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Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 219-225, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929025


OBJECTIVES@#Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are common operative neurocognitive disorders, which places a heavy burden on patients, families and society. Therefore, it is very important to search for preventive drugs. Previous studies have demonstrated that perioperative use of dexmedetomidine resulted in a decrease the incidence of POD and POCD. But the specific effect of dexmedetomidine on elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy and its potential mechanism are not clear. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine on preventing POD and POCD in elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy and the influence on the balance between proinflammation and anti-inflammation.@*METHODS@#This trial was designed as a single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled study. One hundred and twenty hospitalized patients from January 2019 to December 2020, aged 60-80 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II-III and scheduled for hepatic lobectomy, were randomly allocated into 3 groups (n=40) using a random number table: A C group, a Dex1 group, and a Dex2 group. After anesthesia induction, saline in the C group, dexmedetomidine [0.3 μg/(kg·h)] in the Dex1 group, and dexmedetomidine [0.6 μg/(kg·h)] in the Dex2 group were infused until the end of operation. The incidences of hypotension and bradycardia were compared among the 3 groups. Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) for assessing POD and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) for evaluating POCD were recorded and venous blood samples were obtained for the determination of neuron specific enolase (NSE), TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 at the different time below: the time before anesthesia (T0), and the first day (T1), the third day (T2), the fifth day (T3), and the seventh day (T4) after operation.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the C group, the incidences of bradycardia in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group increased (both P<0.05) and there was no difference in hypotension in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group (both P>0.05). The incidences of POD in the C group, the Dex1 group, and the Dex2 group were 22.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5%, respectively. The incidences of POD in the Dex1 group or the Dex2 group declined significantly as compared to the C group (both P<0.05). However, there is no difference in the incidence of POD between the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (P>0.05). The incidences of POCD in the C group, the Dex1 group, and the Dex2 group were 30.0%, 12.5%, and 10.0%, respectively. The incidences of POCD in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group declined significantly as compared to the C group (both P<0.05). And no obvious difference was seen in the incidence of POCD in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (P>0.05). Compared with the C group, the level of TNF-α and IL-1β decreased and the level of IL-10 increased at each time points (from T1 to T4) in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Dex1 group, the level of IL-1β at T2 and IL-10 from T1 to T3 elevated in the Dex2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the T0, the concentrations of NSE in C group at each time points (from T1 to T4) and in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group from T1 to T3 increased (all P<0.05). Compared with the C group, the level of NSE decreased from T1 to T4 in the Dex1 group and the Dex2 group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intraoperative dexmedetomidine infusion can reduce the incidence of POCD and POD in elderly patients undergoing hepatic lobectomy, and the protective mechanism appears to involve the down-regulation of TNF-α and IL-1β and upregulation of IL-10 expression, which lead to rebalance between proinflammation and anti-inflammation.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Bradycardia , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Delirium/prevention & control , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Hypotension/drug therapy , Interleukin-10 , Postoperative Cognitive Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 289-293, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936149


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effectiveness and feasibility of dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel on the prevention of postoperative sore throat after nasal endoscopy.@*METHODS@#In the study, 60 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) physical statuses Ⅰ to Ⅱ, aged 18 to 72 years, scheduled for elective nasal endoscope surgery under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation were randomly divided into dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel group (G group, n=30) and control group (C group, n=30). The patients in the G group received dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg before induction and the oxybuprocaine gel was applied to the endotracheal catheter cuff and the front end within 15 cm. The patients in the C group received the same dose of saline and the saline was applied to the endotracheal catheter cuff and the front end within 15 cm. Then, all the patients in the two groups received the same induction and anesthesia maintainance. The operation time, anesthesia time, emergence time, extubation time and departure time were recorded. The intraoperative infusion volume, blood loss volume, propofol, remifentanil, rocuronium dosage were also recorded. The adverse reactions such as intraoperative hypotension, bradycardia and postoperative agitation were recorded. The postoperative sore throat score was recorded at the end of operation and 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after operation.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the C group, the emergence time [(8.4±3.9) min vs. (10.8±4.7) min], extubation time [(8.8±3.7) min vs. (11.9±4.8) min], and departure time [(20.0±5.3) min vs. (23.0±5.8) min] were significantly shorter, and the propofol dosage [(11.8±1.8) mg/kg vs. (15.9±4.6) mg/kg], remifentanil dosage [(10.9±4.7) μg/kg vs. (14.1±3.6) μg/kg] were significantly less in the G group, and there was no difference of rocuronium dosage in the two groups. Compared with the C group the incidence of intraoperative hypotension [10%(3/30) vs. 30%(9/30)], bradycardia [16.7%(5/30) vs. 20%(6/30)] and postoperative agitation [6.7%(2/30) vs. 23.3%(7/30)] were significantly lower in the C group. The postoperative sore throat score at the end of operation, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 24 h after operation in the G group were significantly lower than in the C group respectively [0 (0, 1) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (1, 2), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (0.75, 1), 0 (0, 0) vs. 1 (0, 1)].@*CONCLUSION@#Dexamethasone combined with oxybuprocaine hydrochloride gel was effective and feasible on the prevention of postoperative sore throat after nasal endoscopy.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endoscopy/adverse effects , Hypotension/drug therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Pain/drug therapy , Pharyngitis/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Procaine/analogs & derivatives , Propofol , Remifentanil , Rocuronium
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(1): 121-126, jan.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899567


RESUMO A nicotina é uma substância perigosa, extraída das folhas de fumo. Quando absorvida em quantidade excessiva, ela pode levar à insuficiência respiratória e à parada cardíaca. A comercialização de cigarros eletrônicos (e-cigarros) permite que os usuários manuseiem diretamente o líquido, com consequente aumento do risco de exposição à nicotina líquida. Descrevemos nossa experiência no tratamento do caso de um paciente que ingeriu elevada concentração de nicotina líquida contida em líquido para e-cigarros. O paciente apresentava bradicardia e hipotensão, que são sintomas de estimulação parassimpática, além de comprometimento da consciência. O paciente teve recuperação após tratamento com atropina e vasopressor.

ABSTRACT Nicotine is a dangerous substance extracted from tobacco leaves. When nicotine is absorbed in excessive amounts, it can lead to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. The commercialization of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has allowed users to directly handle e-cigarette liquid. Consequently, the risk of liquid nicotine exposure has increased. We describe our experience of managing the case of a patient who orally ingested a high concentration of liquid nicotine from e-cigarette liquid. The patient presented with bradycardia and hypotension, which are symptoms of parasympathetic stimulation, together with impaired consciousness. He recovered following treatment with atropine and a vasopressor.

Humans , Male , Bradycardia/etiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Nicotine/poisoning , Atropine/therapeutic use , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Hypotension/etiology , Hypotension/drug therapy , Middle Aged
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 99(3): 848-856, set. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-649264


FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão pulmonar é associada ao pior prognóstico no pós-transplante cardíaco. O teste de reatividade pulmonar com Nitroprussiato de Sódio (NPS) está associado a elevados índices de hipotensão arterial sistêmica, disfunção ventricular do enxerto transplantado e elevadas taxas de desqualificação para o transplante. OBJETIVO: Neste estudo, objetivou-se comparar os efeitos do Sildenafil (SIL) e NPS sobre variáveis hemodinâmicas, neuro-hormonais e ecocardiográficas durante teste de reatividade pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Os pacientes foram submetidos, simultaneamente, ao cateterismo cardíaco direito, ao ecocardiograma e à dosagem de BNP e gasometria venosa, antes e após administração de NPS (1 - 2 µg/Kg/min) ou SIL (100 mg, dose única). RESULTADOS: Ambos reduziram a hipertensão pulmonar, porém o nitrato promoveu hipotensão sistêmica significativa (Pressão Arterial Média - PAM: 85,2 vs. 69,8 mmHg, p < 0,001). Ambos reduziram as dimensões cardíacas e melhoraram a função cardíaca esquerda (NPS: 23,5 vs. 24,8 %, p = 0,02; SIL: 23,8 vs. 26 %, p < 0,001) e direita (SIL: 6,57 ± 2,08 vs. 8,11 ± 1,81 cm/s, p = 0,002; NPS: 6,64 ± 1,51 vs. 7,72 ± 1,44 cm/s, p = 0,003), medidas pela fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda e Doppler tecidual, respectivamente. O SIL, ao contrário do NPS, apresentou melhora no índice de saturação venosa de oxigênio, medido pela gasometria venosa. CONCLUSÃO: Sildenafil e NPS são vasodilatadores que reduzem, de forma significativa, a hipertensão pulmonar e a geometria cardíaca, além de melhorar a função biventricular. O NPS, ao contrário do SIL, esteve associado a hipotensão arterial sistêmica e piora da saturação venosa de oxigênio.

