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Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 68-76, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364297


ABSTRACT The lowest dosage of empagliflozin (10 mg) showed similar benefits on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, body weight, blood pressure, and total and cardiovascular mortality in comparison with the highest available dose (25 mg) in the EMPAREG trial. These findings have not been clearly demonstrated for canagliflozin and dapagliflozin. The objective was to compare the effect of different doses of SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Brazil on HbA1c and body weight of patients with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched from inception until 11th October 2021 for randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes patients, lasting at least 12 weeks. HbA1c and body weight variations were described using standard mean difference. We performed direct and indirect meta-analysis, as well as a meta-regression with medication doses as covariates. Eighteen studies were included, comprising 16,095 patients. In the direct meta-analysis, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced HbA1c by 0.62% (95% CI −0.66 to −0.59) and body weight by 0.60 kg (95% CI −0.64 to −0.55). In the indirect meta-analysis, canagliflozin 300 mg ranked the highest regarding reductions in HbA1c and body weight. The remaining medications and dosages were clinically similar, despite some statistically significant differences among them. Canagliflozin 300 mg seems to be more potent in reducing HbA1c and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. The remaining SGLT2 inhibitors at different doses lead to similar effects for both outcomes. Whether these glycemic and weight effects are reflected in lower mortality and cardiovascular events is still uncertain and may be a topic for further studies.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood , Body Weight , Brazil , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(1): 1-9, 2022-01-09. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363761


Background: Diabetes mellitus treatment is based on oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. Medicinal plants constitute an option, and the leaves of Prosopis ruscifolia (Pr) were shown to be effective in reducing glycemia in hyperglycemic animals. Objective: In this paper, we report the effect of P. rusciofolia (Pr) on insulin and incretin secretion in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methodology: The effective dose was selected, and four groups (n=10) of Wistar rats were used. Two groups with normal glycemia received water or Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.), and two groups with hyperglycemia induced by alloxan (intraperitoneal, ip), received water or Pr (75 mg/Kg, p.o.) for 2 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, and incretin and insulin levels were measured at the end of the experimental period. Results: The results showed that extract promotes better tolerance to oral glucose overload, in addition to a statistically significant (p<0.001) increase in blood levels of incretin and insulin, compared to the hyperglycemic rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that the ethanolic extract of P. ruscifolialeaves has a hypoglycemic effect in hyperglycemic animals by a mechanism that involves the incretin-insulin system

Antecedentes: la diabetes mellitus es una enfermedad metabólica cuyo tratamiento se basa en el uso de agentes hipoglicemiantes orales o insulina. Una opción al tratamiento son las plantas medicinales y en ese sentido, estudios previos en animales con hojas de Prosopis ruscifolia (Pr) han demostrado efecto hipoglicemiante. Objetivo: en este trabajo se reporta el efecto de P. rusciofolia (Pr) en la secreción de insulina e incretina, en ratas hiperglicémicas por aloxano. Metodología: se emplearon cuatro grupos de ratas Wistar (n=10). Dos grupos con glicemia normal que fueron tratadas con agua Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.) y dos grupos con hiperglicemia inducida por la inyección intraperitoneal de aloxano recibieron agua Pr (75 mg/Kg, per os, p.o.) durante dos semanas. Se midieron la tolerancia oral a la glucosa, y los niveles de incretina e insulina al final del periodo de experimentación. Resultados: se encontró que el extracto promueve una mayor tolerancia a la sobrecarga de glucosa, y además un incremento significativo (p<0.001) de los niveles de incretina e insulina en sangre, comparados al grupo de ratas hiperglicémicas. Conclusión: se concluye que e l estracto etanólico de las hojas de P. ruscifolia tienen efecto hipoglicemiante en animales hiperglicémicos por un mecanismo que incluye al sistema incretina-insulina

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Prosopis/chemistry , Incretins/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/metabolism , Biochemical Phenomena , Rats, Wistar , Alloxan , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 17-24, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929201


