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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21820, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439542


ABSTRACT Diabetes is a life-threatening disease, and currently available synthetic medicines for treating diabetes are associated with various side effects. Therefore, there is an unmet need to develop herbal remedies against diabetes as an alternative to synthetic medicines. Although local healers use the roots of Spermadicyton suaveolens (SS) to manage diabetes, there is negligible research to validate its antidiabetic properties. The present investigation aims to the assess the antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of S. Suaveolen's roots (EESS) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The extract was screened for in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity. The in vivo antidiabetic potential of EESS (at 200 and 400 mg/kg) was studied on STZ-induced diabetic rats for 20 days. The EESS displayed significant (p<0.05) antidiabetic and antioxidant properties. The administration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg EESS in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced hyperglycemia, and restored antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile-a high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased by the administration of a single dose of streptozotocin. Thus, EESS could be a promising herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Streptozocin/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Herbal Medicine/classification , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Synthetic Drugs/adverse effects , Hyperlipidemias/complications
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21159, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447571


Abstract Schiff bases are aldehyde-or ketone-like chemical compounds in which an imine or azomethine group replaces the carbonyl group. Such compounds show various beneficial biological activities, such as anti-inflammation and antioxidants. The present study addresses comprehensiveevaluation of antidiabetic effect of two novel dibromides and dichlorides substituted Schiff bases substituted Schiff bases (2,2'-[1,2-cyclohexanediylbis (nitriloethylidyne)]bis[4-chlorophenol] (CNCP) and 2, 2'-[1,2-cyclohexanediylbis(nitriloethylidyne)]bis[4-bromophenol] (CNBP) with two different doses, high (LD) and low (LD) in streptozotocin and nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. The rats were separated into normal, untreated, treated and reference groups. Except for the normal group, diabetes traits were induced in the rest animals. Insulin level was measured, and the effect of the compounds on biochemical parameters of liver function and lipid profile were evaluated. High glucose and decreased insulin level are observed in the groups. The histological evaluation confirms that the hepatic architecture in the treated animals with a low dose of CNCP is quite similar to that of the normal hepatic structure and characterized by normal central vein, hepatocytes without any fatty alterations and mild red blood cell infiltration. CNCP (LD) and CNBP (HD) are more successful in enhancing cell survival in the diabetic rat's liver and can be responsible for causing much healthier structure and notable morphology improvement.

Animals , Male , Rats , Schiff Bases/agonists , Streptozocin/antagonists & inhibitors , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Nicotinamidase/antagonists & inhibitors
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(1): 115-119, ene. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389609


ABSTRACT Insulin antibodies (IAs) induced by exogenous insulin rarely cause hypoglycemia. However, insulin autoantibodies (IAAs) in insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) can cause hypoglycemia. The typical manifestations of IAS are fasting or postprandial hypoglycemia, elevated insulin level, decreased C-peptide levels, and positive IAA. We report a 45-year-old male with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treated with insulin analogues suffering from recurrent hypoglycemic coma and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). His symptoms were caused by exogenous insulin and were similar to IAS. A possible reason was that exogenous insulin induced IA. IA titers were 61.95% (normal: 300 mU/L and < 0.02 nmol/L when hypoglycemia occurred. Based on his clinical symptoms and other examinations, he was diagnosed with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia caused by IA. His symptoms improved after changing insulin regimens from insulin lispro plus insulin detemir to recombinant human insulin (Gensulin R) and starting prednisone.

Los anticuerpos contra la insulina (AI) inducidos por la insulina exógena raramente causan hipoglucemia. No obstante, los autoanticuerpos contra la insulina (AIA) en el síndrome autoinmune de insulina (SAI) pueden causar hipoglucemia. Las manifestaciones típicas del SAI son la hipoglucemia en ayunas o posprandial, niveles elevados de insulina, la disminución del nivel de péptido C y AIA positivos. Presentamos un paciente hombre de 45 años con diabetes mellitus de tipo 1 (DMT1) tratado con análogos de insulina, que sufría comas hipoglucémicos recurrentes y cetoacidosis diabética (CAD). Sus síntomas fueron causados por la insulina exógena y fueron similares al SAI. La posible razón fue que la insulina exógena indujo AI. El título de AI era del 61,95% (Normal: 300 mU/L y < 0,02 nmol/L cuando se producía la hipoglucemia. Basados en sus síntomas clínicos y otros exámenes, se le diagnosticó hipoglucemia hiperinsulinémica causada por la AI. Sus síntomas mejoraron después de cambiar el régimen de insulina de lispro más insulina detemir a insulina humana recombinante (Gensulin R) y de empezar a tomar prednisona.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/chemically induced , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , C-Peptide/therapeutic use , Coma , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Antibodies/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(2): 63-70, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391657