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with a worse prognosis after cardiac transplantation. The pulmonary hypertension reversibility test with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is associated with a high rate of systemic arterial hypotension, ventricular dysfunction of the transplanted graft and high rates of disqualification from transplantation. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at comparing the effects of sildenafil (SIL) and SNP on hemodynamic, neurohormonal and echocardiographic variables during the pulmonary reversibility test. METHODS: The patients underwent simultaneously right cardiac catheterization, echocardiography, BNP measurement, and venous blood gas analysis before and after receiving either SNP (1 - 2 µg/kg/min) or SIL (100 mg, single dose). RESULTS: Both drugs reduced pulmonary hypertension, but SNP caused a significant systemic hypotension (mean blood pressure - MBP: 85.2 vs. 69.8 mm Hg; p < 0.001). Both drugs reduced cardiac dimensions and improved left cardiac function (SNP: 23.5 vs. 24.8%, p = 0.02; SIL: 23.8 vs. 26%, p < 0.001) and right cardiac function (SIL: 6.57 ± 2.08 vs. 8.11 ± 1.81 cm/s, p = 0.002; SNP: 6.64 ± 1.51 vs. 7.72 ± 1.44 cm/s, p = 0.003), measured through left ventricular ejection fraction and tissue Doppler, respectively. Sildenafil, contrary to SNP, improved venous oxygen saturation, measured on venous blood gas analysis. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil and SNP are vasodilators that significantly reduce pulmonary hypertension and cardiac geometry, in addition to improving biventricular function. Sodium nitroprusside, contrary to SIL, was associated with systemic arterial hypotension and worsening of venous oxygen saturation.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypotension/chemically induced , Nitroprusside/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Sulfones/therapeutic use , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/radiation effects , Hemodynamics/physiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypotension/drug therapy , Nitroprusside/adverse effects , Preoperative Care , Purines/therapeutic use , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , Ventricular Function/drug effects
Tunisie Medicale [La]. 2012; 90 (4): 291-299
in French | IMEMR | ID: emr-131474


Hypotension and shocks are frequently observed in patients requiring admission in ICU. However, the optimal adrenergic support in shock is controversial. To perform a descriptive approach of the current use of catecholamine in a medico-surgical ICU in patients with schoks. Our study is prospective over 3 month period. Were included all patients admitted in our ICU during the study period's. We compared the populations with and without catecholamine, we analysed the catecholamine selected in various clinical settings and we studied the impact of the use of catecholamine on the patient outcomes. During the study's period, 226 patients were hospitalized in our service and were the subject of this study. The median age [ +/- SD] was of 47 +/- 24 years. During their hospitalization in the ICU, 132 patients [58.4%] presented a shock. The cardiogenic shock and the hypovolemic shock were the most observed [37.8% and 35.6% respectively]. Hundred thirty patients [57.5%] received catecholamines during their stay in ICU. Eighty four patients [64.6% of the patients having received catecholamines] had received dopamine. Sixty two patients [47.7% of the patients having received catecholamines] had received dobutamine, 63 patients [48.5%] had received epinephrine and 22 patients [16.9%] had received norepinephrine. The mean's period of catecholamines use was 5 +/- 4 days. Among drugs proposed in order to manage patients with cardiogenic shock, dobutamine was chosen as the first choice agent in 62% of the cases. Among drugs proposed in order to manage patients with septic shock, Dopamine was chosen as the first choice agent in 85.7% of the cases. In our study the patients of the class C or D in the Knauss classification are significantly predisposed to receive catecholamines during their ICU stay [OR: 5.3 ; IC 95%: 1.7 - 5.7].Moreover, the needing of catecholamine use is strongly associated with high mortality [OR: 16,8; IC 95%: 16.4 - 49.2]. The choice of catecholamines is a matter of debate for critically ill patients. The use of catecholamines is a clinical marker of severity and provider of mortality