Obesity is an important risk factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an important factor threatening human health. However, no perfect drug choice for obesity exists. Semaglutide is a kind of human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog that promotes insulin secretion while inhibiting glucagon secretion through a glucose concentration-dependent mechanism. GLP-1 can also delay stomach emptying and suppress appetite to help lose weight. This review summarizes clinical evidence of the semaglutide effect on T2D and obesity and establishes expectations on future clinical trials for obesity treatment.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptides , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Motivation , Obesity/drug therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928990


OBJECTIVES@#Patients with classical type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) require lifelong dependence on exogenous insulin therapy due to pancreatic beta-cell destruction and absolute insulin deficiency. T1DM accounts for about 90% of children with diabetes in China, with a rapid increase in incidence and a younger-age trend. Epidemiological studies have shown that the overall glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and compliance rate are low in Chinese children with T1DM. Optimal glucose control is the key for diabetes treatment, and maintaining blood glucose within the target range can prevent or delay chronic vascular complications in patients with T1DM. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the glycemic control of children with T1DM from Hunan and Henan Province with flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS), and to explore factors associated with glycemic variability.@*METHODS@#A total of 215 children with T1DM under 14 years old were enrolled continuously in 16 hospitals from August 2017 to August 2020. All subjects wore a FGMS device to collect glucose data. Correlation of HbA1c, duration of diabetes, or glucose scan rates with glycemic variability was analyzed. Glucose variability was compared according to the duration of diabetes, HbA1c, glucose scan rates and insulin schema.@*RESULTS@#HbA1c and duration of diabetes were positively correlated with mean blood glucose, standard deviation of glucose, mean amplitude of glucose excursions (MAGE), and coefficient of variation (CV) of glucose (all P<0.01). The glucose scan rates during FGMS wearing was significantly positively correlated with time in range (TIR) (P=0.001) and negatively correlated with MAGE and mean duration of hypoglycemia (all P<0.01). Children with duration ≤1 year had lower time below range (TBR) and MAGE when compared with those with duration >1 year (all P<0.05). TIR and TBR in patients with HbA1c ≤7.5% were higher (TIR: 65% vs 45%, TBR: 5% vs 4%, P<0.05), MAGE was lower (7.0 mmol/L vs 9.4 mmol/L, P<0.001) than those in HbA1c >7.5% group. Compared to the multiple daily insulin injections group, TIR was higher (60% vs 52%, P=0.006), MAGE was lower (P=0.006) in the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion group. HbA1c was lower in the high scan rates (≥14 times/d) group (7.4% vs 8.0%, P=0.046), TIR was significantly higher (58% vs 47%, P<0.001), and MAGE was lower (P<0.001) than those in the low scan rate (<14 times/d) group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The overall glycemic control of T1DM patients under 14 years old in Hunan and Henan Province is under a high risk of hypoglycemia and great glycemic variability. Shorter duration of diabetes, targeted HbA1c, higher glucose scan rates, and CSII are associated with less glycemic variability.

Adolescent , Child , Humans , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928957


OBJECTIVE@#To assess the efficacy and safety of mulberry twig alkaloids (Sangzhi alkaloids, SZ-A) for treatment of type 2 diabetes in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial.@*METHODS@#A total of 200 patients were randomized to receive SZ-A (n=100) or placebo (n=100) for 16 weeks. The data analysis system for electronic data capture clinical trial central randomization system was used for randomization and dispensing of drugs. The primary outcome was the change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. The secondary outcome included the proportions of cases with HbA1c <7.0% and HbA1c <6.5%, fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), area under curve for the PBG (AUC0-2h), body weight, and body mass index (BMI). Adverse events (AEs), severe adverse events (SAEs), treatment-related adverse events (TAEs), gastrointestinal disorders (GDs), blood pressure, routine blood tests, and liver and kidney function were monitored.@*RESULTS@#Compared with baseline, the change of HbA1c at week 16 was -0.80% (95% CI: -0.98% to -0.62%) and -0.09% (95% CI: -0.27% to 0.09%) in SZ-A group and placebo group, respectively. The proportion of patients with HbA1c <7% and <6.5% was higher in the SZ-A group than in the placebo group (46.8% vs. 21.6% and 29.9% vs. 10.8%). The observed values and changes in FBG, 1 h-PBG, 2 h-PBG, and AUC0-2h differed significantly between groups (P<0.001), but differences were not significant in body weight and BMI (P>0.05). The incidence rates of AEs, TAEs, and GDs differed significantly between groups (P=0.010, P=0.005, and P=0.006, respectively), whereas the incidence rates of SAEs showed no significant differences between groups (P=1.000).@*CONCLUSION@#SZ-A are effective and safe for treatment of type 2 diabetes. The protocol was registered in (ChiCTR2000038550).

