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1.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 410-415, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981881

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the protective effect of artesunate on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and its mechanism in neonatal rats. Methods 7-day-old neonatal SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, artesunate 5 mg/kg group, artesunate 10 mg/kg group, artesunate 20 mg/kg group and dexamethasone 6 mg/kg group, with 18 rats in each group. HIBD models were established in groups except for the sham operation group. The sham operation group only needed to separate the left common carotid artery without ligation and nitrogen-oxygen mixed gas ventilation. Each group was injected with drug intraperitoneally right after surgery and the rats in the sham operation group and the model group were injected with an equal volume of normal saline (once a day for a total of 5 times). One hour after the last injection, the rats in each group were scored for neurological defects. After the rats were sacrificed, the brain water content was measured and the pathological changes of the brain tissues of rats were observed. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect the neuronal cell apoptosis, and ELISA was applied to detect the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood of each group of rats. Western blot analysis was adopted to detect the protein expression levels of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 in the rats brain tissues of each group. Results Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score was decreased; the pathological damage of brain tissues was relieved; the brain water content was significantly reduced; the apoptosis number of hippocampal neurons was decreased significantly; the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood were significantly reduced; the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 were significantly lowered in the middle-dose and high-dose artesunate groups and the dexamethasone group. Conclusion Artesunate can improve the neurological function, relieve the brain damage, and alleviate the brain edema in neonatal rats with HIBD. It can protect the HIBD, which may be related to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduction of inflammatory cytokine secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Artesunate/pharmacology , Brain/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Dexamethasone , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-6/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Water/metabolism
2.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 14-25, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928561

ABSTRACT

In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used in evaluating neonatal brain development, diagnosing neonatal brain injury, and predicting neurodevelopmental prognosis. Based on current research evidence and clinical experience in China and overseas, the Neonatologist Society of Chinese Medical Doctor Association has developed a consensus on the indications and standardized clinical process of neonatal brain MRI. The consensus has the following main points. (1) Brain MRI should be performed for neonates suspected of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, intracranial infection, stroke and unexplained convulsions; brain MRI is not considered a routine in the management of preterm infants, but it should be performed for further evaluation when cranial ultrasound finds evidence of brain injury; as for extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight infants without abnormal ultrasound findings, it is recommended that they should undergo MRI examination at term equivalent age once. (2) Neonates should undergo MRI examination in a non-sedated state if possible. (3) During MRI examination, vital signs should be closely monitored to ensure safety; the necessity of MRI examination should be strictly evaluated for critically ill neonates, and magnetic resonance compatible incubator and ventilator can be used. (4) At present, 1.5 T or 3.0 T equipment can be used for neonatal brain MRI examination, and the special coil for the neonatal head should be used to improve signal-to-noise ratio; routine neonatal brain MRI sequences should at least include axial T1 weighted image (T1WI), axial T2 weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging, and sagittal T1WI or T2WI. (5) It is recommended to use a structured and graded reporting system, and reports by at least two reviewers and multi-center collaboration are recommended to increase the reliability of the report.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Brain/pathology , Consensus , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Infant, Premature , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Reproducibility of Results
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e181053, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360163

ABSTRACT

Abstract The effect of hypothermia treatment on white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) values as an indicator of inflammation was evaluated in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The study was performed that the before-therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and after-TH WBC, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and NLR, LMR and PLR values of the complete blood cell count were retrospectively evaluated. The results of the patient group were compared with the results of healthy newborns. A total of 78 patients who underwent TH were evaluated in our study. Mean values before and after TH were NLR3.8/2.7, LMR 5.6/8.6, and PLR 60.3/67.1 respectively. A statistical significance was present for NLR values before and after TH in those with seizure in our study (4.15±2.95/3.01±2.54) but no statistical significance was found for LMR or PLR. In neonates with HIE, effect of TH on complete blood cell count and inflammatory mechanisms (mediated neutrophil and lymphocyte) may be minimal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn/physiology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Hypothermia/pathology , Blood Cell Count/methods , Hypothermia/classification , Inflammation
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(1): 19-21, mar. 2019. ilus., graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022121