La metformina es un hipoglicemiante ampliamente utilizado en el tratamiento de mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOP) por su acción como sensibilizante a la insulina, demostrando tener múltiples efectos favorables en parámetros clínicos y bioquímicos. Especial interés ha causado la variabilidad interindividual en el tratamiento con metformina, que se manifiesta con una respuesta subóptima en diversos grados o con la presencia de efectos adversos, principalmente gastrointestinales. Hasta ahora, pocos estudios han caracterizado este fenómeno en el SOP, así como los mecanismos que le subyacen. Se ha propuesto que variantes de genes envueltos en el transporte y acción de metformina podrían contribuir a la heterogeneidad de su respuesta. En este sentido, se han identificado polimorfismos de nucleótidos únicos (SNPs) en los transportadores de cationes orgánicos, en las proteínas de extrusión de múltiples fármacos y toxinas, y en proteínas quinasas; cuyas principales acciones son a nivel intestinal, hepático y renal, afectando la absorción, distribución y excreción de metformina, probablemente por modificaciones en su farmacocinética. Hasta ahora los escasos estudios disponibles en el SOP han identificado SNPs que estarían afectando la eficacia del tratamiento, sin embargo, no se ha profundizado en los efectos adversos asociados a las variantes genéticas. Es evidente que dichas variantes tienen relevancia clínica y que debieran ser consideradas al diseñar un tratamiento farmacológico, para optimizar su efectividad y minimizar reacciones adversas. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar la información sobre las variantes genéticas asociadas a la variabilidad en la respuesta del tratamiento con metformina en el SOP.

Metformin is a hypoglycemic agent widely used in the treatment of women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) due to its action as an insulin sensitizer and its multiple favorable effects on clinical and biochemical parameters. There is great concern regarding the inter-individual variability in the response to metformin treatment, which may manifest as a suboptimal effect to varying degrees or by the presence of adverse effects, mainly gastrointestinal. Until now, scarce studies have characterized this phenomenon in PCOS, as well as the mechanisms that underlie it. It has been proposed that genetic variants involved in metformin transport and action could contribute to the heterogeneity of its response. In this sense, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in organic cation transporters, in multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins, and in protein kinases; whose main actions are at the intestinal, hepatic and renal levels, affecting the absorption, distribution and excretion of metformin, probably due to modifications in the pharmacokinetics of the drug. Until now, the few studies available on PCOS have identified SNPs that may be affecting the efficacy of the treatment. However, the adverse effects associated with genetic variants have not been studied in depth. These variants may have clinical relevance and should be considered when designing a pharmacological treatment, to optimize its effectiveness and minimize adverse reactions. The objective of this article is to review the information on genetic variants associated with variability in the response to metformin treatment in PCOS.

Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/genetics , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Metformin/adverse effects , Genetic Variation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928939


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effects of acupuncture on hypoglycaemic outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).@*METHODS@#PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and were searched from inception up to July 2020, to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled patients with T2DM and compared acupuncture combined with antidiabetic drugs to antidiabetic drugs alone. The primary outcomes were haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG). The secondary outcomes included 2-h blood glucose (2hBG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and acupuncture-related adverse events. Mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as the effect measure in the meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation tool.@*RESULTS@#Twenty-one RCTs (n=1,188) were included. The meta-analytic results showed that the acupuncture group had greater reductions in FBG (MD -6.46 mg/dL, 95% CI -11.95 to -0.98; moderate-quality evidence) and HOMA-IR (MD -1.23, 95% CI -2.16 to -0.31; low-quality evidence), but comparable changes in HbA1c (MD -0.39%, 95% CI -0.84 to 1.61; very-low-quality evidence), 2hBG (MD -4.99 mg/dL, 95% CI -20.74 to 10.76; low-quality evidence), and FINS (MD -1.32 µIU/mL, 95% CI -3.76 to 1.12; low-quality evidence). No data on the incidence of diabetic complications were found. All acupuncture-related adverse events reported were mild.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The current evidence suggests that acupuncture, as a complementary therapy to antidiabetic drugs, has a small but statistically significant effect on decreasing FBG and improving insulin resistance. The effects of acupuncture on HbA1c, 2hBG, and FINS remain uncertain. Acupuncture is generally safe in patients with mild diabetes. More evidence for the long-term effects of acupuncture on T2DM is needed. (Trial registration No. CRD42018115639).