Humans , Alkaloids , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Glycated Hemoglobin , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Morus , Tablets/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eRW6155, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360404


ABSTRACT Objective To compare the major outcomes of use of metformin and glyburide in treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods Studies published in English, in the last 10 years, in the databases MEDLINE®, SciELO, LILACS and Cochrane Library were analyzed, and randomized controlled trials were selected. Health Sciences Descriptors were used to compose the search phrase, and the keywords "Gestational diabetes", "Glyburide", "Metformin" and their variations were searched in the Medical Subject Headings. PRISMA systematization was used to prepare this review, and a meta-analysis was conducted aiming to mathematically show the results of fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, birth weight and weight gain during pregnancy after using metformin and glyburide. Results The studies evaluated birth weight, neonatal hypoglycemia, mode of delivery, need for intensive care, Apgar score, macrosomia, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose and weight gain during pregnancy. In 60% of studies, there were no statistically significant differences regarding safety and efficacy of administration of metformin and glyburide. Meta-analysis demonstrated the absence of statistical differences between these drugs in fasting blood glucose (p=0.821), postprandial blood glucose (p=0.217) and birth weight (p=0.194). However, significant differences were shown in weight gain during pregnancy (p=0.036). Conclusion The methods are effective, but the adverse effects of glyburide are more common; therefore, the use of metformin should be recommended, if in monotherapy.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Metformin/adverse effects , Metformin/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Glyburide/adverse effects , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 874-879, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405255


SUMMARY: Diabetes and hypertension account for the majority of chronic kidney injury cases that can lead to renal failure. The link between the leukocytes common antigen (CD45) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) with and without metformin incorporation in an animal model has not been investigated before. Therefore, we sought to assess the extent of leukocytes infiltration into kidney tissues 10 weeks following the induction of diabetes in rats treated with metformin. In addition, we monitored blood and urine parameters associated with diabetes. The model group of rats received streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg) injection after being fed for 14 days on a high-fat diet (HFD) and continuously fed a HFD until they were culled, at week 12. The protective group was treated in the same way except that these animals were put from day 1 on metformin (200 mg/kg) until being culled, on week 12. Kidneys were immunostained with CD45 as a marker of leukocytes infiltration and examined by light microscopy. Urine samples were tested for urine albumin and collected blood was analyzed for sugar, urea, creatinine, and oxidative stress and antioxidants biomarkers. Kidney injury secondary to diabetes was developed as demonstrated by (i) increased blood glucose, urea, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation; and (ii) kidney tissue damage and marked increase in kidney tissues expressing CD45 positive cells. The above markers were inhibited (p0.0006) by metformin. Also, a significant correlation was observed between CD45 score and glycemia, urea, MDA, and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thus, our data demonstrate an association between the infiltration of CD45+ inflammatory cells into kidney tissues and biomarkers of kidney damage in a rat model of DKD, which was effectively protected by metformin.

