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1.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 181-190, Junio 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443731

ABSTRACT

Las pruebas de función tiroidea (PFT) son esenciales para el diagnóstico preciso y el seguimiento eficaz de la disfunción tiroidea. Existe un incremento progresivo y estable de los pedidos de PFT, incluso se han incorporado las mismas a los exámenes de salud anuales en niños sanos. Representan más del 60% de las pruebas realizadas en el laboratorio de endocrinología, tanto en adultos como en los laboratorios especializados en pediatría. Para hacer un uso eficiente de las PFT, antes de solicitarlas debemos preguntarnos… ¿Para quién? ¿Cuándo solicitarlas? ¿Qué pruebas solicitar? ¿Cómo solicitarlas? y ¿Cómo interpretar correctamente los resultados? Un resultado anormal en las PFT no siempre implica patología tiroidea asociada. Las PFT tienen importante variabilidad intra e interindividual lo que hace más compleja su correcta interpretación. La pesquisa de enfermedad tiroidea neonatal es un importante aporte a la prevención de la deficiencia mental en la infancia, su aplicación obligatoria posibilita un diagnóstico temprano, para asegurar su éxito debe considerarse en el marco de un programa integral de detección con estrategias de confirmación, tratamiento temprano y seguimiento a corto, mediano y largo plazo. No debe hacerse un uso indiscriminado de la prueba de estímulo con TRH en el diagnóstico de la patología tiroidea. En pediatría la estrategia de tamiz de enfermedad tiroidea es conveniente realizarla mediante la medición de por lo menos TSH y T4 libre e incluir la determinación de ATPO en grupos de riesgo, a diferencia de la determinación aislada de TSH como es recomendado en adultos. (AU)


Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are essential for accurate diagnosis and effective monitoring of thyroid dysfunction. There is a progressive and steady increase in requests for TFTs, and they have even been incorporated into annual health examinations in healthy children. They represent more than 60% of the tests performed in the endocrinology laboratory, both in adults and in specialized pediatric laboratories. To efficiently use TFTs, before requesting them we should ask ourselves... For whom? When to request them? Which tests to request? How to request them? and How to correctly interpret the results? An abnormal TFT result does not always imply thyroid disease. TFTs have significant intra- and inter-individual variability, which makes their correct interpretation more complex. Screening for newborn thyroid disease is an important contribution to the prevention of intellectual disability in childhood and its mandatory use enables early diagnosis; however, to ensure the test to be successful, it should be considered within the framework of a comprehensive screening program with strategies for confirmation, early treatment, and short-, medium-, and long-term follow-up. The TRH stimulation test in the diagnosis of thyroid disease should not be used indiscriminately. In children, the screening strategy for thyroid disease should be performed by measuring at least TSH and free T4 and include the measurement of TPO-ab in risk groups, as opposed to the isolated measurement of TSH as recommended in adults. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Thyroid Function Tests/trends , Thyroid Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Thyrotropin/blood , Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine/trends , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Unnecessary Procedures
2.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 13(1)fev., 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516888

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hypothyroidism is commonly associated with depression and a slowing in mental activity. OBJECTIVES: The current investigation aimed to investigate the effect of aerobic training on depression and thyroid function in treated hypothyroid females. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty women diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism that was regulated and accompanied by mild to moderate levels of depression completed a 12-week randomized controlled exercise trial involving two equal groups: aerobic (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. The exercising group performed three sessions of aerobic exercise per week at low to moderate intensity for 12 consecutive weeks while the control group performed no exercise intervention during the same duration. At baseline and post-intervention, Beck Depression Inventory score (BDIS), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (T4) were assessed. RESULTS: The exercising group showed significant improvements in BDIS, TSH and free T4 compared to baseline (p < 0.05) with negligible change in the control group (p > 0.05). As compared to the control, all measured items differed significantly in favor to the aerobic training group. CONCLUSION: In women with treated hypothyroidism, aerobic training can minimize depressive symptoms and enhance thyroid function.


INTRODUÇÃO: O hipotireoidismo é comumente associado à depressão e à lentidão da atividade mental. OBJETIVOS: A presente investigação teve como objetivo investigar o efeito do treinamento aeróbico na depressão e na função tireoidiana em mulheres com hipotireoidismo tratado. MÉTODOS E MATERIAIS: Trinta mulheres diagnosticadas com hipotireoidismo primário que foi regulado e acompanhado por níveis leves a moderados de depressão completaram um teste de exercício controlado randomizado de 12 semanas envolvendo dois grupos iguais: aeróbico (n = 15) e controle (n = 15). O grupo de exercício realizou três sessões de exercício aeróbico por semana em intensidade baixa a moderada por 12 semanas consecutivas, enquanto o grupo de controle não realizou nenhuma intervenção de exercício durante a mesma duração. No início e pós-intervenção, o escore do Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDIS), hormônio estimulante da tireoide (TSH) e tiroxina livre (T4) foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: O grupo de exercícios apresentou melhorias significativas em BDIS, TSH e T4 livre em comparação com a linha de base (p < 0,05) com alteração insignificante no grupo de controle (p > 0,05). Em comparação com o controle, todos os itens medidos diferiram significativamente em favor do grupo de treinamento aeróbico. CONCLUSÃO: Em mulheres com hipotireoidismo tratado, o treinamento aeróbico pode minimizar os sintomas depressivos e melhorar a função da tireoide.


