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2.
Repert.Med.Cir ; 30(3): 219-255, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362933

ABSTRACT

Introducción: revisión narrativa que explica el panorama actual de la hipocalcemia y el hipoparatiroidismo como complicaciones de la tiroidectomía, su diagnóstico y tratamiento; con una descripción de las nuevas estrategias de prevención y tratamiento. Métodos: los motores de búsqueda utilizados fueron PubMed, Clinical Key, Embase, Cochrane y Lilacs, se incluyeron referencias en español e inglés, publicadas entre 2016 y 2020. Los artículos seleccionados se revisaron utilizando CONSORT, STROBE o PRISMA, según el caso. Resultados: fueron seleccionados 35 artículos que tenían relación directa con el tema, entre ellos: metanálisis, revisiones sistemáticas, estudios prospectivos y observacionales, revisiones narrativas y consensos de expertos, procedentes de los cinco continentes. La hipocalcemia y el hipotiroidismo en sus dos formas se relacionan con la afectación de la vascularización de las glándulas paratiroides o su exérecis accidental, existiendo factores predisponentes propios del paciente, derivados de la técnica quirúrgica o la característica patológica de la lesión en el tiroides. Como estrategias de prevención disponemos de herramientas ópticas para definir en el perioperatorio la disposición de las paratiroides; además existe la posibilidad de autotrasplantarlas al identificarlas en la pieza anatómica. El mejor marcador del estado metabólico del calcio es la PTHi. Conclusiones: la preservación de las paratiroides y de su irrigación es la mejor estrategia para prevenir los trastornos posoperatorios del calcio


Introduction: narrative review explaining the current picture of hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism as complications of thyroidectomy, describing new strategies employed for their diagnosis and treatment. Methods: searches in the PubMed, Clinical Key, Embase, Cochrane and Lilacs databases; references in Spanish and English, published between 2016 and 2020 were included. The selected articles were reviewed using CONSORT, STROBE or PRISMA, as appropriate. Results: 35 articles directly related with the topic were selected, including meta-analyses, systematic reviews, prospective and observational studies, narrative reviews and expert consensus, on all five continents. The two forms of hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism can result from devascularization or accidental removal of the parathyroid glands, patient-specific factors, or from the surgical technique or the pathological characteristics of the thyroid lesion. Preventive strategies include the use of optical tools for preoperative determination of parathyroid glands location; as well as the possibility of autotransplantation after confirming parathyroid tissue in the biopsy specimen. The best marker of calcium metabolism is iPTH. Conclusions: preservation of the parathyroid glands and their irrigation is the best strategy to prevent postoperative calcium disorders.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Hypocalcemia , Metabolism , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms , Hypoparathyroidism , Neck/surgery
3.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202557, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155373

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The thyroidectomy is the most frequently executed procedure in head and neck surgery. Since its first description by Kocher, the transverse cervical incision has been the main access to the thyroid site, as it provides broad exposure of the central neck compartment. Despite the meticulous suture of the incision, the development of a scar with variable dimensions is unavoidable and, hence, some patients might not agree to the approach, due to this consequence. The transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular access (TOETVA) gains importance as an alternative to the traditional surgery, since it avoids the formation of visible scars. The objective of this study is to develop a systematic review on the currently available literature to evaluate possible complications related to the TOETVA. The systematic review was based on the databases of Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and Scielo/Lilacs, resulting in the selection of six studies, which were compared in regard of the type of study duration of the study and identified complications. Our study showed that TOETVA is related to complications similar to the ones identified in the conventional approach, such as hematoma, seroma, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, surgical site infection. The TOETVA was associated to a higher risk of thermic injury of the skin and mentual nerve paresthesia. Moreover, it was possible to conclude that TOETVA is a safe procedure for well selected patients, with favorable conditions and concerned about the aesthetic outcome. The risk of complications of the procedure should always be explained to those patients.


RESUMO A tireoidectomia é o procedimento cirúrgico mais frequentemente realizado na cirurgia de cabeça e pescoço. Desde sua descrição por Kocher, a incisão cervical transversa constitui o principal acesso à loja tireoideana e permite ampla exposição à região central do pescoço. Apesar do fechamento meticuloso da incisão, uma cicatriz de dimensões variáveis é inevitável, e certos pacientes podem discordar de tal abordagem. A tireoidectomia vestibular endoscópica transoral (TOETVA) ganha importância como alternativa à cirurgia tradicional, pois evita a formação de cicatrizes visíveis. O objetivo de estudo é realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura das possíveis complicações da TOETVA. Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura nas bases de dados Medline, The Cochrane Library, Embase e SciElo/Lilacs, sendo selecionados seis artigos e tabulados os dados de tipo de estudo, período do estudo e complicações apresentadas. O estudo mostra que a TOETVA apresenta complicações semelhantes à técnica convencional, como hematoma, seroma, lesão de nervo laríngeo recorrente, hipoparatireoidismo, além de infecção de sítio cirúrgico, com maior risco de lesão térmica da pele e parestesia por lesão do nervo mentual. Em adição, foi possível concluir que a TOETVA é uma técnica segura para pacientes bem selecionados, com condições favoráveis e com especial preocupação com resultados estéticos, devendo sempre ser orientados sobre possíveis complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Gland/surgery , Thyroidectomy/methods , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/adverse effects , Hypoparathyroidism/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Hematoma
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 289-291, jun. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125082

