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1.
Cambios rev. méd ; 21(1): 766, 30 Junio 2022. tabs, grafs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400392

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La crisis suprarrenal se refiere a la insuficiencia suprarrenal aguda; la cual es un trastorno en el que la corteza adrenal no produce suficientes hormonas esteroides (en especial cortisol) para satisfacer las demandas del cuerpo, de acuerdo al mecanismo fisiopatológico se la puede clasificar como primaria, secundaria y terciaria, siendo más común en pacientes con insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria. Es una emergencia potencialmente mortal que requiere tratamiento inmediato. OBJETIVO. Establecer una estrategia de prevención y tratamiento de la crisis suprarrenal, así como la farmacoterapia ideal y sus alternativas válidas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en varias revistas virtuales de alto carácter científico como Cochrane Library, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, MEDLINE a través de PubMed y ClinicalTrial.gov. Se seleccionaron revisiones sistemáticas con o sin metaanálisis, ensayos clínicos y recomendaciones de expertos relacionados con prevención y tratamiento de crisis suprarrenal en general. RESULTADOS. Se obtuvieron 1819 resultados, de los cuales se seleccionaron 20 artículos con mayor validez y replicabilidad en el medio para establecer un protocolo unificado de actuación. CONCLUSIÓN. El objetivo de la terapia es el tratamiento de la hipotensión y reversión de las anomalías electrolíticas y de la deficiencia de cortisol. Se deben infundir por vía intravenosa grandes volúmenes (1 a 3 litros) de solución salina al 0,9% o dextrosa al 5% en solución salina al 0,9% y la administración de hidrocortisona (bolo de 100 mg), seguido de 50 mg cada 6 horas (o 200 mg / 24 horas como infusión continua durante las primeras 24 horas). Si no se dispone de hidrocortisona, las alternativas incluyen prednisolona, prednisona y dexametasona.


INTRODUCTION. Adrenal crisis refers to acute adrenal insufficiency; which is a disorder in which the adrenal cortex does not produce enough steroid hormones (especially cortisol) to meet the body's demands, according to the pathophysiological mechanism it can be classified as primary, secondary and tertiary, being more common in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. It is a life-threatening emergency that requires immediate treatment. OBJECTIVE. To establish a strategy for the prevention and treatment of adrenal crisis, as well as the ideal pharmacotherapy and its valid alternatives. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A literature review was performed in several highly scientific virtual journals such as Cochrane Library, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, MEDLINE through PubMed and ClinicalTrial.gov. Systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis, clinical trials and expert recommendations related to prevention and treatment of adrenal crisis in general were selected. RESULTS. A total of 1819 results were obtained, from which 20 articles with greater validity and replicability in the setting were selected to establish a unified protocol for action. CONCLUSIONS. The aim of therapy is the treatment of hypotension and reversal of electrolyte abnormalities and cortisol deficiency. Large volumes (1 to 3 liters) of 0.9% saline or 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline and administration of hydrocortisone (100 mg bolus), followed by 50 mg every 6 hours (or 200 mg / 24 hours as a continuous infusion for the first 24 hours) should be infused intravenously. If hydrocortisone is not available, alternatives include prednisolone, prednisone, and dexamethasone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Fluid Therapy , Hypotension , Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase , Dexamethasone , Prednisolone , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Ecuador , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1632-1641, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928093

ABSTRACT

Suanzaoren Decoction(SZRD) is a classical formula for the clinical treatment of insomnia. This study analyzed the effect of SZRD on endogenous metabolites in insomnia rats based on metabonomics and thereby explored the anti-insomnia mechanism of SZRD. To be specific, DL-4-chlorophenylalanine(PCPA) was used to induce insomnia in rats. Then pathological changes of the liver and brain were observed and biochemical indexes such as 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), dopamine(DA), glutamate(Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA), and norepinephrine(NE) in the hippocampus and prostaglandin D2(PGD2), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and IL-6 in the serum of rats were detected. On this basis, the effect of SZRD on PCPA-induced insomnia rats was preliminarily assessed. The metabolic profile of rat serum samples was further analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) were combined with t-test and variable importance in projection(VIP) to identify differential metabolites, and MetaboAnalyst 5.0 was employed for pathway analysis. The results showed that SZRD could improve the pathological changes of brain and liver tissues, increase the levels of neurotransmitters 5-HT, DA, and GABA in hippocampus and the level of PGD2 in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis(HPA axis), and reduce the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in serum of insomnia rats. Metabonomics analysis yielded 12 significantly changed potential metabolites: 5-aminovaleric acid, N-acetylvaline, L-proline, L-glutamate, L-valine, DL-norvaline, D(-)-arginine, pyroglutamic acid, 1-methylguanine, L-isoleucine, 7-ethoxy-4-methylcoumarin, and phthalic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester(MEHP), which were related with multiple biochemical processes including metabolism of D-glutamine and D-glutamate, metabolism of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate, metabolism of arginine and proline, arginine biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism. These metabolic changes indicated that SZRD can improve the metabolism in insomnia rats by regulating amino acid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Metabolomics/methods , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
São Paulo med. j ; 139(4): 398-404, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290241

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Critical diseases usually cause hypercortisolemia via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between serum total cortisol level and mortality among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), at the time of their admission. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study developed in a pandemic hospital in the city of Şırnak, Turkey. METHODS: We compared the serum total cortisol levels of 285 patients (141 COVID-19-negative patients and 144 COVID-19-positive patients) followed up in the ICU. RESULTS: The median cortisol level of COVID-19-positive patients was higher than that of COVID-19 negative patients (21.84 μg/dl versus 16.47 μg/dl; P < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, mortality was associated with higher cortisol level (odds ratio: 1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.35; P = 0.001). The cortisol cutoff point was 31 μg/dl (855 nmol/l) for predicting mortality among COVID-19-positive patients (area under the curve 0.932; sensitivity 59%; and specificity 95%). Among the COVID-19 positive patients with cortisol level ≤ 31 μg/dl (79%; 114 patients), the median survival was higher than among those with cortisol level > 31 μg/dl (21%; 30 patients) (32 days versus 19 days; log-rank test P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Very high cortisol levels are associated with severe illness and increased risk of death, among COVID-19 patients in the ICU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydrocortisone , COVID-19 , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Intensive Care Units
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 69-75, mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287243

ABSTRACT

Abstract After a stressful event, adaptative mechanisms are carried out to support vital functions. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis plays a key role in stress response regulating metabolism, cardiovascular function and immune system. This review addresses pathophysiological changes of the adrenal axis during critical illness, recognizing limitations of methods applied for its evaluation in this special context and defining indications for corticosteroid replacement in critically ill patients. The concept of relative adrenal insufficiency should be abandoned; cosyntropin stimulation test should not be performed for diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in critical illness nor for establishing the need of treatment.


Resumen Diversos mecanismos adaptativos se ponen en marcha para sostener las funciones orgánicas vitales en el paciente crítico. El eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal tiene un papel clave en la respuesta al estrés al regular el metabolismo, la función cardiovascular y la respuesta inmune. Esta revisión tiene por objetivos analizar los cambios fisiopatológicos que se producen en el eje adrenal durante la enfermedad crítica, reconocer las limitaciones de los métodos diagnósticos y definir indicaciones de tratamiento de reemplazo corticoideo en este contexto. El concepto de insuficiencia adrenal relativa debe ser descartado y no se recomienda el test de estímulo con cosintropina para diagnóstico de insuficiencia adrenal durante enfermedad crítica ni para definir la necesidad de tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Critical Illness , Adrenal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Hydrocortisone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
5.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 31-31, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The industrial revolution has resulted in increased synthesis and the introduction of a variety of compounds into the environment and their potentially hazardous effects have been observed in the biota. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting effects of chronic exposure to the low concentrations of bisphenol S (BPS) in male rats.@*METHODS@#Weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats (22 days old) were either exposed to water containing 0.1% ethanol for control or different concentrations of BPS (0.5, 5, and 50 μg/L) in drinking water for 48 weeks in the chronic exposure study. After completion of the experimental period, animals were dissected and different parameters (hormone concentrations, histology of testis and epididymis, oxidative stress and level of antioxidant enzymes in the testis, daily sperm production (DSP), and sperm parameters) were determined.@*RESULTS@#Results of the present study showed a significant alteration in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and relative reproductive organ weights. Oxidative stress in the testis was significantly elevated while sperm motility, daily sperm production, and the number of sperm in epididymis were reduced. Plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations were reduced and estradiol levels were high in the 50 μg/L-exposed group. Histological observations involved a significant reduction in the epithelial height of the testis along with disrupted spermatogenesis, an empty lumen of the seminiferous tubules, and the caput region of the epididymis.@*CONCLUSION@#These results suggest that exposure to 5 and 50 μg/L of BPS for the chronic duration started from an early age can induce structural changes in testicular tissue architecture and endocrine alterations in the male reproductive system which may lead to infertility in males.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Biomarkers , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/physiopathology , Phenols/toxicity , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfones/toxicity , Testis/physiopathology , Toxicity Tests, Chronic
6.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 439-450, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the synergic effects of a novel oral supplement formulation, containing prebiotics, yeast β-glucans, minerals and silymarin (Silybum marianum), on lipid and glycidic metabolism, inflammatory and mitochondrial proteins of the liver, in control and high-fat diet-induced obese mice.@*METHODS@#After an acclimation period, 32 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following groups: nonfat diet (NFD) vehicle, NFD supplemented, high-fat diet (HFD) vehicle and HFD supplemented. The vehicle and experimental formulation were administered orally by gavage once a day during the last four weeks of the diet (28 consecutive days). We then evaluated energy homeostasis, inflammation, and mitochondrial protein expression in these groups of mice.@*RESULTS@#After four weeks of supplementation, study groups experienced reduced glycemia, dyslipidemia, fat, and hepatic fibrosis levels. Additionally, proliferator-activated receptor-α, AMP-activated protein kinase-1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α, and mitochondrial transcription factor A expression levels were augmented; however, levels of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase subunit α and p65 nuclear factor-κB expression, and oxidative markers were reduced. Notably, the cortisol/C-reactive protein ratio, a well-characterized marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis immune interface status, was found to be modulated by the supplement.@*CONCLUSION@#We discovered that the novel supplement was able to modify different antioxidant, metabolic and inflammatory pathways, improving the energy homeostasis and inflammatory status, and consequently alleviated hepatic steatosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antioxidants , Dietary Supplements , Glucans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Liver , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Milk Thistle , Minerals , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Prebiotics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
7.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 874-880, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922111

ABSTRACT

"Timely, near, and expectation" is the main principle of battlefield rescue for military combat stress reaction (CSR). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most common form of CSR and a long-term persistent mental disorder that is caused by unusual threatening or catastrophic psychological trauma. Chinese medicine (CM) has abundant resources, is simple, easy to master, with few side effects. This article summarizes the cellular and animal experimental mechanisms of CM treatment on PTSD, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbs and acupuncture can protect brain functional areas, and adjust hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Traditional Chinese herbs and acupuncture have shown good anti-stress efficacy and fewer side effects in clinical application, which may improve the CSR in the battlefield.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Military Personnel , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6377-6386, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921796

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is a major chronic disease threatening women's health. It has topped the global cancers as the diagnosed cases outnumbered lung cancer patients in 2020. Internal damage due to the seven emotions is an important cause of breast cancer and the disorders of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and endocrine system and the abnormal immune defense mechanism in response to psychological stress all affect the occurrence and development of breast cancer. It is noteworthy that the theory of seven emotions in traditional Chinese medicine and the psychological stress theory of modern medicine have something in common in some aspects. Therefore, this study explored the correlation between internal damage due to the seven emotions and psychological stress and analyzed the molecular biological mechanisms of psychological stress influencing breast cancer from the perspective of modern medicine, which is helpful to reasonably prevent breast cancer and other related tumors and improve the prognosis of breast cancer patients through emotion regulation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Emotions , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Stress, Psychological
9.
Araçatuba; s.n; 2021. 46 p. tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1435933

ABSTRACT

Pacientes com câncer podem apresentar uma desregulação do eixo hipotálamohipófise-adrenal (HPA) e secreção aumentada do hormônio cortisol. Níveis elevados de cortisol têm sido associados a pior prognóstico de diferentes tipos de câncer. Embora alterações psicológicas como ansiedade e depressão possam deflagrar uma secreção anormal de cortisol, pouco se sabe sobre a influência destas desordens emocionais na desregulação do eixo HPA em pacientes com câncer quando avaliadas em conjunto com variáveis demográficas, clinicopatológicas e biocomportamentais. Este estudo transversal avaliou os níveis plasmáticos de cortisol em 133 pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular (CEC) de boca e sua associação com variáveis demográficas, clínicopatológicas, biocomportamentais e psicológicas. Os níveis plasmáticos de cortisol foram mensurados por eletroquimioluminescência, e os níveis de ansiedade e depressão foram avaliados pelo Inventário de Ansiedade (BAI) e de Depressão (BDI) de Beck, respectivamente. Os dados demográficos, clinicopatológicos e biocomportamentais foram coletados dos prontuários dos pacientes. Os resultados da análise multivariada mostraram que homens com CEC de boca apresentaram 4,5 vezes mais chances de terem níveis elevados de cortisol plasmático do que as mulheres com a doença (OR=4,472; p=0,018). A presença de dor relacionada ao tumor primário também foi preditivo para maiores níveis de cortisol (OR=5,388; p=0,003). A ausência de histórico de consumo crônico de álcool foi um fator protetor para concentrações muito elevadas do hormônio nos pacientes com CEC de boca (OR=0,104; p= 0,004). Sintomas de ansiedade mensurados pelo BAI como "mãos trêmulas" (OR=0,192; p= 0,016) e estar "nervoso" (OR=0,207; p= 0,0004) foram associados a menores níveis de cortisol. Por outro lado, o sentimento de "medo de perder o controle" foi um fator de risco para níveis muito elevados de cortisol plasmático (OR=6,508; p= 0,0004). O score global e os sintomas específicos de depressão mensurados pelo BDI não foram preditivos para os níveis plasmáticos hormonais (p< 0,05). Juntos, os resultados mostram que sexo, dor, consumo de álcool e sintomas de ansiedade são variáveis independentes para os níveis sistêmicos de cortisol nos pacientes com câncer de boca. Portanto, intervenção psicológica, bem como o controle da dor e do alcoolismo devem ser considerados para a prevenção dos efeitos negativos da desregulação da secreção de cortisol nos pacientes diagnosticados com câncer de boca(AU)


Cancer patients may have a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and abnormal secretion of cortisol. Increased cortisol levels have been associated with worse prognosis in different types of cancer. Although anxiety and depression can trigger an abnormal cortisol secretion, little is known regarding the influence of these emotional disorders on HPA axis dysregulation in cancer patients when evaluating together with demographic, clinicopathological and biobehavioral variables. This crosssectional study analyzed the plasma cortisol levels of 133 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its association with demographic, clinicopathological, biobehavioral and psychological variables. Plasma cortisol levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence, and anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Depression (BDI), respectively. Demographic, clinicopathological and biobehavioral data were collected from patients' medicalrecords. Results from multivariate analysis showed that men with OSCC were 4.5 times more likely to have higher plasma cortisol levels than women (OR = 4.472, p = 0.018). The presence of cancer-induced pain was predictive for higher cortisol levels (OR = 5.388, p = 0.003). The absence of chronic alcohol consumption history was a protective factor for highest hormonal concentrations in oral cancer patients (OR = 0.104, p = 0.004). Anxiety symptoms measured by BAI as "hands trembling" (OR = 0.192, p = 0.016) and being "nervous" (OR = 0.207, p = 0.0004) were associated with lower cortisol levels. In contrast, the feeling of "fear of losing control" was a risk factor for highest systemic levels cortisol (OR = 6.508, p = 0.0004). The global score and specific symptoms of depression measured by the BDI were not predictive for plasma hormone levels (p < 0.05). Together, our results show that sex, pain, alcohol consumption and anxiety symptoms are independent variables for systemic cortisol levels in patients with oral cancer. Therefore, psychological intervention, as well as control of pain and alcohol consumption, should be considered to prevent the negative effects of cortisol secretion dysregulation in patients with oral câncer(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety , Stress, Psychological , Hydrocortisone , Mouth Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Alcohol Drinking , Depression , Glucocorticoids , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(12)dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389286

ABSTRACT

Hypopituitarism after moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is usually underdiagnosed and therefore undertreated. Its course can be divided in an acute phase during the first 14 days after TBI with 50 to 80% risk of hypopituitarism, and a chronic phase, beginning three months after the event, with a prevalence of hypopituitarism that ranges from 2 to 70%. Its pathophysiology has been addressed in several studies, suggesting that a vascular injury to the pituitary tissue is the most important mechanism during the acute phase, and an autoimmune one during chronic stages. In the acute phase, there are difficulties to correctly interpret pituitary axes. Hence, we propose a simple and cost-effective algorithm to detect and treat a potential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment and alterations of sodium homeostasis, both of which can be life-threatening. In the chronic phase, post-concussion syndrome is the most important differential diagnosis. Given the high prevalence of hypopituitarism, we suggest that all pituitary axes should be assessed in all patients with moderate to severe TBI, between 3 to 6 months after the event, and then repeated at 12 months after trauma by a specialized team in pituitary disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pituitary Diseases , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Hypopituitarism , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Hypopituitarism/diagnosis , Hypopituitarism/etiology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
11.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(3): 132-139, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147406

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la depresión (DP) tiene una alta prevalencia en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) y se asocia a repercusiones clínicas negativas como mayor morbimortalidad cardiovascular y complicaciones crónicas. Existen pocos estudios publicados sobre la funcionalidad del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal (H-H-A) en DM1 con DP, y la relación entre la DP y el test de respuesta del cortisol al despertar (RCD) con el control glucémico (CG). Objetivos: analizar la funcionalidad del eje H-H-A a través de la evaluación del RCD en pacientes con DM1 (PD1) con y sin DP. Como objetivos secundarios, conocer la prevalencia de DP en PD1 y ver si existe relación entre el RCD y CG, y entre DP y CG. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, prospectivo, de corte transversal, multicéntrico, nacional. Se incluyeron PD1 mayores de 18 años; se utilizó cuestionario Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) para diagnóstico de DP. Se tomaron muestras de cortisol salival al despertar y a los 30 minutos (RCD), y se consideró RCD bloqueado si el valor de cortisol de los 30 minutos no aumentaba más del 50% del basal. Además se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas para medir glucemia, fructosamina y HbA1c. Resultados: se incluyeron 79 pacientes, 39% hombres, edad promedio 38±15 años, duración de la diabetes de 16±13 años; 53% casados/en pareja y 87% con ingresos económicos estables. El 68% de los PD1 presentó el RCD bloqueado. En PD1 con DP el 85% presentó el RCD bloqueado vs el 60% en los no deprimidos y dicha diferencia fue marginalmente significativa (p=0,05). La prevalencia de DP fue de 39%. No se encontró ninguna relación significativa entre RCD bloqueado y control glucémico (p>0,05). Los PD1 con DP moderada-severa presentaron un peor control glucémico en relación a los PD1 sin depresión (evaluado por glucemia mayor de 120 mg/dl, fructosamina mayor de 285 umol/l; p<0,05) y la relación no fue significativa para HbA1c aunque mostró una tendencia. Conclusiones: en pacientes con DM1 y DP se halló el RCD bloqueado en un alto porcentaje. Dado que la DP se asocia a mayor morbimortalidad cardiovascular, podría utilizarse el test de RCD como biomarcador de DP, y podría servir para estratificar esta sub-población de alto de riesgo. La depresión moderada-severa se asoció a peor control glucémico, por lo tanto, diagnosticar y tratar adecuadamente la DP en PD1 podría contribuir a prevenir la aparición o progresión de complicaciones crónicas.


Introduction: depression (DP) has a high prevalence in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and is associated with negative clinicals consequences like more cardiovascular morbimortality and chronic complications. There are few studies published about the dysregulation of hypothalamopituitary-adrenal axis (H-P-A) in DM1 with DP and the relation between DP and the Cortisol Awakening Response Test (CAR) with the glycemic control (GC). Objectives: examine the functionality of the H-P-A axis using the Cortisol Awakening Response Test (CAR), in patients with DM1 (PD1) with and without DP. Determine the prevalence of DP in PD1 and examine if there is any relation between CAR and GC and DP and poorer GC. Materials and methods: observational, prospective, national, multicenter study. Patients with DM1, older than 18 years old; Patient Health-9 questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to diagnose DP and 2 samples of salivary cortisol, and blood samples for glycemia, glycated albumin and Hba1c. Results: 79 patients with DM1 (PD1) were included, 39% male, mean age 38± 15 years old, an average of 16±13 years evolution of diabetes; 53 % married/couple and 87 % have a regular incomes. 68% of PD1 presented CAR blunted. In PD1 with DP 85% has CAR blunted versus 60% in those without DP, and this difference was marginally significant (p=0.05). The prevalence of DP was 39%. No significant relation was found between CAR blunted and glycemic control (p>0.05).PD1 with Moderate-severe DP showed worse metabolic control than the PD1 without DP (evaluated by glycemia higher than 120 mg/dl, glycated albumin higher than 285 umol/l); p<0.05) and the relation was not significant with HbA1c but it showed a trend. Conclusions: patients with DM1 and DP presented a high prevalence of CAR blunted. DP is related with higher cardiovascular morbi-mortality, thus CAR would be useful as a biomarker of DP and would be used to stratify this population of high risk. DP moderate-severe was related to worse glycemic control, hence diagnose and treat correctly DP in PD1 would contribute to prevent the onset or the evolution of chronic complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Blood Glucose , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Hypothalamus
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 608-613, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131138

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate whether a combination of the low-dose (1 µg) adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation test and glucagon stimulation test (GST) could overcome the problem of equivocal results with the GST or ACTH test alone in patients with pituitary disorders. Subjects and methods The study included 41 adult patients with pituitary disorders and 20 healthy subjects who underwent evaluation of cortisol response to ACTH, GST, and a combination of both tests. Blood samples for cortisol measurement were obtained at baseline and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after intravenous administration of ACTH 1 μg and 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 minutes after subcutaneous injection of glucagon 1 mg. The combination test was performed by injecting ACTH 1 µg at the 180-minute time point of the GST, with blood samples for cortisol measurement obtained at 210 and 240 minutes. Results Overall, 28 patients with normal cortisol response to both tests also had a normal cortisol response to the combination test. Ten patients with adrenal insufficiency in both tests also had adrenal insufficiency in the combination test, including a patient who had a peak cortisol value of 12.4 µg/dL (which is the cutoff value for the combination test). Two patients with adrenal insufficiency in the ACTH stimulation test and one patient with adrenal insufficiency in the GST had normal cortisol responses to the combination test. Conclusion By using an appropriate cutoff value, the combination test may offer additional information in patients with equivocal results in the GST and ACTH stimulation test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pituitary Diseases/diagnosis , Glucagon , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Hydrocortisone , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
13.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 42(2): 195-206, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139820

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction In addition to their role in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its related peptides, the urocortins, are important mediators of physiological and pathophysiological processes of the central nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine, reproductive, and skin systems. Altered regulation of CRF-mediated adaptive responses to various stressful stimuli disrupts healthy function and might confer vulnerability to several disorders, including depression and anxiety. Methodology This narrative review was conducted through search and analysis of studies retrieved from online databases using a snowball method. Results This review covers aspects beginning with the discovery of CRF, CRF binding protein and their actions via interaction with CRF receptors type 1 and type 2. These are surface plasma membrane receptors, activation of which is associated with conformational changes and interaction with a variety of G-proteins and signaling pathways. We also reviewed the pharmacology and mechanisms of the receptor signaling modulatory activity of these receptors. Conclusion This review compiles and presents knowledge regarding the CRFergic system, including CRF related peptides, CRF binding protein, and CRF receptors, as well as some evidence that is potentially indicative of the biological roles of these entities in several physiological and pathophysiological processes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Stress, Psychological/metabolism , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/physiology , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism
14.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e167299, mai. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1122175

ABSTRACT

The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function may be impaired in patients with critical illnesses, especially cases of sepsis, named critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). This study examined the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in normal dogs (n = 10) and dogs with critical diseases (n = 16), through determinations of endogenous ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), basal cortisol and cortisol after stimulation in low doses of synthetic ACTH (1.0µg/kg/IV). The stimulation test with ACTH dose tested was verified as effective for evaluation of adrenal function in healthy and sick dogs. Ill dogs differed from healthy dogs by presenting higher basal cortisol values. Eight sick dogs presented a decrease in endogenous ACTH, basal cortisol, or Δ-cortisol. No significant differences were found between the control groups and critically ill dogs for the values of endogenous ACTH, cortisol after stimulation or Δ-cortisol. We concluded that the stimulation test with low-dose ACTH was effective for evaluation of adrenal function, as well as the fact that a considerable portion of critically ill dogs studied here, especially with sepsis, had evidence of inadequate corticosteroid response to stress.(AU)


A função do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal pode estar comprometida em pacientes com doenças críticas, em especial casos de sepse, sendo nomeada de Insuficiência Corticosteroide Relacionada à Doença Crítica (ICRDC). O presente trabalho analisou a função do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal em cães normais (n=10) e cães portadores de doenças críticas (n=16), por meio de determinações de ACTH (hormônio adrenocorticotrófico) endógeno, de cortisol basal e de cortisol após estímulo com baixa dose de ACTH sintético (1,0µg/kg/IV). Constatou-se que o teste de estimulação com ACTH na dose testada se mostrou eficaz para avaliação da função adrenal em cães sadios e doentes. Os cães doentes diferiram dos sadios ao apresentar valores maiores de cortisol basal. Oito cães doentes apresentaram diminuição do ACTH endógeno, do cortisol basal ou do Δ-cortisol. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos Controle e Criticamente enfermos para os valores de ACTH endógeno, cortisol após estimulação ou Δ-cortisol. Concluiu-se que o teste de estimulação com baixa dose de ACTH mostrou-se eficaz para avaliação da função adrenal, assim como, uma parcela considerável da população de cães críticos aqui estudados, em especial com sepse, apresentaram evidências de resposta corticosteroide inadequada frente ao estresse.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Cosyntropin/administration & dosage , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Sepsis/complications , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology , Catastrophic Illness
15.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(1): 7-12, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088740

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives This study aimed to explore the effect of antidepressant treatment on the HPA axis, changes in depression score, and serum levels of TNF-α in depressed infertile women. Methods In this randomized controlled trial research, 60 infertile women who had undergone in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment with depression scores between 16-47 were divided into two groups. The intervention group with fluoxetine capsule was under treatment for two months before the embryo transfer, while the control group was given placebo. Depression score, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as cortisol hormone levels were measured and recorded both before and after the intervention. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. Results We analyzed the data related to 55 subjects who had undergone embryo transfer. 7 subjects in the intervention group and 3 in the control group got pregnant. We observed a significant decrease in the depression score (p < 0/001) and serum levels of cortisol (p = 0/001) in the intervention group. There was a significant increase in the serum levels of TNF-α in the intervention group (p < 0/001). There was a significant difference between the two groups in the number of pregnancies (p = 0.04). However, there was no statistical difference between them with regard to the number of harvested oocytes (p = 0.174). Discussion Decrease in depression score and cortisol level, and an increase in the levels of TNF-α in the intervention group caused any changes in the number of oocytes in comparison with the control group. However, the number of pregnancies was larger in the intervention group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Depression/drug therapy , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/drug effects , Infertility, Female/psychology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/blood , Fertilization in Vitro , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Infertility, Female/therapy
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 82-88, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088767

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The insulin tolerance test (ITT) has been accepted as the gold standard test for assessing the integrity of the growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The goal of the test is to achieve clinical and biochemical hypoglycemia at a blood glucose level ≤ 40 mg/dL to effectively and correctly assess the HPA and GH-IGF-1 axes. In this study, the GH and cortisol responses of patients who achieved and failed to achieve biochemical hypoglycemia during an ITT were compared. Subjects and methods One hundred thirty-five patients with pituitary disorders were included in the study. Samples for blood glucose levels were obtained after clear symptoms of clinical hypoglycemia developed. The patients were enrolled in the hypoglycemic and nonhypoglycemic groups according to whether their plasma glucose level ≤ 40 mg/dL or > 40 mg/dL during an ITT, and the groups were compared in terms of their GH and cortisol responses. Results The mean age, body mass index and waist circumference of the two patient groups were found to be similar. The mean blood glucose level was significantly lower in the hypoglycemic group than in the nonhypoglycemic group (19.3 and 52.0 mg/dL, respectively). When the two groups were compared in terms of peak cortisol and GH responses, no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusion The data presented suggest that clinically symptomatic hypoglycemia is as effective as biochemically confirmed hypoglycemia during an ITT. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):82-8


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Hydrocortisone/blood , Human Growth Hormone/blood , Glucose Tolerance Test/methods , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Retrospective Studies , Glucose Tolerance Test/adverse effects , Hypoglycemia/diagnosis , Hypoglycemia/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism
17.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 697-704, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Chinese medicine Wubi Shanyao pills on sexual function of kidney-yang-deficiency mice induced by hydrocortisone.@*METHODS@#Male Kunming mice were injected with hydrocortisone for 10 days to prepare the kidney-yang-deficiency model, and administrated with Wubi Shanyao pills (0.91, 1.82, 2.73 g/kg) for 9 weeks. The general behaviors of mice (autonomous activity, grasping power) were observed; sexual behaviors (capture, straddle, ejaculation frequency and incubation period) of mice were detected by mating experiment. The serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E@*RESULTS@#Wubi Shanyao pills increased the number of independent activities, grasping power, capture frequency of model mice and shortened the capture latency (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Wubi Shanyao pills can improve the sexual function of mice with kidney-yang-deficiency induced by hydrocortisone, which may be related to regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), promoting the proliferation of testicular cells, and inhibiting cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Hydrocortisone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects , Random Allocation , Sexual Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Yang Deficiency/drug therapy
18.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 462-468, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827419

ABSTRACT

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a main type of mood disorder, characterized by significant and lasting depressed mood. Until now, the pathogenesis of MDD is not clear, but it is certain that biological, psychological, and social factors are involved. Childhood trauma is considered to be an important factor in the development of this disease. Previous studies have found that nearly half of the patients with MDD have experienced childhood trauma, and different types of childhood trauma, gender, and age show different effects on this disease. In addition, the clinical characteristics of MDD patients with childhood trauma are also different, which often have more severe depressive symptoms, higher risk of suicide, and more severe cognitive impairment. The response to antidepressants is also worse. In terms of biological mechanisms and marker characteristics, the serotonin transporter gene and the FKBP prolyl isomerase 5 have been shown to play an important role in MDD and childhood trauma. Moreover, some brain imaging and biomarkers showed specific features, such as changes in gray matter in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, and abnormal changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Depressive Disorder, Major , Gray Matter , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Suicide
19.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 799-802, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826652

ABSTRACT

The effect of acupuncture-moxibustion on respiratory system and systemic immune inflammatory response were reviewed to explore the possible role of neuroimmunomodulation in the control of inflammatory response and the effect mechanism of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Acupuncture-moxibustion could produce the local and systemic anti-inflammatory effect on COVID-19 through the activation of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Compared with humoral anti-inflammatory pathway, the neuronal anti-inflammatory pathway has earlier initiation, rapider action, and more localization, which play a more important role in the initial stage of inflammatory response. This may be an important basis for acupuncture-moxibustion intervention in the early stage of COVID-19. In addition to cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, acupuncture-moxibustion may also play an anti-inflammatory role in activating sympathetic nerve, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other neural anti-inflammatory pathways. How acupuncture-moxibustion play its role in stimulating the vagus nerve and sympathetic nerve in different periods of inflammatory response, and whether the effect is based on the selection of acupoints and the methods of stimulation, will be the research direction of the transformation from basic research to clinical research for acupuncture-moxibustion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Therapeutics , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Moxibustion , Pandemics , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Pneumonia, Viral , Therapeutics
20.
Clinics ; 75: e1554, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089608

ABSTRACT

Opioids are the main group of pharmacological agents used during the perioperative period and provide a sedative and analgesic component. The observations of opioid consumption in West Europe indicate that this group of drugs is widely used in chronic noncancer pain therapy. Nearly 20 years ago, the first publications indicating that opioids, as an element of perioperative pharmacotherapy in oncologic patients, increase the risk of tumor recurrence and affect further prognosis were presented. The actual publications suggest that there are multifactorial, complex mechanisms underlying the immunological impact and carcinogenesis promotion of opioids and that the intensity varies depending on the type of opioid. There are also questions about the immunosuppressive effects among patients receiving opioids in the treatment of chronic noncancer pain. The aim of the review article is to present information about the action of opioids on the immune system in carcinogenic settings and to define the clinical usefulness of this pharmacological phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Carcinogenesis , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Drug Tolerance , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/drug effects , Opioid-Related Disorders
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