Humans , Male , Female , Hypotension/drug therapy , Hypovolemia/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Shock/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Dobutamine , Dopamine , Treatment Outcome
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 19(4,supl.1): S13-S20, out.-dez. 2009.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-563438


Justificativa e objetivos: Os fármacos vasopressores sempre apresentaram um lugar de destaque no controle da hipotensão arterial relacionada aos bloqueios do neuroeixo em anestesia obstétrica. Este artigo tem o objetivo de discutir os diversos fármacos utilizados na prática clínica e as inúmeras estratégias descritas na literatura para a prevenção e tratamento da hipotensão arterial pós-raquianestesia para cesariana. Conteúdo: Com a popularização da raquianestesia como técnica mais utilizada em anestesia para cesariana, os vasopressores tornaram-se pedra angular para a melhoria dos resultados maternos e fetais. Várias mudanças de paradigmas se apresentam nos dias atuais, destacando-se a segurança na utilização de fármacos alfa-agonistas, particularmente a fenilefrina. A efedrina já não tem sido mais considerada a primeira escolha em anestesia obstétrica, pois pode causar redução no pH fetal. Conclusões: A administração pro-filática e/ou terapêutica de agonistas alfa-adrenérgicos mostra-se segura e eficaz para o controle da hipotensão arterial pós-raquianestesia, otimizando os resultados maternos e fetais. Portanto, sugere-se revisão de conceitos.

Justification and objectives: vasopressor drugs have always been highlighted for the control of hypotension related to neuraxial blockade in obstetrical anesthesia. This article purpose is arguing the several drugs used in the clinical practice and the countless strategies described in the literature for the prevention and treatment of arterial hypotension after spinal anesthesia for caesarian section. Content: With the popularization of spinal anesthesia as the technique most used in anesthesia for caesarian section, vasopressors became the angular stone for the improvement of the maternal and fetal outcomes. Several changes of paradigms are introduced currently, highlighting the safe use of alpha-agonist drugs, particularly phenylephrine. Ephedrine has no longer been considered the unique first choice in obstetrical anesthesia, because it may cause reduction in fetal pH. Conclusions: The alpha adrenergic prophylactic and/or therapeutic administration proved to be a safe and effective option for the hypotension control after spinal anesthesia, optimizing the maternal and fetal outcomes. Therefore, that is the time for reviewing old concepts.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Anesthesia, Obstetrical , Cesarean Section , Hypotension/drug therapy , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Ephedrine/therapeutic use , Etilefrine/therapeutic use , Phenylephrine/therapeutic use , Metaraminol/therapeutic use
Rev. argent. anestesiol ; 66(2): 134-142, jun. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-534259


Antecedentes: La anestesia espinal es utilizada en cirugías ortopédicas, pero produce hipotensión arterial en 10-40 por ciento de los pacientes. El uso de fenilefrina en infusión profiláctica ha permitido mantener la presión arterial durante el parto, pero no hay estudios en cirugías de reemplazo de rodilla. Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto de la infusión continua profiláctica de fenilefrina sobre la presión arterial sistólica (PaS), media (PaM) y diastólica (PaD), y la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) en cirugía de implante protésico de rodilla, comparado con placebo. También se evaluaron: la reposición de fluidos, los episodios de hipotensión y bradicardia, y los requerimientos de efedrina. Lugar de realización: Servicio de Anestesiología del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Diseño: Ensayo clínico, aleatorizado, controlado con placebo, doble ciego. Población: Se incluyeron 30 pacientes sometidos a reemplazo protésico de rodilla. Métodos: Se aleatorizaron al grupo F (bomba con infusión profiláctica con fenilefrina, n = 15) o al grupo P (solución fisiológica, n = 15). Se realizo bloqueo femoral y anestesia espinal. Las variables hemodinámicas se evaluaron en hora basal, inicio de infusión y a los 3, 6, 15, 30, 45 y 60 minutos posbloqueo. Resultados: No se encontró diferencia significativa entre los grupos en cuanto a PaS, PaM, PaD y FC. Tampoco en relación con el número de episodios de hipotensión, bradicardia, administración de efedrina, ni en los requerimientos de fluidos administrados. Conclusiones: En pacientes con anestesia espinal, la infusión profiláctica de fenilefrina no disminuyó la magnitud de la hipotensión posbloqueo, en comparación con placebo, durante la cirugía de implante protésico de rodilla.