ABSTRACT

El hipoparatiroidismo (hipoPTH) es una enfermedad infrecuente caracterizada por hipocalcemia y niveles inapropiadamente bajos o ausentes de parathormona. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 25 años, deportista de alto rendimiento, con antecedente de hipoPTH secundario a tiroidectomía total dos años antes por cáncer papilar multifocal bilateral tiroideo, estadificado como T3 N1b M0, derivado por hipocalcemia sintomática. Presentaba calcemias promedio de 7mg%, síntomas de hipocalcemia en reposo y múltiples internaciones. Inicialmente, se optimizó tratamiento convencional con aporte de calcio vía oral hasta 12g/día, vitamina D y calcitriol, sin mejoría clínica ni bioquímica. Se descartaron malabsorción y complicaciones crónicas de hipoPTH. Se evidenció a través de cuestionario de salud SF-36 disminución de la calidad de vida. Se indicó sustitución con parathormona recombinante humana [rhPTH(1-84)] 50μg/día subcutánea con posterior ascenso a 75μg y reducción progresiva de la medicación por vía oral. Actualmente se encuentra asintomático, sin requerimiento de calcio ni vitamina D, mantiene calcemias de 9mg%, realiza actividad deportiva y demuestra marcada mejoría en la calidad de vida según cuestionario SF-36 (36-Item Short Form Health Survey).


Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is a rare disease characterized by low calcium and inappropriately low circulating parathormone levels. We present the case of a 25-year-old high-performance athlete male, with history of HypoPT after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (T3 N1b M0) two years before, who was referred to our clinic for symptomatic hypocalcemia. The patient reported serum calcium average levels of 7mg%, presented symptoms of hypocalcemia at rest and had multiple hospital admissions. First, standard treatment was optimized by calcium supplementation up to 12g/d and active vitamin D, not showing clinical or biochemical improvement. Malabsorption and complications of chronic HypoPT were ruled out. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) demonstrated an impaired quality of life (QoL). Full-length recombinant human parathyroid hormone [rhPTH(1-84)] therapy was started with 50μg/d subcutaneous, and later adjusted to 75μg/d and the oral treatment gradually decreased. Currently, he is asymptomatic, with serum calcium levels above 9mg%, without receiving oral medication. He performs sports activity and shows marked improvement in quality of life according to SF-36 questionnaire.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Parathyroid Hormone/therapeutic use , Hypoparathyroidism/drug therapy , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Calcitriol/therapeutic use , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Calcium-Regulating Hormones and Agents/therapeutic use , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/complications , Hypoparathyroidism/etiology
5.
Actual. osteol ; 16(1): 77-82, Ene - abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140152

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El hipoparatiroidismo es una enfermedad caracterizada por la ausencia o concentraciones inadecuadamente bajas de hormona paratiroidea (PTH), que conduce a hipocalcemia, hiperfosfatemia y excreción fraccional elevada de calcio en la orina. Las calcificaciones del sistema nervioso central son un hallazgo frecuente en estos pacientes. Caso clínico. Mujer de 56 años con antecedente de hipotiroidismo, que ingresó por un cuadro de 6 días de evolución caracterizado por astenia, parestesias periorales y movimientos anormales de manos y pies. Las pruebas de laboratorio demostraron hipocalcemia, hiperfosfatemia y niveles bajos de hormona paratiroidea. Se realizó una tomografía computarizada de cráneo que mostró áreas bilaterales y simétricas de calcificaciones en hemisferios cerebelosos, ganglios basales y corona radiata. No se evidenciaron trastornos en el metabolismo del cobre y hierro. Se estableció el diagnóstico del síndrome de Fahr secundario a hipoparatiroidismo y se inició tratamiento con suplementos de calcio y vitamina D con evolución satisfactoria. Discusión. El síndrome de Fahr es un trastorno neurológico caracterizado por el depósito anormal de calcio en áreas del cerebro que controlan la actividad motora. Se asocia a varias enfermedades, especialmente, hipoparatiroidismo. La suplementación con calcio y vitamina D con el objetivo de normalizar los niveles plasmáticos de estos cationes es el tratamiento convencional. (AU)


Introduction. Hypoparathyroidism is a disease characterized by absence or inappropriately low concentrations of circulating parathyroid hormone, leading to hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphataemia and elevated fractional excretion of calcium in the urine. Central nervous system calcifications are a common finding in these patients. Case report. 56-year-old woman with a history of hypothyroidism who was admitted for a 6-day course of illness characterized by asthenia, perioral paresthesias, and abnormal movements of the hands and feet. Laboratory tests showed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and low parathyroid hormone levels. A cranial computed tomography was performed. It showed bilateral and symmetrical areas of calcifications in the cerebellar hemispheres, basal ganglia, and radiata crown. No disorders of copper or iron metabolism were evident. The diagnosis of Fahr syndrome secondary to hypoparathyroidism was established and treatment with calcium and vitamin D supplements was started with satisfactory evolution. Discussion. Fahr's syndrome is a neurological disorder associated with abnormal calcium deposition in areas of the brain that control motor activity. It is associated with various diseases, especially hypoparathyroidism. The conventional treatment is supplementation with calcium and vitamin D, with the aim of normalizing their plasma levels. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Hypoparathyroidism/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Calcinosis/complications , Calcinosis/drug therapy , Calcitriol/administration & dosage , Calcium Carbonate/administration & dosage , Calcium Gluconate/administration & dosage , Calcium/administration & dosage , Hyperphosphatemia/blood , Hypocalcemia/blood , Hypoparathyroidism/etiology , Hypoparathyroidism/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816628

