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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19548, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384013

ABSTRACT

Abstract The administration of medications on the skin through transcutaneous routes is a practice that has been used by mankind for millennia. Some studies have been reporting the use of terpenes and natural oils rich in terpenes as an enhancer of cutaneous penetration. Copaiba oil, due to its rich content of terpenes, presents itself as a great choice of penetration enhancer for drugs administered on the skin. In this study, we developed two cream formulations containing 5% of ibuprofen (IBU) and copaiba oil: IBCO5 and IBCO10 with 5% and 10% of copaiba oil respectively. Ex vivo cutaneous penetration/permeation studies of IBU were performed using pig ear skin as biological membrane in the Franz-type diffusion cells. The steady-state flux of IBU samples, IBCO5 (35.72 ± 6.35) and IBCO10 (29.78 ± 2.41) were significantly higher when compared with control without copaiba oil (10.32 ±1.52) and with a commercial product (14.44 ± 2.39). In the penetration analysis, the amount of IBU found in the samples IBCO5 and IBCO10 was markedly higher in the dermis than epidermis. Our results showed that copaiba oil possesses attracting properties in promoting skin penetration and permeation of IBU when added into cream formulations.


Subject(s)
Skin , Plant Extracts/analysis , Ibuprofen/analysis , Fabaceae/adverse effects , Terpenes/adverse effects , Oils/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification
2.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 751-759, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951886

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A matrix system was developed that releases ibuprofen (IB) over a 12-hour period and the influence of the polymer type and concentration on the release rate of the drug was evaluated. Tablets containing different concentrations of Carbopol (CP), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), or ethyl cellulose (EC) were prepared using direct compression and the drug content, content uniformity, hardness, friability, dissolution performance, and in vitro release kinetics were examined. Formulated tablets were found to be within acceptable limits for physical and chemical parameters. The release kinetics of the Carbopol(r)971P 8% formulation showed the best linearity (r 2 =0.977) in fitting zero-order kinetics, suggesting the release rate was time independent. The drug release from tablets containing 8% CP was extended over approximately 18 hours and the release kinetics were nearly linear, suggesting that this system has the potential to maintain constant plasma drug concentrations over 12 hours, which could reduce the frequency of administration and the occurrence of adverse effects associated with repeated administration of conventional IB tablets.


Subject(s)
Tablets/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Ibuprofen/analysis , Solubility , Administration, Oral
3.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(1): 95-105, Jan.-Mar. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671405

ABSTRACT

The compressional, mechanical and bioadhesive properties of tablet formulations incorporating a new gum obtained from the incised trunk of the Cedrela odorata tree were evaluated and compared with those containing hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). Compressional properties were evaluated using Hausner's ratio, Carr's Index, the angle of repose, and Heckel, Kawakita and Gurnham plots. Ibuprofen tablets were prepared using the wet granulation method. Bioadhesive studies were carried out using the rotating cylinder method in either phosphate buffer pH 6.8 or 0.1 M hydrochloric acid media. The gum is a low viscosity polymer (48 cPs), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of a hydroxyl group. Py and Pk values, which are measures of plasticity, showed the gum to be significantly (p<0.05) more plastic than HPMC, and plasticity increased with polymer concentration. All tablet formulations were non-friable (<1.0%), and the formulations containing the gum had a higher crushing strength (130.95 N) than those containing HPMC (117.85 N) at 2.0% w/w binder. Formulations incorporating the gum were non-disintegrating and had a significantly longer drug release time than those containing HPMC. At the highest binder concentration, Cedrela gum formulations adhered to incised pig ileum longer than those containing HPMC. Cedrela gum exhibited better compressive, flow and binding properties than HPMC and is suitable as a bioadhesive and for sustained release of drugs.


Propriedades de compressão, mecânicas e de formulações de comprimidos bioadesivos, que incorporam nova goma de mascar obtidas a partir de incisão de tronco da árvore de Cedrela odorata, foram avaliadas e comparadas com aquelas contendo hidroxipropilmetilcelulose (HPMC). Propriedades de compressão foram avaliadas usando a razão de Hausner, índice de Carr, ângulo de repouso e os gráficos de Heckel, Kawakita e Gurnham. Prepararam-se comprimidos de ibuprofeno utilizando o método de granulação a úmido. Realizaram-se estudos de bioadesividade utilizando o método de cilindro rotativo em tampão fosfato pH 6,8, ou meio ácido com 0,1 M de ácido clorídrico. A goma é um polímero de baixa viscosidade (48 cPs) e a espectroscopia no infravermelho por Transformada de Fourier (FTIR) revelou a presença de um grupo hidroxila. Valores de Py e Pk, que são medidas de plasticidade, mostraram que a goma é significativamente (p <0,05) mais plástica do que HPMC e que a plasticidade aumenta com a concentração de polímero. Todas as formulações de comprimidos mostraram-se não-friáveis (<1,0%) e aquelas contendo a goma apresentaram maior resistência ao esmagamento (130.95N) do que aquelas contendo HPMC (117.85N) em 2,0% (p/p) do ligante. As formulações que incorporaram a goma eram não-desintegrantes e apesentaram tempo de liberação significativamente maior do que aquelas contendo HPMC. As formulações de goma de Cedrela aderiram à incisão de íleo de porco por tempo maior do que aquelas contendo HPMC com a maior concentração de ligante. A goma Cedrela apresentou melhor fluxo, compressão e propriedades de ligação do que HPMC e é adequada como bioadesivo e para a liberação sustentada de fármacos.