Subject(s)
Depression , Exercise , Hypothyroidism
3.
Ghana med. j ; 57(1): 37-42, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1427100

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to examine possible associations between previously undiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism and short-term outcomes and mortality in a sample of Iraqi patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Design: This is a prospective observational cohort study. Setting: The study was conducted in a single tertiary referral centre in Baghdad, Iraq. Participants: Thyroid-stimulating hormone and free T4 levels were measured in 257 patients hospitalised with STelevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention between January 2020 and March 2022. Main outcome measures: Adverse cardiovascular and renal events during hospitalisation and 30-day mortality were observed. Results: Previously undiagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism was detected in 36/257 (14%) ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients and observed more commonly in females than males. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly worse short-term outcomes, including higher rates of suboptimal TIMI Flow (< III) (p =0.014), left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40% (p=0.035), Killip class >I (p=0.042), cardiogenic shock (p =0.016), cardiac arrest in the hospital (p= 0.01), and acute kidney injury (p= 0.044). Additionally, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (p= 0.029). Conclusion: Subclinical hypothyroidism previously undiagnosed and untreated had a significant association with adverse short-term outcomes and higher short-term mortality within 30 days compared to euthyroid patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Routine thyroid function testing during these patients' hospitalisation may be warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Function Tests , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Hypothyroidism , Asymptomatic Infections , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Access to Primary Care
4.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 365-368, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981136

ABSTRACT

Bipolar disorder is a major mental illness that is difficult to treat and has a high degree of recurrence. This article reports general anesthesia for oral surgery in a patient with bipolar disorder complicated with hypothyroidism. It also discusses the rational application of antipsychotic drugs and anesthetics with reference to the literature to improve the understanding of the disease and help patients with mental disorders complete the surgical treatment quietly and smoothly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Oral Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia
5.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 31-37, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980490

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective@#Dyslipidemia in hypothyroidism results from the effects of thyroid hormones on lipid metabolism. These, in combination with hypothyroidism-induced hemodynamic changes, are risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. We determined the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among adult Filipinos with hypothyroidism and compared clinical and laboratory characteristics of those with versus without MS. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective study of 105 patients with biochemically confirmed hypothyroidism. A review of records obtained anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, and thyroid hormones. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were then compared between MS and those without. Significant differences were determined by two-way ANOVA, while heterogeneity of categorical variables was determined by chi-square or Fisher exact test. All data analyses were performed using Stata version 17.0 with a significance level of p<0.05.@*Results@#The prevalence of MS is 36.19% (95%CI: 27.04%,46.15%). Body mass index (BMI) peaks at obese class I among those with MS. There is a significantly higher proportion of patients diagnosed to have diabetes (28.95% vs. 7.46%; p=0.003) and hypertension (52.63% vs. 14.93%; p<0.001) in the MS group. No significant differences were noted between groups regarding age, sex, etiology of hypothyroidism, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile, and thyroid hormone levels.@*Conclusion@#Our study showed that the prevalence of MS in adult Filipinos with hypothyroidism is increased at 36.19%. Only BMI, presence of diabetes, and hypertension were shown to be significantly higher. Emphasis must be placed on early screening among hypothyroid patients at high risk of developing MS. A prospective study using waist circumference and clinical and metabolic parameters is needed to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
Dyslipidemias , Hypothyroidism , Metabolic Syndrome , Prevalence
6.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(2): e007052, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510036

ABSTRACT

El hipotiroidismo primario, caracterizado por una disminución en la síntesis de hormonas tiroideas, es el trastorno endocrinológico más frecuente, y la levotiroxina, el tratamiento de elección. Usualmente se recomienda su administración por la mañana, una hora antes del desayuno. A partir de la consulta de una paciente con dificultades para la adherencia ala toma de la medicación en ayunas, la autora de este artículo lleva a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica para revisar la evidencia que avala la administración de levotiroxina antes de acostarse. (AU)


Primary hypothyroidism, characterized by a decrease in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, is the most common endocrine disorder, and levothyroxine being the treatment of choice. Its administration is usually recommended in the morning, one hour before breakfast. Based on the consultation of a patient with difficulties in sticking to taking medication on an empty stomach, the author of this article carried out a bibliographic search to review the evidence that supports the administrationof levothyroxine before bedtime. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Patient Preference
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2044-2049, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#More than 75 million procedures with intravascular iodine-based contrast media (ICM) are performed worldwide every year, and some patients undergoing these procedures do not have normal thyroid function. The long-term effects of ICM in patients with mild thyroid dysfunction (TD) are unclear.@*METHODS@#This prospective cohort study was conducted in China. Patients with stable angina pectoris with total triiodothyronine (TT3) reduction, normal thyroid-stimulating hormone, and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) were enrolled and divided into high-dose (≥100 mL ICM) and low-dose groups (<100 mL ICM). We dynamically investigated the trends in thyroid function, rT3, and thyroid antibodies one year after ICM exposure.@*RESULTS@#A total of 154 patients completed 6 months of follow-up and 149 completed 1 year of follow-up. Thyroglobulin antibody (TGAB) levels were elevated in 41 (26.6%) patients before ICM exposure, 11 (7.1%) of whom also had elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody levels. Transient subclinical TD occurred 6 months after ICM exposure; 75.5% (34/45) of post-operative TD occurred in the high-dose group. One patient developed severe hypothyroidism with myxedema, requiring drug intervention 1 year after ICM exposure. The level of rT3 showed no statistically significant changes during post-operative follow-up ( P  = 0.848). The TGAB level decreased at 6th month ( P  < 0.001), but increased at 1 year after ICM exposure ( P  = 0.002).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Patients with T3 reduction are at a risk of transient subclinical TD and hypothyroidism after a single large dose of ICM. Follow-up of this population at 9-12 months after ICM exposure is warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Hypothyroidism , Triiodothyronine , Iodine/adverse effects , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
8.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 750-758, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984713

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the diagnostic efficiency and clinical application value of an artificial intelligence-assisted diagnosis model based on a three-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D CNN) on echocardiographic videos of patients with hypertensive heart disease, chronic renal failure (CRF) and hypothyroidism with cardiac involvement. Methods: This study is a retrospective study. The patients with hypertensive heart disease, CRF and hypothyroidism with cardiac involvement, who admitted in Henan Provincial People's Hospital from April 2019 to October 2021, were enrolled. Patients were divided into hypertension group, CRF group, and hypothyroidism group. Additionally, a simple random sampling method was used to select control healthy individuals, who underwent physical examination at the same period. The echocardiographic video data of enrolled participants were analyzed. The video data in each group was divided into a training set and an independent testing set in a ratio of 5 to 1. The temporal and spatial characteristics of videos were extracted using an inflated 3D convolutional network (I3D). The artificial intelligence assisted diagnosis model was trained and tested. There was no case overlapped between the training and validation sets. A model was established according to cases or videos based on video data from 3 different views (single apical four chamber (A4C) view, single parasternal left ventricular long-axis (PLAX) view and all views). The statistical analysis of diagnostic performance was completed to calculate sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC). The time required for the artificial intelligence and ultrasound physicians to process cases was compared. Results: A total of 730 subjects aged (41.9±12.7) years were enrolled, including 362 males (49.6%), and 17 703 videos were collected. There were 212 cases in the hypertensive group, 210 cases in the CRF group, 105 cases in the hypothyroidism group, and 203 cases in the normal control group. The diagnostic performance of the model predicted by cases based on single PLAX view and all views data was excellent: (1) in the hypertensive group, the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of models based on all views data were 97%, 89% and 0.93, respectively, while those of models based on a single PLAX view were 94%, 95%, and 0.94, respectively; (2) in the CRF group, the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of models based on all views data were 97%, 95% and 0.96, respectively, while those of models based on a single PLAX view were 97%, 89%, and 0.93, respectively; (3) in the hypothyroidism group, the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of models based on all views data were 64%, 100% and 0.82, respectively, while those of models based on a single PLAX view were 82%, 89%, and 0.86, respectively. The time required for the 3D CNN model to measure and analyze the echocardiographic videos of each subject was significantly shorter than that for the ultrasound physicians ((23.96±6.65)s vs. (958.25±266.17)s, P<0.001). Conclusions: The artificial intelligence assisted diagnosis model based on 3D CNN can extract the dynamic temporal and spatial characteristics of echocardiographic videos jointly, and quickly and efficiently identify hypertensive heart disease and cardiac changes caused by CRF and hypothyroidism.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Retrospective Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases , Hypertension , Hypothyroidism
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 322-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970926

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical manifestations and genetic characteristics of patients with congenital central hypothyroidism due to variants of IGSF1 gene.@*METHODS@#Clinical data, results of genetic testing, and follow-up of four patients admitted to Children's Hospital of Soochow University during 2017 to 2021 were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#All of the four patients were males. Patient 1 had presented neonatal jaundice, patients 2 and 3 were admitted for growth retardation during childhood, and thyroid function test indicated slightly low free thyroxine (FT4), patient 4 was found to have reduced FT4 in the neonatal period. Genetic testing revealed that all of the four patients have harbored pathogenic variants of the IGSF1 gene, which were all inherited from their mothers. The thyroid functions in all patients were well controlled with oral levothyroxine and regular follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#Pathogenic variants of the IGSF1 gene probably underlay the congenital central hypothyroidism with a variety of clinical manifestations, and genetic testing can facilitate the diagnosis at an early stage.


Subject(s)
Child , Male , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Hypothyroidism/genetics , Genetic Testing , Mothers , Immunoglobulins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 250-255, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970276

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the risk factors of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with thyroid dysfunction and to explore the relationship between thyroid hormone and kidney injury of lupus nephritis (LN). Methods: In this retrospective study, 253 patients who were diagnosed with childhood SLE and hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2019 to January 2021 were enrolled in the case group, and 70 healthy children were the control cases. The patients in the case group were divided into the normal thyroid group and the thyroid dysfunction group. Independent t-test, χ2 test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison between the groups, Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis, and Spearman correlation. Results: A total of 253 patients, there were 44 males and 209 females in the case group, and the age of onset was 14 (12, 16) years; a total of 70 patients, 24 males and 46 females were in the control group, and the age of onset was 13 (10, 13) years. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction in the case group was higher than that in the control group (48.2% (122/253) vs. 8.6% (6/70), χ²=36.03, P<0.05). Of the 131 patients, there were 17 males and 114 females in the normal thyroid group, and the age of onset was 14 (12, 16) years. Of the 122 patients in the thyroid dysfunction group, 28 males and 94 females were in the thyroid dysfunction group, and the age of onset was 14 (12, 16) years. Of the 122 had thyroid dysfunction, including 51 cases (41.8%) with euthyroid sick syndrome, 25 cases (20.5%) with subclinical hypothyroidism, 18 cases (14.8%) patients with sub-hyperthyroidism, 12 cases (9.8%) with hypothyroidism, 10 cases (8.2%) with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 4 cases (3.3%) with hyperthyroidism, and 2 cases (1.6%) with Graves disease. Compared to patients with normal thyroid function, the serum level of triglyceride, total cholesterol, urine white blood cell, urine red blood cell, 24 h urine protein, D-dimer, and fibrinogen, ferritin and systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K) score were higher in patients with thyroid dysfunction (Z=3.07, 3.07, 2.48, 3.16, 2.40, 3.99, 2.68, 2.55, 2.80, all P<0.05), while the serum level of free thyroxine and C3 were lower in thyroid disfunction patients (10.6 (9.1, 12.7) vs. 11.3 (10.0, 12.9) pmol/L, and 0.46 (0.27, 0.74) vs. 0.57 (0.37, 0.82) g/L, Z=2.18, 2.42, both P<0.05). The higher level of triglyceride and D-dimer were the independent risk factors for childhood SLE with thyroid dysfunction (OR=1.40 and 1.35, 95%CI 1.03-1.89 and 1.00-1.81, respectively, both P<0.05). There were 161 patients with LN in the case group, all of which were conducted with renal biopsies, including 11 cases (6.8%) with types Ⅰ LN, 11 cases (6.8%) with typesⅡLN, 31 cases (19.3%) with types Ⅲ LN, 92 cases (57.1%) with types Ⅳ LN, and 16 cases (9.9%) with types Ⅴ LN. There were significant differences in the level of free triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hormone among different types of kidney pathology (both P<0.05); compared with types I LN, the serum level of free triiodothyronine was lower in types Ⅳ LN (3.4 (2.8, 3.9) vs. 4.3 (3.7, 5.5) pmol/L, Z=3.75, P<0.05). The serum level of free triiodothyronine was negatively correlated with the acute activity index score of lupus nephritis (r=-0.228, P<0.05), while the serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone was positively correlated with the renal pathological acute activity index score of lupus nephritis (r=0.257, P<0.05). Conclusions: There is a high incidence of thyroid dysfunction in childhood SLE patients. The higher SLEDAI and more severe renal damage were found in SLE patients with thyroid dysfunction compared to these with normal thyroid functions. The risk factors of childhood SLE with thyroid dysfunction are the higher level of triglyceride and D-dimer. The serum level of thyroid hormone is possibly related to the kidney injury of LN.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Male , Humans , Lupus Nephritis/epidemiology , Triiodothyronine , Retrospective Studies , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Hyperthyroidism , Risk Factors
11.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 17(1): 22-26, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525885

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hipotiroidismo es la insuficiente producción de hormona tiroidea, para satisfacer las necesidades corporales. Este puede ser primario (con pérdida de la función de la glándula tiroidea) o secundario (por falta de estimulación de la glándula). Dada la alta prevalencia del hipotiroidismo, y frecuentes asociaciones con otras enfermedades, se realizó una revisión que puntualiza aspectos de interés clínico en esta patología, que pueden resultar útiles en la práctica médica. Metodología: Se efectuó una búsqueda bibliográfica en PubMed, PubMed Central, MEDLINE Complete, Epistemonikos, Europe PMC y Scielo. Se buscaron los términos "hipotiroidismo" y "tiroides", y se acortaron los artículos a los últimos 5 años. Resultados: Se incluyeron en total 36 artículos publicados en Inglés y en Español. Se seleccionaron aquellos relacionados al hipotiroidismo que exponen asociaciones con otras patologías. Entre estas patologías se encuentra la diabetes, las dislipidemias, enfermedades cardiovasculares, hepáticas, entre otras. Conclusiones: El hipotiroidismo es una patología prevalente que se asocia de forma frecuente con muchas otras comorbilidades que hay que tener en cuenta a la hora de abordar estos pacientes, y con ello tomar las mejores decisiones diagnósticas y terapéuticas.


Introduction: Hypothyroidism is the insufficient production of thyroid hormone to meet the bodily needs. This can be primary (with loss of function of the thyroid glands) or secondary (due to lack of stimulation of the glands). Given the high prevalence of hypothyroidism, and frequent associations with other diseases, a review was carried out that points out aspects of clinical interest in this pathology, which may be useful in medical practice. Methodology: A bibliographic search was carried out in PubMed, PubMed Central, MEDLINE Complete, Epistemonikos, Europe PMC and Scielo. The terms "hypothyroidism" and "thyroid" were searched, and the articles were shortened to the last 5 years. Results: A total of 36 articles published in English and Spanish were included. Those related to hypothyroidism that exhibit associations with other pathologies were selected. These pathologies include diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular and liver diseases, among others. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is a prevalent pathology that is frequently associated with many other comorbidities that must be taken into account when dealing with these patients, and thus make the best diagnostic and therapeutic decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19 , Hypothyroidism/complications , Hypothyroidism/etiology , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Infertility , Kidney Diseases , Obesity
12.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441641

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El hipotiroidismo primario, con frecuencia, es diagnosticado de forma tardía y no siempre las dosis indicadas de levotiroxina son las más convenientes. Urge llamar la atención sobre estos aspectos y actualizar el conocimiento sobre este tema. Objetivo: Describir los elementos básicos para el diagnóstico y manejo terapéutico del hipotiroidismo primario en el paciente adulto, en el primer nivel de atención. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura relevante sobre el tema. Se utilizaron como buscadores de información científica a Pubmed y a Google Académico. La estrategia de búsqueda incluyó los siguientes términos como palabras claves: hipotiroidismo primario; hipotiroidismo subclínico; diagnóstico y tratamiento. Fueron evaluados artículos que, en general, tenían menos de 10 años de publicados, en idioma español e inglés, que hicieran referencia específicamente al tema de estudio a través del título. Fueron excluidos los artículos que no cumplieron con estas condiciones. Esto permitió que 72 fueran referenciados. Conclusiones: Para realizar el diagnóstico del hipotiroidismo primario, es fundamental conocer los factores de riesgo y el cuadro clínico correspondiente. La elevación de la tirotropina en suero es la mejor prueba diagnóstica y casi siempre indica la presencia de hipotiroidismo primario. Se debe tener presente al inicio del tratamiento, la edad del paciente, el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad, la intensidad del hipotiroidismo, el momento fisiológico y la presencia de enfermedades asociadas. Todos los pacientes con hipotiroidismo primario manifiesto deben ser tratados con levotiroxina sódica, pero aquellos con hipotiroidismo subclínico no siempre se benefician con este tratamiento(AU)


Introduction: Primary hypothyroidism is often diagnosed lately and not always are the indicated doses of levothyroxine the most convenient. It is urgent to draw attention towards these aspects and to update knowledge on this subject. Objective: To describe the basic elements for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of primary hypothyroidism in adult patients at the first level of care. Methods: A search for relevant literature on the subject was carried out. Pubmed and Google Scholar were used as search engines for retrieving scientific information. The search strategy included the following terms as keywords: hipotiroidismo primario [primary hypothyroidism], hipotiroidismo subclínico [subclinical hypothyroidism], diagnóstico y tratamiento [diagnosis and treatment]. Generally speaking, articles within ten years of having been published were assessed, written in Spanish and English and making a specific reference to the subject of the study in their respective titles. Articles not meeting these conditions were excluded. This allowed for 72 articles be referenced. Conclusions: To make the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism, it is essential to know the risk factors and the corresponding clinical picture. Serum thyrotropin elevation is the best diagnostic test and almost always indicates the presence of primary hypothyroidism. The patient's age, the time of evolution of the disease, the intensity of the hypothyroidism, the physiologic time and the presence of associated diseases should be taken into account at the beginning of treatment. All patients with overt primary hypothyroidism should be treated with levothyroxine sodium, but those with subclinical hypothyroidism do not always benefit from this treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology
14.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(10): 999-1009, Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423259

ABSTRACT

Key points Pregnancy places a metabolic overload on the maternal thyroid, especially in the first trimester, mainly because of the demand imposed by the conceptus. The fetal thyroid becomes functionally mature only around pregnancy week 20. Until then, the fetus depends on the transfer of maternal thyroid hormones (THs). Thyroid hormones are essential for the adequate fetal neurofunctional and cognitive development. Hypothyroidism brings higher risks of obstetric and fetal complications, namely, first-trimester miscarriage, preeclampsia and gestational hypertension, placental abruption, prematurity, low birth weight, and higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Primary hypothyroidism (involvement of the gland with difficulty in producing and/or releasing TH) is the most common form of disease presentation, with the main etiology of Hashimoto's thyroiditis of autoimmune origin. In about 85%-90% of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, antithyroid antibodies are present; the antithyroperoxidase (ATPO) is the most frequent. Positivity for ATPO is determined when circulating values exceed the upper limit of the laboratory reference. It implies greater risks of adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Such a correlation occurs even in ranges of maternal euthyroidism. The critical point for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism during pregnancy is an elevation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The measurement of free thyroxine (FT4) differentiates between subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. In subclinical hypothyroidism, FT4 is within the normal range, whereas in overt hypothyroidism, FT4 values are below the lower limit of the laboratory reference. Treatment of hypothyroidism is performed with levothyroxine (LT4) replacement with the aim of achieving adequate TSH levels for pregnancy. Some women have a previous diagnosis of hypothyroidism, and may or may not be compensated at the beginning of pregnancy. Even in compensated cases, the increase in LT4 dose is necessary as soon as possible. In the postpartum period, adjustment of the LT4 dose depends on the condition of previous disease, on the positivity for ATPO, and also on the value of LT4 in use at the end of pregnancy. Recommendations In places with full technical and financial conditions, TSH testing should be performed for all pregnant women (universal screening) as early as possible, ideally at the beginning of the first trimester or even in preconception planning. In places with less access to laboratory tests, screening is reserved for cases with greater risk factors for decompensation, namely: previous thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy, type 1 diabetes mellitus or other autoimmune diseases, presence of goiter, previous history of hypo or hyperthyroidism or previous ATPO positivity. The TSH dosage should be repeated throughout pregnancy only in these cases. The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is made from the TSH value > 4.0 mIU/L. Pregnant women with previous hypothyroidism, overt hypothyroidism diagnosed during pregnancy or those with the above-mentioned higher risk factors for decompensation should be referred for risk antenatal care, preferably in conjunction with the endocrinologist. Overt hypothyroidism in pregnancy is identified when TSH > 10 mIU/L, and treatment with LT4 is readily recommended at an initial dose of 2 mcg/kg/day. TSH values > 4.0 mUI/L and ≤ 10.0 mUI/L require FT4 measurement with two diagnostic possibilities: overt hypothyroidism when FT4 levels are below the lower limit of the laboratory reference, or subclinical hypothyroidism when FT4 levels are normal. The treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism is LT4 at an initial dose of 1 mcg/kg/day, and the dose should be doubled upon diagnosis of overt hypothyroidism. In cases of TSH > 2.5 and ≤ 4.0 mIU/L, if there are complete conditions, ATPO should be measured. If positive (above the upper limit of normal), treatment with LT4 at a dose of 50 mcg/day is indicated. If conditions are not complete, the repetition of the TSH dosage should be done only for cases at higher risk. In these cases, treatment with LT4 will be established when TSH > 4.0 mIU/L at a dose of 1 mcg/kg/day; if needed, the dose can be adjusted after FT4 evaluation. Women with previous hypothyroidism should have their LT4 dose adjusted to achieve TSH < 2.5 mIU/L at preconception. As soon as they become pregnant, they need a 30% increase in LT4 as early as possible. In practice, they should double the usual dose on two days a week. Levothyroxine should be given 30-60 minutes before breakfast or three hours or more after the last meal. Concomitant intake with ferrous sulfate, calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide and sucralfate should be avoided. The target of LT4 therapy during pregnancy is to achieve a TSH value < 2.5 mIU/L. Once the therapy is started, monthly control must be performed until the mentioned goal is reached. In the postpartum period, women with previous disease should resume the preconception dose. Cases diagnosed during pregnancy in use of LT4 ≤ 50 mcg/day may have the medication suspended. The others should reduce the current dose by 25% to 50% and repeat the TSH measurement in six weeks. Cases of ATPO positivity are at higher risk of developing postpartum thyroiditis and de-escalation of LT4 should be performed as explained.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis
15.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-10, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518732

ABSTRACT

El Hipotiroidismo subclínico (HSC) es definido bioquímicamente por una elevación en la concentración sérica de la hormona TSH con niveles normales de T4 libre. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de HSC en los pacientes que asistieron a la consulta de medicina interna del Hospital General IESS de Riobamba. Así como, analizar la correlación entre los parámetros hormonales y ciertos marcadores bioquímicos asociados con el incremento de riesgo cardiovascular. Se realizó una investigación de tipo descriptiva, observacional, con un diseño no experimental de corte transversal, que abarcó el periodo comprendido desde enero de 2019 hasta septiembre de 2021. 245 pacientes fueron diagnosticados con HSC, lo cual representó el 10.58 % del universo poblacional estudiado, 61.2% eran del sexo femenino, mientras que el 38.8% del sexo masculino. El mayor número de casos (59.61 %) se observó en el grupo etario mayor de 65 años, distribuidos de la siguiente manera: (22.86% hombres y 36.75% mujeres), también se encontró que el HSC está asociado con un perfil lipídico aterogénico, caracterizado por un incremento en la concentración de colesterol total y LDL los cuales se correlacionaron positivamente con las concentraciones de TSH.


Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is biochemically defined by an elevation in the serum concentration of TSH hormone with normal levels of free T4. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SH in patients attending the internal medicine clinic of the General Hospital IESS of Riobamba. Also, to analyze the correlation between hormonal parameters and certain biochemical markers associated with increased cardiovascular risk. A descriptive, observational, non-experimental cross-sectional design was performed, covering the period from January 2019 to September 2021. 245 patients were diagnosed with SH, which represented 10.58 % of the population universe studied, 61.2% were female, while 38.8% were male. The highest number of cases (59.61 %) was observed in the age group over 65 years, distributed as follows: (22.86% men and 36.75% women), it was also found that SH is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile, characterized by an increase in the concentration of total cholesterol and LDL which correlated positively with TSH concentrations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Thyrotropin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age and Sex Distribution , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/blood , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/blood , Lipids/blood
16.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 22(2): 227-235, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387181

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to determine the effectiveness of medical therapy in reducing complications associated with subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy. Methods: in 2021, a systematic review of available cohort studies was carried out in three databases, with no publication date limit. Study selection and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed, and odds ratios were calculated, with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Cohort risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE methodology. Results: five studies were included for qualitative and quantitative synthesis. A statistically significant relationship was found between medical treatment in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism with respect to spontaneous abortion (p=0.03; OR=0.77; CI95%=0.61-0.97), and no statistically significant relationship was found for delivery preterm (p=0.46; OR=1.11; CI95%=0.85-1.44), nor for abrupt placentae (p=0.56; OR=1.60; CI95%=0.33-7.66). Three studies were at moderate risk of bias, and two were at low risk of bias. In all the results the certainty was very low. Conclusions: medical treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy can have a beneficial effect in reducing cases of spontaneous abortion.


Resumo Objetivos: determinar la efectividad de la terapia médica para disminuir las complicaciones asociadas al hipotiroidismo subclínico durante la gestación. Métodos: en el 2021 se realizó una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes disponibles en tres bases de datos, sin límite de fecha de publicación. La selección de estudios y extracción de datos se realizaron por duplicado. Se realizó metaanálisis de efectos aleatorios y se calcularon los Odds ratio, con los correspondientes intervalos de confanza al 95%. El riesgo de sesgo de las cohortes se evaluó mediante la escala de Newcastle-Ottawa (NOS). La certeza de la evidencia se evaluó con la metodología GRADE. Resultados: cinco estudios fueron incluidos para síntesis cualitativa y cuantitativa. Se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa del tratamiento médico en gestantes con hipotiroidismo subclínico con respecto al aborto espontáneo (p=0,03; OR=0,77; IC95%=0,61-0.97), no se encontró relación estadísticamente significativa para parto pre término (p=0.46; OR=1,11; IC95%=0.85-1.44), ni para abrupto placentae (p=0.56; OR=1,60; IC95%=0.33-7.66). Tres estudios tenían riesgo moderado de sesgo, y dos tenían riesgo de sesgo bajo. En todos los resultados la certeza fue muy baja. Conclusiones: el tratamiento médico del hipotiroidismo subclínico durante la gestación puede tener un efecto beneficioso para reducir los casos de aborto espontaneo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Hypothyroidism/therapy , Abortion, Spontaneous , Abruptio Placentae , Obstetric Labor, Premature
17.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 38(2): 85-90, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383401

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: La encefalopatía asociada a enfermedad tiroidea autoinmune se caracteriza por un inicio insidioso de síntomas neuropsiquiátricos que incluyen alteración de la función cognoscitiva, cambios del comportamiento, crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento. REPORTE DE CASO: Hombre de 69 años con antecedente de hipotiroidismo primario que consultó por dos semanas de alteración de la memoria, confusión y trastorno del lenguaje, asociados a hiperreflexia y temblor generalizado. Los estudios mostraron nivel de hormona tiroidea y títulos de anticuerpos antitiroideos elevados, líquido cefalorraquídeo con aumento de proteínas y anticuerpos antineuronales negativos, neuroimagen normal y electroencefalograma con alteraciónes inespecíficas. Posterior a descartar otras etiologías, se hizo el diagnóstico de encefalopatía asociada a enfermedad tiroidea autoinmune y se inició manejo con esteroides, con los que presentó una mejoría clínica significativa. DISCUSIÓN: La encefalopatía asociada a enfermedad tiroidea autoinmune es un trastorno complejo que requiere un diagnóstico oportuno y rápido. En todos los pacientes con síntomas neuropsiquiátricos agudos o subagudos, y sin causa clara, es pertinente solicitar un perfil de anticuerpos antitiroideos independiente de la función tiroidea basal.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Thyroid autoimmune disease-associated encephalopathy is characterized by an insidious onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms which may include impaired cognitive function, behavioral changes, seizures, and movement disorders. CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old man with a history of primary hypothyroidism who consulted for two weeks of memory impairment, confusion, and language disorder, associated with hyperreflexia and generalized tremor. Studies showed elevated thyroid hormone levels and antithyroid antibody titers, cerebrospinal fluid with increased protein and negative antineuronal antibodies, normal neuroimaging, and electroencephalogram with nonspecific abnormalities. After ruling out other etiologies, a diagnosis of encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease was made and management with steroids was started, with which he presented significant clinical improvement. DISCUSSION: Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease is a complex disorder that requires timely and rapid diagnosis. In all patients with acute or subacute neuropsychiatric symptoms, and without a clear cause, it is pertinent to request an antithyroid antibody profile independent of baseline thyroid function


Subject(s)
Encephalitis , Hashimoto Disease , Antibodies , Thyroid Gland , Hypothyroidism
18.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(2): 1-11, June 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512559

ABSTRACT

Thyroid pathology is the morphofunctional evolution of the thyroid glands that leads to different types of clinical pictures. Within it is subclinical hypothyroidism, which is a biochemical alteration due to the elevation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between 4.5 to 10 mUI that can occur with or without symptoms of multifactorial origin. The worldwide prevalence is 4-10% and Latin America 15-25%. 90% of patients with this pathology do not require treatment, but in turn there is an overmedicalization and underdiagnosis of it. This bibliographic review analyzes from its morphofunctional changes towards clinical criteria for a comprehensive approach to subclinical hypothyroidism, where we have an individualization by its comorbidities, age group, diagnostic algorithm, follow-up and differentiated treatment according to recent studies within this pathology. Therefore, an adequate diagnosis, follow-up and treatment provides a better lifestyle for patients.


La patología tiroidea es la alteración morfofuncional de la glándula tiroides que lleva a diferentes tipos de cuadros clínicos. Dentro de ella se encuentra el Hipotiroidismo subclínico que es una alteración bioquímica por la elevación de la Hormona Estimulante de la tiroides (TSH) entre 4,5 a 10 mUI que puede presentarse con o sin sintomatología y tiene etiología multifactorial. La prevalencia mundial es del 4-10 % y latinoamericana del 15-25%. El 90% de pacientes con esta patología no requieren tratamiento, pero a su vez existe una sobremedicalización y una subdiagnóstico del mismo. La presente revisión bibliografía analiza a partir de su alteración morfofuncional hacia criterios clínicos para un abordaje integral del Hipotiroidismo subclínico, donde tenemos una individualización por sus comorbilidades, grupo etario, algoritmo diagnóstico, seguimiento y tratamiento diferenciado según últimos estudios dentro de esta patología. Por lo que un adecuado diagnóstico, seguimiento y tratamiento brinda un mejor estilo de vida a los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Thyrotropin/analysis , Hypothyroidism/complications
19.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 33(1)abr. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408267

ABSTRACT

Introducción: A pesar de su baja incidencia, la gravedad del cuadro clínico y la alta mortalidad hacen del coma mixedematoso una complicación a tener en cuenta. Objetivo: Describir los elementos básicos para el diagnóstico y manejo terapéutico del coma mixedematoso en el paciente adulto. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura relevante sobre el tema. Se utilizaron buscadores de información científica como Pubmed y Google Académico. La estrategia de búsqueda incluyó los siguientes términos como palabras clave: hipotiroidismo primario, hipotiroidismo subclínico, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Fueron evaluados artículos de revisión, de investigación y páginas web que tuvieran menos de 10 años de publicados. Se consideraron los textos en idioma español e inglés y que hicieran referencia específicamente al tema de estudio a través del título. Fueron excluidos los artículos que no cumplieron con estas condiciones. Esto permitió el estudio de 64 artículos, de los cuales 40 fueron referenciados. Conclusiones: Para el diagnóstico del coma mixedematoso en el paciente adulto lo más importante es sospecharlo en aquellas personas que presenten factores precipitantes, acompañados de síntomas y signos de hipotiroidismo severo con diferentes grados de insuficiencia del sistema nervioso central, hipotermia, hipoventilación, insuficiencia circulatoria e hiponatremia. A esto se sumaría el escenario humoral característico y los posibles hallazgos dependientes de la enfermedad causante del hipotiroidismo. Se debe tratar con un reemplazo agresivo de levotiroxina sódica (vía endovenosa u oral, según posibilidades), unido a otras medidas de apoyo en el entorno hospitalario(AU)


Introduction: Despite its low incidence, the severity of the clinical picture and the high mortality make myxedematous coma a complication to be taken into account. Objective: Describe the basic elements for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of myxedematous coma in adult patients. Methods: A search of relevant literature on the subject was carried out. Pubmed and Google Scholar were used as search engines for scientific information. The search strategy included the following keyword terms: primary hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, diagnosis and treatment. Review articles, research articles and Web pages that, in general, had less than 10 years of publication, in Spanish and English that specifically referred to the subject of study through the title were evaluated. Articles that did not meet these conditions were excluded. This allowed the study of 64 articles, of which 40 were referenced. Conclusions: For the diagnosis of myxedematous coma in the adult patient, the most important thing is to suspect it in those people who present precipitating factors, accompanied by symptoms and signs of severe hypothyroidism with different degrees of central nervous system insufficiency, hypothermia, hypoventilation, circulatory insufficiency and hyponatremia. To this would be added the characteristic humoral scenario and the possible findings dependent on the disease causing hypothyroidism. It should be treated with an aggressive replacement of levothyroxine sodium (intravenous or oral way, accodring to the possibilities), together with other supportive measures in the hospital setting(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Precipitating Factors , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , Search Engine , Hypothyroidism/therapy
20.
Univ. salud ; 24(1): 102-107, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361191

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad de cambios mínimos es una causa rara de síndrome nefrótico en el adulto, y su relación con el hipotiroidismo es más rara aún. Se considera que esta patología renal responde favorablemente al manejo con glucocorticoides y tiene una baja frecuencia de resistencia. Su abordaje hoy en día es objeto de investigación. Objetivo: Describir una rara etiología de síndrome nefrótico en el adulto con presentación, tratamiento y desenlace infrecuentes. Presentación del caso: Paciente femenino de 53 años quien inicia con síndrome nefrótico por enfermedad de cambios mínimos cortico-resistente y su asociación con un hipotiroidismo descontrolado, quien requiere manejo con rituximab y control de la enfermedad endocrinológica asociada, como enfermedad de base. Conclusiones: En este caso clínico se muestra como las enfermedades citadas pueden coexistir y el tratamiento en conjunto es necesario. El establecimiento de nuevas terapias en la población adulta como el rituximab podría mostrar beneficio, como en este caso. Sin embargo, aún existe la necesidad de estudios de mayor evidencia que validen firmemente la efectividad de los diferentes tratamientos en este tipo de pacientes.


Introduction: Minimal change disease is a rare cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults, and its association with hypothyroidism is even more exceptional. This renal pathology is considered to respond favorably to glucocorticoid management and has a low resistance frequency. How to approach this disease is currently under investigation. Objective: To describe a rare etiology of adult nephrotic syndrome with unusual presentation, treatment, and outcome. Case presentation: A 53 years-old female patient who initially experienced nephrotic syndrome due to steroid-resistant minimal change disease, which was also associated with uncontrolled hypothyroidism. She required management with rituximab and control of the associated endocrinological disease, which was considered as the underlying disease. Conclusions: This clinical case shows (i) how the two aforementioned diseases can coexist and (ii) that a joint treatment is necessary. Establishing new therapies may be beneficial for adult populations, such as the benefits seen in this case with the use of rituximab. However, further studies are needed to strongly validate the effectiveness of the different treatments for these types of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Thyroid Diseases , Nephrosis , Hypothyroidism , Nephrosis, Lipoid , Nephrotic Syndrome
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