ABSTRACT

Since parathyroid hormone (PTH) was first isolated and its gene (PTH) was sequenced, only eight PTH mutations have been discovered. The C18R mutation in PTH, discovered in 1990, was the first to be reported. This autosomal dominant mutation induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and subsequent apoptosis in parathyroid cells. The next mutation, which was reported in 1992, is associated with exon skipping. The substitution of G with C in the first nucleotide of the second intron results in the exclusion of the second exon; since this exon includes the initiation codon, translation initiation is prevented. An S23P mutation and an S23X mutation at the same residue were reported in 1999 and 2012, respectively. Both mutations resulted in hypoparathyroidism. In 2008, a somatic R83X mutation was detected in a parathyroid adenoma tissue sample collected from a patient with hyperparathyroidism. In 2013, a heterozygous p.Met1_Asp6del mutation was incidentally discovered in a case-control study. Two years later, the R56C mutation was reported; this is the only reported hypoparathyroidism-causing mutation in the mature bioactive part of PTH. In 2017, another heterozygous mutation, M14K, was detected. The discovery of these eight mutations in the PTH gene has provided insights into its function and broadened our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mutation progression. Further attempts to detect other such mutations will help elucidate the functions of PTH in a more sophisticated manner.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Case-Control Studies , Codon, Initiator , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Exons , Humans , Hyperparathyroidism , Hypoparathyroidism , Introns , Parathyroid Diseases , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroid Hormone , Parathyroid Neoplasms
7.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 36(3): 293-300, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1127109

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: la hipocalcemia es la complicación más frecuente en tiroidectomías. Objetivo: conocer la incidencia de hipocalcemia en las primeras 72 horas del posoperatorio y de hipoparatiroidismo permanente como complicación de las tiroidectomías en seis años. Pacientes y método: estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes tiroidectomizados entre enero de 2011 y diciembre de 2016. Hipocalcemia: valor de calcio total <8,5mg/dl. Las variables fueron: sexo, edad, tipo y duración de cirugía, manifestaciones clínicas de hipocalcemia aguda y anatomía patológica; se cruzaron con la medida de valor mínimo de calcemia. Se consideró hipoparatiroidismo permanente cuando persistían bajo tratamiento por lo menos un año luego de cirugía. Resultados: total 141 casos, 130 mujeres, media de edad 45,9 años. El 95% presentó hipocalcemia en las primeras 72 horas del posoperatorio; por edad y sexo: <29 años, 90% (p 0,38), 30-49, 96% (p 0,4), 50-69, 98% (p 0,52) y >70, 92% (p 0,16); 97% de mujeres tuvo hipocalcemia y 91% de hombres (p 0,26). Duración de cirugía: < 130 minutos, 130-185, >185, hipocalcemia en 4, 2 y 1 pacientes respectivamente. Lesiones malignas en 60 pacientes, 58 tuvieron hipocalcemia; de 81 benignos, 76 la presentó (p 0,537). En grupo de tiroidectomías, 95% tuvo hipocalcemia (p<0,05). El 71% fue hipocalcemias asintomáticas, 10% tuvo síntomas y 19% sin datos. Ocho con hipoparatiroidismo permanente, en 11 no hubo datos. Conclusiones: la mayoría presentó hipocalcemia. No hubo correlación entre hipocalcemia con edad, sexo, duración de la cirugía ni resultado de anatomía patológica. En tiroidectomías hubo correlación con hipocalcemia. Uno de cada diez presentó síntomas de hipocalcemia. La incidencia de hipoparatiroidismo permanente fue de 6%.


Summary: Introduction: hypocalcemia is the most frequent complication in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Objective: to learn about the incidence of hypocalcemia during the first 72-hour period after surgery and permanent hypoparathyroidism, as a complication of thyroidectomy in 6 years. Methods: descriptive and retrospective study of patients undergoing thyroidectomy between January 2011 and December 2016. Hypocalcemia is defined as total serum calcium concentration < 8.8 mg/dL. Variables considered cwere gender, age, type and duration of surgery, clinical manifestations of acute hypocalcemia and pathological anatomy, and they were crossed with the minimum measurement of calcemia. Permanent hypoparathyroidism was defined when patients were still under therapy at least one year after the surgery. Results: 141 patients, 130 women, average age was 45.9 years old. 95% of them presented hypocalcemia within the first 72 hours of the postoperative period; as to age and gender: <29 years old, 90% (p 0.38), 30 - 49, 96% (p 0.4), 50 - 69, 98% (p 0.52) and =70 92% (p 0.16); 97% of women and 91% of men (p 0.26) suffered from hypocalcemia. Duration of surgery: < 130 minutes, 130 - 185, >185, hypocalcemia was seen in 4, 2 and 1 patients respectively. Malignant lesions were found in 60 patients, 58 had hypocalcemia; out of 81 benign cases, 76 had hypocalcemia (p 0,537). In a group of thyroidectomies, 95% had hypocalcemia (p<0.05). 71% were asymptomatic hypocalcemia, 10% presented symptoms and there was no data for 19%. Eight of them have permanent hypoparathyroidism and there was no data for 11 cases. Conclusions: most patients presented hypocalcemia. There was no correlation between hypocalcemia and age, gender, duration of surgery or pathology results. Correlation was found between thyroidectomies and hypocalcemia. One out of ten presented symptoms of hypocalcemia. Incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism was 6%.