Subject(s)
Cedrela/classification , Ibuprofen/analysis , Ligands , Tablets/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation
4.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 48(4): 773-780, Oct.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665874

ABSTRACT

In this study, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(l-lactide) (PLA) microspheres containing ibuprofen were prepared with the aim of prolonging the drug release. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used, varying the polymer ratio. All formulations provided spherical particles with drug crystals on the surface and a porous and rough polymeric matrix when PHBV was used and smooth external surface when prepared with PLA. The in vitro dissolution profiles show that the formulation containing PHBV/PLA at the proportion of 30/70 presented the best results in terms of prolonging the ibuprofen release. The analysis of the concentration of ibuprofen in the blood of rats showed that maximum levels were achieved at between one and two hours after administration of the immediate-release form (pure drug), while the prolonged microspheres led to a small amount of the drug being released within the first two hours and reached the maximum level after six hours of administration. It was concluded that it is possible to prolong the release of ibuprofen through its incorporation into PHBV/PLA microspheres.


No presente estudo foram preparadas microesferas de poli(hidroxibutirato-co-hidroxivalerato) (PHBV) e poli(ácido láctico) (PLA) com o objetivo de prolongar a liberação do ibuprofeno, utilizado como fármaco modelo. Empregou-se o método de emulsificação e evaporação do solvente óleo em água (O/A), variando-se a proporção entre os polímeros. Todas as formulações originaram partículas esféricas com cristais de fármaco aderidos à superfície externa. As microesferas apresentaram superfície rugosa e porosa, quando o PHBV foi utilizado, e superfície externa lisa, quando preparadas com o PLA. Os perfis de dissolução in vitro evidenciaram que a formulação que continha PHBV/PLA na proporção de 30/70 apresentou melhores resultados para prolongar a liberação do ibuprofeno. Através da análise da concentração de ibuprofeno no plasma de ratos, após administração oral, verificou-se que os níveis máximos ocorreram entre 1 e 2 horas após a administração de ibuprofeno não encapsulado, enquanto o fármaco presente nas microesferas atingiu um pico máximo após 6 horas da administração. Conclui-se, portanto, que é possível prolongar a liberação do ibuprofeno após a sua incorporação às microesferas preparadas com os polímeros PHBV e PLA, especialmente na proporção de 30/70.


Subject(s)
Rats , Drug Liberation , Ibuprofen/analysis , Microspheres , Drug Liberation , In Vitro Techniques/classification , Polymers/analysis
5.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 48(3): 529-536, July-Sept. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653467

ABSTRACT

Ibuprofen is one of the most important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In its pure state, ibuprofen presents poor physical and mechanical characteristics and its use in solid dosage forms needs the addition of excipients that improve these properties. The selection of the best excipients and the most suitable pharmaceutical dosage form to carry ibuprofen is very important for the industrial success of this drug. Given these factors, lipid microparticles and solid dispersions of ibuprofen with cetyl alcohol, stearic acid, and hydrogenated castor oil were prepared. These formulations were intended to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics and to sustain the release of this drug. Physical mixtures were also prepared with the same ingredients in similar proportions. The solid dispersions of ibuprofen/stearic acid and ibuprofen/hydrogenated castor oil showed the best flow characteristics compared with pure ibuprofen. Further, gelatin capsules filled with lipid microparticles and solid dispersions were submitted to dissolution tests in order to study the influence of the prepared systems in the release profiles of ibuprofen. Prolonged release of ibuprofen was achieved with the lipid microparticles and solid dispersions prepared with the different types of excipients.


O ibuprofeno é um dos antiinflamatórios não esteróides mais utilizados no tratamento de patologias associadas a processos inflamatórios. Este fármaco, quando no seu estado puro, apresenta características físicas e mecânicas pouco satisfatórias e a sua utilização em formas sólidas só é possível se forem adicionados excipientes que permitam melhorar estas propriedades. A seleção dos excipientes ideais e da forma farmacêutica mais adequada para veicular o ibuprofeno é fundamental para o sucesso industrial deste fármaco. Tendo em conta estes fatores, prepararam-se micropartículas lipídicas e dispersões sólidas de ibuprofeno com cada um dos seguintes excipientes: álcool cetílico, ácido esteárico e óleo de rícino hidrogenado. Estas formulações tinham por finalidade melhorar as características físicas e mecânicas e prolongar a liberação deste fármaco. Foram, também, preparadas misturas físicas do ibuprofeno com os mesmos excipientes e nas mesmas proporções. As dispersões sólidas de ibuprofeno/ácido esteárico e as dispersões sólidas de ibuprofeno/óleo de rícino hidrogenado foram aquelas que apresentaram melhores características de escoamento comparativamente com o ibuprofeno puro. Por outro lado, foram preparadas cápsulas de gelatina com as diferentes micropartículas lipídicas e dispersões sólidas e submetidas a ensaios de dissolução com o objetivo de estudar a influência dos sistemas preparados nos perfis de liberação do ibuprofeno. A liberação prolongada do ibuprofeno foi conseguida nas diferentes micropartículas lipídicas e dispersões sólidas preparadas com os diferentes excipientes.


Subject(s)
Comparative Study , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/classification , Ibuprofen/analysis , Lipid Droplets/classification , Castor Oil/classification , Excipients/classification
6.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 46(2): 227-235, Apr.-June 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564889

ABSTRACT

Thermodynamic functions, Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy for the solution processes of ibuprofen (IBP) in acetone and dichloromethane (DCM) were calculated from solubility values obtained at temperatures ranging from 293.15 K to 313.15 K. The respective thermodynamic functions for mixing and solvation processes as well as the activity coefficients for the solute were calculated. IBP solubility was high and proved similar in both solvents but was greater in DCM than acetone. In addition, the thermodynamic quantities for the transfer process of this drug from cyclohexane to the organic solvents were also calculated in order to estimate the contributions of hydrogen-bonds or of other dipolar interactions. The results were discussed in terms of solute-solvent interactions.


As funções termodinâmicas, energia de Gibbs, entalpia e entropia dos processos de solução de ibuprofeno (IBP) em acetona e em diclorometano (DCM) foram calculadas a partir dos valores de solubilidade, obtidos em intervalos de temperatura de 293,15 K a 313,15 K. As funções termodinâmicas respectivas para os processos de mistura e solvatação e os coeficientes de atividade para o soluto também foram calculados. A solubilidade do IBP foi grande e semelhante em ambos os solventes, mas, maior em DCM do que em acetona. Em adição, as quantidades termodinâmicas relativas ao processo de transferência desse fármaco do cicloexano para os solventes orgânicos foram, também, calculadas com o objetivo de estimar as contribuições devidas às ligações de hidrogênio ou a outras interações dipolares. Os resultados foram discutidos nos termos das interações soluto-solvente.


Subject(s)
Acetone , Ibuprofen/analysis , Methylene Chloride , Solubility , Thermodynamics , Solvents
7.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 43(2)mayo-ago. 2009. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-531365

ABSTRACT

Se empleó el método de prueba y error para el desarrollo de la formulación de la suspensión oral de ibuprofeno 100 mg/5 mL para uso pediátrico; se estudió su estabilidad químico-física por el método acelerado y de vida de estante; se envasó en frasco de vidrio Ambar por 120 mL y se almacenó a temperatura ambiente. Se realizó el estudio reológico y la determinación de la viscosidad aparente, además, se efectuó el estudio microbiológico a través de la prueba de efectividad de preservativo antimicrobiano y el conteo microbiano; se comprobó la seguridad del producto mediante el estudio toxicológico. Todos los resultados cumplieron con los límites de calidad establecidos en la literatura científica, USP 30, para este tipo de forma farmacéutica. Se concluye que el medicamento desarrollado está correctamente formulado, desde el punto de vista galénico con un tiempo de vida útil de 24 meses bajo las condiciones estudiadas.


Authors used the test and error method to develop the formulation of Ibuprofen oral suspension (100 mg/5 mL) for pediatric use. Its chemical-physic stability was studied through accelerated method and shelf life. It was bottled in amber glass small bottles by 120 mL, and it was stored at room temperature. A rheology study and assessment of apparent viscosity was made as well as a microbiologic one by test of effectiveness of antimicrobial preservative and the microbial count. Product safe was verified by toxicology study. All results fulfilled quality limits established in scientific literature, USP 30, for this type of pharmaceutical method. We conclude that drug developed is correctly formulated, from the doctoral point of view with a time of useful life of 24 months under study conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Ibuprofen/analysis , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Ibuprofen/chemistry , Products Suspension , Drug Stability
8.
Egyptian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1996; 37 (1-6): 157-174
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-40788