Background: Spinal anesthesia is used in orthopedic surgery but it produces arterial hypotension in 10-40 per cent of patients. The use of prophylactic infusion of phenylephrine could maintain arterial pressure during cesarean delivery, but no tests were carried out during knee replacement surgery. Objective: Evaluation of the effect of prophylactic infusion of phenylephrine on systolic (SaP), diastolic (DaP), median (MaP) and cardiac rate (CR) during knee replacement surgery with spinal anesthesia, compared to with placebo. We also evaluated amount of fluids, hypotension and bradycardic episodes, and ephedrine requirements. Setting: Anesthesiology Service of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Design: clinical trial, randomized, placebo controlled, double blinded. Population: We included 30 patients scheduled for knee replacement surgery. Methods: Patients were randomized to group F (prophylactic infusion of phenylephrine, N = 15) or group P (placebo, n = 15). Hemodynamic variables were evaluated at basal, start of infusion and at 3, 6, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes from the blockade. Results: The differences in SaP, DaP, MaP and CR were not statistically different. Neither were the numbers of cases with hypotension, bradycardia, ephedrine requirements or fluids administered. Conclusions: In patients receiving spinal anesthesia for knee replacement surgery, a prophylactic infusion of phenylephrine did not decrease the magnitude of hypotension in comparison with placebo.

Antecedentes: A anestesia espinhal é utilizada em cirurgias ortopédicas, mas causa hipotensao arterial em 10-40 por cento dos pacientes. O uso da fenilefrina em infusao profilática permitiu manter a pressao arterial durante o parto; porém, nao se conhecem estudos sobre seu uso em cirurgias de substitução de joelho. Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito da infusao continua profilática de fenilefrina sobre a pressao arterial sistólica (PaS), média (PaM) e diastólica (PaD) e a freqüencia cardiaca (FC) em cirurgia de implante de prótese de joelho, comparado com placebo. Foram também avaliados: a reposição de fluídos, os episódios de hipotensao e bradicardia, e a necessidade de efedrina. Lugar de realização: Serviço de Anestesiologia do Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Desenho: Estudo clínico, aleatorizado, controlado com placebo, duplo-cego. População: Trinta pacientes submetidos a substituiçao protésica de joelho. Métodos: Os pacientes foram aleatorizados ao grupo F (bomba de infusao profilática, fenilefrina, n = 15) ou ao grupo P (solução fisiológica, n = 15). Foi feito bloqueio 3 em 1 e anestesia espinhal. Avaliaram-se as variáveis hemodinamicas no momento basal, no inicio da infusao e aos 3, 6, 15, 30, 45 e 60 minutos pós-bloqueio. Resultados: Entre os grupos nao se encontrou diferença significativa no que diz respeito a PaS, PaM, PaO e FC, número de casos de hipotensao, de bradicardia, de administração de efedrina nem nas necessidades de fluidos administrados. Conclusoes: Em pacientes com anestesia espinhal, a infusao profilática de fenilefrina nao diminuiu a magnitude da hipotensao pós-bloqueio, em comparação com placebo, durante cirurgia de implante de prótese de joelho.

Humans , Male , Female , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Phenylephrine/administration & dosage , Hemodynamics , Knee/surgery , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Bradycardia/drug therapy , Ephedrine/administration & dosage , Hypotension/drug therapy , Informed Consent
Indian Pediatr ; 2008 Apr; 45(4): 285-94
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-9826


PURPOSE: Hypotension is a frequent occurrence in sick preterm neonates. It is important to appropriately recognise and treat hypotension in preterm infants due to the possible association with short and long term adverse outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: An extensive search for relevant articles was carried out on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Cross references were hand searched. CONCLUSIONS: The pathophysiology hypotension in preterm infants is multifactorial. Hypovolemia plays only a minor role in the absence of overt fluid losses. Cardiac dysfunction seems to be a factor in some neonates. Assessment of hypotension should be based on an overall clinical condition. Overzealous fluid administration seems to be associated with adverse outcomes and should be avoided in the absence of obvious fluid losses. Inotropes should be used if fluid boluses fail to correct hypotension. Dopamine is the most effective inotrope. Dobutamine can be used as add on therapy or as first line if cardiac dysfunction is an obvious cause. Evidence points to hypocortisolism in at least some hypotensive infants. Steroids have been used successfully in inotrope-resistant hypotension in some infants. Steroids should be used judiciously since there have been concerns about adverse neurological outcome in preterm infants who received steroids in the neonatal period.