RESUMEN: La diabetes y la hipertensión representan la mayoría de los casos de lesión renal crónica que pueden provocar insuficiencia renal. El vínculo entre el antígeno común de los leucocitos (CD45) y la enfermedad renal diabética (DKD) con y sin incorporación de metformina en un modelo animal no se había anteriormente investigado. El objetivo fue evaluar el grado de infiltración de leucocitos en los tejidos renales 10 semanas después de la inducción de diabetes en ratas tratadas con metformina. Además, monitoreamos los parámetros de sangre y orina asociados con la diabetes. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una inyección de estreptozotocina (STZ; 50 mg/kg) después de ser alimentadas durante 14 días con una dieta alta en grasas (HFD) y continuamente alimentadas con un HFD hasta que fueron sacrificadas, en la semana 12. El grupo protector fue tratado de la misma manera excepto que estos animales fueron recibieron desde el día 1 metformina (200 mg/kg) hasta ser sacrificados, en la semana 12. Los riñones fueron inmunoteñidos con CD45 como marcador de infiltración de leucocitos y examinados por microscopía óptica. Las muestras de orina se analizaron en busca de albúmina y la sangre recolectada se analizó en busca de glucosa, urea, creatinina y biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo y antioxidantes. La lesión renal secundaria a la diabetes se desarrolló como lo demuestra (i) el aumento de la glucosa en sangre, la urea y el malondialdehído (MDA) como marcador de la peroxidación lipídica; y (ii) daño del tejido renal y marcado aumento en los tejidos renales que expresan células positivas para CD45. Los marcadores anteriores fueron inhibidos (p≤0.0006) por metformina. Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre la puntuación de CD45 y la glucemia, la urea, la MDA y la superóxido dismutasa antioxidante (SOD). Por lo tanto, nuestros datos demuestran una asociación entre la infiltración de células inflamatorias CD45+ en los tejidos renales y biomarcadores de daño renal en un modelo de rata con DKD, que fue protegido de manera efectiva por metformina.

Animals , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage , Biomarkers , Leukocyte Common Antigens , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Kidney/drug effects , Metformin/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(2): 97-104, abr.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379255


Objetivo: Avaliar a adesão ao tratamento e a qualidade de vida de pacientes diabéticos e identificar características epidemio- lógicas e da doença relacionadas. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com 98 pacientes diabéticos em acompanhamento. Foram aplicados: um questionário sociodemográfico; o Diabe- tes Quality of Life na versão brasileira, para avaliar qualidade de vida, e o teste Morisky-Green-Levine, para checar a adesão ao tratamento. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resul- tados: A maioria (87,8%) dos pacientes apresentou boa quali- dade de vida. O escore médio de qualidade de vida foi de 2,2. Existência de complicações, uso de insulina e má adesão ao tra- tamento foram fatores associados à pior qualidade de vida. A boa adesão ao tratamento (58,2%) foi associada à boa qualidade de vida (p<0,001). Conclusão: A boa adesão ao tratamento está relacionada à boa qualidade de vida. Deve-se enfatizar a impor- tância da adesão ao tratamento para prevenção de possíveis com- plicações e manutenção da qualidade de vida.

Objective: To evaluate adherence to treatment and quality of life of diabetic patients and to identify related epidemiological and disease characteristics. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with 98 diabetic patients undergoing treatment. A socio-demographic questionnaire, the Diabetes Quality of Life in the Brazilian version (to measure quality of life) and the Mo- risky-Green-Levine test (to check adherence to treatment) were applied. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Most patients (87.8%) showed good quality of life. The mean score of quality of life was 2.2. The existence of complications, insulin use, and poor treatment adherence were factors associated with worse quality of life. Good adherence to treatment, (58.2%) was associated with good quality of life (p<0.001). Conclusion: Satis- factory treatment adherence is associated with good quality of life. The importance of adherence to treatment to prevent possible complications and maintain quality of life shall be emphasized.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Sociodemographic Factors , Health Services , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 185-197, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248805


ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of the study was to evaluate the patients' glycemic control and adherence to self-care tasks. Materials and methods: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA) using a multiple daily injection (MDI) regimen with carbohydrate counting (n = 25, Subgroup B) or fixed insulin dose (n = 25, Subgroup C) were allocated to use the application (app) for 12 weeks. Both subgroups were compared with each other and against a control group (n = 25, Group A) comprising patients with T1DM or LADA treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in a parallel-group, open-label, clinical treatment trial. All patients had glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels measured and were asked to fill out the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) questionnaire at study start and end. The patients were instructed to measure capillary glucose six times daily in study weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: Mean A1C levels decreased 0.725% in Subgroup C in intragroup analysis (p = 0.0063), and had a mean variation of 0.834% compared with Group A (p = 0.003). Mean DSMP scores increased 5.77 points in Subgroup B in intragroup analysis (p = 0.0004) and increased by a mean of 6.815 points in relation to Group A (p = 0.002). Conclusion: OneTouch Reveal improved both A1C levels and DSMP scores in patients with T1DM or LADA compared with standard treatment (CSII).

Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Mobile Applications , Self Care , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Insulin Infusion Systems , Glycemic Control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(2): 164-171, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248819


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hypoglycemia and the treatment satisfaction in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using insulin analogues. Subjects and methods: This observational retrospective study included 516 adult patients with T1D from 38 cities in Southern Brazil. Demographics and clinical data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Hypoglycemia was defined as an event based on either symptoms or self-monitored blood glucose < 70 mg/dL. Treatment satisfaction was evaluated using the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire status version (DTSQs) and with a specific question with scores ranging from 0-10. Common mental disorders were assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: Overall, the mean age was 38 ± 14 years and 52% of the participants were women. The median diabetes duration was 18 years. The scores for insulin analogue treatment satisfaction were higher than those for previous treatments. DTSQ scores had a median value of 32 (interquartile range 29-35) and remained unchanged over time. The percentage of patients with hypoglycemia (including severe and nocturnal) was comparable across groups divided according to duration of use of insulin analogues. Most patients (n=395, 77%) screened positive for common mental disorders. Conclusions: Patient satisfaction with insulin analogue treatment was high and remained unchanged with time. Episodes of hypoglycemia also remained unchanged over time among patients using insulin analogues.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Insulins/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Middle Aged
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(1): 49-59, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152879


ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of adding dapagliflozin as an intensification strategy for the treatment of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and methods: A historical cohort study was conducted in 123 adult patients over 18 years old who were diagnosed with uncontrolled T2DM, who received dapagliflozin add-on to their dual base treatment: metformin plus glibenclamide (n = 32), metformin plus saxagliptin (n = 29), metformin plus exenatide (n = 28), or metformin plus insulin (n = 34). The endpoints were evaluated using analysis of variance. Results: All the patients completed a 52-week follow-up. Overall, 52.85% of patients were female, the Hispanic population represented the largest proportion of patients in all groups (60.98%), and the mean ± SD patient age and body weight were 55.05 ± 7.58 years and 83.55 ± 9.65 kg, respectively. The mean ± SD duration of T2DM, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were 5.93 ± 2.98 years, 8.1 ± 0.53%, and 166.03 ± 26.80 mg/dL, respectively. The grand mean changes of HbA1c, FPG, body weight and blood pressure showed a decreasing trend during the study period and it was statistically significant in all groups (p-value = <0.001). The proportion of patients achieving HbA1c target (<7%) was highest in the group that used a dapagliflozin add-on to metformin plus saxagliptin. Conclusion: The addition of dapagliflozin as an alternative for intensification of dual therapy consistently improved, not only FPG and HbA1c, but also body weight and blood pressure, with statistically significant results.

Humans , Female , Adult , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Colombia , Drug Therapy, Combination , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(4): e002166, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359440


En este artículo, la autora jerarquiza la relevancia de la eficacia documentada de los agonistas del péptido similar alglucagón-1 y los inhibidores del cotransportador sodio-glucosa tipo 2, que ha conducido a recientes modificaciones en el paradigma del cuidado en los pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. (AU)

In this article, the author highlights the relevance of the documented efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists and type 2 sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors, which has led to recent changes in the paradigm of care in patients with type 2diabetes. (AU)

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/agonists , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Femina ; 49(3): 177-182, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224087


O diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) é um distúrbio metabólico por déficit na produção e/ou ação insulínica. Tem relação direta com um constante estado catabólico associado com maior resistência à ação da insulina. Doença de difícil controle, implica risco materno-fetal elevado. O objetivo é estudar a eficácia das drogas antidiabéticas orais sobre o controle glicêmico no DMG e sua segurança quanto aos desfechos gestacionais e perinatais. Trata-se de revisão de literatura descritiva baseada em dados de artigos, livros-texto e guidelines emitidos nos últimos cinco anos. O antidiabético oral pode ser uma boa alternativa no controle do DMG em fase inicial da doença, na presença de distúrbio metabólico e como complemento da terapia com insulina. Entretanto, por causa de sua passagem placentária, há preocupações com seus efeitos fetais e perinatais. Estudos comparativos destacam a metformina no manejo do DMG, considerando principalmente a segurança materno-fetal.(AU)

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder caused by deficit in production and/or insulin action. It is directly related to a constant catabolic state associated with greater resistance to insulin action. Disease difficult to control, implies high maternal-fetal risk. To study the efficacy of oral antidiabetic drugs on glycemic control in GDM and its safety regarding gestational and perinatal outcomes. Descriptive literature review based on data from articles, textbooks and guidelines issued in the last five years. Oral antidiabetic can be a good alternative in the control of GDM in the initial phase of the disease, in the presence of metabolic disorder and as a complement to insulin therapy. However, there are concerns about its placental passage and perinatal effects. Comparative studies highlight metformin in the management of DMG considering mainly maternal-fetal safety.(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Risk Factors , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Acarbose/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use
Femina ; 49(4): 251-256, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224096


O diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) é uma complicação que atinge o metabolismo da gestante, resultando em intolerância à glicose e consequente hiperglicemia, originada pela insuficiência de insulina materna. Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar os tratamentos disponíveis e mais utilizados para o DMG. Trata-se de um uma revisão de literatura, feita a partir de 22 referências, acerca dos tratamentos para o DMG. As bases de dados escolhidas foram Google Acadêmico, UpToDate, SciELO e o acervo da Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Estudos apontam a insulina humana ­ NPH e regular ­ como a principal escolha, quando comparada aos seus análogos, apesar de ainda existirem muitas controvérsias quanto ao início do tratamento, o esquema terapêutico e os ajustes das doses. Pesquisas têm demonstrado bons resultados sobre a eficácia e a segurança dos hipoglicemiantes orais ­ gliburida e metformina ­ no tratamento de gestantes diabéticas, mas é evidente a necessidade de mais estudos para confirmar a efetividade deles e garantir um bom desenvolvimento do concepto. Concluiu-se que o controle dietético e o exercício físico são a primeira opção de tratamento para o DMG. Todavia, caso a euglicemia não seja atingida, opta-se pelo tratamento medicamentoso por meio da insulinoterapia ou hipoglicemiantes orais, o que possibilita a redução da incidência dos efeitos adversos ao binômio materno-fetal.(AU)

Gestational diabetes mellitus (DMG) is a complication that affects the pregnant woman's metabolism, resulting in glucose intolerance and consequent hyperglycemia, caused by insufficient maternal insulin. This study aims to identify the available and most used treatments for DMG. This is a literature review, based on 22 references, about treatments for Gestational Diabetes; the databases chosen were Google Scholar, UpToDate, SciELO and the collection of the Universidade do Planalto Catarinense. Studies point to human insulin ­ NPH and regular ­ as the main choice when compared to its analogues, although there are still many controversies about the beginning of treatment, therapeutic scheme and dose adjustments. Researches have shown good results on the efficacy and safety of oral hypoglycemic agents ­ glyburide and metformin ­ in the treatment of diabetic pregnant women, but it is evident the need for further studies to confirm their effectiveness and to guarantee a good development of the fetus. It was concluded that dietary control and physical exercise are the first treatment option for DGM. However, if euglycemia is not achieved, drug treatment is chosen through insulin therapy or oral hypoglycemic agents, which makes it possible to reduce the incidence of adverse effects to the maternal-fetal binomial.(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Diabetes, Gestational/diet therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Exercise , Databases, Bibliographic , Glyburide/adverse effects , Glyburide/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metformin/adverse effects , Metformin/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210008, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156018


RESUMO: Objetivo: Estimar as prevalências de uso de medicamento oral para tratamento de diabetes, bem como a distribuição das fontes de obtenção segundo variáveis sociodemográficas, nas capitais dos estados brasileiros e no Distrito Federal e sua evolução no período de 2012 a 2018. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional com indivíduos de 20 anos ou mais que referiram diagnóstico médico de diabetes, entrevistados pelo Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) de 2012 a 2018. Estimaram-se a prevalência de uso e a distribuição das fontes de obtenção segundo variáveis sociodemográficas (IC95%). Verificaram-se as diferenças entre as proporções pelo teste χ2 de Pearson (Rao-Scott), com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Houve aumento na prevalência de uso de medicamento oral para tratamento de diabetes de 77,4 para 85,2%, entre 2012 e 2018, e diminuição da obtenção nas farmácias de unidade de saúde do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) com aumento da obtenção nas farmácias populares. Conclusões: O SUS manteve-se como a principal fonte de obtenção de antidiabéticos orais no Brasil, financiando mais de 70% dos medicamentos orais para tratamento de diabetes no país, considerando as farmácias de unidades de saúde e as farmácias populares, mostrando, assim, a importância das políticas farmacêuticas públicas na garantia do acesso a medicamentos pela população brasileira e na diminuição das iniquidades no país. Contudo a migração da obtenção pelos usuários nas unidades de saúde do SUS para as farmácias populares sugere enfraquecimento da responsabilidade da atenção primária à saúde na oferta de medicamentos antidiabéticos orais, fragilizando o vínculo e o cuidado longitudinal.

ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the prevalence of use of oral medications for the treatment of diabetes, as well as the distribution of sources for obtaining according to sociodemographic variables, in the Brazilian states' capitals and in the Federal District, and their evolution from 2012 to 2018. Methods: Cross-sectional and population-based study with individuals aged ≥ 20 years who reported a medical diagnosis of diabetes, interviewed through Vigitel from 2012 to 2018. We estimated the prevalence of use and the distribution of sources for obtaining according to sociodemographic variables (95%CI). We checked differences among proportions using the Pearson's χ2 test (Rao-Scott), with a significance level of 5%. Results: There was an increase in the prevalence of use of oral medications for the treatment of diabetes from 77.4 to 85.2% between 2012 and 2018, and a decrease in obtaining in the Health Unit Pharmacies of the Unified Health System (SUS), while there was an increase in obtaining in Popular Pharmacies. Conclusions: In Brazil, SUS remained the main source for obtaining oral antidiabetic drugs, financing more than 70% of them in the country, considering the Health Unit Pharmacies and Popular Pharmacies, thereby showing the importance of public Pharmaceutical Policies in guaranteeing the access to medications by the Brazilian population, as well as in reducing inequities in the country. Nevertheless, the migration of obtaining by users from SUS Health Units to Popular Pharmacies suggests the weakening the responsibility of Primary Health Care in the provision oral antidiabetic drugs, thereby undermining the bond and the longitudinal care.

Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Administration, Oral , Health Surveys
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(4): 171-177, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348218


Los avances en el campo de la fibrosis quística han aumentado la esperanza de vida de estos pacientes, por lo que cada vez es más prevalente la Diabetes Relacionada con la Fibrosis Quística (DRFQ) y sus complicaciones. La DRFQ se asocia a mayor morbimortalidad, deterioro de la función pulmonar y del estado nutricional. Por lo mismo, el manejo óptimo de esta patología depende de un diagnóstico precoz, tratamiento individualizado y vigilancia de las complicaciones diabéticas. El screening de DRFQ debe realizarse anualmente a partir de los 10 años, mediante una Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa Oral (PTGO), lo cual permite el diagnóstico. El manejo de esta patología tiene por objetivo estabilizar y mejorar la función pulmonar y el estado nutricional y metabólico de los pacientes. Actualmente, la insulina es el tratamiento farmacológico de elección para controlar la hiperglicemia y el esquema de uso debe ser individualizado para cada persona. En caso de enfermedades agudas pueden existir mayores requerimientos de insulina. Además, se deben tener consideraciones especiales en cuanto a la dieta y la insuficiencia pancreática exocrina que presentan estos pacientes. Para la vigilancia de complicaciones microvasculares se debe realizar una monitorización anual a partir de los 5 años desde el diagnóstico de DRFQ. Debido a la complejidad de estos pacientes, para alcanzar el mejor cuidado posible se necesita un enfoque multidisciplinario con distintos profesionales de la salud coordinados, incluyendo en la toma de decisiones al paciente y su familia.