ABSTRACT

This paper described two new colorimetric methods for estimation of six nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; namely, piroxicam, tenoxicam, mefenamic acid, flufenamic acid, ibuprofen and ketoprofen in their pure forms and pharmaceutical preparations. The first method depends on scanning the azodyes resulting from the reaction of piroxicam and tenoxicam with diazonium salts of benzocaine, p-amino-N- methylbenzamide and sulfadiazine. The second procedure is based on colorimetric determination of the blue colored complexes yielded from the reaction of methylene blue with drugs under investigation. The different conditions for the proposed methods were studied. The methods have been applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations containing these drugs and the results obtained were compared with those of pharmacopoeial or published methods. The methods are simple, precise and reproducible


Subject(s)
Colorimetry/methods , Piroxicam/analysis , Mefenamic Acid/analysis , Flufenamic Acid/analysis , Ibuprofen/analysis , Ketoprofen/analysis
9.
Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy-Cairo University. 1995; 33 (3): 79-84
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-36723

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work is to determine the anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen, and its major degradation product 4-isobutylacetophenone. A stability indicating colorimetric method is developed for the estimation of the intact drug, using the basic dye neutral red, which react at pH 3 with ibuprofen producing orange yellow color extractable with chloroform and its absorbance is measured at 440 nm without interference from the degradation product. Zero order and first order spectra of ibuprofen and its degradation product showed that 4-isobutylacetophenone can be efficiently determined by conventional ultraviolet method at 255 nm and by first derivative method at 265 nm in presence of up to 1 mg% of ibuprofen. The proposed methods were applied for the determination of pure samples, laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical formulations showing accurate and precise result


Subject(s)
Ibuprofen/analysis , Ibuprofen/analogs & derivatives
10.
Bauru; s.n; 1991. 248 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-222755

ABSTRACT

A inflamaçäo aguda constitui-se em uma resposta tecidual inicial a todas as formas de agressäo, qualquer que seja o agente etiológico, sendo as suas principais características a exsudaçäo de líquidos e de proteínas plasmáticas do sangue para o interstício e a transmigraçäo de células, principalmente de leucócitos polimorfonucleares neutrófilos. A cura do processo inflamatório ocorre após a eliminaçäo do agente etiológico através do processo de reparo. Entretanto, quando certos agentes nocivos näo podem ser destruídos ou eliminados, a inflamaçäo persiste e tenta isolá-los do organismo formando o granuloma. Existem muitas condiçöes inflamatórias de origem ainda desconhecida, como a artrite reumatóide, onde se manifestam tanto os fenômenos exsudativos como os proliferativos da inflamaçäo, que determinam alteraçöes funcionais e deformidades articulares irreversíveis, em geral acompanhadas de notáveis manifestaçöes sistêmicas. Embora as drogas antiinflamatórias sejam utilizadas para modificar a resposta inflamatória nas doenças de etiologia desconhecida, a terapêutica näo é curativa, pois muitas vezes estäo envolvidos mecanismos etiopatogenéticos complexos e ainda obscuros da doença, o que torna a droga inespecífica. O seu efeito acha-se fundamentalmente dirigido ao tratamento sintomático da inflamaçäo, ou seja, diminuindo ou bloqueando os sinais e sintomas locais e sistêmicos dessa inflamaçäo. Os antiinflamatórios näo esteróides säo também analgésicos e antipiréticos e, recentemente, tem-se observado também atividade antimitótica. Entretanto, como a sua atividade antimitótica näo tem sido estudada de modo sistêmico, propusemo-nos a determinar in vivo, além da atividade antiinflamatória, também a sua atividade antimitótica em quatro drogas antiinflamatórias näo esteróides, bem como estabelecer a correlaçäo existente entre os dois efeitos (antiinflamatório e antimitótico). As drogas testadas foram: naproxen, ibuprofen, sulindac e glucametacina. Neste estudo foram utilizados 321 ratos adultos, da linhagem Wistar (Rattus novergicus, var. albino), com peso médio de 250 gramas, cujos animais experimentais foram medicados com doses diárias de 33,34mg/kg de naproxen, 80mg/kg de ibuprofen, 13,34mg/kg de sulindac e 14mg de glucametacina. Os animais controles receberam apenas água destilada em substituiçäo às drogas. A administraçäo das drogas ou da água destilada foi feita por intubaçäo gástrica...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Granuloma/etiology , Inflammation/complications , Periapical Granuloma/etiology , Cell Wall/drug effects , Ibuprofen/analysis , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Naproxen/analysis , Naproxen/pharmacology , Pathology, Oral , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Sulindac/analysis , Sulindac/pharmacology
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