Adrenergic beta-Agonists/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure , Cardiac Output/drug effects , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Dobutamine/therapeutic use , Dopamine/therapeutic use , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Humans , Hypotension/drug therapy , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Risk Factors , Sympathomimetics/therapeutic use , Time Factors
Rev. cuba. farm ; 38(3)sept.-dic. 2004. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-403356


Se desarrolló una formulación de clorhidrato de fenilefrina inyectable para el tratamiento de la hipotensión arterial y la cirugía oftalmológica, para lo cual se diseñaron y estudiaron 3 formulaciones; se selecció la más factible para la continuidad del estudio. El ensayo de estabilidad del producto a diferentes temperaturas durante 222 días y en estante por un período de 24 meses, se realizó mediante la aplicación del análisis de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. La formulación obtenida se comparó desde el punto de vista farmacológico y toxicológico con un producto comercial. Los resultados demostraron que la formulación desarrollada cumple con los ensayos de estabilidad y tiene una potencia farmacológica en relación con el comercial del 113 por ciento; no existieron diferencias entre la actividad de los 2 productos comparados. El comercial resultó más tóxico que la formulación desarrollada al tener una DL50 superior. El producto logrado con el desarrollo tecnológico empleado cumple con las especificaciones de calidad de la USP 26

Humans , Cataract Extraction , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drug Stability , Hypotension/drug therapy , Phenylephrine , Technology, Pharmaceutical
Assiut Medical Journal. 2004; 28 (3): 47-62
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-65410


In this study, 40 women undergoing elective cesarean surgery [CS] at term were allocated randomly to receive either a preload of 20 ml/kg of normal saline over 10-15 min immediately before spinal anesthesia [fluid group] or prophylactic ephedrine 50 mg in 10 min before spinal anesthesia [ephedrine group]. The two techniques were compared for their maternal and neonatal effects. Moderate hypotension was defined as >20% reduction in systolic blood pressure [SAP] and severe hypotension as >30% reduction in SAP. The study concluded that ephedrine e 50 mg given intramuscularly ten minutes before induction of spinal anesthesia reduced the incidence of hypotension and the total dose of rescue ephedrine therapy than preloading with 20 ml/kg crystalloid during spinal anesthesia for CS. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was also reduced and the fetal outcome was improved. However, this dose of ephedrine did not completely eliminate hypotension, nausea and vomiting

Humans , Female , Cesarean Section , Ephedrine , Hypotension/drug therapy , Injections, Intramuscular , Saline Solution, Hypertonic
Rev. méd. Chile ; 130(9): 1009-1013, sept. 2002. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-323234


Background: Hypotension occurs in 20 percent of hemodialysis procedures. Aim: To study the effects of midodrine on hypotension during hemodialysis. Patients and methods: Ten patients on chronic hemodialysis and with a history of hypotension during the procedure, were studied. They received midodrine 10 mg per os or placebo during 5 dialytic procedures each, in a double blind cross over design. Results: Blood pressure levels prior to dialysis were similar during the midodrine or placebo administration periods. During dialysis, systolic blood pressure fell 19.3ñ28 mmHg with midodrine and 23.4ñ28 mmHg with placebo. Diastolic blood pressure fell 7.3ñ11.5 mmHg with midodrine and 11.1ñ12 mmHg with placebo. The reduction in median arterial pressure was also less pronounced with midodrine. Conclusions: Midodrine lessens the fall in arterial pressure during hemodialysis, in patients with symptomatic hypotension

Humans , Male , Female , Midodrine , Hypotension/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications
Zagazig University Medical Journal. 2002; 8 (1): 439-50
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-61244