Humans , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(1): e36104, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1252413


La diabetes mellitus es una de las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial. Este grupo de pacientes generalmente representa una población con alto o muy alto riesgo cardiovascular, razón por la cual se realiza una estratificación precoz del riesgo, buscando enfocarse objetivamente en el abordaje farmacológico y no farmacológico con una estrategia intensiva. La enfermedad cardiovascular representa la principal causa de mortalidad, pero en los últimos años se han producido avances en la terapéutica que han demostrado reducir los eventos cardiovasculares mayores. Este artículo revisa la interacción entre diabetes, enfermedades cardiovasculares y su tratamiento.

Diabetes mellitus is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This group of patients generally represents a population with high or very high cardiovascular risk, that is the reason for an early stratification of risk, seeking to objectively focus on pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach with an intensive strategy. Cardiovascular disease represents the main cause of mortality, but in recent years there have been advances in therapeutics that have been shown to reduce major cardiovascular events. This article reviews the interaction between diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and their treatment.

A diabetes mellitus é uma das principais causas de morbimortalidade em todo o mundo. Esse grupo de pacientes geralmente representa uma população com alto ou muito alto risco cardiovascular, razão pela qual se estratifica precocemente o risco, buscando enfocar objetivamente a abordagem farmacológica e não farmacológica com estratégia intensiva. A doença cardiovascular representa a principal causa de mortalidade, mas nos últimos anos houve avanços na terapêutica que mostraram reduzir os eventos cardiovasculares maiores. Este artigo analisa a interação entre diabetes, doenças cardiovasculares e seu tratamento.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Risk Assessment , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(1): 117-119, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152887


ABSTRACT This is a retrospective report of the frequency of severe hypoglycemia and the association between common mental disorders and type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin analogues. Patients with severe hypoglycemia compared with those without this complication had a higher prevalence of positive screening for common mental disorders (88% vs.77%, respectively, p = 0.03).

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Mental Disorders , Mental Disorders/chemically induced , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin/adverse effects
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 138-145, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289066


RESUMO Objetivo: Duplicar a percentagem de tempo no intervalo glicêmico 100 - 180mg/dL nos primeiros 3 meses após implementação faseada de um programa de educação formal e, posteriormente, de um protocolo de insulinoterapia, sem condicionar um aumento da frequência de hipoglicemia. Métodos: Foi feita a avaliação retrospetiva do controle glicêmico pré-intervenção. Foram realizados: implementação de um programa formal de educação; distribuição de algoritmos manuais de insulinoterapia endovenosa - otimizados pelos utilizadores, a partir do protocolo de Yale modificado - e formação informal da equipe de enfermagem. Foi dado apoio à utilização dos sistemas eletrônicos de controle glicêmico e do registo prospetivo dos resultados. Resultados: A primeira fase do programa (educação formal) melhorou o tempo no intervalo euglicêmico (28% para 37%). A segunda fase permitiu atingir 66% do tempo de euglicemia, com diminuição das hipoglicemias. A percentagem de doentes sob perfusão endovenosa de insulina às 48 horas de internamento aumentou (6% para 35%). Conclusão: A implementação faseada de um programa formal de educação que favoreceu a aplicação de protocolos de insulinoterapia eletrônicos e manuais dinâmicos demonstrou ter aderência e ser segura e eficaz no controle glicêmico no doente crítico, com diminuição concomitante das hipoglicemias.