Resumo: Introdução: a hipocalcemia é a complicação mais frequente nas tireoidectomias. Objetivo: conhecer a incidência de hipocalcemia nas primeiras 72 horas do pós-operatório e de hipoparatireoidismo permanente como complicação das tireoidectomias em 6 anos. Pacientes e métodos: estudo descritivo e retrospectivo, de tiroidectomizados entre janeiro de 2011 e dezembro de 2016. Considerou-se hipocalcemia o valor de cálcio total ?8,5mg/dl. As variáveis estudadas foram: gênero, idade, tipo e duração da cirurgia, manifestações clínicas de hipocalcemia aguda e anatomia patológica; estas variáveis foram cruzadas com o valor mínimo de calcemia. Considerou-se hipoparatireoidismo permanente quando persistiam sob tratamento pelo menos durante um ano pós-cirurgia. Resultados: foram estudados 141 pacientes sendo 130 mulheres, com idade média de 45,9 anos. 95% apresentou hipocalcemia nas primeiras 72 horas do pós-operatório; por idade e gênero: ?29 anos, 90% (p 0,38), 30 - 49, 96%(p 0,4), 50 - 69, 98%(p 0,52) e ?70, 92%(p 0,16); 97% das mulheres teve hipocalcemia e 91% dos homens (p 0,26). Duração da cirurgia: < 130 minutos, 130 - 185, ?185, hipocalcemia em 4, 2 e 1 pacientes respectivamente. Dos 60 pacientes com lesões malignas, 58 apresentaram hipocalcemia e 76 dos 81 casos benignos (p 0,537). No grupo de tireoidectomias, 95% tiveram hipocalcemia (p<0,05). 71% foram hipocalcemias assintomáticas, 10% apresentaram sintomas e em 19% não havia dados. Oito pacientes quedaram com hipoparatireoidismo permanente e em 11 não havia dados. Conclusões: a maioria apresentou hipocalcemia. Não se observou correlação entre hipocalcemia e idade, género, duração da cirurgia nem resultado da anatomia patológica. Nas tireoidectomias observou-se correlação com hipocalcemia. Um de cada 10 pacientes apresentou sintomas de hipocalcemia. La incidência de hipoparatireoidismo permanente foi de 6%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroidectomy , Hypocalcemia/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications , Hypoparathyroidism
8.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 37(2): 51-58, Septiembre 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025037

ABSTRACT

La insuficiencia cardiaca debida a hipocalcemia es una extraña forma de cardiopatía metabólica, reversible en la mayoría de casos, secundaria a alteraciones endocrinológicas que provocan la disminución persistente del calcio sérico, como el hipoparatiroidismo. A continuación, se presenta el caso de una mujer de 23 años, a quien, al ingreso, se le diagnóstico de insuficiencia cardiaca severa. Durante su hospitalización, se evidenció sin-tomatología asociada con hipocalcemia, secundario a hipoparatiroidismo, por lo que inmediatamente se inició la reposición con calcio. Para prevenir el riesgo de muerte súbita, por la prolongación persistente del intervalo Q-T, se colocó un cardiodesfibrilador implantable; sin embargo, luego de 6 meses de tratamiento, a pesar de la suplementación con calcio oral, no se evidenció mejoría en la fracción de eyección, determinando un pronóstico incierto de la enfermedad


Heart failure due to hypocalcemia is a strange presentation of metabolic heart disease; it is reversible in most cases, and secondary to endocrinal alterations that cause the persistent decrease in serum calcium, such as hypoparathyroidism.A case of a 23-year-old woman who was diagnosed with severe heart failure is presented. During her hospitalization, there was evidence of symptoms associated with hypocalcemia, secondary to hypoparathyroidism, so the patient was treated with replacement of calcium immediately. To prevent the risk of sudden death, by the persistent prolongation of the Q-T interval, an implantable cardiac defibrillator was placed; however, after 6 months of treatment, despite oral calcium supplementation, there was no improvement in the ejection fraction, determining an uncertain prognosis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Heart Failure , Hypocalcemia , Hypoparathyroidism , Diagnosis , Edema , Heart Diseases
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1137-1142, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038628

ABSTRACT

O hipoparatireoidismo, quer seja primário ou secundário, é uma doença rara em cães, causada pela diminuição da secreção de paratormônio pelas paratireoides, que leva a sinais clínicos resultantes da hipocalcemia. O omeprazol vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado na medicina veterinária visando à diminuição na produção de líquor, mas existem poucos estudos sobre os efeitos colaterais relacionados ao uso crônico dessa medicação. Relata-se o caso de um cão macho da raça Yorkshire Terrier, com quatro anos de idade, com sinais clínicos de dor, sendo verificada calcificação em pelve e divertículo renal. Segundo o proprietário, o cão fazia uso de omeprazol há mais de dois anos devido ao histórico de hidrocefalia. Os exames laboratoriais evidenciaram anemia microcítica hipocrômica, hipocalemia, hiperfosfatemia, hipocalcemia, hipomagnesemia e hipercalciúria. A dosagem do paratormônio sérico confirmou o hipoparatireoidismo. Após a suspensão do omeprazol, as alterações encontradas nos exames se normalizaram, confirmando que a causa do hipoparatireoidismo era o uso crônico da medicação.(AU)


Primary or secondary hypoparathyroidism is a rare disease in dogs caused by the decreased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands, leading to clinical signs of hypocalcemia. Omeprazole has been increasingly used in veterinary medicine in order to reduce the production of cerebrospinal fluid, but there are few reports of side effects related to its chronic use. We report a case of a four-year-old male Yorkshire terrier with clinical signs of pain, calcification in the pelvis and renal diverticulum. According to the owner, the dog had been receiving omeprazole for over 2 years because of the history of hydrocephalus. Hematological exams revealed hypochromic microcytic anemia, hypokalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia besides hypercalciuria. The determination of serum parathyroid hormone concentrations confirmed hypoparathyroidism. After interrupting omeprazole, the altered features on the exams returned to normal values, confirming that the cause of hypoparathyroidism was the chronic use of the drug.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Omeprazole/adverse effects , Hypoparathyroidism/chemically induced , Hypoparathyroidism/veterinary , Hypocalcemia/veterinary , Hypokalemia/veterinary
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 1035-1041, jul.-ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094108

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las displasias ectodérmicas constituyen alteraciones de los derivados embriológicos del ectodermo. Paciente adulta, con hipoparatiroidismo, llamó la atención por su fenotipo y fue remitida de la consulta de Neurología a la consulta Genética. Se diagnosticó una displasia ectodérmica hipohidrótica, de origen genético con herencia autosómica dominante, poco común para esta entidad. Se presenta este caso con el objetivo de describir las manifestaciones clínicas de esta alteración genética, las cuales nunca fueron objeto de interés médico resultando inadvertidas para su estudio y diagnóstico. Esta alteración se asocia a una condición patológica como el hipoparatiroidismo, en la literatura revisada no se encontraron reportes de la misma. La evaluación clínica de la paciente permitió hacer el diagnóstico y explicar muchos de los problemas para los cuales no existían respuestas, así como ofrecer un asesoramiento genético adecuado para ella y para sus familiares con riesgo de padecer una condición genética similar.


ABSTRACT Ectodermic dysplasias are alterations of the ectoderm embryologic derivatives. This is a case of an adult female patient with hypoparathyroidism, drawing attention due to her phenotype; she was remitted by the consultation of Neurology to the Genetic one. She was diagnosed a hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, of genetic origin with autosomal dominant inheritance, what is very rare for this entity. The case is presented with the aim of describing the clinical manifestation of this genetic alteration that never drew medical interest and nobody diagnosed or studied. It is associated to a pathologic condition like hypothyroidism and was not reported in medical literature before. The clinical evaluation of the patient allowed arriving to the diagnostic and explaining many problems that were unexplained, and also offering the adequate genetic advice to her and her relatives likewise at risk of suffering a similar genetic condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Ectodermal Dysplasia/diagnosis , Ectodermal Dysplasia/etiology , Ectodermal Dysplasia/genetics , Ectodermal Dysplasia/drug therapy , Ectodermal Dysplasia/epidemiology , Genetic Counseling , Hypoparathyroidism/diagnosis , Hypoparathyroidism/etiology , Quality of Life , Keratoderma, Palmoplantar/diagnosis , Keratoderma, Palmoplantar/etiology
11.
Rev. argent. cir ; 111(1): 5-14, mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003254

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: el cáncer de tiroides es el cáncer endocrino más frecuente, ha aumentado significativamente su incidencia y se han producido importantes cambios en su tratamiento. Objetivos: analizar una población de pacientes con cáncer diferenciado de tiroides tratados en el Hospital Universitario Austral, evaluar sus resultados y discutir las nuevas tendencias en su manejo. Material y métodos: revisión retrospectiva de una serie de 344 pacientes operados entre mayo de 2001 y mayo de 2015; se realizaron 331 tiroidectomías totales y 13 lobectomías, con linfadenectomía central en el 82% y lateral en el 9 %, según hallazgos clínicos o ultrasonográficos. El 80% correspondieron al sexo femenino y el 95% fueron carcinomas papilares. De acuerdo con TNM, el 65 % fueron T1, 41% T1a (microcarcinomas) y, según ATA, el 87 % tenían bajo riesgo de recurrencia. El 34 % de los vaciamientos centrales y todos los laterales presentaron metástasis ganglionares, y solo el 1,8% presentó metástasis a distancia. El 73% de los pacientes recibieron I131 en dosis de 30 a 150 mCi (milicurios). Resultados: la supervivencia global fue del 99,2% con seguimiento promedio de 40,2 meses, con 0,8% de hipoparatiroidismo definitivo y 0,8% de parálisis recurrencial definitiva. Conclusiones: 1) casi el 80% de la población operada correspondía a estadios tempranos con bajo riesgo de recurrencia, 2) más del 40% correspondió a microcarcinomas, 3) los resultados obtenidos son similares a los comunicados por centros de alto volumen, 4) las conductas terapéuticas coincidieron con las recomendaciones de las guías en vigencia y con las nuevas tendencias en el manejo del cáncer diferenciado de tiroides.