The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of three different regimens for prophylactic treatment of hypotension during spinal anaesthesia for elective cesarean section. Thirty-six parturients, 21-32 years old, ASA I or II and term singleton pregnancy were randomized to one of three groups receiving, preload 1.5 L Ringer's lactate solution [Fluid group] [F group], ephedrine I.V infusion 2 mg/min. [Ephedrine group] [E group], or I.V infusion 2 mg/min ephedrine plus 10 micro g/min. phenylephrine [Ephedrine + phenylephrine group [E + P group]. Maternal systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured at frequent intervals. Hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure decrease >/= 20% from baseline blood pressure. We found that hypotension occurred less frequently in [E + P] group than in [F or E] groups 35% versus 73% and 77% respectively, supplemental ephedrine requirement and nausea scores [0 - 3] were less in the [E + P] group. Neonatal venous and arterial pH values were significantly higher in [E + P] group. Apgar scores were similarly good in the three groups. On conclusion, the incidence of hypotension during spinal anaesthesia for elective caesarean section delivery was significantly lower in phenylephrine ephedrine combination than in ephedrine infusion alone or crystalloid preload

Humans , Female , Cesarean Section , Drug Combinations , Hypotension/drug therapy , Phenylephrine , Ephedrine , Treatment Outcome
Jordan Medical Journal. 2002; 36 (2): 146-149
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-59607


Objectives to assess the maternal cardiovascular changes [i.e. hypotension] and neonatal status in healthy women who underwent elective C.S under epidural anaesthesia and to compare the effect of optimal doses of 3 different vasopressors on hypotension and acid-base status in mothers and neonates during spinal anaesthesia [SA] for caesarian section [CS]. the total number of pregnant women who underwent, spinal anaesthesia during c.s were 150 between Jan 1st till 31st Dec 1999 at Q.A.M.H., a total of 15 pregnant women were randomly selected into: group 1 received an infusion of ephedrine 1mg/min [at 60ml/hr]. Group 2 received an infusion of ephedrine 2mg/min [at 120ml/hr] and group 3 was given an infusion of phenylephrine 10 mcg/min [at 60ml/hr] there was no significant difference in maternal age, weight or systolic arterial pressure between the 3 groups. Similarly, there was no significant difference between the 3 groups in the volume of bupivacaine used, time taken for anaesthesia to reach T4, time from insertion of the spinal to delivery of fetus and uterine incision delivery time

Humans , Female , Phenylephrine , Ephedrine , Phenylephrine/administration & dosage , Ephedrine/administration & dosage , Hypotension/drug therapy
Rev. chil. med. intensiv ; 16(3): 154-161, sept. 2001. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-302048


Se revisan los tipos de volumen y drogas vasoactivas utilizados en la reanimación de pacientes hipotensos o en shock. Se analizan sus características químicas, modos de acción, ventajas y efectos adversos. Se buscó información en revisiones previas, consensos y trabajos originales relevantes, publicados desde 1980 hasta ahora, realizando las búsquedas a través de bases de datos de Internet. En el uso de fluidos, no está demostrado una ventaja en la reanimación inicial en el uso de coloides, prefiriéndose los cristaloides por su bajo costo y nula toxicidad. En la reanimación tardía, se pueden preferir los coloides por su menor tendencia a provocar edema, en especial en pacientes con disfunción cardiaca. La albúmina es el coloide ideal por su buen poder oncótico y escasos efectos adversos. Los hidroxietilalmidones de peso molecular intermedio son una aceptable alternativa a la albúmina, de menor costo. En las drogas vasopresoras, destaca la creciente preferencia de la norepinefrina por sobre la dopamina en la primera línea del tratamiento del shock séptico, siendo un problema su mayor costo. En las drogas inótropas destaca la dobutamina, reservándose la milrinoma para pacientes con mayor tendencia a las arritmias, por ser de mucho mayor precio. En el caso de requerirse el uso de drogas vasopresoras o inótropas, se recomienda realizar monitoreo hemodinámico. En conclusión, existe una variada alternativa de fluidos y drogas vasoactivas para la reanimación de nuestros pacientes. La elección de una alternativa u otra, dependerá del buen juicio clínico y el adecuado uso de nuevas evidencias