ABSTRACT Objective: To double the percentage of time within the 100 - 180mg/dL blood glucose range in the first three months following a phased implementation of a formal education program, and then, of an insulin therapy protocol, without entailing an increased incidence of hypoglycemia. Methods: The pre-intervention glycemic control was assessed retrospectively. Next, were carried out the implementation of a formal education program, distribution of manual algorithms for intravenous insulin therapy - optimized by the users, based on the modified Yale protocol - and informal training of the nursing staff. The use of electronic blood glucose control systems was supported, and the results were recorded prospectively. Results: The first phase of the program (formal education) lead to improvement of the time within the euglycemic interval (28% to 37%). In the second phase, euglycemia was achieved 66% of the time, and the incidence of hypoglycemia was decreased. The percentage of patients on intravenous insulin infusion at 48 hours from admission increased from 6% to 35%. Conclusion: The phased implementation of a formal education program, fostering the use of electronic insulin therapy protocols and dynamic manuals, received good adherence and has shown to be safe and effective for blood glucose control in critically ill patients, with a concomitant decrease in hypoglycemia.

Humans , Glycemic Control , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Portugal , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units
Femina ; 49(4): 251-256, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224096


O diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) é uma complicação que atinge o metabolismo da gestante, resultando em intolerância à glicose e consequente hiperglicemia, originada pela insuficiência de insulina materna. Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar os tratamentos disponíveis e mais utilizados para o DMG. Trata-se de um uma revisão de literatura, feita a partir de 22 referências, acerca dos tratamentos para o DMG. As bases de dados escolhidas foram Google Acadêmico, UpToDate, SciELO e o acervo da Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Estudos apontam a insulina humana ­ NPH e regular ­ como a principal escolha, quando comparada aos seus análogos, apesar de ainda existirem muitas controvérsias quanto ao início do tratamento, o esquema terapêutico e os ajustes das doses. Pesquisas têm demonstrado bons resultados sobre a eficácia e a segurança dos hipoglicemiantes orais ­ gliburida e metformina ­ no tratamento de gestantes diabéticas, mas é evidente a necessidade de mais estudos para confirmar a efetividade deles e garantir um bom desenvolvimento do concepto. Concluiu-se que o controle dietético e o exercício físico são a primeira opção de tratamento para o DMG. Todavia, caso a euglicemia não seja atingida, opta-se pelo tratamento medicamentoso por meio da insulinoterapia ou hipoglicemiantes orais, o que possibilita a redução da incidência dos efeitos adversos ao binômio materno-fetal.(AU)

Gestational diabetes mellitus (DMG) is a complication that affects the pregnant woman's metabolism, resulting in glucose intolerance and consequent hyperglycemia, caused by insufficient maternal insulin. This study aims to identify the available and most used treatments for DMG. This is a literature review, based on 22 references, about treatments for Gestational Diabetes; the databases chosen were Google Scholar, UpToDate, SciELO and the collection of the Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Studies point to human insulin ­ NPH and regular ­ as the main choice when compared to its analogues, although there are still many controversies about the beginning of treatment, therapeutic scheme and dose adjustments. Researches have shown good results on the efficacy and safety of oral hypoglycemic agents ­ glyburide and metformin ­ in the treatment of diabetic pregnant women, but it is evident the need for further studies to confirm their effectiveness and to guarantee a good development of the fetus. It was concluded that dietary control and physical exercise are the first treatment option for DGM. However, if euglycemia is not achieved, drug treatment is chosen through insulin therapy or oral hypoglycemic agents, which makes it possible to reduce the incidence of adverse effects to the maternal-fetal binomial.(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/diet therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Exercise , Databases, Bibliographic , Glyburide/adverse effects , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metformin/adverse effects , Metformin/therapeutic use
Actual. osteol ; 16(2): [95]-[103], mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129692