Advances made in the field of cystic fibrosis have increased the life expectancy of these patients, which is why Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD) and its complications are becoming more and more prevalent. CFRD is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, lower lung function and inadequate weight maintenance. Therefore, the optimal management of this pathology depends on an early diagnosis, individualized treatment and monitoring of diabetic complications. For CFRD, routine screening with an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) should be carried out yearly from the age of 10, which allows to diagnose it. The treatment goals in CFRD are to stabilize and improve lung function and obtain adequate weight gain. Currently, insulin is the pharmacological treatment of choice to control hyperglycemia and the insulin regimen must be personalized for each person. In acute illnesses, there may be higher insulin requirements. In addition, special considerations must be taken regarding diet and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency that these patients present. For the surveillance of microvascular complications, annual monitoring should be carried out 5 years after the diagnosis of CFRD. Due to the complexity of these patients, in order to achieve the best possible care, a multidisciplinary approach is needed with different coordinated health professionals, including the patients and their family in the decision-making process.

Humans , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Patient Care Team , Mass Screening , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Nutrition Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Insulins/therapeutic use , Glucose Tolerance Test , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(3): e250, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156399


Introducción: Los medicamentos inhibidores del cotransportador sodio-glucosa actúan inhibiéndose de forma selectiva y reversible a nivel renal. A través de este mecanismo, reducen la reabsorción de glucosa, la cual pasa a excretarse por la orina y de esta forma, contribuyen a normalizar la glucemia. Objetivo: Describir la función de los inhibidores del cotransportador sodio-glucosa tipo 2 en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus. Métodos: Se utilizó como buscador de información científica a Google Académico, Google, Pubmed y SciELO. Se evaluaron artículos de revisión, de investigación y páginas Web, que en general, tenían menos de 10 años de publicados, en idioma español, portugués o inglés. Fueron excluidos los artículos que no cumplieron con estos requisitos. Esto permitió el estudio de 98 artículos, de los cuales 75 fueron referenciados. Conclusiones: La administración de los inhibidores del cotransportador sodio-glucosa induce cambios favorables en la hemoglobina glucosilada, el peso corporal y la presión arterial, además de presentar un bajo riesgo de hipoglucemia. Aunque constituyen un grupo farmacológico que puede ser utilizado como monoterapia, con mayor frecuencia son usados como coadyuvantes en el tratamiento de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus, que reciben tratamiento farmacológico con otros medicamentos normo o hipoglucemiantes y que no han alcanzado las metas de control. Se debe estar alerta ante la aparición de posibles efectos secundarios o reacciones adversas, para descontinuar el tratamiento y tomar las medidas correspondientes(AU)

Introduction: Sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors´ drugs (SGLT) work by selectively and reversiblely inhibiting at the renal level. Through this mechanism, they reduce glucose reabsorption, which is excreted through urine and thus contribute to normalizing blood glucose. Objective: Describe the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors 2 in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Methods: There were used as search engines for scientific information : Google Scholar, Google, Pubmed and SciELO. The keywords used were: Glyphozines, sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors, diabetes mellitus, treatment and weight loss. Review articles, research articles and web pages were assessed, which generally had less than 10 years of publication, and were in Spanish, Portuguese or English language. Items that did not meet these requirements were excluded. This allowed the study of 98 articles, of which 75 were referenced. Conclusions: Administration of sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors induces favorable changes in glycosylated haemoglobin, body weight and blood pressure, as well as a low risk of hypoglycaemia. Although they are a pharmacological group that can be used as monotherapy, they are mostly used as adjuvants in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus who receive drug treatment with other normo or hypoglycemic medications and who have not met control goals. It is important to be alert to possible side effects or adverse reactions to discontinue treatment and take appropriate action(AU)

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Review Literature as Topic , Search Engine/methods