Humans , Hypotension/drug therapy , Shock , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Vasomotor System , Albumins , Anaphylaxis , Dextrans , Dobutamine , Epinephrine , Fluid Therapy , Milrinone , Norepinephrine , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Phenylephrine , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Vasodilator Agents
Zagazig University Medical Journal. 2001; 7 (1): 343-58
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-58717


This study was performed to determine if preoperative intravenous dextrose in two different regimens affects the incidence degree and case of treatment of hypotension during spinal anaesthesia for cesarean section, Also we aimed at evaluating the blood flow velocity waveforms [FVWS] of the uterine and umbilical arteries and the neonatal outcome in such cases.Sixty healthy parturients undergoing elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were allocated into three groups [20 parturients in each] to receive intravenously either normal saline [group A], dextrose 5%, in normal saline [group B], dextrose 10% in normal saline [group C] at 125 mL/hr for two hours prior to delivery, Following a bolus of 15 mL/kg normal saline iv spinal anaesthesia was induced with hyperbaric bubivacaine 0, 5% fentanyl and morphine, Hypotension [systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg or > 20% decrease] was treated with fluids and/or vasopressor. Data collected: Maternal demographics blood glucose concentrations [fasting at time of spinal and at delivery], blood pressure [baseline and at one minute intervals from spinal to delivery] and uterine and umbilical arteries Doppler FVW before preloading and 5 minutes after spinal anesthesia, Neonatal demographics neonatal Apgar scores umbilical blood gas analysis at birth glucose and lactate concentrations at birth. I and 2 hours after birth, There was no difference between the three groups in the rate of hypotension [p=0, 283]. All parturients who experienced hypotension received fluids and there was also no difference between the groups in vasopressor requirement. S/D in the uterine arteries increased significantly after spinal anaesthesia while it didn't change in umbilical arteries. There was no significant difference between the three groups regarding S/D in the umbilical and uterine arteries either before preload or 5 minutes after injection of the anesthestic. Umbilical arterial and venous pH was significantly lower and lactate was higher in group C than group A [P<0.05], after birth neonatal capillary blood glucose was stable in group A. but decreased significantly in group C [P<0.05] and lactate decreased in group C at 2h. We concluded that administration of dextrose 5% at a rate of 5.22 g/h and 10% at a rate of 10.22g/h preoperatively does not affect the hypotension rate uterine or umbilical Doppler FVW. or make it easier to treat hypotension and was potentially harmful to the foetus with the large dose of 10.22 g/h

Humans , Female , Cesarean Section , Glucose , Hypotension/drug therapy , Fetal Blood , Preanesthetic Medication , Treatment Outcome
Neurol India ; 2000 Jun; 48(2): 126-31
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-121638


Twenty five patients with post operative ischaemic deficits, following clipping of intracranial aneurysms, were studied. Hypertensive-hypervolaemic-haemodilution (triple H) therapy was given to all patients using colloids and crystalloids. CVP was used to monitor the fluid therapy. Dopamine was needed in 22 patients to elevate the systemic blood pressure. Vasospasm was confirmed in 20 patients with transcranial doppler studies (TCD). 20 (80%) patients survived, 10 (40%) with good outcome, 7 (28%) with fair, 2 (8%) with poor outcome and 1 (4%) with vegetative state. There were 5 (20%) deaths, 4 of which occurred due to infarct. All these patients had poor Hunt and Hess grade at admission, high Fisher grade haemorrhages in the initial CT scan and/or required prolonged temporary clipping at surgery. One death occurred due to central venous line induced septicaemia. The duration of 'triple H therapy' amongst the survivors varied from 2-7 days with an average of 4.6 days. The complications of 'triple H therapy' included hypokalaemia (3 patients), haemorrhagic infarct (1 patient) and septicaemia (1 patient). It is concluded that 'triple H therapy' is useful in treating vasospasm induced ischaemic deficits. It worsens brain oedema in presence of acute infarcts and hence is contraindicated in such patients. A further study involving a larger number of patients with strict haemodynamic and ICP monitoring is suggested to determine the usefulness of individual components of 'triple H therapy'.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Dopamine/therapeutic use , Female , Hemodilution , Humans , Hypotension/drug therapy , Hypovolemia/therapy , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Substitutes/therapeutic use , Postoperative Care , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Vasospasm, Intracranial/etiology