ABSTRACT

La policitemia primaria es producida por una mutación adquirida o heredada en las células progenitoras de los glóbulos rojos, mientras que la poliglobulia secundaria está relacionada con un aumento de la eritropoyetina sérica como respuesta a la hipoxia tisular o a la producción autónoma tumoral. Hace más de medio siglo que se conoce que la hidronefrosis puede actuar como una rara causa de eritrocitosis debido al aumento de producción de eritropoyetina por un riñón que censa una disminución de oxígeno, mecanismo también observado en la estenosis de la arteria renal y en los quistes renales. Se describe a continuación el caso de un paciente de 38 años con poliglobulia atendido en el Hospital Italiano de San Justo (Argentina), que presenta como hallazgo una hidronefrosis unilateral severa y cuya resolución quirúrgica a través de una nefrectomía revierte el cuadro hematológico de base. (AU)


Primary polycythemia is produced by an acquired or inherited mutation in progenitor cells of red blood cells, while secondary polyglobulia is related to an increase in serum erythropoietin in response to tissue hypoxia or autonomous tumor production. Since the middle of the twentieth century, the hydronephrosis is known to be a rare etiology of secondary polycythemia, with increased erythropoietin production caused by diminished oxygen sensing by the kidney, also seen in renal artery stenosis and kidney cysts. We describe a case of a 38 year old patient with polycythemia studied in the "Hospital Italiano de San Justo" (Argentina) that presented an incidental severe unilateral hydronephrosis, and nephrectomy was carried out as a final resolution of the hematological disorder. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Polycythemia/diagnosis , Pyelonephritis/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Erythropoietin/blood , Hydronephrosis/diagnosis , Nephrectomy/trends , Polycythemia/complications , Polycythemia/etiology , Pyelonephritis/blood , Renal Artery Obstruction/pathology , Low Back Pain , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Erythrocytes/physiology , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/pathology , Dysuria , Fever , Hydronephrosis/surgery , Hydronephrosis/complications , Anemia , Nephrectomy/methods
5.
Biol. Res ; 52: 28, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a common disease that occurs during the perinatal period. The primary cause of neonatal HIE is related to fetal intrauterine anoxia. Carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO), a derivative of erythropoietin (EPO), does not exert any erythropoietic effect; however, the neuroprotective effects resemble those of EPO. Previous studies have shown the potential benefits of CEPO on the central nervous system. The present study aimed to investigate the role of CEPO in neuronal apoptosis during intrauterine HIE and the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: To validate our hypothesis, we established an intrauterine HIE model by occluding the bilateral uteroovarian arteries of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared to the I/R group, neuronal apoptosis in the CEPO group was significantly lower at 4, 12, 24, and 48 h (P < 0.05). CEPO significantly inhibited CC3 expression (P < 0.05) during the early-stages after ischemia-reperfusion (0.5, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h), upregulated Bcl-2 expression, and downregulated Bax expression at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Carbamylated erythropoietin pretreatment inhibited the expression of proapoptotic protein CC3 in brain and regulated the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, resulting in reduced neuronal apoptosis and thus resulting in a protective effect on intrauterine HIE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Erythropoietin/analogs & derivatives , Apoptosis/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/prevention & control , Time Factors , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Disease Models, Animal
6.
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(3): e2018031, July-Sept. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-911906

ABSTRACT

Snyder-Robinson syndrome, also known as spermine synthase deficiency, is an X-linked intellectual disability syndrome (OMIM #390583). First described by Drs. Snyder and Robinson in 1969, this syndrome is characterized by an asthenic body habitus, facial dysmorphism, broad-based gait, and osteoporosis with frequent fractures. We report here a pediatric autopsy of a 4 year old male with a history of intellectual disability, gait abnormalities, multiple fractures, and seizures previously diagnosed with Snyder-Robinson syndrome with an SMS gene mutation (c.831G>T:p.L277F). The cause of death was hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy secondary to prolonged seizure activity. Although Snyder-Robinson syndrome is rare, the need to recognize clinical findings in order to trigger genetic testing has likely resulted in under diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Mental Retardation, X-Linked/pathology , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Intellectual Disability/pathology , Mental Retardation, X-Linked/diagnosis , Seizures/pathology , Spermine Synthase
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(4): 270-279, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837701

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of HBO (Hyperbaric oxygen) and NGF (Nerve growth factor) on the long-term neural behavior of neonatal rats with HIBD (Neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain damage). Methods: The HIBD model was produced by ligating the right common carotid artery of 7 days old SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats followed by 8% O2 + 92% N2 for 2h. Totally 40 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups including sham-operated group, HIBD control group, HBO treated group, NGF treated group and NGF + HBO treated group. The learning and memory ability of these rats was evaluated by Morris water maze at 30 days after birth, and sensory motor function was assessed by experiments of foot error and limb placement at 42 days after birth. Results: The escape latency of HBO treated group, NGF treated group and NGF + HBO treated group was shorter than that of HIBD control group (p<0.01) and longer than that of sham-operated group. The piercing indexes of 3 treated groups were higher than that of HIBD control group (p<0.01). Conclusion: Hyperbaric oxygen and nerve growth factor treatments may improve learning and memory ability and sensory motor function in neonatal rats after hypoxic ischemic brain damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Nerve Growth Factor , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maze Learning , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/pathology , Animals, Newborn
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(7): e5258, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785058

ABSTRACT

Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group): 1) preterm control (PTC), 2) preterm ventilated (PTV), 3) preterm asphyxiated (PTA), 4) preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV), 5) term control (TC), 6) term ventilated (TV), 7) term asphyxiated (TA), and 8) term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV). We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW), (BrW), (IW), (BrW/BW) and (IW/BW)]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) and intestine (jejunum/ileum) tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP). IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (P<0.05), and the IW/BW ratio was lower in the TA than in the TAV (P<0.005). PTA, PTAV and TA presented high levels of brain damage. In histological intestinal analysis, PTAV and TAV had higher scores than the other groups. Caspase-3 was higher in PTAV (cortex) and TA (cortex/hippocampus) (P<0.005). I-FABP was higher in PTAV (P<0.005) and TA (ileum) (P<0.05). I-FABP expression was increased in PTAV subgroup (P<0.0001). Brain and intestinal responses in neonatal rats caused by neonatal asphyxia, with or without mechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Brain/blood supply , Caspase 3/analysis , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/analysis , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Intestine, Small/blood supply , Asphyxia Neonatorum/complications , Asphyxia Neonatorum/pathology , Biomarkers/analysis , Blotting, Western , Brain/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/etiology , Gestational Age , Immunohistochemistry , Intestine, Small/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Premature Birth , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Respiration, Artificial
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(5): e5187, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951674

ABSTRACT

The timing and mechanisms of protection by hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) have only been partially elucidated. We monitored the effect of HBO on the mitochondrial function of neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats after HIBD. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (total of 360 of both genders) were randomly divided into normal control, HIBD, and HIBD+HBO groups. The HBO treatment began immediately after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and continued once a day for 7 consecutive days. Animals were euthanized 0, 2, 4, 6, and 12 h post-HI to monitor the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) occurring soon after a single dose of HBO treatment, as well as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days post-HI to study ΔΨm changes after a series of HBO treatments. Fluctuations in ΔΨm were observed in the ipsilateral cortex in both HIBD and HIBD+HBO groups. Within 2 to 12 h after HI insult, the ΔΨm of the HIBD and HIBD+HBO groups recovered to some extent. A secondary drop in ΔΨm was observed in both groups during the 1-4 days post-HI period, but was more severe in the HIBD+HBO group. There was a secondary recovery of ΔΨm observed in the HIBD+HBO group, but not in the HIBD group, during the 5-7 days period after HI insult. HBO therapy may not lead to improvement of neural cell mitochondrial function in the cerebral cortex in the early stage post-HI, but may improve it in the sub-acute stage post-HI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/methods , Mitochondria/pathology , Neurons/pathology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Cerebral Cortex/physiopathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/physiopathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Animals, Newborn , Mitochondria/physiology , Neurons/physiology
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(3): 962-970, Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762571

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of brain damage in the newborn. Several studies elicited the neuroprotective effects of progesterone in adult rats but there is very little literature available on neonatal rats. Therefore the present study is undertaken to see the effect of progesterone in hypoxic ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats, using an established neonatal HI rat pup model. Seven-day-old rat pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation and then 60 minutes hypoxia. The first dose of progesterone to treatment group was administered by peritoneal injection (4 mg/kg), after 10 minutes of exposure and subsequent doses were given by subcutaneous injection at 6 h, 24 h and 48 h intervals. Control group was also exposed to HI and was given only the vehicle (peanut oil) through the same route and intervals as that of treatment group. After 96 h, the pups were perfused with 10% formalin and brains were sampled and stained with toluidine blue. Cells density and number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) regions were examined by stereological methods. The histomorphometric assessment of the effects of progesterone showed minimal but no significant protective value in the volume, cells density and total number of pyramidal cells of hippocampal CA region of the treatment and control groups (p>0.05) after HI. Our results concluded that 4 mg/kg of PROG had no significant neuroprotective effect in HI model of the neonatal rat's hippocampus.


La hipoxia-isquémica (HI) es una causa importante de daño cerebral en el recién nacido. Varios estudios indican los efectos neuroprotectores de la progesterona en ratas adultas, sin embargo existe poca literatura disponible en ratas recién nacidas. Por tanto, el presente estudio se llevó a cabo para ver el efecto de la progesterona en la lesión cerebral HI en ratas recién nacidas, utilizando un modelo de cría de rata neonata HI establecido. A los siete días de nacidas, las crías de ratas fueron sometidas a la ligadura de la arteria carótida común derecha y luego 60 minutos de hipoxia. La primera dosis de progesterona fue administrada al grupo de tratamiento mediante inyección peritoneal (4 mg/kg), después de 10 minutos de exposición y las dosis posteriores fueron administradas por inyecciones subcutáneas en intervalos de 6 h, 24 h y 48 h. El grupo control también fue expuesto a HI y se le administró solamente aceite de cacahuete a través de la misma ruta y con los intervalos que recibió el grupo de tratamiento. Después de 96 h, las crias fueron perfundidas con formalina al 10% y se tomaron muestras de los cerebros, los que se tiñeron con azul de toluidina. La densidad celular y el número de células piramidales de las regiones del hipocampo Cornu Ammonis (CA) fueron examinadas por métodos estereológicos. La evaluación histomorfométrica de los efectos de la progesterona mostró un valor protector mínimo, pero no significativo en el volumen, densidad de las células y el número total de células piramidales de la región de CA del hipocampo de los grupos de tratamiento y control (p>0,05) después de HI. En conclusión, nuestros resultados indican que 4 mg/kg de progesterona no tuvo efecto neuroprotector significativo en el modelo de HI del hipocampo de ratas neonatas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Hippocampus/drug effects , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Progesterone/pharmacology , Animals, Newborn , Hippocampus/cytology , Hippocampus/pathology , Neuroprotective Agents , Pyramidal Cells/drug effects , Pyramidal Cells/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(10): 869-875, 10/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722164

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the association of different clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with NOS3 gene polymorphisms. A total of 110 children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and 128 control children were selected for this study. Association of gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, cranial ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings with genotypic data of six haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and the most commonly investigated rs1800779 and rs2070744 polymorphisms was analyzed. The TGT haplotype of rs1800783, rs1800779, and rs2070744 polymorphisms was associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Children with the TGT haplotype were infants below 32 weeks of gestation and they had the most severe brain damage. Increased incidence of the TT genotype of the NOS3 rs1808593 SNP was found in the group of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients with medium and severe brain damage. The probability of brain damage was twice as high in children with the TT genotype than in children with the TG genotype of the same polymorphism. Furthermore, the T allele of the same polymorphism was twice as frequent in children with lower Apgar scores. This study strongly suggests associations of NOS3 gene polymorphism with intensity of brain damage and severity of the clinical picture in affected children.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Birth Weight , Brain Damage, Chronic/genetics , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Chi-Square Distribution , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Gestational Age , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Logistic Models , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(6): 553-561, June 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589973

ABSTRACT

White matter injury characterized by damage to myelin is an important process in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Because the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin, neurofascin 155 (NF155), and its association with lipid rafts are essential for the establishment and stabilization of the paranodal junction, which is required for tight interaction between myelin and axons, we analyzed the effect of monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside (GM1) on NF155 expression and its association with lipid rafts after HIBD in Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 12-15 g, on day 7 post-partum (P7; N = 20 per group). HIBD was induced on P7 and the rats were divided into two groups: one group received an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg GM1 three times and the other group an injection of saline. There was also a group of 20 sham-operated rats. After sacrifice, the brains of the rats were removed on P30 and studied by immunochemistry, SDS-PAGE, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopy. Staining showed that the saline group had definite rarefaction and fragmentation of brain myelin sheaths, whereas the GM1 group had no obvious structural changes. The GM1 group had 1.9-2.9-fold more GM1 in lipid rafts than the saline group (fraction 3-6; all P < 0.05) and 0.5-2.4-fold higher expression of NF155 in lipid rafts (fraction 3-5; all P < 0.05). Injection of GM1 increased the content of GM1 in lipid rafts as well as NF155 expression and its lipid raft association in HIBD rat brains. GM1 may repair the structure of lipid rafts, promote the association of NF155 (or other important proteins) with lipid rafts, stabilize the structure of paranodes, and eventually prevent myelin sheath damage, suggesting a novel mechanism for its neuroprotective properties.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , G(M1) Ganglioside/metabolism , G(M1) Ganglioside/pharmacology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/metabolism , Membrane Lipids/metabolism , Myelin Sheath/drug effects , Nerve Growth Factors/metabolism , Animals, Newborn , Blotting, Western , Brain/ultrastructure , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Microscopy, Electron , Myelin Sheath/metabolism , Myelin Sheath/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(12): 1178-1183, Dec. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-569000

ABSTRACT

Permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) in the rat has been established as a valid experimental model to investigate the effects of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive function and neurodegenerative processes. Our aim was to compare the cognitive and morphological outcomes following the standard 2VO procedure, in which there is concomitant artery ligation, with those of a modified protocol, with a 1-week interval between artery occlusions to avoid an abrupt reduction of cerebral blood flow, as assessed by animal performance in the water maze and damage extension to the hippocampus and striatum. Male Wistar rats (N = 47) aged 3 months were subjected to chronic hypoperfusion by permanent bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries using either the standard or the modified protocol, with the right carotid being the first to be occluded. Three months after the surgical procedure, rat performance in the water maze was assessed to investigate long-term effects on spatial learning and memory and their brains were processed in order to estimate hippocampal volume and striatal area. Both groups of hypoperfused rats showed deficits in reference (F(8,172) = 7.0951, P < 0.00001) and working spatial memory [2nd (F(2,44) = 7.6884, P < 0.001), 3rd (F(2,44) = 21.481, P < 0.00001) and 4th trials (F(2,44) = 28.620, P < 0.0001)]; however, no evidence of tissue atrophy was found in the brain structures studied. Despite similar behavioral and morphological outcomes, the rats submitted to the modified protocol showed a significant increase in survival rate, during the 3 months of the experiment (P < 0.02).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Carotid Artery, Common/pathology , Carotid Stenosis/physiopathology , Cognition Disorders/physiopathology , Hippocampus/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/physiopathology , Visual Cortex/pathology , Carotid Stenosis/pathology , Cognition Disorders/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Maze Learning , Rats, Wistar , Survival Rate
14.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 6-8, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-983431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of curcumin on the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the expression level of c-fos protein following hypoxia ischemia brain damage (HIBD) in rats.@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dauley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups as the following: sham group, hypoxia ischemia brain damage group, curcumin group and solvent control group. The content of MDA in the brain was measured by colorimetry. The expression level of c-fos protein in the cortex tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. Morphologic and structural changes of neuron cells of the cortex were observed by electron microscopy.@*RESULTS@#The content of MDA was clearly lower in curcumin group than that in the other groups at the same time after HIBD. The expression level of c-fos protein was higher in the curcumin group than that in the other groups (P<0.05). Electron microscopy showed that the morphologic and structural changes of neuron cells of cortex in the curcumin group were reduced.@*CONCLUSION@#Curcumin could significantly decrease the content of MDA, increase the expression level of c-fos protein and reduce the damage of the neuron cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Curcumin/pharmacology , Forensic Pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 65(3a): 689-692, set. 2007. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460812

ABSTRACT

Establishing a prognosis for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy during the neonatal period is extremely difficult, as the neuroplasticity of the developing brain makes it almost impossible to measure the affected area. This case report describes a newborn with severe perinatal asphyxia and neonatal neurological syndrome including absent suck reflex. Normal brainstem auditory evoked potential led the diagnosis towards a transitory dysfunction of deglutition, and the subject received daily stimulation in the hospital environment. Suck developed satisfactorily by day of life 30 and the patient was released without having to be tube fed. Neurophysiologic tests can be of value in the clinical decisions and analysis of functional prognosis of patients with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.


Estabelecer o prognóstico da encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica durante o período neonatal é extremamente difícil, devido à neuroplasticidade do cérebro em desenvolvimento que impede a medida exata das áreas afetadas. Este relato descreve um recém-nascido a termo com grave asfixia perinatal e síndrome neurológica pós-natal, incluindo ausência do reflexo de sucção. O potencial evocado auditivo do tronco cerebral foi normal, sugerindo o diagnóstico de disfunção transitória da deglutição. Após estimulação diária no hospital a sucção foi obtida satisfatoriamente, e o paciente recebeu alta sem necessidade de alimentação enteral. Os testes neurofisiológicos podem ser de grande valor em decisões clínicas e análise funcional prognóstica de pacientes com encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem/physiology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/physiopathology , Asphyxia Neonatorum/pathology , Asphyxia Neonatorum/physiopathology , Electroencephalography , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Neurologic Examination , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Prognosis
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 57(4): 950-8, dez. 1999. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-249294

ABSTRACT

A injúria hipóxico-isquêmica do sistema nervoso central em neomortos é entidade altamente prevalente, acometendo de 1 a 6 para cada 1000 nascidos vivos. Quando severa provoca o óbito de muitas crianças ou deixa sequelas neurológicas importantes. Relatamos 1028 casos consecutivos de injúria hipóxico-isquêmica de padrão hemorrágico em encéfalos de neomortos do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná - Curitiba, no período compreendido entre 1960 e 1995. Pode-se demonstrar que a prevalência destas lesões nos encéfalos de recém-nascidos autopsiados é alta (49,73 por cento). Os principais tipos de hemorragia encontrados foram as micro-hemorragias intraparenquimatosas cerebrais, as hemorragias intraventriculares, as hemorragias periventriculares e as hemorragias subaracnóideas. Os resultados obtidos demonstram a propensão dos prematuros ao desenvolvimento de hemorragias encefálicas, indicando a necessidade de medidas preventivas que diminuam o risco de complicações neurológicas.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Humans , Male , Female , Central Nervous System/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/pathology , Brazil , Infant, Premature , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/pathology
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