Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 25
Filter
1.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

ABSTRACT

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Succinylcholine/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/nursing , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Intubation/nursing , Hypoxia/drug therapy
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 504-517, sept. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008288

ABSTRACT

Nowdays it is established that ischemic brain damage like ischemic stroke is one of the leading cause of death and disability in the population that assumes relevance development of anti-ischemic drugs. The work studied the anti-hypoxic and anti-ischemic effect of 7 plant extracts. Antihypoxic activity was assessed on models of hypobaric, hypercapnic, histotoxic, hematotoxic hypoxia. Anti-ischemic activity of test-extracts was studied on the focal cerebral ischemia model. Administration of Tagetes patula, Gaillardia pulchella, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Grossularia reclinata, Ribes nigrum, Rubus caesius and Lysimachia punctata extracts contributed to the necrosis zone reduction by 56.6% (p<0.05); 37.3% (p<0.05); 73.2% (p<0.05); 49.4% (p<0.05); 42.5% (p<0.05); 85.5% (p<0.05); 44.2% (p<0.05) and also restored aerobic metabolism in brain tissue. Test - objects increased of the animal lifespan under hypoxia conditions. Based on the data obtained, it is assumed that further studies of North Caucasus flora plant extracts as cerebro-protective agents are promising.


Hoy en día, se ha establecido que el daño cerebral isquémico, como el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico, es una de las principales causas de muerte y discapacidad en la población lo cual hace relevante el desarrollo fármacos antiisquémicos. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto antihipóxico y antiisquémico de siete extractos de plantas. La actividad antihipóxica se evaluó en modelos de hipoxia hipocrática, hipercápnica, histotóxica y hematotóxica. La actividad antiisquémica de los extractos de prueba se estudió en el modelo de isquemia cerebral focal. La administración de los extractos de Tagetes patula; Gaillardia pulchella; Sorbaria sorbifolia; Grossularia reclinata; Ribes nigrum; Rubus caesius y Lysimachia punctata contribuyeron a la reducción de la zona de necrosis en un 56,6% (p<0,05); 37,3% (p<0,05); 73,2% (p<0,05); 49,4% (p<0,05); 42,5% (p<0,05); 85,5% (p<0,05); 44.2% (p<0.05), respectivamente, además, de restaurar el metabolismo aeróbico en el tejido cerebral. Comparado con el control, se observó un aumento en el tiempo de sobrevida del animal en condiciones de hipoxia. Sobre la base de los interesantes datos obtenidos, se sugiere estudios adicionales de extractos de plantas de la flora del Cáucaso Norte como agentes protectores del cerebro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Lactic Acid/analysis , Pyruvic Acid/analysis , Mice, Inbred BALB C
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e17363, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951923

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-hypoxia activity of polyphenolic extracts of Crataegus microphylla and Crataegus pentaegyn on mice. Three experimental models of hypoxia were considered, including asphyctic hypoxia, haemic hypoxia, and circulatory hypoxia. Polyphenolic extract of both plants exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity and prolonged animal survival time. Anti-hypoia activity of C. pentaegyn was found to be superior to that of C. microphylla in circulatory and asphyctic hypoxia. Antihypoxic activity of these extracts may be attributed to their phenolic compounds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Crataegus/adverse effects , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Fruit/classification
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(2): e5039, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951660

ABSTRACT

Phosphorylated-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (Phospho-CREB) has an important role in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia. We isolated the iridoid glycoside cornin from the fruit of Verbena officinalis L, investigated its effects against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo, and elucidated its potential mechanism in vitro. Effects of cornin on cell viability, as well as expression of phospho-CREB and phospho-Akt in hypoxic H9c2 cells in vitro, and myocardial I/R injury in vivo, were investigated. Cornin attenuated hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity significantly in H9c2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of H9c2 cells with cornin (10 µM) blocked the reduction of expression of phospho-CREB and phospho-Akt in a hypoxic condition. Treatment of rats with cornin (30 mg/kg, iv) protected them from myocardial I/R injury as indicated by a decrease in infarct volume, improvement in hemodynamics, and reduction of severity of myocardial damage. Cornin treatment also attenuated the reduction of expression of phospho-CREB and phospho-Akt in ischemic myocardial tissue. These data suggest that cornin exerts protective effects due to an increase in expression of phospho-CREB and phospho-Akt.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , Verbena/chemistry , CREB-Binding Protein/metabolism , Iridoid Glycosides/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Troponin/blood , Cell Line/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Creatine Kinase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , CREB-Binding Protein/drug effects , Iridoid Glycosides/isolation & purification , Hypoxia/drug therapy
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(1): 66-70, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746441

