-transporter inhibitors lead to weight loss. On the other hand, sulphonylureas, meglitinides, and glitazones confer weight gain. Therefore, the prescription of these drugs should be made in an individualized fashion

Pharmaceutical Services , Body Weight , Health Personnel , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents , Weight Gain , Obesity
Femina ; 49(3): 177-182, 20210331.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224087


O diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) é um distúrbio metabólico por déficit na produção e/ou ação insulínica. Tem relação direta com um constante estado catabólico associado com maior resistência à ação da insulina. Doença de difícil controle, implica risco materno-fetal elevado. O objetivo é estudar a eficácia das drogas antidiabéticas orais sobre o controle glicêmico no DMG e sua segurança quanto aos desfechos gestacionais e perinatais. Trata-se de revisão de literatura descritiva baseada em dados de artigos, livros-texto e guidelines emitidos nos últimos cinco anos. O antidiabético oral pode ser uma boa alternativa no controle do DMG em fase inicial da doença, na presença de distúrbio metabólico e como complemento da terapia com insulina. Entretanto, por causa de sua passagem placentária, há preocupações com seus efeitos fetais e perinatais. Estudos comparativos destacam a metformina no manejo do DMG, considerando principalmente a segurança materno-fetal.(AU)

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder caused by deficit in production and/or insulin action. It is directly related to a constant catabolic state associated with greater resistance to insulin action. Disease difficult to control, implies high maternal-fetal risk. To study the efficacy of oral antidiabetic drugs on glycemic control in GDM and its safety regarding gestational and perinatal outcomes. Descriptive literature review based on data from articles, textbooks and guidelines issued in the last five years. Oral antidiabetic can be a good alternative in the control of GDM in the initial phase of the disease, in the presence of metabolic disorder and as a complement to insulin therapy. However, there are concerns about its placental passage and perinatal effects. Comparative studies highlight metformin in the management of DMG considering mainly maternal-fetal safety.(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Risk Factors , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Acarbose/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 138-145, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289066


RESUMO Objetivo: Duplicar a percentagem de tempo no intervalo glicêmico 100 - 180mg/dL nos primeiros 3 meses após implementação faseada de um programa de educação formal e, posteriormente, de um protocolo de insulinoterapia, sem condicionar um aumento da frequência de hipoglicemia. Métodos: Foi feita a avaliação retrospetiva do controle glicêmico pré-intervenção. Foram realizados: implementação de um programa formal de educação; distribuição de algoritmos manuais de insulinoterapia endovenosa - otimizados pelos utilizadores, a partir do protocolo de Yale modificado - e formação informal da equipe de enfermagem. Foi dado apoio à utilização dos sistemas eletrônicos de controle glicêmico e do registo prospetivo dos resultados. Resultados: A primeira fase do programa (educação formal) melhorou o tempo no intervalo euglicêmico (28% para 37%). A segunda fase permitiu atingir 66% do tempo de euglicemia, com diminuição das hipoglicemias. A percentagem de doentes sob perfusão endovenosa de insulina às 48 horas de internamento aumentou (6% para 35%). Conclusão: A implementação faseada de um programa formal de educação que favoreceu a aplicação de protocolos de insulinoterapia eletrônicos e manuais dinâmicos demonstrou ter aderência e ser segura e eficaz no controle glicêmico no doente crítico, com diminuição concomitante das hipoglicemias.

ABSTRACT Objective: To double the percentage of time within the 100 - 180mg/dL blood glucose range in the first three months following a phased implementation of a formal education program, and then, of an insulin therapy protocol, without entailing an increased incidence of hypoglycemia. Methods: The pre-intervention glycemic control was assessed retrospectively. Next, were carried out the implementation of a formal education program, distribution of manual algorithms for intravenous insulin therapy - optimized by the users, based on the modified Yale protocol - and informal training of the nursing staff. The use of electronic blood glucose control systems was supported, and the results were recorded prospectively. Results: The first phase of the program (formal education) lead to improvement of the time within the euglycemic interval (28% to 37%). In the second phase, euglycemia was achieved 66% of the time, and the incidence of hypoglycemia was decreased. The percentage of patients on intravenous insulin infusion at 48 hours from admission increased from 6% to 35%. Conclusion: The phased implementation of a formal education program, fostering the use of electronic insulin therapy protocols and dynamic manuals, received good adherence and has shown to be safe and effective for blood glucose control in critically ill patients, with a concomitant decrease in hypoglycemia.

Humans , Glycemic Control , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Portugal , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888064


Trigonella foenum-graecum is an annual plant of the genus Trigonella in the Leguminosae family. It is widely distributed in China and has a long history of application. According to phytochemistry research, the seeds, stem, and leaves of this herb contain not only a variety of bioactive ingredients, including alkaloids, saponins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, and phenols, but also abundant nutrients such as unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids and various trace elements. Pharmacological studies have shown that both the extract of T. foenum-graecum and its chemical constituents exhibit hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antitumor, antioxidative, antimicro-bial, and hepatoprotective activities. This paper reviews the research progress on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of T. foenum-graecum, which may contribute to further development, application, and clinical research of this herb.

Antioxidants/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Seeds , Trigonella