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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) on NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD).@*METHODS@#A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 days, were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, an HIBD group, and an AS-IV treatment group, with 8 rats in each group. After 24 hours of modeling, brain tissue was collected for hematoxylin-eosin staining, yo-PRO-1 staining, and EthD-2 immunofluorescent staining in order to observe the cerebral protection effect of AS-IV in vivo. HT22 cells were used to prepare a model of oxygen-glycogen deprivation (OGD), and a concentration gradient (50-400 μmol/L) was established for AS-IV. CCK-8 assay was used to measure the viability of HT22 cells. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to observe the effect of different concentrations of AS-IV on the mRNA and protein expression of NLRP3, gasdermin D (GSDMD), caspase-1, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β).@*RESULTS@#Yo-Pro-1 and EthD-2 staining showed that compared with the sham-operation group, the HIBD group had an increase in pyroptotic cells with a small number of necrotic cells, and the AS-IV group had reductions in both pyroptotic and necrotic cells. Compared with the sham-operation group, the HIBD group had significantly higher protein expression levels of NLRP3, IL-1β, caspase-1, and GSDMD (@*CONCLUSIONS@#AS-IV may alleviate HIBD in neonatal rats by inhibiting the expression of NLRP3, GSDMD, caspase-1, and IL-1β.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Brain , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Inflammasomes , NLR Proteins , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins , Triterpenes
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879850

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of different melatonin treatment regimens on long-term behavior and white matter damage in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), and to seek an optimal melatonin treatment regimen.@*METHODS@#Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 days, were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operation, HIBD, single-dose immediate treatment (SDIT), and 7-day continuous treatment (7DCT), with 8 rats in each group. A neonatal rat model of HIBD was prepared according to the classical Rice-Vannucci method. On day 21 after HIBD, the Morris water maze test was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory abilities. On day 70 after HIBD, immunofluorescence assay was used to measure the expression of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampal CA1 region of neonatal rats, and double-label immunofluorescence was used to measure the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and neurofilament 200 (NF200) in the corpus striatum and the corpus callosum.@*RESULTS@#The results of the Morris water maze test showed that the SDIT and 7DCT groups had a significantly shorter mean escape latency than the HIBD group, and the 7DCT group had a significantly shorter mean escape latency than the SDIT group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Both SDIT and 7DCT can improve long-term behavior and reduce white matter damage in neonatal rats with HIBD, and 7DCT is more effective than SDIT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Melatonin/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , White Matter
3.
Biol. Res ; 45(4): 357-362, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668686

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) occurring in immature brains stimulates the expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Neuroserpin is a selected inhibitor of tPA in the central nerves system. However, the role that neuroserpin plays and the possible mechanisms involved during neonatal HI are poorly defined. In this study, an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) model was generated with cultured rat cortical neurons mimicking neonatal HI injury ex vivo, and an acute neuronal excitatory injury was induced by exposure to a high concentration of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). Cells received either neuroserpin or MK-801, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor, during OGD/R, and were incubated with or without neuroserpin after NMDA exposure. Cell viability and morphology were detected by a Cell Counting Kit-8 and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. TPA expression and activity were also assessed. We found that MK-801 alleviated injuries induced by OGD/R, suggesting an excitatory damage involvement. Neuroserpin provided a dose-dependent neuroprotective effect in both OGD/R and acute excitatory injuries by inhibiting the activity of tPA, without affecting neuronal tPA expression. Neuroserpin protected neurons against OGD/R even after a delayed administration of 3h. Collectively, our data indicate that neuroserpin protects neurons against OGD/R. mainly by inhibiting tPA-mediated acute neuronal excitotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Neuropeptides/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Serpins/therapeutic use , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals, Newborn , Cell Survival , Dizocilpine Maleate/pharmacology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/etiology , Immunohistochemistry , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 836-842, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153692

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effect of granulocyte stimulating factor (G-CSF) on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven-day-old male newborn rat pups were subjected to 110 minutes of 8% oxygen following a unilateral carotid artery ligation. Apoptosis was identified by performing terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and flow cytometry with a combination of fluorescinated annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) and JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide). The extent of cerebral infarction was evaluated at 2 weeks after recovery. RESULTS: With a single dose (50microgram/kg) of G-CSF treatment immediately after hypoxic-ischemic insult, hypoxia-ischemia induced increase in TUNEL-positive cells, annexinV+/PI- and JC-1 positive apoptotic cells in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex was significantly reduced at 24 hours, measured by flow cytometry, and the extent of cerebral infarction at 2 weeks after recovery was also significantly attenuated compared to the hypoxia-ischemia control group. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that G-CSF is neuroprotective by inhibiting apoptosis, thereby reducing the ensuing cerebral infarction in a newborn rat pup model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI).


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Brain/pathology , Cerebral Infarction/pathology , Flow Cytometry , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/pharmacology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Male , Organ Size , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Weight Gain
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69839

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on histological brain injury, subventricular zone (SVZ) expansion, and sensorimotor function deficits induced by hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in newborn rat pups. Seven-day-old male rat pups were divided into six groups: normoxia control, normoxia EPO, hypoxia control, hypoxia EPO, HI control, and HI EPO group. Sham surgery or HI was performed in all animals. HI was induced by ligation of the right common carotid artery followed by 90 min of hypoxia with 8% oxygen. Recombinant human EPO 3 U/g or saline was administered intraperitoneally, immediately, at 24- and 48-hr after insult. At two weeks after insult, animals were challenged with cylinder-rearing test for evaluating forelimb asymmetry to determine sensorimotor function. All animals were then sacrificed for volumetric analysis of the cerebral hemispheres and the SVZ. The saline-treated HI rats showed marked asymmetry by preferential use of the non-impaired, ipsilateral paw in the cylinder-rearing test. Volumetric analysis of brains revealed significantly decreased preserved ipsilateral hemispheric volume and increased ipsilateral SVZ volume compared with the sham-operated animals. Treatment of EPO significantly improved forelimb asymmetry and preserved ipsilateral hemispheric volume along with decreased expansion of ipsilateral SVZ following HI compared to the saline-treated HI rats. These results support the use of EPO as a candidate drug for treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Carotid Artery, Common , Cerebral Ventricles/pathology , Erythropoietin/pharmacology , Female , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Ligation , Male , Motor Activity/drug effects , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Recovery of Function/drug effects
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226393

ABSTRACT

Using 1H-MRS, we evaluated the effects of growth hormone (GH) as a caspase inhibitor on hypoxic-ischemic injury in neonatal rat brains. The right common carotid arteries of rats were ligated, allowed to recover for 3 hr, and exposed to 8% oxygen for 2 hr. GH was given just prior to HI insult and animals were divided into four groups: control, intracerebroventricular (ICV), intracerebroventricular/intraperitoneal (ICV/IP), and intraperitoneal (IP). Localized in vivo 1H-MRS and TUNEL staining were performed 24 hr after HI injury. Lipid/N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and lipid/creatine (Cr) ratios were used as apoptotic markers. Gross morphologic changes at 2 weeks were used to evaluate the effects of GH. The lipid/NAA ratio was lower in the ICV and ICV/IP groups than in the control, and the lipid/Cr ratio was lower in the ICV group than in the control. The number of TUNEL positive cells was decreased in the ICV and ICV/IP groups, and the degree of morphologic change indicative of brain injury was lower in the ICV group and somewhat lower in the ICV/IP group. The degree of morphologic change correlated with the lipid/NAA and lipid/Cr ratios. These findings suggest that GH exerts neuroprotective effects in cerebral hypoxicischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Lipids/analysis , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Creatinine/analysis , Aspartic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Animals, Newborn , Animals
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47127

ABSTRACT

We have previously shown that cycloheximide significantly inhibited apoptosis, and reduced ensuing cerebral infarction in a newborn rat model of cerebral hypoxiaischemia. This study was performed to determine the therapeutic window for cycloheximide therapy. Seven day-old newborn rat pups were subjected to 100 min of 8% oxygen following a unilateral carotid artery ligation, and cycloheximide was given at 0, 6, 12 and 24 hr after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Apoptosis or necrosis was identified by performing flow cytometry with a combination of fluorescinated annexin V and propidium iodide, and the extent of cerebral infarction was evaluated with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) at 48 hr and 72 hr after HI, respectively. With cycloheximide treatment at 0 hr after HI, both apoptotic and necrotic cells by flow cytometry were significantly reduced, only necrotic cells were significantly reduced at 6 and 12 hr, and no protective effect was seen if administration was delayed until 24 hr after HI compared to the HI control group. Infarct volume, measured by TTC, was significantly reduced by 92% and 61% when cycloheximide was given at 0 or 6 hr after HI respectively; however, there was an insignificant trend in infarct reduction if cycloheximide was administered 12 hr after HI, and no protective effect was observed when administration was delayed until 24 hr after HI. In summary, cycloheximide was neuroprotective when given within 6 hr after HI in the developing newborn rat brain.


Subject(s)
Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats , Protein Synthesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Oxygen/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Necrosis , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Hypoxia, Brain , Humans , Flow Cytometry , Cycloheximide/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia , Apoptosis , Animals, Newborn , Animals
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12252

ABSTRACT

This study was done to determine the neuroprotective effect of cycloheximide on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Seven day-old newborn rat pups were subjected to 90 min of 8% oxygen following a unilateral carotid artery ligation. The extent of cerebral infarction was evaluated at 1 and 4 week of recovery. Apoptosis was identified by performing terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and flow cytometry with a combination of fluoresceinated annexin V and propidium iodide. Brain infarction area was significantly increased at 4 week compared to 1 week after hypoxia-ischemia in the control group. With cycloheximide treatment, the number of TUNEL positive cells in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex at 48 hr and peri-infarct area at 1 and 4 week of recovery was significantly reduced, both apoptotic and necrotic cells by flow cytometry 48 hr after the injury were significantly reduced, and the extent of cerebral infarction at 1 and 4 week of recovery was also significantly attenuated compared to the hypoxia-ischemia control group. In summary, our data suggest that apoptosis plays an important role in the development of delayed infarction, and inhibition of apoptosis with cycloheximide significantly reduces the ensuing cerebral infarction in a newborn rat pup model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia.


Subject(s)
Time Factors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats , Propidium , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Cycloheximide/pharmacology , Brain Infarction/pathology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Annexin A5/metabolism , Animals, Newborn , Animals
9.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2001; 17 (2): 106-111
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-57968

ABSTRACT

To study the efficacy of Citicoline in ischemic stroke as a supportive therapy. An open randomized trial to study the efficacy and tolerance of Citicoline. Setting: District Headquarters Hospital, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan. Forty patients [22 males and 18 females] between the ages of 35$ 5 years, selected over a period of eight months suffering from acute ischemic stroke within twenty four hours. Thirtysix out of 40 patients [Hemiplegia 16, Hemiparesis 20] completed the study. Diabetes, hypertension and heart failure were the concomitant diseases seen in some patients. In the Hemiplegia group, 5 patients [31.25%] showed complete recovery, 8 patients [50%] partial recovery while There was no response in 3 patients [18.75°10]. In the Hemiparesis group, the results showed complete recovery in 16 patients [80%], partial recovery in 4 patients [20%] with no failure. Tolerance in both groups was good and did not necessitate cessation of therapy. When both groups are combined and taken as acute ischemic stroke, results show 58.3% complete recovery 33.3% partial recovery and 8.3% as nonresponders. Citicoline limits the size of infarct leading towards early recovery of motor and cognitive functions. As such, it can be used effectively in the management of ischemic stroke as supportive therapy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cytidine Diphosphate Choline , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Hemiplegia , Paresis , Treatment Outcome
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