ABSTRACT

Objective Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder associated with aging and obesity. Apneas cause repeated arousals, intermittent hypoxia, and oxidative stress. Changes in glucolipidic profile occur in apnea patients, independently of obesity. Animal models of sleep apnea induce hyperglycemia. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the antioxidants melatonin and N-acetylcysteine on glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels in animals exposed to intermittent hypoxia. Materials and methods Two groups of Balb/c mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (n = 36) or sham intermittent hypoxia (n = 36) for 35 days. The intermittent hypoxia group underwent a total of 480 cycles of 30 seconds reducing the inspired oxygen fraction from 21% to 7 ± 1% followed by 30 seconds of normoxia, during 8 hours daily. Melatonin or N-acetylcysteine were injected intraperitonially daily from day 21 on. Results At day 35, glucose levels were significantly higher in the intermittent hypoxia group than in the control group. The intermittent hypoxia groups receiving N-acetylcysteine and vehicle showed higher glucose levels than the group receiving melatonin. The lipid profile was not affected by intermittent hypoxia or antioxidant administration. Conclusions The present results suggest that melatonin prevents the well-recognized increase in glucose levels that usually follows exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Further exploration of the role of melatonin in sleep apnea is warranted. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(1):66-70 .


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Melatonin/pharmacology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/drug therapy , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Hypoxia/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Cholesterol/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Time Factors , Triglycerides/blood
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(2): 531-536, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-714304

ABSTRACT

La encefalopatía por hipoxia es causa de discapacidad y requiere de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas. El pirofosfato de tiamina (PPT) es un cofactor esencial de enzimas fundamentales en el metabolismo de la glucosa, cuya disminución puede conducir a la falla en la síntesis de ATP y a la muerte celular. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la administración de PPT, puede reducir el daño celular en un modelo de hipoxia neonatal en ratas. Animales de 11 días de edad fueron tratados con PPT (130 mg/kg) en dosis única o solución salina, una hora antes del protocolo de hipoxia o al término de ésta. Los cerebros fueron colectados para la evaluación del daño celular. Además, se tomaron muestras sanguíneas para evaluar los indicadores gasométricos de presión de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2) y de oxígeno (PaO2) en sangre arterial y pH. Los resultados muestran que la administración de PPT previa a la inducción de hipoxia, reduce el daño celular y restablece los indicadores gasométricos. Estos datos indican que el uso de PPT reduce el daño inducido por la hipoxia en animales neonatos.


Hypoxic encephalopathy is a leading cause of disability and requires new therapeutic strategies. Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is an essential cofactor of fundamental enzymes involved in glucose metabolism. TPP reduction may lead to ATP synthesis failure and cell death. The objective of this study was to determine if TPP administration can reduce cellular damage in a model of neonatal hypoxia in rats. Eleven day old animals were treated with TPP (130 mg/kg) as a single dose or with saline solution one hour before the hypoxia protocol or after ending the protocol. The brains were collected to evaluate cellular damage. Blood samples were also collected to evaluate arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and acidity (pH). The results showed that TPP administration previous to hypoxia induction reduces cellular damage and reestablishes arterial blood gases. These data indicate that TPP use reduces the damage induced by hypoxia in neonatal animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Thiamine Pyrophosphate/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Oxygen/blood , Thiamine Pyrophosphate/pharmacology , Blood Gas Analysis , Brain Diseases/prevention & control , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Animals, Newborn
8.
Biol. Res ; 45(1): 81-85, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626751