Introduction. Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with important comorbidities. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with a three times increased risk of hip fracture but reports describing potential associations with vertebral fractures (VF) are contradictory. Our objective was to evaluate the factors involved in the prevalent VF in women with and without T2DM. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional design was used and the relationship between morphometric VF and T2DM in adult women was evaluated. The cases were adult women with morphometric VF and the controls were adult women without VF. Thoracic and spinal radiographs in lateral and antero-posterior projections were obtained. Bone mineral density (BMD) values of the lumbar spine (L-BMD) were measured by DXA. Results. A greater number of women with T2DM were found in the VF group (61% vs 31.5%). Non-T2DM women with VF were significantly older and with lower L-BMD than non-T2DM without VF. We observed a negative correlation between age and L-BMD (r=-0.463) in non-T2DM women, but not in the T2DM with FV group. T2DM was a risk factor for prevalent VF with OR of 3.540 (IC95% 1.750-7.160). Conclusion. Our study showed a higher prevalence of T2DM in the VF group. T2DM women with VF were younger and had higher L-BMD than non-T2DM women, L-BMD did not correlate with age and VF were not distributed according to BMD-L and age. (AU)

Introducción. La diabetes es una enfermedad crónica asociada con comorbilidades importantes. La diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) se asocia con un riesgo tres veces mayor de fractura de cadera pero la asociación con fracturas vertebrales (FV) es contradictoria. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar los factores involucrados en las FV prevalentes en mujeres adultas con y sin DM2. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un diseño transversal y se evaluó la relación entre FV morfométrica y DM2 en mujeres adultas. Los casos fueron mujeres adultas con FV morfométricas y los controles fueron mujeres adultas sin FV. Se obtuvieron radiografías torácicas y espinales en proyecciones lateral y anteroposterior. Los valores de densidad mineral ósea (DMO) de la columna lumbar (DMO-L) se midieron por DXA. Resultados. Se observó un mayor número de mujeres con DM2 en el grupo de FV (61% frente a 31.5%). Las mujeres sin DM2 con FV eran significativamente mayores y con una DMO-L más baja que las mujeres sin DM2 sin FV. Observamos una correlación negativa entre la edad y la DMO-L (r= -0.463) en mujeres sin DM2 y FV, pero no en DM2 con FV. La DM2 fue un factor de riesgo para FV prevalente con un OR 3.540 (IC95% 1.750-7.160). Conclusión. Nuestro estudio demostró una mayor prevalencia de DM2 en el grupo de FV. Las mujeres con DM2 y FV eran más jóvenes y tenían mayor DMO-L que las mujeres sin DM2, la DMO-L no correlacionó con la edad y las FV no se distribuyeron de acuerdo a la DMO-L y edad. (AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Spinal Fractures/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Osteoporosis/complications , Vitamin D/blood , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Spinal Fractures/chemically induced , Spinal Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Age Factors , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use , PPAR gamma/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Rosiglitazone/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pioglitazone/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18782, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249151


Cnidoscolus chayamansa is a native plant of the Mayan region, which is also cultivated in other places like northern Mexico, Tunisia and India. Many properties are attributed to Mayan Chaya, such as aid in the control of glycemia in diabetics. Thus this study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of chaya aqueous extracts in a model of streptozotisin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Chaya aqueous extracts were collected from plants cultivated in Quinta Roo (Mayan region) and Durango (northern Mexico), and in this study we compare their effect with metformin (as a control). Additionally, we compared the extracts mass profiles from both regions by high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass detector (HPLC-MS/MS QQQ). Finally, a study of the pancreatic tissue was carried out to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the Langerhans islets. Both extracts showed a good hypoglycemic effect after two weeks of treatment, and the Langerhans islets showed a partial recovery due to the effect of the treatment. Although the plants were cultivated at a distance of 2,350 km and under different weather, the compounds found in both did not show significant differences.

Animals , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Streptozocin/administration & dosage , Euphorbiaceae/classification , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Plants , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Islets of Langerhans
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(3): 576-586, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038816


Abstract Introduction: The non-interventional International Operations Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (IO-HAT) study assessed the incidence of hypoglycemia in patients with insulin-treated diabetes across nine countries, including a cohort of patients in Colombia. Materials and methods: Hypoglycemia incidence among patients with insulin-treated diabetes was assessed across 26 sites in Colombia. Hypoglycaemic events (any, nocturnal or severe) were reported in self-assessment questionnaires (SAQ) and patient diaries based on capillary blood glucose measurement or symptoms. Retrospective events (severe events 6 months before baseline and any event 4 weeks before baseline) were recorded in SAQ, Part 1, and prospective events (4 weeks from baseline) were recorded in SAQ, Part 2, and patient diaries. Differences in hypoglycemia incidence reported in the retrospective and prospective periods were assessed using two-sided tests. Results: Of the 664 patients assessed, 213 had type 1 diabetes (T1D) and 451 had type 2 diabetes (T2D). Nearly all patients experienced at least one hypoglycaemic event in the prospective period (97.1% T1D; 93.3% T2D). Rates of hypoglycemia (events per person- year, PPY) were higher prospectively than retrospectively for any hypoglycemia (T1 D: 121.6 vs. 83.2, p<0.001; T2D: 28.1 vs. 24.6, p=0.127) and severe hypoglycemia (T 1D: 15.3 vs. 9.2, p=0.605; T 2 D: 9.5 vs. 3.5 p=0.040). Conclusion: These results, the first from a patient-reported dataset on hypoglycemia in insulin-treated patients with diabetes in Colombia, show that patients reported higher rates of any hypoglycemia during the prospective period.

Resumen Introducción. En el estudio no intervencionista International Operations Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (IO-HAT), se evalúo la incidencia de hipoglucemia en pacientes diabéticos tratados con insulina en nueve países, incluido Colombia. Materiales y métodos. La incidencia de hipoglucemia entre pacientes diabéticos tratados con insulina se evaluó en 26 centros médicos en Colombia. Los episodios de hipoglucemia determinados con base en la medición de la glucemia capilar o en los síntomas se reportaron en el cuestionario de autoevaluación (Self-Assessment Questionnaire, SAQ) y en el diario del paciente. Los episodios retrospectivos (episodios graves y cualquiera ocurrido 6 meses y 4 semanas antes del inicio del estudio, respectivamente) se registraron en el SAQ, parte 1, y los eventos prospectivos (4 semanas desde el inicio), en el SAQ, parte 2, y en el diario del paciente. Las diferencias en la incidencia de la hipoglucemia entre los períodos retrospectivo y prospectivo se evaluaron mediante una prueba de dos colas. Resultados. De los 664 pacientes evaluados, 213 tenían diabetes de tipo 1 y 451 tenían diabetes de tipo 2. Casi todos los pacientes experimentaron al menos un episodio de hipoglucemia en el período prospectivo (97,1 %, diabetes de tipo 1, y 93,3 %, diabetes de tipo 2). Los índices de hipoglucemia (episodios año-persona) fueron mayores prospectivamente que retrospectivamente para cualquier tipo de hipoglucemia (diabetes de tipo 1: 121,6 Vs. 83,2; p<0,001; la diabetes de tipo 2: 28,1 Vs. 24,6; p=0,127) y para la hipoglucemia grave (diabetes de tipo 1: 15,3 Vs. 9,2; p=0,605; diabetes de tipo 2: 9,5 Vs. 3,5; p=0,040). Conclusión. Estos resultados, que constituyen el primer conjunto de datos sobre hipoglucemia informados por pacientes diabéticos colombianos tratados con insulina, evidenciaron tasas más altas para ambos tipos de hipoglucemia durante el período prospectivo.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin/adverse effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Patient Reported Outcome Measures
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 241-250, ago. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040516


La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tiene evolución crónica y progresiva, prevalencia creciente y aún es diagnosticada tardíamente. Esto conlleva mayor incidencia de complicaciones crónicas, con incremento de costos en salud. Existe retraso en el inicio de insulinoterapia por causas relacionadas tanto al paciente como al médico. A pesar de los avances en su tratamiento, una baja proporción de enfermos logra control glucémico adecuado. La alta prevalencia de hipoglucemia en pacientes insulino-tratados, impulsó el desarrollo de una nueva generación de insulinas basales de acción prolongada, mayor estabilidad con menor variabilidad y riesgo de hipoglucemias. El programa EDITION evaluó la eficacia y seguridad de glargina U300 vs. glargina U100 en pacientes con diabetes tipo 1 y 2, en distintas etapas de la enfermedad. Glargina U300 es una nueva formulación de insulina glargina con perfil farmacocinético y farmacodinámico más estable y prolongado que glargina U100. Glargina U300 demostró eficacia y tolerabilidad comparable a glargina U100, con descenso significativo del riesgo de hipoglucemias nocturnas y en 24 horas, aportando mayor flexibilidad en el horario de inyección, con una ventana de 6 horas. Además, no se observó mayor aumento de peso que con glargina U100. El estudio Bright (2018) comparó glargina U300 vs. degludec U100, demostrando mayor beneficio en relación al riesgo de hipoglucemia con Gla-300 durante el período de titulación. Gla-300 es una insulina basal de última generación, disponible para mejorar el control metabólico, con menor riesgo de hipoglucemia.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease with increasing prevalence and still late diagnostic. This leads to an increase in the incidence of chronic complications, with signifi cantly increasing health costs. There is also a delay in the onset of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes for causes related to both patients and physicians. Despite advances in treatment, a low proportion of patients achieve adequate glycemic control. The high hypoglycemia prevalence, consequence of insulin, has led to the development of a new generation long-acting basal insulins to achieve a more stable and prolonged action profile, reducing the variability and risk of hypoglycemia. The EDITION program evaluated the efficacy and safety of glargine U300 compared to glargine U100 in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes at different stages of the disease. Gla-300 is a new formulation of insulin glargine which has a more stable and prolonged pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. Gla-300 demonstrated efficacy and tolerability comparable to glargine U100, with a significant decrease in the risk of hypoglycemia, at night and in 24 hours, providing greater flexibility in the injection schedule, with a window of 6 hours. No increase in weight was observed compared to glargine U100. Bright study (2018) compared glargine U300 vs. degludec U100, demonstrating greater benefit in relation to the risk of hypoglycemia with Gla-300 during titration period. Gla-300 is a last-generation basal insulin, available to improve metabolic control, with a lower risk of hypoglycemia.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Insulin Glargine/administration & dosage , Insulin Glargine/pharmacokinetics , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Evidence-Based Medicine , Insulin Glargine/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacokinetics
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(1): 6-10, 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-981150


Antecedentes: En el tratamiento de la diabetes se buscan insulinas de acción más prolongada y con menores tasas de hipoglicemias. Objetivo. Uso del análogo de insulina de acción ultralenta degludec en diabéticos tipo 1 (DM1) tratados previamente con glargina. Pacientes y método: Se observaron 230 DM1 durante 18 meses, promedio de edad 34 años y de diagnóstico 14 años, registrándose parámetros clínicos, bioquímicos, hipoglicemias y requerimientos de insulina (U/kg/peso), en régimen basal/bolo, con degludec y ultra-rápida precomidas. Degludec se ajustó quincenalmente. Resultados: A los 3 meses, la glicemia de ayunas disminuyó de 253mg/dl (243-270) a 180 mg/dl (172- 240), (p< 0,05); a los 6 meses a 156 mg/dl (137-180) (p< 0,05), a los 12 meses a 151 mg/dl (50-328) (p< 0,001) y a los 18 meses 150 (50-321) (p<0,001). La HbA1c, inicialmente de 10,6% (10,3-12,2) bajó a los 3 meses a 8,7% (8,2-11,1) (p< 0,05), a 6 meses a 8,3% (8,0-9,6) (p<0,05), a los 12 meses subió 9,0% (5,9-14,5) (p<0,001) y a los 18 meses 9,0% (5,9-14,6) (p<0,001). La dosis de degludec fue 0,5 U/kg/peso a los 18 meses. Hubo reducción de hipoglicemias: a los 3 meses 14 leves, 4 moderados 1 grave; a los 6 meses 8 leves, 2 moderados y ninguna grave; a los 12 meses 1 leve, y a los 18 meses 2 leves, 1 moderado y ninguna grave. Un 7,8% no presentó hipoglicemias. Conclusión: Degludec en DM1 mostró reducir las glicemias de ayunas y HbA1c, y menor número de hipoglicemias.

Background: In the treatment of diabetes, longer-acting insulins with lower rates of hypoglycaemia are sought. Objective. Use of ultralow-acting insulin analog degludec in type 1 diabetic patients (T1D) previously treated with glargine. Patients and method: 230 T1D patients were observed during 18 months, average of age 34 years and of diagnosis 14 years, registering clinical, biochemical, hypoglycemia and insulin requirements (U / kg / weight), in basal / bolus regimen, with degludec and ultra-fast pre-meals. Degludec adjusted himself fortnightly. Results: At 3 months, the fasting glycemia decreased from 253 mg / dl (243-270) to 180 mg / dl (172 - 240), (p <0.05); at 6 months at 156 mg / dl (137-180) (p <0.05), at 12 months at 151 mg / dl (50-328) (p <0.001) and at 18 months 150 (50-321) ;(p <0.001). HbA1c, initially of 10.6% (10.3-12.2), decreased after 3 months to 8.7% (8.2 - 11.1) (p <0.05), to 6 months to 8 months, 3% (8.0-9.6) (p <0.05), at 12 months it rose 9.0% (5.9-14.5) (p <0.001) and at 18 months 9.0 % (5.9-14.6) (p <0.001). The dose of degludec was 0.5 U / kg / weight at 18 months. There was reduction of hypoglycemia: at 3 months, 14 mild, 4 moderate, 1 severe; at 6 months 8 mild, 2 moderate and none serious; at 12 months 1 mild, and at 18 months 2 mild, 1 moderate and none serious. 7.8% did not present hypoglycemia. Conclusion: Degludec in T1D patients showed to reduce fasting glycemia and HbA1c, and lower number of hypoglycemia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Insulin, Long-Acting/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Insulin Glargine/adverse effects , Insulin Glargine/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects
Actual. osteol ; 14(3): 205-218, sept. - dic. 2018. ilus., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052695


La diabetes es una enfermedad crónica asociada con importantes comorbilidades. El sistema esquelético parece ser un objetivo adicional de daño mediado por diabetes. Se acepta que la diabetes tipo 1 y tipo 2 se asocian con un mayor riesgo de fractura ósea. Varios estudios han demostrado que los cambios metabólicos causados por la diabetes pueden influir en el metabolismo óseo disminuyendo la calidad y la resistencia del hueso. Sin embargo, los mecanismos subyacentes no se conocen por completo pero son multifactoriales y, probablemente, incluyen los efectos de la obesidad, hiperglucemia, estrés oxidativo y acumulación de productos finales de glicosilación avanzada. Estos darían lugar a un desequilibrio de varios procesos y sistemas: formación de hueso, resorción ósea, formación y entrecruzamiento de colágeno. Otros factores adicionales como la hipoglucemia inducida por el tratamiento, ciertos medicamentos antidiabéticos con un efecto directo sobre el metabolismo óseo y mineral, así como una mayor propensión a las caídas, contribuirían al aumento del riesgo de fracturas en pacientes con diabetes mellitus. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo describir los mecanismos fisiopatológicas subyacentes a la fragilidad ósea en pacientes diabéticos. (AU)

Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with important comorbidities. The skeletal system seems to be an additional target of diabetes mediated damage. It is accepted that type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with an increased risk of bone fracture. Several studies have shown that metabolic changes caused by diabetes can influence bone metabolism by decreasing bone quality and resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely known but they are multifactorial and probably include the effects of obesity, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and accumulation of advanced glycosylation end products. These would lead to an imbalance of several processes and systems: bone formation, bone resorption, formation and collagen crosslinking. Other additional factors such as treatment-induced hypoglycemia, certain antidiabetic medications with a direct effect on bone and mineral metabolism, as well as an increased propensity for falls, would contribute to the increased risk of fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus. This review aims to describe the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone fragility in diabetic patients. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/metabolism , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/drug therapy , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Glycosylation , Risk Factors , Oxidative Stress , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fractures, Bone/complications , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Obesity/complications
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 5(3): 109-111, sept. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254308


Overuse of antidiabetic medications is the most common cause of hypoglycemia in diabetic subjects. Here, we report a case of hypoglycemia associated with sulfonylurea administration. An 83-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of loss of consciousness and fainting. The patient's blood glucose level was of 33 mg/dL, and she received emergency treatment with an intravenous 10% dextrose solution. In conclusion, sulfonylureas in combination with antidiabetic therapy increase the risk of hypoglycemic events in elderly patients with renal failure. Therefore, we suggest that physicians should closely monitor these patients for hypoglycemia and, preferably, use drugs that have less hypoglycemia side effects

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Sulfonylurea Compounds/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects