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1.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(3): 132-139, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147406

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la depresión (DP) tiene una alta prevalencia en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) y se asocia a repercusiones clínicas negativas como mayor morbimortalidad cardiovascular y complicaciones crónicas. Existen pocos estudios publicados sobre la funcionalidad del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal (H-H-A) en DM1 con DP, y la relación entre la DP y el test de respuesta del cortisol al despertar (RCD) con el control glucémico (CG). Objetivos: analizar la funcionalidad del eje H-H-A a través de la evaluación del RCD en pacientes con DM1 (PD1) con y sin DP. Como objetivos secundarios, conocer la prevalencia de DP en PD1 y ver si existe relación entre el RCD y CG, y entre DP y CG. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional, prospectivo, de corte transversal, multicéntrico, nacional. Se incluyeron PD1 mayores de 18 años; se utilizó cuestionario Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) para diagnóstico de DP. Se tomaron muestras de cortisol salival al despertar y a los 30 minutos (RCD), y se consideró RCD bloqueado si el valor de cortisol de los 30 minutos no aumentaba más del 50% del basal. Además se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas para medir glucemia, fructosamina y HbA1c. Resultados: se incluyeron 79 pacientes, 39% hombres, edad promedio 38±15 años, duración de la diabetes de 16±13 años; 53% casados/en pareja y 87% con ingresos económicos estables. El 68% de los PD1 presentó el RCD bloqueado. En PD1 con DP el 85% presentó el RCD bloqueado vs el 60% en los no deprimidos y dicha diferencia fue marginalmente significativa (p=0,05). La prevalencia de DP fue de 39%. No se encontró ninguna relación significativa entre RCD bloqueado y control glucémico (p>0,05). Los PD1 con DP moderada-severa presentaron un peor control glucémico en relación a los PD1 sin depresión (evaluado por glucemia mayor de 120 mg/dl, fructosamina mayor de 285 umol/l; p<0,05) y la relación no fue significativa para HbA1c aunque mostró una tendencia. Conclusiones: en pacientes con DM1 y DP se halló el RCD bloqueado en un alto porcentaje. Dado que la DP se asocia a mayor morbimortalidad cardiovascular, podría utilizarse el test de RCD como biomarcador de DP, y podría servir para estratificar esta sub-población de alto de riesgo. La depresión moderada-severa se asoció a peor control glucémico, por lo tanto, diagnosticar y tratar adecuadamente la DP en PD1 podría contribuir a prevenir la aparición o progresión de complicaciones crónicas.


Introduction: depression (DP) has a high prevalence in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and is associated with negative clinicals consequences like more cardiovascular morbimortality and chronic complications. There are few studies published about the dysregulation of hypothalamopituitary-adrenal axis (H-P-A) in DM1 with DP and the relation between DP and the Cortisol Awakening Response Test (CAR) with the glycemic control (GC). Objectives: examine the functionality of the H-P-A axis using the Cortisol Awakening Response Test (CAR), in patients with DM1 (PD1) with and without DP. Determine the prevalence of DP in PD1 and examine if there is any relation between CAR and GC and DP and poorer GC. Materials and methods: observational, prospective, national, multicenter study. Patients with DM1, older than 18 years old; Patient Health-9 questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to diagnose DP and 2 samples of salivary cortisol, and blood samples for glycemia, glycated albumin and Hba1c. Results: 79 patients with DM1 (PD1) were included, 39% male, mean age 38± 15 years old, an average of 16±13 years evolution of diabetes; 53 % married/couple and 87 % have a regular incomes. 68% of PD1 presented CAR blunted. In PD1 with DP 85% has CAR blunted versus 60% in those without DP, and this difference was marginally significant (p=0.05). The prevalence of DP was 39%. No significant relation was found between CAR blunted and glycemic control (p>0.05).PD1 with Moderate-severe DP showed worse metabolic control than the PD1 without DP (evaluated by glycemia higher than 120 mg/dl, glycated albumin higher than 285 umol/l); p<0.05) and the relation was not significant with HbA1c but it showed a trend. Conclusions: patients with DM1 and DP presented a high prevalence of CAR blunted. DP is related with higher cardiovascular morbi-mortality, thus CAR would be useful as a biomarker of DP and would be used to stratify this population of high risk. DP moderate-severe was related to worse glycemic control, hence diagnose and treat correctly DP in PD1 would contribute to prevent the onset or the evolution of chronic complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Blood Glucose , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Hypothalamus
2.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(2): 29-30, mayo-ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119312

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia creciente del síndrome metabólico (SM) se asocia, entre otros factores, a cambios en el estilo de vida y al consumo de dietas inadecuadas. Diversos estudios indicaron que la ingesta de un exceso de fructosa o sacarosa puede generar SM


Subject(s)
Humans , Metabolic Syndrome , Sucrose , Diet , Hypothalamus
3.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 54(2): 39-51, mayo-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1119324

ABSTRACT

Introducción: dados los efectos pleiotrópicos de los glucocorticoides (GCs) sobre el metabolismo, los niveles excesivos y sostenidos de GCs circulantes tienen efectos deletéreos e incrementan la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular. Objetivos: estudiar el efecto de la terapia antioxidante (con ácido lipoico o melatonina) sobre la hiperactivación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal (HHA) en animales alimentados con dieta rica en sacarosa (DRS). Materiales y métodos: se evaluó la actividad del eje HHA y se determinaron parámetros hormonales, de estrés oxidativo y de inflamación en la adenohipófisis de animales tratados con DRS durante tres semanas. Resultados: los animales del grupo DRS mostraron mayores niveles circulantes de hormona adrenocorticotropa (ACTH, por sus siglas en inglés) y corticosterona. En paralelo se detectó un aumento en la expresión del polipéptido precursor (proopiomelanocortina, POMC) y de ACTH en la adenohipófisis, donde también se observó un aumento de lipoperóxidos y proteínas nitradas en tirosina (daño oxidativo), un mayor número de macrófagos tisulares y un incremento en la producción de IL-1beta. El tratamiento antioxidante previno los cambios en estos parámetros. En particular la melatonina también normalizó la actividad del eje HHA y la expresión hipofisaria de POMC. Conclusiones: la sobrecarga metabólica inducida por la administración de DRS genera daño oxidativo e inflamación en la adenohipófisis. La activación de los macrófagos tisulares producida en consecuencia podría impactar sobre los corticotropos hipofisarios e inducir su hiperfunción. La melatonina podría utilizarse como herramienta terapéutica para normalizar la actividad del eje HHA en modelos de obesidad por dieta.


Introduction: given the pleiotropic effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on metabolism, excessive and sustained levels of circulating GCs, have deleterious effects and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objectives: to study the effect of antioxidant therapy on hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in animals fed a sucrose-rich diet (SRD). Materials and methods: the activity of the HPA axis was evaluated and hormonal, oxidative stress and inflammation parameters were determined in the adenohypophysis of animals treated with SRD for trhee weeks. Results: animals from the SRD group showed higher circulating levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. In parallel, an increase in the expression of the polypeptide precursors, POMC and ACTH were detected in the adenohypophysis. We also observed an increase in lipoperoxides and proteins nitrated in tyrosine (oxidative damage), a greater number of tissue macrophages and an increase in the production of IL-1beta. Antioxidant treatment prevented all these changes. In particular, melatonin also normalized the activity of the HPA axis and pituitary expression of POMC. Conclusions: the metabolic overload induced by the administration of SRD generates oxidative damage and inflammation in the adenohypophysis. Activation of tissue macrophages could affect, in turn, pituitary corticotrophs inducing their activation. Melatonin could be used as a therapeutic tool to normalize the activity of the HPA axis in diet obesity models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Sucrose , Diet , Hypothalamus , Inflammation , Melatonin , Metabolism
4.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 214, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103446

ABSTRACT

El término Origen Temprano de las Enfermedades del Adulto explica la aparición temprana de las condiciones anormales cardiovasculares y metabólicas en la vida adulta, mayor riesgo de morbilidad y muerte asociados a factores ambientales, especialmente nutricionales, que actúan en las primeras etapas de la vida. Estas respuestas programadas dependen de la naturaleza del estímulo o noxa, del tiempo de exposición y del momento de ocurrencia de la noxa, pudiendo un solo genotipo original varios fenotipos y estarían condicionadas por criterios críticos en los cuales se desarrollarían cambios a largo plazo pudiendo ser reversibles o no. La Programación Fetal explica que respuestas adaptativas embrionarias y fetales en un ambiente subóptimo genera consecuencias adversas permanentes. La desnutrición, así como la sobrenutrición fetal aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar alteraciones en el peso y composición corporal fetal, y posteriormente obesidad, síndrome metabólico, incremento en la adiposidad, alteración en el metabolismo de la glucosa y / o insulina, alteración del metabolismo lipídico, alteraciones hepáticas y de las cifras tensionales. La impronta genómica es esencial para el desarrollo y defectos en la misma puede originar alteraciones de la identidad parental transmisibles a las siguientes generaciones. Esta programación fetal puede ser explicada por la epigenética, definida como la serie de alteraciones hereditarias de la expresión genética a través de modificaciones del ADN y las histonas centrales sin cambios en la secuencia de ADN. Estas modificaciones epigenéticas alteran la estructura y condensación de la cromatina, afectando la expresión del genotipo y fenotipo. Este artículo desarrolla los aspectos involucrados en la Programación Fetal y los posibles mecanismos sobre la misma(AU)


The term Early Origin of Adult Diseases explains the early onset of abnormal cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in adult life, increased risk of morbidity and death associated with environmental factors, especially nutritional factors, that act in the early stages of life. These programmed responses depend on the nature of the stimulus or noxa, the time of exposure and the moment of occurrence of the noxa, with a single original genotype being able to have several phenotypes and would be conditioned by critical criteria in which long-term changes could develop, reversibles or not. Fetal Programming explains that embryonic and fetal adaptive responses in a suboptimal environment generate permanent adverse consequences. Fetal malnutrition as overnutrition increases the risk of developing alterations in fetal body weight and composition, and subsequently obesity, metabolic syndrome, increased adiposity, impaired glucose and / or insulin metabolism, impaired lipid metabolism, liver disorders and altered blood pressure. The genomic imprint is essential for development and defects in it can cause alterations of the parental identity and are transmitted to the following generations. This fetal programming can be explained by epigenetics, defined as the series of inherited alterations of genetic expression through modifications of DNA and central histones without changes in the DNA sequence. These epigenetic modifications alter the structure and condensation of chromatin, affecting the expression of the genotype and phenotype. This article develops the aspects involved in Fetal Programming and the possible mechanisms on it(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Fetal Nutrition Disorders , Fetal Development , Noxae , Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases , Body Composition , Hypothalamus/anatomy & histology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828937

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of taurolithocholic acid (tLCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on the expression of aorexigenic neuropeptide in mouse hypothalamus GT1-7 cells.@*METHODS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells were treated with culture medium containing 10% FBS (control group, =3) or with 10 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L, 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L tLCA (tLCA group, =3) or CDCA (CDCA group, =3) for 12, 24 or 48 h. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the cells, and the production levels of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) were assessed using an ELISA kit. Signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation (p-STAT3), threonine kinase phosphorylation (p-AKT), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (TGR5) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protein were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Western blotting results showed that mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells expressed two bile acid receptors, TGR5 and FXR, whose expressions were regulated by bile acids. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of POMC mRNA was significantly increased in the cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. POMC-derived anorexigenic peptide α-MSH increased significantly in GT1-7 cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. Treatment of the cells with tLCA or CDCA significantly increased the expressions of intracellular signaling proteins including p-STAT3, p-AKT and SOCS3.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells express bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR. Bile acids tLCA or CDCA can promote the expression of POMC mRNA and increase the production of the anorexigenic peptide α-MSH. The intracellular signaling proteins p-AKT, p-STAT3 and SOCS3 are likely involved in bile acid-induced anorexigenic peptide production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Hypothalamus , Mice , Neuropeptides , Phosphorylation , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Signal Transduction , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of taurolithocholic acid (tLCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on the expression of aorexigenic neuropeptide in mouse hypothalamus GT1-7 cells.@*METHODS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells were treated with culture medium containing 10% FBS (control group, =3) or with 10 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L, 1 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L tLCA (tLCA group, =3) or CDCA (CDCA group, =3) for 12, 24 or 48 h. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in the cells, and the production levels of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) were assessed using an ELISA kit. Signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation (p-STAT3), threonine kinase phosphorylation (p-AKT), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (TGR5) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) protein were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Western blotting results showed that mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells expressed two bile acid receptors, TGR5 and FXR, whose expressions were regulated by bile acids. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of POMC mRNA was significantly increased in the cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. POMC-derived anorexigenic peptide α-MSH increased significantly in GT1-7 cells after treatment with 10 μmol/L tLCA or CDCA for 24 h. Treatment of the cells with tLCA or CDCA significantly increased the expressions of intracellular signaling proteins including p-STAT3, p-AKT and SOCS3.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells express bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR. Bile acids tLCA or CDCA can promote the expression of POMC mRNA and increase the production of the anorexigenic peptide α-MSH. The intracellular signaling proteins p-AKT, p-STAT3 and SOCS3 are likely involved in bile acid-induced anorexigenic peptide production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Chenodeoxycholic Acid , Pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Hypothalamus , Cell Biology , Mice , Neuropeptides , Genetics , Metabolism , Pro-Opiomelanocortin , Genetics , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein , Metabolism , Taurolithocholic Acid , Pharmacology , alpha-MSH , Genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758908

ABSTRACT

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from the hypothalamus and anti-GnRH antibodies are not formed under normal conditions. However, administration an excess of recombinant GnRH protein results in the formation of anti-GnRH. We evaluated the efficacy of the recombinant Salmonella typhimurium flagellin fljB (STF2)-GnRH vaccine in inducing infertility in 17 intact male cats. The first vaccination and a boosting vaccine was injected for examination. Serum was obtained from blood collected at monthly intervals and anti-GnRH antibodies and testosterone concentrations were determined. Six months after the vaccination, testicular samples are obtained and used for histological examination. Compared with sham control group, the injection groups showed an increase in anti-GnRH antibody titers and testosterone concentrations tended to be reduced in the injection groups and increased in the control group. Histological evaluations and Johnsen's testicular biopsy scores revealed testicular hypoplasia in the 2 injection groups. Consequently, normal sexual maturation with sperm production was observed in the control group. In contrast, the cats that received the GnRH vaccine showed weak (2 of 7 cats) or moderate (4 out of 7 cats) dose-dependent infertility effects. On the basis of the results, the STF2-GnRH vaccine was identified to be effective in inducing infertility in male cats. The results of this study thus indicate the possibility of immunological castration targeting feral cats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Biopsy , Castration , Cats , Contraception, Immunologic , Fertility Agents , Flagellin , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Hypothalamus , Infertility , Male , Salmonella typhimurium , Sexual Maturation , Spermatozoa , Testis , Testosterone , Vaccination , Vaccines
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 124-132, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775446

ABSTRACT

The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a crucial region involved in maintaining homeostasis through the regulation of cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and other functions. The PVN provides a dominant source of excitatory drive to the sympathetic outflow through innervation of the brainstem and spinal cord in hypertension. We discuss current findings on the role of the PVN in the regulation of sympathetic output in both normotensive and hypertensive conditions. The PVN seems to play a major role in generating the elevated sympathetic vasomotor activity that is characteristic of multiple forms of hypertension, including primary hypertension in humans. Recent studies in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model have revealed an imbalance of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs to PVN pre-sympathetic neurons as indicated by impaired inhibitory and enhanced excitatory synaptic inputs in hypertension. This imbalance of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs in the PVN forms the basis for elevated sympathetic outflow in hypertension. In this review, we discuss the disruption of balance between glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs and the associated cellular and molecular alterations as mechanisms underlying the hyperactivity of PVN pre-sympathetic neurons in hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Pressure , Physiology , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Physiology , Humans , Hypertension , Hypothalamus , Physiology , Neurons , Physiology , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus , Physiology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773712

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of Shugan Hewei Decoction and its active substance fractions on behavior and neurotransmitter levels in hypothalamus of depression model rats,and preliminarily explore its possible mechanism. Male SD rats were randomly divided into blank control group,model group,fluoxetine( positive control) group,Shugan Hewei Decoction high and low dose groups,high and low dose groups of three different substance fractions. After 3 weeks' CUMS and social isolation to induce models,intragastrical administration lasted for 7 d. Behavioral experiments( sucrose consumption test,open-field test,and forced swimming test) were then performed to evaluate the depression status of rats. Several neurotransmitters in hypothalamus of rats were determined by LC-MS/MS method,including dapamine( DA),norepinephrine( NE),serotonin( 5-HT),5-indoleacetic acid( 5-HIAA),γ-aminobutyric acid( GABA),and glutamic acid( Glu). As compared with the blank control group,the sucrose consumption was reduced( P<0. 01); the total distance and the number of crossing the central area were also significantly reduced( P< 0. 01,P< 0. 01),while the resting time increased significantly( P<0. 01); the forced swimming time was significantly prolonged( P<0. 01); DA,5-HT,NE,5-HIAA and GABA levels in hypothalamus were significantly reduced( P < 0. 01),while Glue level was significantly increased( P < 0. 01) in model group. As compared with the model group,all the above indexes had changes in fluoxetine group,Shugan Hewei Decoction whole recipe groups,volatile oils group,polysaccharides group,and terpenoids group( P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). Shugan Hewei Decoction whole recipe and its active substance fractions can improve the behavior of depression model rats and may exert anti-depression effects by regulating the content of neurotransmitters in the hypothalamus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Depression , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Hypothalamus , Chemistry , Male , Neurotransmitter Agents , Chemistry , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766554

ABSTRACT

Over the last 5 years, the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety has approved four anti-obesity drugs for long-term weight management. In this review, the mechanisms of action and clinical applications of lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion, liraglutide, and phentermine/topiramate have been clarified. Lorcaserin stimulates proopiomelanocortin/cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Naltrexone/bupropion reduces body weight by controlling the hedonic reward system of food intake. The hypophagic effect of liraglutide depends on the direct activation of the proopiomelanocortin/cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript neurons and indirect suppression of neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide neurons through gammaaminobutyric acid-dependent signaling, with an additional thermogenic effect. Phentermine/topiramate induces weight loss by elevating the norepinephrine levels in the hypothalamus, reducing energy deposition in the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and elevating the corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus. In patients with high cardiovascular risks or type 2 diabetes mellitus, lorcaserin and liraglutide are appropriate. In patients with mood disorders, naltrexone/bupropion could be considered as the first choice of therapy. Notably, lorcaserin and liraglutide are neutral in the aspect of sleep disorder. In case of obese individuals with obstructive sleep apnea, liraglutide or phentermine/topiramate would be selected as the treatment option. These four drugs should be used after considering the patients' co-morbidities of obesity.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Anti-Obesity Agents , Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus , Body Weight , Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Eating , Humans , Hypothalamus , Korea , Liraglutide , Mood Disorders , Muscle, Skeletal , Neurons , Neuropeptides , Norepinephrine , Obesity , Pharmacology , Reward , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Wake Disorders , Weight Loss
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766232

ABSTRACT

Central sleep apnea (CSA) is attributed to medical or neurological conditions including stroke. The association of lesion location and CSA in patients with ischemic stroke has not been well elucidated. A 69-year-old man with a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was admitted due to stroke. The brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute ischemic stroke in the right ventral thalamus and adjacent hypothalamus. During hospitalization, polysomnography (PSG) was performed because repetitive cessation of respiration during sleep was observed by chance. PSG showed severe CSA; the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 73.5 with a minimum oxygen saturation of 89% and central apnea index (CAI) was 63.0. Two years later, follow-up PSG showed that AHI was 7.2 with a minimum oxygen saturation of 91% and CAI was 1.0. We report the patient with CSA after ischemic stroke with right thalamus and adjacent hypothalamus, which resolved spontaneously with time.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain , Cerebral Infarction , Diabetes Mellitus , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension , Hypothalamus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Oxygen , Polysomnography , Respiration , Sleep Apnea, Central , Stroke , Thalamus
12.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 670-678, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785790

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the productions of antinociception induced by acute and chronic immobilization stress were compared in several animal pain models. In the acute immobilization stress model (up to 1 hr immobilization), the antinociception was produced in writhing, tail-flick, and formalin-induced pain models. In chronic immobilization stress experiment, the mouse was enforced into immobilization for 1 hr/day for 3, 7, or 14 days, then analgesic tests were performed. The antinociceptive effect was gradually reduced after 3, 7 and 14 days of immobilization stress. To delineate the molecular mechanism involved in the antinociceptive tolerance development in the chronic stress model, the expressions of some signal molecules in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), spinal cord, hippocampus, and the hypothalamus were observed in acute and chronic immobilization models. The COX-2 in DRG, p-JNK, p-AMPKα1, and p-mTOR in the spinal cord, p-P38 in the hippocampus, and p-AMPKα1 in the hypothalamus were elevated in acute immobilization stress, but were reduced gradually after 3, 7 and 14 days of immobilization stress. Our results suggest that the chronic immobilization stress causes development of tolerance to the antinociception induced by acute immobilization stress. In addition, the COX-2 in DRG, p-JNK, p-AMPKα1, and p-mTOR in the spinal cord, p-P38 in the hippocampus, and p-AMPKα1 in the hypothalamus may play important roles in the regulation of antinociception induced by acute immobilization stress and the tolerance development induced by chronic immobilization stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Ganglia, Spinal , Hippocampus , Hypothalamus , Immobilization , Mice , Spinal Cord
14.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 37(01): 54-57, 13/04/2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-911369

ABSTRACT

The pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a rare glioma recently described as a separate entity, which is generally located on the hypothalamic area. The PMA was previously described as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) due to similarities shared between them. Recent studies provided a deeper understanding of PMA, setting it as a separate entity, though PMA is still considered by many authors a variant of PA. The PMA is considered to be more aggressive than PA; however, further studies are necessary for a better comprehension of its behavior and, hence, for neurosurgeons and neurologists to get to a consensus about its management. This study presents a 16-year-old female patient who looked for medical assistance complaining of headaches of over 6 months and vomiting for 2 weeks prior to the visit to the doctor. She presented no other symptoms. The physical examination displayed only bilateral papilledema. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed an intraventricular and thalamic lesion composed of solid and cystic material associated with peritumoral edema. The patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt and subtotal resection of the lesion. The histological and immunohistochemical studies showed typical features of PMA. The patient started adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy and radiosurgery. She has been asymptomatic for 9 months and has shown no signs of progression of the disease on the follow-up scans.


O astrocitoma pilomixoide (APM) é um raro glioma, recentemente descrito como uma entidade separada, que geralmente se localiza na região hipotalâmica. Anteriormente, o APM era descrito como astrocitoma pilocítico (AP) devido a características semelhantes que ambos apresentam. Estudos recentes permitiram um melhor entendimento do APM, configurando-o como uma entidade separada, embora o APM ainda seja considerado por muitos autores uma variante do AP. O APM é considerado mais agressivo que o AP; no entanto, mais estudos são necessários para um melhor entendimento do comportamento do tumor e, consequentemente, para que neurocirurgiões e neurologistas cheguem a um consenso sobre sua terapêutica. Este estudo apresenta uma paciente de 16 anos que procurou atendimento médico com queixas de dores de cabeça por mais de 6 meses e vômitos nas 2 semanas antecedentes à visita ao médico. Outros sintomas não eram apresentados. O exame físico revelou apenas papiledema bilateral. As imagens de ressonância magnética mostraram uma lesão intraventricular e hipotalâmica de componentes sólido e cístico associados a edema peritumoral. A paciente foi submetida a derivação ventriculoperitoneal e a ressecção subtotal da lesão. Os estudos histológico e imunohistoquímico demonstraram características típicas de APM. A paciente iniciou terapia adjuvante com quimioterapia e radiocirurgia. A paciente está em acompanhamento por 9 meses e, até o momento, manteve-se assintomática e não houve sinais de progressão da doença nos exames de imagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Astrocytoma , Hypothalamic Neoplasms , Papilledema , Hypothalamus/injuries
15.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 28: [1-3], jan.-dez. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-970473

ABSTRACT

As cefaleias trigêmino-autonômicas compartilham os aspectos clínicos da cefaleia, além de proeminentes sintomas disautonômicos crânio faciais. A Neuromielite Óptica (NMO) ou Doença de Devic é uma doença inflamatória grave, desmielinizante e auto-imune do sistema nervoso central que acomete, preferencialmente, os nervos ópticos e a medula espinhal, causando neurite óptica aguda, uni ou bilateral, e mielite transversa. O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar um caso clínico de NMO, cuja manifestação inicial é atípica. Uma revisão de literatura com as palavras-chaves Neuromielite Óptica e Cefaleia Trigêminoautonômica foi realizada no PubMed e foram selecionados os artigos e relatos de casos mais relevantes sobre o assunto. Conclui-se que estas duas doenças podem ter em comum uma alteração hipotalâmica e uma doença desmielinizante grave pode se iniciar com uma cefaleia trigêmino-autonômica. (AU)


The Trigeminal-autonomic headaches share the clinical features of headache, as well as prominent facial skull disautonomic symptoms. The Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) or Devic's disease is a severe inflammatory disease, demyelinating and autoimmune of the central nervous system that affects mainly the optic nerves and spinal cord, causing acute optic neuritis, unilateral or bilateral, and transverse myelitis. The objective of this study is to report a case of NMO, whose initial manifestation is atypical. A literature review with keywords Neuromyelitis Optica and Trigeminal-autonomic Headache has conducted in PubMed and we have selected the most relevant articles and case reports on the subject. In conclusion, these two diseases may have a common hypothalamic disturbance and a severe demyelinating disease can start with a trigeminal-autonomic headache. (AU)


Subject(s)
Neuromyelitis Optica , Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias , Hypothalamus , Neuromyelitis Optica/ethnology , Nasal Obstruction
16.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 164-177, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756962

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver dysfunction and a significant global health problem with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. It is becoming increasingly clear that NALFD is not only predominantly a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, but also involves extra-hepatic organs and regulatory pathways. Therapeutic options are limited for the treatment of NAFLD. Accordingly, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of NAFLD is critical for gaining new insight into the regulatory network of NAFLD and for identifying new targets for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. In this review, we emphasize on the current understanding of the inter-organ crosstalk between the liver and peripheral organs that contributing to the pathogenesis of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Pathology , Animals , Extracellular Vesicles , Metabolism , Humans , Hypothalamus , Metabolism , Intestines , Microbiology , Pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Metabolism , Microbiology , Pathology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713442

ABSTRACT

Hypothalamic obesity is often complicated in patients with craniopharyngioma due to hypothalamic damage by the tumor itself, treatment modalities, and associated multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. Hypothalamic obesity causes secondary diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). We report a 19-year-old female who was diagnosed with craniopharyngioma, developed hypothalamic obesity after tumor resection, and progressed to hepatopulmonary syndrome. She manifested NAFLD 1 year after tumor resection. Two years later, the craniopharyngioma recurred, and she underwent a second resection. Three years after her second operation, she was diagnosed with type 2 DM, after which she did not visit the outpatient clinic for 2 years and then suddenly reappeared with a weight loss of 25.8 kg that had occurred over 21 months. One month later, she presented to the Emergency Department with dyspnea. Laboratory findings revealed liver dysfunction and hypoxia with increased alveolar artery oxygen gradient. Liver biopsy showed portal hypertension and micronodular cirrhosis. Echocardiography and a lung perfusion scan demonstrated a right to left shunt. She was finally diagnosed with hepatopulmonary syndrome and is currently awaiting a donor for liver transplantation. Patients surviving craniopharyngioma need to be followed up carefully to detect signs of hypothalamic obesity and monitored for the development of other comorbidities such as DM, NAFLD, and hepatopulmonary syndrome.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Hypoxia , Arteries , Biopsy , Comorbidity , Craniopharyngioma , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyspnea , Echocardiography , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Fibrosis , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome , Humans , Hypertension, Portal , Hypothalamus , Liver , Liver Diseases , Liver Transplantation , Lung , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Oxygen , Perfusion , Tissue Donors , Weight Loss , Young Adult
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1174-1180, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718494

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) possess the ability to release growth hormone (GH) in the body. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MK-677, an orally active GHS, on somatic growth in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The serum levels of GH were measured after oral administration of MK-677 to confirm GH stimulatory effects. Body weight, body length, tibia length, epiphyseal plate width, and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I were measured after oral administration of 4 mg/kg of MK-677 for 6 weeks to investigate growth-promoting effects. RESULTS: Oral administration of MK-677 at 4 mg/kg increased peak GH concentrations by 1.8-fold, compared to baseline. However, oral administration of MK-677 for 6 weeks did not increase body growth or serum levels of IGF-I. At 6 weeks after treatment, the GH response to MK-677 was abolished. Pituitary GH mRNA and hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone mRNA, and GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR) mRNA expression in the pituitary and hypothalamus did not differ between the control and treatment group. Somatostatin (SST) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus was markedly increased in the treatment group, whereas SST receptor (SSTR)-2 mRNA expression in the pituitary gland was decreased. Protein expression of hypothalamic GHSR, SST, and pituitary SSTR-2 showed patterns similar to those for mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that prolonged administration of MK-677 in rats does not promote growth despite the GH stimulatory effect of MK-677, which may be related to increased expression of SST in the hypothalamus. Further studies are needed to overcome the observed desensitization to GHS.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Body Weight , Growth Hormone , Growth Plate , Hypothalamus , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Pituitary Gland , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Somatostatin , Tibia
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychiatric manifestations like depression and cognitive dysfunction commonly occur in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the context of the brain-gut axis model, colitis can lead to alteration of brain function in a bottom-up manner. Here, the changes in the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammation-related markers in the brain in colitis were studied. METHODS: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was used to generate a mouse model of colitis. Mice were treated with DSS for 3 or 7 days and sacrificed. We analyzed the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the expression of GFAP, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala. Additionally, the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum cortisol/corticosterone were measured. RESULTS: Alteration of inflammatory-related markers varied depending on the brain region and exposure time. In the hippocampus, COX-2 mRNA, GFAP mRNA, and GFAP expression were upregulated during exposure to DSS. However, in the hypothalamus, COX-2 mRNA was upregulated only 3 days after treatment. In the amygdala, BDNF and COX-2 mRNAs were downregulated. CRP and corticosterone expression increased with DSS treatment at day 7. CONCLUSION: IBD could lead to neuroinflammation in a bottom-up manner, and this effect varied according to brain region. Stress-related hormones and serum inflammatory markers, such as CRP, were upregulated from the third day of DSS treatment. Therefore, early and active intervention is required to prevent psychological and behavioral changes caused by IBD, and region-specific studies can help understand the precise mechanisms by which IBD affects the brain.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Animals , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , C-Reactive Protein , Colitis , Corticosterone , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Depression , Dextrans , Gene Expression , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Hippocampus , Hypothalamus , Inflammation , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mice , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , RNA, Messenger , Sodium
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716599

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, caffeine is among the most commonly used stimulatory substances. Unfortunately, significant caffeine consumption is associated with several adverse effects, ranging from sleep disturbances (including insomnia) to cardiovascular problems. This study investigates whether treatment with the Evodia rutaecarpa aqueous extract (ERAE) from berries and its major molecular component, evodiamine, can reduce the adverse caffeine-induced sleep-related and excitation effects. We combined measurements from the pentobarbital-induced sleep test, the open field test, and the locomotor activity test in mice that had been dosed with caffeine. We found that ERAE and evodiamine administration reduced the degree of caffeine-induced sleep disruption during the sleep test. Additionally, we found that evodiamine significantly inhibits caffeine-induced excitation during the open field test, as well as decreasing hyperlocomotion in the locomotor activity test. Additional in vitro experiments showed that caffeine administration decreased the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor subunits in the mouse hypothalamus. However, evodiamine treatment significantly reversed this expression reduction. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ERAE and its major compound, evodiamine, provide an excellent candidate for the treatment or prevention of caffeine-induced sleep disturbances and excitatory states, and that the mechanism of these beneficial effects acts, at least in part, through the GABA(A)-ergic system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caffeine , Evodia , Fruit , Hypothalamus , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Motor Activity
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