ABSTRACT

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is the main secretory product of the pineal gland in all mammals including humans, but it is also produced in other organs. It has been previously demonstrated to be a powerful organ-protective substance under oxidative stress conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of melatonin in several organs such as heart, lung, kidney, and of the reproductive system, such as testis and epididymis in animals exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and therefore exposed to oxidative stress and analyzed by lipid peroxidation. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups for 96 hours during 32 days under: 1) Normobaric conditions, 2) plus physiologic solution, 3) plus melatonin, 4) intermittent hypobaric hypoxia, 5 plus physiologic solution and 6) plus melatonin. The animals were injected with melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight) at an interval of 96 hours during 32 days. Results indicated that melatonin decreased lipid peroxidation in heart, kidneys and lung under intermittent hypobaric hypoxia conditions. However, it did not exhibit any protective effect in liver, testis, epididymis and sperm count.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hypoxia/chemically induced , Epididymis/drug effects , Heart/drug effects , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Testis/drug effects
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Renal hypoxia is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Pentoxifyllin (PTX), a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is used to attenuate peripheral vascular diseases. To determine whether PTX can improve renal hypoxia, we investigated its effect in the streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney. METHODS: PTX (40 mg/kg, PO) was administered to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 8 weeks. To determine tissue hypoxia, we examined hypoxic inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) levels. We also tested the effect of PTX on HIF-1alpha in renal tubule cells. RESULTS: PTX reduced the increased protein creatinine ratio in diabetic rats at 8 weeks. HIF-1alpha, VEGF, and GLUT-1 mRNA expression increased significantly, and the expression of HO-1 also tended to increase in diabetic rats. PTX significantly decreased mRNA expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF at 4 and 8 weeks, and decreased HO-1 and GLUT-1 at 4 weeks. The expression of HIF-1alpha protein was significantly increased at 4 and 8 weeks in tubules in the diabetic rat kidney. PTX tended to decrease HIF-1alpha protein expression at 8 weeks. To examine whether PTX had a direct effect on renal tubules, normal rat kidney cells were stimulated with CoCl2 (100 microM), which enhanced HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein levels under low glucose conditions (5.5 mM). Their expressions were similar even after high glucose (30 mM) treatment. PTX had no effect on HIF-1alpha expression. CONCLUSIONS: PTX attenuates tubular hypoxia in the diabetic kidney.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Cell Line , Cobalt/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 1/genetics , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/genetics , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Kidney Tubules/drug effects , Male , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Time Factors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics
11.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2010; 31 (9): 974-979
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-117664

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of a Chinese herb Cordyceps sinensis [C. sinensis] extract on hypoxia-induced proliferation and the underlying mechanisms involved. This prospective study was carried out at the Central Laboratory of Yichang Central People's Hospital, Yichang, China from March 2008 to April 2010. The C. sinensis was extracted from the Chinese herb C. sinensis using aqueous alcohol extraction techniques. Forty healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in the study. The proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells [PASMCs] was measured using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide [MTT] assay, and cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Cell cycles were analyzed using FACSort flow cytometric analysis. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA], c-jun, and c-fos in rat PASMCs was determined by immunohistochemistry. We found an increased proliferation of PASMCs and increased expression of transcription factors, c-jun and c-fos in PASMCs cultured under hypoxic conditions. The C. sinensis extract significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, C. sinensis extract also significantly inhibited the expression of PCNA, c-jun, and c-fos in these PASMCs. Our results indicated that C sinensis extract inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat PASMCs, probably by suppressing the expression of PCNA, c-fos, c-jun, and decreasing the percentage of cells in synthesis phase, second gap phase, and mitotic phase in cell cycle [S+G[2]/M] phase. Our results therefore, provided novel evidence that C. sinensis extract may be used as a therapeutic reagent in the treatment of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Pulmonary Artery , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 24 nov. 2008. 161 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-508069

ABSTRACT

Neste trabalho são apresentados estudos do efeito de interfaces nas propriedades fotofísicas e fotoquímicas do azul de metileno (AM) e de derivados fenotiazínicos com o intuito de avaliar o potencial destes compostos como fotossensibilizadores (FS) em terapia fotodinâmica. As propriedades físico-químicas do AM foram estudadas em soluções de SDS e observou-se que a presença do AM em solução altera o equilíbrio entre as micelas de SDS, -diminuindo o valor da concentração micelar crítica de 7mmolL-1 para 70µmoIL-1. A presença das micelas em solução também interfere nas propriedades do AM. Em baixas concentrações de SDS há formação de dímeros de AM, constatados pelo aumento da absorbância em 580nm e diminuição da emissão de fluorescência. A caracterização das espécies transientes mostrou a existência de moléculas de azul de metileno no estado triplete (3AM) e de oxigênio singlete em soluções com altas concentrações de SDS e a formação de espécies radicalares do AM em baixas concentrações do tensoativo. Esta observação sugere que o mecanismo fotoquímico do AM é dependente da sua concentração local próxima de interfaces carregadas. As interações do AM e de alguns de seus derivados fenotiazínicos (tionina, azure A e azure B) com vesículas e com células...


