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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 792-799, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878087


BACKGROUND@#Norepinephrine infusion decreases hypotension after spinal anesthesia during cesarean section. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of norepinephrine infusion and ephedrine bolus against post-spinal hypotension in parturients.@*METHODS@#In this double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial, parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section were randomly allocated to receive norepinephrine infusion (0.05 μg·kg-1·min-1) just before spinal anesthesia continuing for 30 min or ephedrine bolus (0.15 mg/kg) just before spinal anesthesia. A rescue bolus (5 μg norepinephrine for the norepinephrine group, and 5 mg ephedrine for the ephedrine group) was administered whenever hypotension occurred. Our primary outcome was the incidence of hypotension within 30 min of spinal anesthesia administration. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal outcomes 30 min after spinal block, and neonatal cerebral oxygenation 10 min after birth.@*RESULTS@#In total, 190 patients were enrolled; of these patients, 177 were included in the final analysis. Fewer patients suffered hypotension in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (29.5% vs. 44.9%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28-0.95, P = 0.034). Moreover, the tachycardia frequency was lower in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.11-0.44, P < 0.001), and patients suffered less nausea and vomiting (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.11-0.70, P = 0.004). There was no difference in Apgar scores and umbilical arterial blood gas analysis between the two groups. However, neonatal cerebral regional saturations were significantly higher after birth in the norepinephrine group than in the ephedrine group (mean difference: 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.55%-3.45%, P = 0.008).@*CONCLUSION@#In patients undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia, norepinephrine infusion compared to ephedrine bolus resulted in less hypotension and tachycardia, and exhibited potential neonatal benefits.@*TRIAL, NCT02542748;

Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Hypotension/prevention & control , Infant, Newborn , Phenylephrine , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 492-500, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056600


Abstract Introduction: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a major complication of hemodialysis, with a prevalence of about 25% during hemodialysis sessions, causing increased morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the effects of sertraline to prevent IDH in hemodialysis patients. Methods: This was a double-blind, crossover clinical trial comparing the use of sertraline versus placebo to reduce intradialytic hypotension. Results: Sixteen patients completed the two phases of the study during a 12-week period. The IDH prevalence was 32%. A comparison between intradialytic interventions, intradialytic symptoms, and IDH episodes revealed no statistical difference in the reduction of IDH episodes (p = 0.207) between the two intervention groups. However, the risk of IDH interventions was 60% higher in the placebo group compared to the sertraline group, and the risk of IDH symptoms was 40% higher in the placebo group compared to the sertraline group. Survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier estimator supported the results of this study. Sertraline presented a number needed to treat (NNT) of 16.3 patients to prevent an episode from IDH intervention and 14.2 patients to prevent an episode from intradialytic symptoms. Conclusion: This study suggests that the use of sertraline may be beneficial to reduce the number of symptoms and ID interventions, although there was no statistically significant difference in the blood pressure levels.

Resumo Introdução: A hipotensão intradialítica (HID) é uma das principais complicações da hemodiálise, com uma prevalência de cerca de 25% durante as sessões de hemodiálise, causando aumento da morbimortalidade. Objetivo: Estudar os efeitos da sertralina na prevenção da HID em pacientes em hemodiálise. Métodos: Este foi um ensaio clínico duplo-cego, cruzado, comparando o uso de sertralina versus placebo para reduzir a hipotensão intradialítica. Resultados: Dezesseis pacientes completaram as duas fases do estudo durante um período de 12 semanas. A prevalência de HID foi de 32%. Uma comparação entre intervenções intradialíticas, sintomas intradialíticos (ID) e episódios de HID não revelou diferença estatística na redução dos episódios de HID (p = 0,207) entre os dois grupos de intervenção. No entanto, o risco de intervenções para HID foi 60% maior no grupo placebo em comparação com o grupo Sertralina, e o risco de sintomas ID foi 40% maior no grupo placebo em comparação com o grupo Sertralina. A análise de sobrevida utilizando o estimador de Kaplan-Meier corroborou os resultados deste estudo. A sertralina apresentou um número necessário para tratar (NNT) de 16,3 pacientes para prevenir um episódio de intervenção de HID e 14,2 pacientes para prevenir um episódio de sintomas intradialíticos. Conclusão: Este estudo sugere que o uso de sertralina pode ser benéfico para reduzir o número de sintomas e intervenções de HID, embora não tenha havido diferença estatisticamente significante nos níveis pressóricos.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sertraline/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Hypotension/physiopathology , Placebos/administration & dosage , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Double-Blind Method , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Cross-Over Studies , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Hypotension/prevention & control , Hypotension/epidemiology
Rev. chil. anest ; 46(2): 80-85, 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908247


Spinal anesthesia is the technique of choice for patients undergoing cesarean section. One of the most common adverse effects of this technique is arterial hypotension, which if severe, can result in serious maternal and fetal injury or death. Different alternatives exist to prevent and treat hypotension associated to spinal anesthesia; one of them is fluid therapy. The objective of this review is to evaluate the currently available evidence for different fluid therapy alternatives and assess their effectiveness. Nowadays, it does not seem advisable to use preload with crystalloids as evidence suggests its ineffectiveness. As for the other three alternatives (preload with colloids, coload with crystalloids and coload with colloids) there is no superiority among them and neither of them seems effective enough to be used as monotherapy. Due to its safety and ease of use, coload with crystalloids associated to alpha agonist vasopressor therapy seems to be the best management strategy. Further studies should aim at the best way to administer fluids in order to optimize vasopressor therapy.

La técnica anestésica de elección para operación cesárea es la anestesia subaracnoídea. Uno de los principales efectos adversos de esta técnica es la hipotensión arterial, que puede llegar a ocasionar graves complicaciones. Existen diversas alternativas para la prevención y manejo de la hipotensión arterial; una de ellas la fluidoterapia. El objetivo de esta revisión es evaluar la evidencia reciente disponible para las distintas alternativas de fluidoterapia y evaluar su efectividad. Actualmente no parece recomendable el utilizar precarga con cristaloides para la prevención de hipotensión arterial. En cuanto a las otras tres alternativas(precarga con coloides, cocarga con cristaloides o cocarga coloides) ninguna parece ser más efectiva que las otras previniendo hipotensión arterial y ninguna sería efectiva como monoterapia. Por su disponibilidad y seguridad de uso, al día de hoy la cocarga con cristaloides asociada a terapia vasopresora alfa agonista parece ser la mejor alternativa. Estudios futuros debieran apuntar a encontrar la forma de infusión que optimize la terapia con vasopresores.

Humans , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Fluid Therapy/methods , Hypotension/etiology , Hypotension/prevention & control , Isotonic Solutions
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(6): 622-627, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829716


Abstract A double blind randomized clinical trial of sufentanil as an adjunct in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section and, thereby, be able to reduce the dose of bupivacaine, a local anesthetic, with the same result of an anesthetic block with higher doses but with fewer perioperative side effects, such as hypotension.

Resumo Ensaio clínico randomizado duplamente encoberto sobre o uso do sufentanil como adjuvante em raquianestesia para cesariana e, possibilitando a redução da dose do anestésico local, a bupivacaína, com o mesmo resultado de bloqueio anestésico com doses mais elevadas, mas com menos efeitos colaterais no perioperatório, como hipotensão.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Sufentanil/administration & dosage , Sufentanil/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Hypotension/prevention & control , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control
PAFMJ-Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2015; 65 (2): 184-188
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-168244


To evaluate the efficacy of intramuscular ephedrine along with preloading in prevention of post Spinal hypotension in elderly patients. Randomized controlled trial. Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Combined Military Hospital Peshawar, from 20[th] March 2007 to 20[th] March 2008. A total of 100 patients of ASA I and II were selected. The patients were randomly divided by random numbers table into two groups of 50 each. Group A was preloaded with ringer solution 15 ml/kg and intramuscular injection of 1 ml normal saline as placebo was given. Group B preloaded with 7.5 ml/kg and intramuscular injection of ephedrine 0.5 mg/kg was given. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure were monitored after the spinal blockade. Hypotension was treated with intravenous bolus of 5mg ephedrine and additional rapid infusion of lactated ringers. In group A, hypotension occurred in 30 [60%] patients as compared to group B, where hypotension occurred in 11 [22%] patients. In group A, ephedrine 10mg [2 boluses] were given in 14 [28%] patients, while in group B, ephedrine 5mg [1 bolus] was given in 11 [22%] patients. It is concluded from the results of this study that less preloading is required in intramuscular preloading along with intramuscular ephedrine is more effective in preventing patients after spinal anaesthesia as compared to preloading alone

Humans , Male , Female , Hypotension/prevention & control , Anesthesia, Spinal , Aged , Injections, Intramuscular
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 50(2): 309-320, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722192


The aims of this study were to evaluate the chemical profile, vascular reactivity, and acute hypotensive effect (AHE) of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Alpinia purpurata (Vieill) K. Schum (EEAP). Its chemical profile was evaluated using HPLC-UV, ICP-OES, and colorimetric quantification of total flavonoids and polyphenols. The vascular reactivity of the extract was determined using the mesenteric bed isolated from WKY. AHE dose-response curves were obtained for both EEAP and inorganic material isolated from AP (IAP) in WKY and SHR animals. Cytotoxic and mutagenic safety levels were determined by the micronucleus test. Rutin-like flavonoids were quantified in the EEAP (1.8 ± 0.03%), and the total flavonoid and polyphenol ratios were 4.1 ± 1.8% and 5.1 ± 0.3%, respectively. We observed that the vasodilation action of EEAP was partially mediated by nitric oxide (·NO). The IAP showed the presence of calcium (137.76 ± 4.08 μg mg-1). The EEAP and IAP showed an AHE in WKY and SHR animals. EEAP did not have cytotoxic effects or cause chromosomic alterations. The AHE shown by EEAP could result from its endothelium-dependent vascular action. Rutin-like flavonoids, among other polyphenols, could contribute to these biological activities, and the calcium present in EEAP could act in a synergistic way.

Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar o perfil químico de folhas de Alpinia purpurata K. Schum (AP), assim como a reatividade vascular e o efeito hipotensor agudo (EHA) do extrato etanólico de folhas de AP (EEAP). Avliou-se o perfil químico utilizando-se HPLC-UV, ICP-OES e quantificação colorimétrica de flavonoides e polifenóis totais. A reatividade vascular foi determinada utilizando leito mesentérico isolado de ratos WKY. Curvas dose-resposta do EEAP e do material inorgânico da AP (IAP) foram realizadas em animais SHR e WKY. Determinaram-se a segurança citotóxica e mutagênica pelo teste de micronúcleos. Flavonoides tipo rutina foram quantificados no EEAP (1,8±0,03%) e flavonoide total e polifenóis foram de 4,1±1,8% e 5,1±0,3%, respectivamente. Observou-se ação vasodilatadora do EEAP, mediada parcialmente pelo óxido nítrico (·NO). O IAP revelou a presença de cálcio (137,76±4.08 μ de Ca). O EEAP e IAP apresentaram EHA em animais WKY e SHR. Não se observaram efeitos citotóxicos e alterações cromossômicas provocadas pelo EEAP. O EEAP mostrou um EHA que poderia resultar de ação vascular dependente do endotélio. Rutina, entre outros polifenóis e flavonoides, poderia estar contribuindo para essas atividades biológicas e o cálcio presente no EEAP, poderia agir de maneira sinérgica.

Rats , Endothelium , Hypotension/prevention & control , Zingiberaceae/classification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/classification , International Classification of Primary Care , Polyphenols/analysis , Reactivity-Stability
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 63(3): 258-261, maio-jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-675842


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito da administração profilática de solução salina normal com o efeito hipotensor de propofol em pacientes do sexo feminino programadas para procedimentos ginecológicos. MÉTODO: Foram randomicamente alocadas em dois grupos 69 pacientes, ASA I-II. O Grupo 1 recebeu 5 de solução salina a 0,9% 10 minutos antes da indução e o Grupo 2 não recebeu nada (controle). A anestesia foi induzida com propofol e fentanil e depois mantida com propofol e remifentanil. As variáveis hemodinâmicas foram mensuradas pré- e pós-indução da anestesia geral. RESULTADOS: Após a indução, ambos os grupos apresentaram queda significativa da pressão arterial média (p < 0,001) e redução também significativa da frequência cardíaca (p < 0,02 no grupo de estudo e p < 0,001 no grupo de controle). A pressão arterial média pré-indução teve uma queda de mais de 25% em 35% dos pacientes do grupo controle em comparação com apenas 17% dos pacientes que receberam a solução salina (p < 0,04). CONCLUSÃO: A administração profilática de solução salina pode diminuir a porcentagem de pacientes que apresentam queda significativa da pressão arterial após a indução de propofol em anestesia geral.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of prophylactic administration of normal saline against the hypotensive effect of propofol in female patients booked for gynecological procedures. METHOD: Sixty nine ASA (I, II) patients were randomly allocated into two groups, group 1 received 5 of 0.9% normal saline 10 minutes before induction, whereas group 2 received nothing (control). Anesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl then maintained with propofol and remifentanil. We measured hemodynamic variables pre and post general anesthesia induction. RESULTS: Both groups had significant drops in post induction mean arterial blood pressure (P < 0.001). Also both groups had significant drops in post induction heart rate ((P < 0.02 in sample group and P < 0.001 in control group), and 35% of patients in the control group had more than 25% drop in the pre induction mean arterial blood pressure, compared with only 17% of patients in the saline group (P < 0.04). CONCLUSION: The prophylactic administration of normal saline could decrease the percentage of patients who had a significant drop in their blood pressure after propofol induction of general anesthesia.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVO: Comparar el efecto de la administración profiláctica de solución salina normal con el efecto hipotensor de propofol en pacientes del sexo femenino programadas para procedimientos ginecológicos. MÉTODO: Sesenta y nueve pacientes con ASA I-II fueron ubicados aleatoriamente en dos grupos. El Grupo 1 recibió 5 de solución salina al 0,9% 10 minutos antes de la inducción y el Grupo 2 no recibió nada. La anestesia fue inducida con propofol y fentanilo y después se mantuvo con propofol y remifentanilo. Las variables hemodinámicas fueron mensuradas antes y después de la inducción de la anestesia general. RESULTADOS: Después de la inducción, ambos grupos presentaron una caída significativa de la presión arterial promedio (p < 0,001) y una reducción también significativa de la frecuencia cardíaca (p < 0,02 en el grupo de estudio y p < 0,001 en el grupo de control). La presión arterial promedio pre inducción tuvo una caída de más del 25% en 35% de los pacientes del grupo control en comparación con solamente un 17% de los pacientes que recibieron la solución salina (p < 0,04). CONCLUSIÓN: La administración profiláctica de la solución salina normal puede disminuir el porcentaje de pacientes que presentan una caída significativa de la presión arterial después de la inducción de propofol en la anestesia general.

Female , Humans , Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Hypotension/chemically induced , Hypotension/prevention & control , Propofol/adverse effects , Sodium Chloride/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Single-Blind Method
J. bras. med ; 101(1): 7-10, jan.-fev. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-688974


O tratamento da embolia pulmonar em sua fase aguda tem como objetivos a manutenção da estabilidade clínica e a reperfusão das artérias pulmonares. Nessa fase, quando ocorre o maior número de óbitos, é fundamental que estratégias terapêuticas adequadas a cada caso sejam implementadas. A gravidade da apresentação clínica, relacionada ao grau de comprometimento vascular e ao estado cardiopulmonar prévio dos pacientes, é o principal aspecto a definir o modelo de tratamento

Treatment of pulmonary embolism in its acute phase aims at maintaining stability and clinical reperfusion pulmonary arteries. In this phase, where there is the largest number of deaths, it is essential that appropriate therapeutic strategies are implemented in each case. The severity of clinical presentation, related to the degree of vascular compromise and prior to cardiopulmonary status of patients, the main aspect is to define the model of treatment

Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Hypotension/prevention & control , Anticoagulants , Embolectomy , Fibrinolytic Agents , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Heparin/therapeutic use , Isotonic Solutions/administration & dosage , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Vena Cava Filters
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 34: [4], 20130.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-880714


A hipotensão materna após raquianestesia em cesarianas é um evento extremamente frequente na prática anestésica em sala de parto. O manejo com vasopressores é a melhor conduta diante do quadro, sendo o uso da fenilefrina o mais seguro e eficaz. A resposta ao tratamento é mais bem avaliada através de parâmetros clínicos não-invasivos.

Maternal hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarian sections is an extremely common event in anesthesia delivery room. The treatment with vasopressors is the better behavior in the case, with the use of phenylephrine as safe and effective. The response to treatment is best assessed by non-invasive clinical parameters.

Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Cesarean Section , Drug Therapy , Hypotension/epidemiology , Hypotension/prevention & control , Hypotension/therapy
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2011 Jan; 14(1): 30-40
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139559


The prophylactic use of small doses of ephedrine may counter the hypotension response to propofol anesthesia with minimal hemodynamic changes. One hundred-fifty patients scheduled for valve surgery were randomly assigned into five groups (n = 30 for each) to receive saline, 0.07, 0.1, or 0.15 mg/kg of ephedrine, or phenylephrine 1.5 μg/kg before induction of propofol-fentanyl anesthesia. After induction, patient receiving ephedrine had higher mean arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance (SVRI), cardiac (CI), stroke volume (SVI), and left ventricular stroke work (LVSWI) indices. Patients received 0.15 mg/kg of ephedrine showed additional increased heart rate and frequent ischemic episodes (P < 0.001). However, those who received phenylephrine showed greater rise in SVRI, reduced CI, SVI, and LVSWI and more frequent ischemic episodes. We conclude that the prophylactic use of small doses of ephedrine (0.07−0.1 mg/kg) is safe and effective in the counteracting propofol-induced hypotension during anesthesia for valve surgery.

Adult , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Ephedrine/therapeutic use , Female , Heart Valves/surgery , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Humans , Hypotension/prevention & control , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Propofol/adverse effects , Rheumatic Heart Disease/surgery
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 60(4): 391-398, jul.-ago. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-554325


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia raquídea é utilizada com frequência em casos de cesariana e se algumas medidas profiláticas não forem adotadas a incidência de hipotensão arterial é superior a 80 por cento. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia da fenilefrina quando administrada terapêutica ou profilaticamente para a manutenção da pressão arterial em pacientes submetidas à anestesia raquídea para cesarianas eletivas. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 120 gestantes submetidas a cesarianas eletivas sob anestesia raquídea, alocadas aleatoriamente em três grupos iguais, conforme o regime de administração de fenilefrina. No Grupo 1, administrou-se fenilefrina em infusão contínua, em bomba de infusão, na dose de 0,15 µg.Kg-1.min-1 após a anestesia raquídea. No Grupo 2, foi administrada fenilefrina em dose única, de forma profilática, na dose de 50 µg após a anestesia raquídea e, no Grupo 3, fenilefrina em dose única de 50 µg em caso de hipotensão arterial definida como queda da PAS e/ou PAD de até 20 por cento em relação à média dos valores basais. Avaliou-se a incidência de hipotensão arterial, náuseas, vômitos e do índice de Apgar. RESULTADOS: A incidência de hipotensão arterial foi significativamente maior no Grupo 3, ocorrendo em 85 por cento das gestantes. Nos Grupos 1 e 2, ocorreu em 17,5 por cento e 32,5 por cento dos casos, respectivamente (p < 0,001). A incidência de náuseas foi bem superior no Grupo 3, ocorrendo em 40 por cento das pacientes, enquanto nos Grupos 1 e 2 a incidência foi de 10 por cento e 15 por cento, respectivamente, apresentando significância estatística. CONCLUSÕES: De acordo com a metodologia empregada, o estudo mostra que a infusão contínua profilática de fenilefrina iniciada imediatamente após a realização da anestesia raquídea para cesariana é mais efetiva para reduzir a incidência de hipotensão arterial e os efeitos colaterais maternos e fetais.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal block is commonly used in cesarean sections and, if some prophylactic measures are not taken, the incidence of hypotension is higher than 80 percent. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of the administration of therapeutic or prophylactic doses of phenylephrine to maintain blood pressure in patients undergoing spinal block for elective cesarean section. METHODS: One hundred and twenty gravidas undergoing elective cesarean sections under spinal block, randomly divided in three equal groups according to the regimen of phenylephrine administered, were included in this study. In Group 1, continuous infusion of phenylephrine, using an infusion pump at 0.15 µ was administered after the spinal block. In Group 2, a single dose of prophylactic phenylephrine 50 µg was administered after the spinal block, and Group 3 received a single dose of phenylephrine 50 µg in case of hypotension, which was defined as a drop in SBP and/or DBP of up to 20 percent of baseline levels. The incidence of hypotension, nausea, and vomiting as well as the Apgar score were evaluated. RESULTS: The incidence of hypotension was significantly greater in Group 3, affecting 85 percent of the gravidas. In Groups 1 and 2 hypotension was seen in 17.5 percent and 32.5 percent of the cases respectively (p < 0.001). The incidence of nausea was much higher in Group 3 affecting 40 percent of the patients while in Groups 1 and 2 it was 10 percent and 15 percent respectively which was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: According to the methodology used, this study showed that prophylactic continuous infusion of phenylephrine initiated immediately after the spinal block for cesarean section is more effective in reducing the incidence of hypotension and maternal and fetal side effects.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La raquianestesia se usa a menudo en casos de cesárea y si algunas medidas profilácticas no se adoptan, la incidencia de hipotensión arterial es superior al 80 por ciento. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la eficacia de la fenilefrina cuando se administra terapéutica o profilácticamente para el mantenimiento de la presión arterial en pacientes sometidas a la raquianestesia para cesáreas electivas. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron 120 gestantes sometidas a cesáreas electivas bajo raquianestesia, ubicadas aleatoriamente en tres grupos iguales, conforme al régimen de administración de fenilefrina. En el Grupo 1, se administró fenilefrina en infusión continua, con bomba de infusión en dosis de 0,15 µg.Kg-1.min-1 después de la raquianestesia. En el Grupo 2, fue administrada fenilefrina en dosis única, de forma profiláctica, en dosis de 50 µg después de la raquianestesia, y en el Grupo 3, fenilefrina en dosis única de 50 µg en el caso de hipotensión arterial definida como una caída de la PAS y/o PAD en hasta un 20 por ciento con relación al promedio de los valores basales. Se evaluó la incidencia de hipotensión arterial, náuseas, vómitos y el índice de Apgar. RESULTADOS: La incidencia de hipotensión arterial fue significativamente más elevada en el Grupo 3, acaeciendo en un 85 por ciento de las embarazadas. En los Grupos 1 y 2, ocurrió en un 17,5 por ciento y 32,5 por ciento de los casos respectivamente (p < 0,001). La incidencia de náuseas fue bastante superior en el Grupo 3 en un 40 por ciento de las pacientes, mientras que en los Grupos 1 y 2 la incidencia fue de un 10 por ciento y un 15 por ciento respectivamente, presentando significancia estadística. CONCLUSIONES: A tono con la metodología utilizada, el estudio muestra que la infusión continua profiláctica de fenilefrina iniciada inmediatamente después de la realización de la raquianestesia para cesárea, es más efectiva en la reducción de la incidencia de hipotensión ...

Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section , Hypotension/prevention & control , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control , Phenylephrine/administration & dosage , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Elective Surgical Procedures , Hypotension/etiology , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Phenylephrine/therapeutic use , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
HAYAT-Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery [The]. 2010; 16 (1): 5-12
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-97672


Intradialytic hypotension is the most frequent complication in patients receiving haemodialysis [HD]. This complication not only contributes to the illness of the patients, but also decreases the efficacy of the HD. So, hypotension prevention is a major challenge for medical team, especially for nurses. One of the preventive methods that have recently been presented is the use of sodium profile and ultra filtration [UF] profile. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of linear sodium + UF profile [type1] with stepwise sodium + UF profile [type3] on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in HD patients. In this crossover design study, 26 HD patients from two dialysis centers at Esfahan University underwent three kinds of treatment: [1] control, constant dialysate sodium concentration of 138 mmol/L with constant UF; [2] linear sodium profile + UF profile [type1], a linearly decreasing dialysate sodium concentration [146-138 mmol/L] in combination with a linearly decreasing UF rate; and [3] stepwise sodium profile + UF profile [type2], a stepwise decreasing dialysate sodium concentration [146-138 mmol/L] in combination with a stepwise decreasing UF rate. Eachtreatment was applied in three dialysis sessions. Data were analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA test in the SPSS. Twenty six patients participated in the study. A total of 234 dialysis sessions were analyzed. There were no significant differences in the systolic blood pressure between three groups during predialysis and first and the second hours [P>0.05]. The mean of systolic blood pressures were higher in the third hour and postdialysis during two types of profiles [1 and 3] compared with the routine care group [P<0.05]. The mean of diastolic blood pressure was also higher in postdialysis during two types of profiles [1 and 3] compared with the routine group [P<0.05]. There was no significant difference between the profiles 1and 3 [P>0.05]. In conclusion, sodium profile + UF profile is a simple and cost-effective method that modulate the dialysate sodium and ultra filtration rate and preserve the homodynamic status and blood pressure of patients during dialysis. Therefore, using sodium profile + UF profile [type1 and type 3] is recommended in order to prevent hypotension and reduce nursing work during hemodialysis process

Humans , Sodium , Renal Dialysis , Blood Pressure , Hemodynamics , Hypotension/prevention & control
Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology. 2010; 20 (5): 667-672
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-105622


Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section is commonly associated with hypotension and crystalloid preload is widely recommended. Low-dose spinal appears to cause less hypotension. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combined use of crystalloid preload and low dose spinal anaesthesia might further reduce the rates of hypotension. Sixty-two patients were randomly assigned to two groups: crystalloid preload anaesthesia [P]: received a rapid infusion of 20 mL/kg lactated Ringer's solution [LR], and no preload anaesthesia [N]. The incidence of hypotension and the amount of ephedrine used to treat it were compared. Spinal anaesthesia was performed with 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg and fentanyl 10 micro g and morphine 100 micro g. The incidence of hypotension was similar in the P and N groups. Same doses of ephedrine were required to treat hypotension in the two groups. Crystalloid preload combined with low-dose spinal anaesthesia do not reduce the incidence of hypotension nor its severity

Humans , Female , Isotonic Solutions , Combined Modality Therapy , Preoperative Care , Cesarean Section , Hypotension/prevention & control , Fluid Therapy , Premedication
Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology. 2010; 20 (5): 673-678
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-105623


Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section exposes to high incidence of arterial hypotension which can result in maternal and neonatal morbidity. We hypothesized that the reduction of this dose from 10 mg to 7.5 mg would minimize hypotension without altering pain relief. In this double-blind prospective study, 80 ASA1 women scheduled for elective caesarean section were randomized into two groups A and B receiving respectively 10 and 7.5 mg of isobaric bupivacaine both with 25 micro g of fentanyl and 100 micro g of morphine in spinal anaesthesia. Intravenous ephedrine was administered for each episode of hypotension. We recorded sensory and motor block, intraoperative pain, nausea and vomiting. In postanaesthesia care unit, sensory and motor recoveries were measured and maternal satisfaction rate was assessed. In group A, a larger dose of ephedrine was needed [32 +/- 23 vs 19 +/- 16 mg; p=0.004]. Incidence of sensory block above T4 [52 vs 10%; p<0.001], nausea [52 vs 22%; p=0.005] and vomiting [25 vs 8%; p=0.03] were all higher than in group B. Arterial hypotension was less frequent in group B [68 vs 88%; p=0.03]. The time required for recovery to T10 sensory level and motor regression were shorter than in group A [p<0.001] and the satisfaction rate was higher than in group A [excellent and good in 90% vs 67%; p=0.03]. There was no difference in pain relief. A dose of 7.5 mg of isobaric bupivacaine reduced incidence of hypotension, nausea and vomiting and improved patient satisfaction

Humans , Female , Hypotension/prevention & control , Cesarean Section , Patient Satisfaction , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control , Nausea/prevention & control , Vomiting/prevention & control , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2010; 17 (4): 648-653
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-118014


To determine the effective dose of intravenous ephedrine for the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. A randomized, double-blinded dose finding study. The study was carried out in Combined Military Hospital Gujranwala from March 2009 to March 2010. Total patients were 80 full term women who were randomly allocated into four groups and were given Ringer lactate 10 ml per kg body weight intravenously. One minute after the spinal injection, patients were given saline control or ephedrine 0.1 mg per kg body weight, 0.25mg per kg body weight, or 0.4mg per kg body weight for 30 seconds. The study period started at the time of spinal injection and continued for 15 minutes. Systolic arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded at 1 -min intervals. Side effects like hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia, bradycardia, nausea and vomiting were also recorded. Total rescue ephedrine and total dose of used ephedrine in all groups were measured. Neonates were assessed by APGAR score. There was less incidence of hypotension in the ephedrine 0.4mg per kg body weight and 0.25 mg per kg body weight group as compared with ephedrine 0.1 mg per kg body weight and the control group, 5[25%], 13[65%] vs. 16[80%], 18 [90%] respectively. Systolic arterial pressure [SAP] in the first 15 min after the spinal injection was statistically significant greater in the 0.4mg per kg body weight group compared with other groups [P <0.001]. Reactive hypertension occurred in 9[45%] in the 0.4mg per kg group, compared with control group, 0[0%], ephedrine 0.1 mg, 1[5%] and ephedrine 0.25 mg 3[15%] patients. The Heart rate in the first 15 minutes in the ephedrine 0.4mg per kg body weight and 0.25 mg per kg body weight group was statistically significant higher than those of ephedrine 0.1 mg per kg body weight and control group [P<0.001]. The incidence of tachycardia was more in ephedrine 0.4 mg per kg body weight and 0.25 mg per kg body weight groups as compared to ephedrine 0.1 mg per kg body weight and the control group, 9 [45%], 6 [30%] vs. 3 [15%], 2 [10%] respectively. There were significant decrease in total doses of rescue ephedrine required in the ephedrine 0.4mg per kg body weight group as compared to other three groups. Total doses of used ephedrine in all groups were similar. We conclude that although ephedrine 0.25 mg per kg body weight reduces the hypotension but the smallest effective dose of ephedrine to reduce the incidence of hypotension significantly was 0.4mg per kg body weight

Humans , Female , Ephedrine/administration & dosage , Cesarean Section , Hypotension/prevention & control , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/adverse effects , Apgar Score , Infusions, Intravenous , Heart Rate/drug effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 59(1): 11-20, jan.-fev. 2009. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-505839


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A hipotensão arterial durante a anestesia raquídea para cesariana deve-se ao bloqueio simpático e compressão aorto-cava pelo útero e pode ocasionar efeitos deletérios para o feto e a mãe. A efedrina e fenilefrina melhoram o retorno venoso após bloqueio simpático durante anestesia raquídea. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia da efedrina e da fenilefrina em prevenir e tratar a hipotensão arterial materna durante anestesia raquídea e avaliar seus efeitos colaterais e alterações fetais. MÉTODO: Sessenta pacientes, submetidas à anestesia raquídea com bupivacaína e sufentanil para cesariana, foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos para receber, profilaticamente, efedrina (Grupo E, n = 30, dose = 10 mg) ou fenilefrina (Grupo F, n = 30, dose = 80 µg). Hipotensão arterial (pressão arterial menor ou igual a 80 por cento da medida basal) foi tratada com bolus de vasoconstritor com 50 por cento da dose inicial. Foram avaliados: incidência de hipotensão arterial, hipertensão arterial reativa, bradicardia e vômitos, escore de Apgar no primeiro e quinto minutos e gasometria do cordão umbilical. RESULTADOS: A dose média de efedrina foi 14,8 ± 3,8 mg e 186,7 ± 52,9 µg de fenilefrina. Os grupos foram semelhantes quanto aos parâmetros demográficos e incidência de vômitos, bradicardia e hipertensão arterial reativa. A incidência de hipotensão arterial foi de 70 por cento no Grupo E e 93 por cento no Grupo F (p < 0,05). O pH arterial médio do cordão umbilical e o escore de Apgar no primeiro minuto foram menores no grupo E (p < 0,05). Não houve diferença no escore do quito minuto. CONCLUSÕES: A efedrina foi mais eficiente que fenilefrina na prevenção de hipotensão arterial. Ambos os fármacos apresentaram incidência semelhante de efeitos colaterais. As repercussões fetais foram menos freqüentes com o uso da fenilefrina e apenas transitórias com a utilização da efedrina.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La hipotensión arterial durante la anestesia raquídea para cesárea se debe al bloqueo simpático y a la compresión aortocava por el útero y puede ocasionar efectos malignos para el feto y su madre. La efedrina y fenilefrina mejoran el retorno venoso después del bloqueo simpático durante la anestesia raquídea. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la eficacia de la efedrina y de la fenilefrina en prevenir y tratar la hipotensión arterial materna durante la anestesia raquídea y evaluar así sus efectos colaterales y las alteraciones fetales. MÉTODO: Sesenta pacientes, sometidas a la anestesia raquídea con bupivacaína y sufentanil para cesárea, se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos para recibir, profilácticamente, efedrina (Grupo E, n = 30, dosis = 10mg) o fenilefrina (Grupo F, n = 30, dosis = 80 µg). Hipotensión arterial (presión arterial menor o igual a un 80 por ciento de la medida basal) fue tratada con bolo de vasoconstrictor con un 50 por ciento de la dosis inicial. Se evaluaron: incidencia de hipotensión arterial, hipertensión arterial reactiva, bradicardia y vómitos, puntuación de Apgar en el 1º y 5º minutos y gasometría del cordón umbilical. RESULTADOS: La dosis promedio de efedrina fue 14,8 mg (± 3,8) y 186,7 µg (± 52,9) de fenilefrina. Los grupos fueron similares en cuanto a los parámetros demográficos y a la incidencia de vómitos, bradicardia e hipertensión arterial reactiva. La incidencia de hipotensión arterial fue de un 70 por ciento en el Grupo E y un 93 por ciento en el Grupo F (p < 0,05). El pH arterial promedio del cordón umbilical y el puntaje de Apgar en el 1º minuto fueron menores en el grupo E (p < 0,05). No se registró diferencia en el puntaje del 5º minuto. CONCLUSIONES: La efedrina fue más efectiva que la fenilefrina en la prevención de la hipotensión arterial. Los dos fármacos presentaron una incidencia similar de efectos colaterales. Las repercusiones fetales fueron menos frecuentes...

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypotension during spinal block for cesarean section is secondary to the sympathetic blockade and aorto-caval compression by the uterus and it can be deleterious to both the fetus and the mother. Ephedrine and phenylephrine improve venous return after sympathetic blockade during the spinal block. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and phenylephrine in the prevention and treatment of maternal hypotension during spinal block and to evaluate their side effects and fetal changes. METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing spinal block with bupivacaine and sufentanil for cesarean section were randomly divided in two groups to receive prophylactic ephedrine (Group E, n = 30, dose = 10 mg) or phenylephrine (Group P, n = 30, dose = 80 µg). Hypotension (blood pressure equal or lower than 80 percent of baseline values) was treated with bolus administration of the vasoconstrictor at 50 percent of the initial dose. The incidence of hypotension, reactive hypertension, bradycardia, and vomiting, and Apgar scores on the 1st and 5th minutes, and blood gases of the umbilical cord blood were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean dose of ephedrine used was 14.8 ± 3.8 mg and of phenylephrine was 186.7 ± 52.9 µg. Demographic parameters and the incidence of vomiting, bradycardia, and reactive hypertension were similar in both groups. Hypotension had an incidence of 70 percent in Group E and 93 percent in Group P (p < 0.05). The mean arterial pH of the umbilical cord blood and the Apgar score in the 1st minute were lower in Group E (p < 0.05). Differences in the Apgar score in the 5th minute were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Ephedrine was more effective than phenylephrine in the prevention of hypotension. Both drugs had similar incidence of side effects. Fetal repercussions were less frequent with phenylephrine and were transitory with the use of ephedrine.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Ephedrine/adverse effects , Ephedrine/standards , Phenylephrine/adverse effects , Phenylephrine/standards , Hypotension/prevention & control , Intraoperative Complications , Anesthesia, Obstetrical , Cesarean Section
Mediciego ; 14(supl.1)mar. 2008.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-532332


La cesárea es quizás la cirugía más frecuentemente realizada en cualquier ambiente hospitalario que cuente con asistencia materna. La anestesia regional no solamente es la indicación inicial sino que es mandatoria por sus ventajas para la madre y el feto. El efecto adverso más apreciado de esta técnica lo constituye la hipotensión arterial, su frecuente ocurrencia y rápido comienzo durante la anestesia espinal han estimulado a los anestesistas a tratarla y prevenirla. Por tal motivo presentamos esta revisión que incluye fisiopatología, efectos sobre el feto, principales medicamentos y vías que se usan actualmente para su profilaxis y tratamiento.

Maybe cesarean section is the most frequent surgery done in every hospital environment that practice maternity assistance.The regional anaesthesia is not only the initial indication but also compulsory becuase of its advantages for the mother and the foetus. The most frequent adverse effect of this technique is the arterial hypertension, its frequent occurrence and its rapid begining during the the spinal anaesthesia which have encourage the anaesthetists to treat it and prevent it. That´s why we present this revision that includes pathophysiology, effects on the foetus, main medicaments and routes that are used today to its prophylaxis and treatment.

Humans , Female , Anesthesia, Epidural , Cesarean Section , Hypotension/prevention & control , Hypotension/therapy
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 27(1)ene.-mar. 2008.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-499283


Las pruebas de esfuerzo son útiles al evaluar las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Caracterizar precozmente un desequilibrio del organismo es fundamental, por lo que nos propusimos identificar durante el ejercicio la respuesta presora, alteraciones del ritmo e isquemia del miocardio en sujetos normotensos y prehipertensos. Se realizó prueba ergométrica diagnóstica en bicicleta a 222 sujetos con presión arterial menor 140/90 mmHg, electrocardiograma normal y sin tratamiento farmacológico. Predominaron las mujeres (58.6por ciento) y sujetos de la piel blanca (41.8por ciento). La presión arterial al máximo esfuerzo fue anormal en el 45.7por ciento y de ellos el 88 por ciento era prehipertenso. Esta variable mostró una elevada diferencia significativa (p=0.0000064) entre normotensos y prehipertensos. Se detectó isquemia del miocardio y arritmia en 21 sujetos. Se concluye que la prueba de esfuerzo en estos sujetos evidencia de forma precoz alteraciones en el control de la presión arterial y que la isquemia del miocardio y las arrtimias no son frecuentes en este subgrupo.

The exertion tests are useful to evaluate cardiovascular diseases. The early characterization of an unbalance of the organism is essential. That's why, we proposed to identify during the physical exercise the pressure response, rhythm alterations and myocardial ischemia in normotensive and prehypertensive individuals. A diagnostic bicycle ergometric test was performed among 222 subjects with arterial pressure under 140/90 mmHg, normal ECG and with no drug treatment. Females (58.6 percent) and white individuals (41.8percent) prevailed. Arterial pressure on maximum effort was abnormal in 45.7 percent and 88 % of them were prehypertensives. This variable showed an elevated significant difference (p=0.0000064) between normotensive and prehypertensives. Myocardial ischemia and arrhythmia were found in 21 individuals. It was concluded that the exercise test in these subjects evidenced early alterations in the control of arterial pressure and that myocardial ischemias and arrhythmias are not common in this subgroup.

Humans , Adult , Hypertension/prevention & control , Hypotension/prevention & control , Exercise Test , Exercise Test