Background: Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine cancer with an incidence that is significantly increasing and with important treatment changes. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze a population of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated at the Hospital Universitario Austral, evaluate the outcomes and discuss the new trends in thyroid cancer management. Material and methods: A series of 344 patients undergoing thyroid surgery between May 2001 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed: 331 total thyroidectomies and 13 lobectomies. Central lymph node dissection was performed in 82% of the cases and lateral lymph node dissection in 9%, based on clinical and ultrasound findings. Most patients were women (80%) and 95% were papillary thyroid cancers. According to the TNM classification, 65% were T1, 41% T1a (microcarcinomas) and 87% corresponded to the ATA low risk of recurrence category. Lymph node metastases were present in 34% of the central neck lymph nodes and in all the lateral lymph nodes dissected, and only 1.8% presented distant metastasis. Radioactive iodine was used in 73% of the patients in doses between 30 and 150 mCi. Results: Overall survival was 99.2% with a mean follow-up of 40.2 months; 0.8% presented permanent hypoparathyroidism and 0.8% of the patients presented permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Conclusions: 1) almost 80% of the patients undergoing surgery corresponded to early stages of the disease with low risk of recurrence; 2) more than 40% were microcarcinomas; 3) the results obtained are similar to those reported by high-volume centers; and 4) the review of this experience is similar to that reported by current practice guidelines, and the therapeutic approaches are in line with the recommendations of the current practice guidelines and with the new trends in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms , Carcinoma , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Hypoparathyroidism , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging
12.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(1): 63-70, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984054

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: In hypoparathyroidism, calcium supplementation using calcium carbonate is necessary for the hypocalcemia control. The best calcium carbonate intake form is unknown, be it associated with feeding, juice or in fasting. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the calcium, phosphorus and calcium × phosphorus product serum levels of hypoparathyroidism women after total thyroidectomy, following calcium carbonate intake in three different forms. Methods: A crossover study was carried out with patients presenting definitive hypoparathyroidism, assessed in different situations (fasting, with water, orange juice, breakfast with a one-week washout). Through the review of clinical data records of tertiary hospital patients from 1994 to 2010, 12 adult women (18-50 years old) were identified and diagnosed with definitive post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism. The laboratory results of calcium and phosphorus serum levels dosed before and every 30 min were assessed, for 5 h, after calcium carbonate intake (elementary calcium 500 mg). Results: The maximum peak average values for calcium, phosphorus and calcium × phosphorus product were 8.63 mg/dL (water), 8.77 mg/dL (orange juice) and 8.95 mg/dL (breakfast); 4.04 mg/dL (water), 4.03 mg/dL (orange juice) and 4.12 mg/dL (breakfast); 34.3 mg2/dL2 (water), 35.8 mg2/dL2 (orange juice) and 34.5 mg2/dL2 (breakfast), respectively, and the area under the curve 2433 mg/dL min (water), 2577 mg/dL min (orange juice) and 2506 mg/dL min (breakfast), 1203 mg/dL min (water), 1052 mg/dL min (orange juice) and 1128 mg/dL min (breakfast), respectively. There was no significant difference among the three different tests (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The calcium, phosphorus and calcium × phosphorus product serum levels evolved in a similar fashion in the three calcium carbonate intake forms.


Resumo Introdução: No hipoparatireoidismo, a suplementação de cálcio com carbonato de cálcio é necessária para o controle da hipocalcemia. A melhor forma de ingestão de carbonato de cálcio ainda é desconhecida, seja concomitante com alimentação, no suco ou em jejum. Objetivo: Avaliar os níveis séricos de cálcio, fósforo e produto cálcio-fósforo em mulheres pós-tireoidectomia por hipoparatireoidismo, após a ingestão de carbonato de cálcio em três formas diferentes. Método: Foi realizado um estudo cruzado em pacientes com hipoparatireoidismo definitivo, avaliados em diferentes situações (em jejum, com água, suco de laranja, café da manhã, após washout de uma semana). A revisão dos prontuários dos pacientes de um hospital terciário de 1994 a 2010 identificou 12 mulheres adultas (18-50 anos), diagnosticadas com hipoparatireoidismo definitivo pós-tireoidectomia. Os resultados laboratoriais dos níveis séricos de cálcio e fósforo foram mensurados antes e a cada 30 minutos durante 5 horas, após a ingestão de carbonato de cálcio (cálcio elementar 500 mg). Resultados: Os valores de pico máximo médio de cálcio, fósforo e produto cálcio-fósforo foram 8,63 mg/dL (água), 8,77 mg/dL (suco de laranja) e 8,95 mg/dL (café da manhã); 4,04 mg/dL (água), 4,03 mg/dL (suco de laranja) e 4,12 mg/dL (café da manhã); 34,3 mg2/dL2 (água), 35,8 mg2/dL2 (suco de laranja) e 34,5 mg2/dL2 (café da manhã), respectivamente, e a área sob a curva foi 2.433 mg/dL.min. (água), 2.577 mg/dL.min. (suco de laranja) e 2.506 mg/dL.min. (café da manhã), 1.203 mg/dL.min. (água), 1.052 mg/dL.min. (suco de laranja) e 1.128 mg/dL.min. (café da manhã), respectivamente. Não houve diferença significante entre os três diferentes testes (p > 0,05). Conclusão: Os níveis séricos de cálcio, fósforo e produto cálcio-fósforo evoluíram de forma semelhante nas três formas de ingestão de carbonato de cálcio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Phosphorus/blood , Calcium Carbonate/administration & dosage , Calcium/blood , Dietary Supplements , Hypoparathyroidism/therapy , Phosphorus/administration & dosage , Reference Values , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Thyroidectomy/methods , Time Factors , Calcium Carbonate/blood , Water , Calcium/administration & dosage , Analysis of Variance , Fasting , Treatment Outcome , Cross-Over Studies , Breakfast , Fruit and Vegetable Juices
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760726

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust and is omnipresent in our environment, including our food. However, with normal renal function, oral and enteral ingestion of substances contaminated with Al, such as antacids and infant formulae, do not cause problems. The intestine, skin, and respiratory tract are barriers to Al entry into the blood. However, contamination of fluids given parenterally, such as parenteral nutrition solutions, or hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or even oral Al-containing substances to patients with impaired renal function could result in accumulation in bone, parathyroids, liver, spleen, and kidney. The toxic effects of Al to the skeleton include fractures accompanying a painful osteomalacia, hypoparathyroidism, microcytic anemia, cholestatic hepatotoxicity, and suppression of the renal enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase. The sources of Al include contamination of calcium and phosphate salts, albumin and heparin. Contamination occurs either from inability to remove the naturally accumulating Al or from leeching from glass columns used in compound purification processes. Awareness of this long-standing problem should allow physicians to choose pharmaceutical products with lower quantities of Al listed on the label as long as this practice is mandated by specific national drug regulatory agencies.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Anemia , Antacids , Calcium , Eating , Glass , Heparin , Humans , Hypoparathyroidism , Infant Formula , Intestines , Kidney , Leeching , Liver , Osteomalacia , Parathyroid Glands , Parenteral Nutrition Solutions , Peritoneal Dialysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Renal Dialysis , Respiratory System , Salts , Skeleton , Skin , Spleen
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760131

ABSTRACT

We recently experienced a case of transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy combined with a modified radical neck dissection (MRND) using a facelift approach in a patient with keloid-prone skin. A 35-year-old female was diagnosed with a papillary thyroid carcinoma, which was 1.2 cm in diameter and showed level II-III lateral cervical metastases. The patient required total thyroidectomy and MRND; however, she was concerned about the neck incision because she had keloid-prone skin. We first performed a transoral, endoscopic total thyroidectomy combined with bilateral central node dissection via a tri-vestibular approach, and then followed it by MRND (II-V) using a facelift approach with the Da Vinci robotic system. We noted no significant complications, such as vocal cord palsy, hypoparathyroidism, or permanent loss of the lower lip or auricle. This new method of combining transoral and facelift approaches will be useful for patients with small thyroid cancers and lateral neck metastases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Hypoparathyroidism , Lip , Methods , Neck , Neck Dissection , Neoplasm Metastasis , Rhytidoplasty , Skin , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Vocal Cord Paralysis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study is to determine the role of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) on hip fracture development by retrospectively analyzing the relationship between vitamin D and PTH levels and hip fracture prevalence. METHODS: Among 288 patients over 50 years of age, 113 patients with hip fracture and 111 controls without fracture were analyzed after excluding patients with conditions affecting bone metabolism. Bone mineral density and serum biochemical markers were measured, while demographic data were obtained. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-[OH]D) and PTH levels: LowD+LowP (low 25[OH]D and PTH); LowD+HighP, (low 25[OH]D and high PTH); HighD+LowP (high 25[OH]D and low PTH); and HighD+HighP, patients with (high 25[OH]D and PTH). Measured values and percentages of patients with hip fracture in each group were then determined and compared. RESULTS: The number of patients included in the LowD+LowP, LowD+HighP, HighD+LowP, and HighD+HighP groups was 116, 17, 87, and 4, while the percentages of patients with hip fracture in the same groups were 60.3%, 88.2%, 27.6%, and 100%, respectively. The percentage of hip fracture was significantly lower in the LowD+LowP than the LowD+HighP group (P=0.049). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low serum 25(OH)D and PTH levels showed lower hip fracture prevalence, indicating the potential protective role of low PTH levels on bone health in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Therefore, clinicians should pay more attention to the possibility of fractures in patients with vitamin D deficiency who present with high PTH levels.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Bone Density , Hip Fractures , Hip , Humans , Hypoparathyroidism , Metabolism , Parathyroid Hormone , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758411

ABSTRACT

Dioscorea tokoro has long been used in Korean traditional medicine as a pain killer and anti-inflammatory agent. A 53-year-old male who consumed water that had been boiled with raw tubers of D. tokoro as tea presented with numbness and spasm of both hands and feet. Laboratory results showed hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, and vitamin D insufficiency. During his hospital stay, colitis, acute kidney injury, and toxic encephalopathy developed. The patient received calcium gluconate intravenous infusion and oral calcium carbonate with alfacalcidol. His symptoms improved gradually, but hypocalcemia persisted despite the calcium supplementation. We suggest that ingestion of inappropriately prepared D. tokoro can cause symptomatic hypocalcemia in patients with unbalanced calcium homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Calcium , Calcium Carbonate , Calcium Gluconate , Colitis , Dioscorea , Eating , Foot , Hand , Homeostasis , Humans , Hypesthesia , Hypocalcemia , Hypoparathyroidism , Infusions, Intravenous , Length of Stay , Male , Medicine, Korean Traditional , Middle Aged , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , Spasm , Tea , Vitamin D , Water
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762622

ABSTRACT

Fahr's disease (FD) is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by the symmetric and bilateral intracerebral calcification in a patient. We describe the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with gait disturbance, abnormal mentality, and visual field defect. The result of a brain computerized tomography showed spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in the right parieto-occipital area, and also showed the incidence of symmetric and bilateral intracerebral calcification. Moreover, laboratory studies indicated characteristic hypoparathyroidism. This brings us to understand that additionally, one of her sons also presented with similar intracerebral calcification, and was subsequently diagnosed with FD. Thus, her case was consistent with that of a patient experiencing FD. The patient had hypertension, which we now know might have caused the intracerebral hemorrhage. However, this patient's brain lesions were in uncommon locations for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, and the lesions were noted as occurring away from the identified heavily calcified areas. Thus, it seemed that the massive calcification of cerebral vessels in the basal ganglia, the most common site of intracerebral hemorrhage, might have prevented a hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Eventually, an intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in an uncommon location in the patient's brain.


Subject(s)
Aged , Basal Ganglia , Brain , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Female , Gait , Humans , Hypertension , Hypoparathyroidism , Incidence , Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Nervous System Diseases , Visual Fields
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739581

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Routine supplementation of high-dose calcium significantly decreased the risk of postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. However, there is an ongoing debate about whether the same results can be achieved with low-dose calcium supplementation. METHODS: Patients (n = 138) who underwent total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer were 1:1 randomly assigned to receive oral supplements of 1,500 mg/day elemental calcium and 1,000 IU/day cholecalciferol for 2 weeks or no supplementation. Primary objective was to compare the incidence of symptomatic hypocalcemia for 3 days after total thyroidectomy. Secondary objective was to find the predictors for postoperative hypocalcemia in patients with thyroid cancer. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients in the calcium group and 69 patients in the control group were finally analyzed. The incidence of symptomatic hypocalcemia showed no difference between the calcium and control group (32.3% vs. 21.7%, P = 0.168). The total dosage of intravenous calcium (593.4 ± 267.1 mg vs. 731.6 ± 622.7 mg, P = 0.430) administered to patients with symptomatic hypocalcemia was also comparable between groups. In a multivariate analysis, parathyroid hormone level of 13 pg/mL at postoperative day 1 was only predictive for symptomatic hypocalcemia, and its incidence was 20.9 times (95% confidence interval, 6.8–64.5) higher in patients with parathyroid hormone <13 pg/mL. Other factors did not predict the development of hypocalcemia, including clinicopathological features and routine supplementation of low-dose calcium. CONCLUSION: Routine low-dose calcium supplementation did not reduce the risk of postoperative hypocalcemia. Patients who may benefit from calcium supplementation should be carefully selected.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Cholecalciferol , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Hypoparathyroidism , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Parathyroid Hormone , Prospective Studies , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785405

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1), or autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy is a rare, autosomal recessive autoimmune disease caused by a mutation of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. The main symptom triad in APS-1 comprises chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, adrenal insufficiency, and hypoparathyroidism. Various autoimmune diseases and ectodermal abnormalities are also commonly associated with the syndrome. The treatment of APS-1 includes hormone replacement and symptom control. It is important to monitor such patients for clinical manifestations of their disease through regular follow-up. We report the case of a 10-year-old Korean girl with APS-1 due to a novel compound heterozygous mutation of the AIRE gene. This patient's main clinical manifestations were adrenal insufficiency and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. The patient had a previously known pathogenic variant of c.1513delG (p.Ala505ProfsTer16), and a newly discovered variant of c.1360dupC (p.His454ProfsTer50).


Subject(s)
Adrenal Insufficiency , Autoimmune Diseases , Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous , Child , Ectoderm , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypoparathyroidism , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813300

ABSTRACT

To investigate the risk factors for hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy.
 Methods: Clinical data of 492 patients, who underwent thyroidectomy from April 2015 to December 2016 from Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, were studied retrospectively. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression were performed to find the risk factors for postoperative hypoparathyroidism.
 Results: The incidence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism was 43.5%, and the incidence of temporary and permanent hypoparathyroidism was 43.1% and 0.4%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that tumor pathology, thyroidectomy types, the extent of lymph node dissection, application of carbon nanoparticles, and merged Hashimoto's thyroiditis were risk factors for postoperative hypoparathyroidism (all P<0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that: thyroidectomy types (OR=0.149, 95% CI 0.078 to 0.28), the extent lymph node dissection (OR=0.779, 95% CI 0.617 to 0.983) and application of carbon nanoparticles (OR=1.729, 
95% CI 1.067 to 2.801) were independent risk factors for postoperative hypoparathyroidism (all P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Hypoparathyroidism is a common complication after thyroidectomy. The incidence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism is significantly increased in patients underwent total thyroidectomy and cervical lymph node dissection. Application of carbon nanoparticles intraoperatively can reduce the incidence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypoparathyroidism , General Surgery , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
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