Subject(s)
Hypoxia/drug therapy , Methylene Blue/pharmacokinetics , Methylene Blue/chemical synthesis , Photochemotherapy/adverse effects , Photochemotherapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Singlet Oxygen/radiation effects , Biomimetic Materials , Cell Culture Techniques , Spectrophotometry , Spectrum Analysis
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2008 Mar; 46(3): 159-63
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57141

ABSTRACT

The effect of gabapentin has been investigated on acute hypoxic stress-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative damage in mice. Mice were subjected to hypoxia for 2 hr. Treatment with gabapentin (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly increased ambulatory movements, exerted anti-anxiety like effect and reduced oxidative damage in mice subjected to acute hypoxic stress. Treatment with picrotoxin (1.0 mg/kg) per se had no significant effect on behavioral and biochemical parameters of stressed mice. Treatment with muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) per se significantly increased the locomotor activity of stressed mice, exerted significant anti anxiety effect and significantly reduced the oxidative damage. Further, pretreatment with picrotoxin (1.0 mg/kg) significantly blocked whereas pretreatment with muscimol (0.05 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the neuroprotective effect of gabapentin. These results suggest that gabapentin produces its neuroprotective effect in mice subjected to acute hypoxic stress through GABA(A) receptor mechanism.


Subject(s)
Amines/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Brain/drug effects , Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Mice , Motor Activity/drug effects , Muscimol/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Picrotoxin/pharmacology , Spectrophotometry , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-38808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure in term and near term infants is often associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and contributes to hypoxemia in these infants. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is currently used as a pulmonary vasodilator to improve oxygenation in neonates with severe respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcome of administration of iNO in severe hypoxic respiratory failure. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The present study was conducted from 1999 to 2004 in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health. Patients were selected from all infants > or = 34 weeks gestational age who required high frequency oscillatory ventilation (SLE 2000 HFO, SLE, UK) or conventional mechanical ventilation for hypoxemic respiratory failure caused by PPHN. Diagnosis was confirmed by 2-D echocardiogram visualization with right to left shunt through the foramen ovale or patent ductus arteriosus. Inhaled nitric oxide was given as standard therapy in patients who had two oxygenation indices > or = 20 at least 30 minutes apart after being on a mechanical ventilator. RESULTS: Fifty-five cases were enrolled and male to female ratio was 22.2 tol. The survival rate was 76.4 percent. Inhaled nitric oxide significantly improved oxygenation index, arterial alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a/A O2), and alveolar arterial oxygen gradient in survivors at one hour after treatment. The earliest improvement in oxygen saturation was within ten minutes. Meconium aspiration syndrome was the most common underlying cause of PPHN. No acute complication was found during nitric oxide administration. Chronic lung diseases, delayed development and severe hearing loss in long-term follow up were found in 10, 5, and 2 cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Inhaled nitric oxide should be used early in severe hypoxic respiratory failure with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn and can improve survival rates without any major immediate side effects.


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal/methods , Male , Nitric Oxide/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
17.
Biol. Res ; 29(2): 167-76, 1996.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-228529

ABSTRACT

Sodium cyanate (NaOCN) first appeared on the biomedical scene as a potential therapeutic agent for sickle-cell disease. Although it did not fulfill its early promise in the clinic, it proved to be useful as a pharmacological tool in physiological research, particularly in the physiology of oxygen transport. NaOCN has been especially valuable in the area of investigation which is reviewed here: the study of oxygen transport, both in normoxic and in hypoxic conditions, in experimental models in which NaOCN was used to induce a shift to the left of the oxygen dissociation curve. The classical idea is that a low Hb-O2 affinity is of adaptive value for life at high altitudes but it has been challenged by several pieces of evidence. One of them is the demonstration of increased survival in hypoxic hypoxia of animals with a high Hb-O2 affinity induced by NaOCN. We also discuss the advantages and potentially confounding factors which should be taken into consideration when interpreting results of studies in which the oxygen dissociation curve has been modified by administration of NaOCN


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Altitude , Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy , Cyanates/metabolism , Cyanates/therapeutic use , Erythropoiesis/drug effects , Fetal Development/drug effects , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology
18.
Biol. Res ; 29(2): 237-43, 1996.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-228537

ABSTRACT

To determine if intracellular acidosis enhances hypoxic chemoreception in the absence of CO2-HCO3- at pH 7.4, the effects of sodium acetate (30 mM) were studied on the chemosensory responses of the cat carotid body to hypoxic, stagnant and cytotoxic hypoxia. Carotid bodies were perfused and superfused in vitro with Tyrode's solution, free of CO2-HCO3-, buffered with HEPES-NaOH, pH 7.40, at 36.5 +/d- 0.5 degrees C and equilibrated at PO2 of 125 Torr (perfusate) and < 20 Torr (superfusate). In the absence of acetate, hypoxia (PO2 25 Torr), flow interruption and NaCN (0.01-100 micrograms) augmented the chemosensory discharges. However, in the presence of acetate, the half-excitation time of these responses decreased and their amplitude increased. Thus, acetate enhances the chemosensory response to hypoxic, stagnant and cytotoxic hypoxia. It is suggested that that intracellular acidosis induced by acetate contributes to this potentiation by correcting the alkaline pHi caused by the absence of HCO3-(-)HCO2 in the perfusate


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Male , Acetates/pharmacology , Bicarbonates/metabolism , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Carotid Body/metabolism , Chemoreceptor Cells/metabolism , Hypoxia/drug therapy , In Vitro Techniques , Sodium Cyanide/pharmacology , Carotid Body/drug effects , Chemoreceptor Cells/drug effects
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 97-103, 1996.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99934

ABSTRACT

Contribution of histamine H1- and H2-receptors to the effect of compound 48/80, a potent histamine releaser, upon asphyxiation and body temperature in mice was investigated in the present experiments. Compound 48/80 showed an apparent protective potency against hypoxia and significantly prolonged the latencies for convulsions and death in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 48/80 also decreased the body temperature, which was in relation with the antihypoxic effect. Both the H1-receptor antagonist, dimethindene, and the H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, attenuated the hypothermic effect of compound 48/80, indicating the involvement of central histamine through both the H1- and H2-receptors. Ranitidine had no effect on the protective effect of compound 48/80 against hypoxia-induced lethality, whereas dimethindene completely antagonized it. These results suggest that the protective effect of compound 48/80 against hypoxia is mediated through histamine H1-receptors and is not related to its ability to induce hypothermia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Body Temperature/drug effects , Seizures/prevention & control , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Receptors, Histamine H1/physiology , Receptors, Histamine H2/physiology , p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine/pharmacology
20.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 31(1): 95-106, ene.-mar. 1993. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-135512

ABSTRACT

Los fectos de la lidocaína como droga protectora del Sistema Nervioso central por isquemia y traume han sido extensamente investigados sin conclusiones definitivas. Algunos experimentos que mostraban un efecto neuroprotector promisorio de la lidocaína utilizan como agente anestésico la ketamina sin considerar su posible contribución neuroprotectora en los resultados comunicados. Esto también se observa en otros experimentos que evalúan los efectos de varias drogas: bloqueadores orgánicos de los canales de calcio, recolectores de radicales libres, esteroides y ganglioosidos. La ketamina anestésico disociativo, es un análogo de feniciclidina, que actúa como un análogo de fenciclidina, que actúa como un antagonista no competitivo en le sitio del N-metil-D-aspartato, receptor subtipo glutamato, dela fenciclidina, y su acción neuroprotectora ha sido comunicada en varios modelos experimentales. El presente trabajo evalúa los efectos de la lidocaína y ketamina en el modelo de hipoxia-isquemia incompleta cerebral de la rata neonata (modelo Levine). Los resultados muestran un efcto neuroprotector significativo de la lidocaína y ketamina, evaluados por análisis hitopatológico del estriado, hipocampo y corteza cerebral-estriado en el modelo de la hipoxia-isquemia en modelo roedor vivo


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Corpus Striatum/drug effects , Hippocampus/drug effects , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Ketamine/pharmacokinetics , Lidocaine/pharmacokinetics , Amino Acids , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Corpus Striatum/pathology , Hippocampus/pathology , Histological Techniques , N-Methylaspartate/pharmacokinetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL