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2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(5): e202202900, oct. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1509526

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El consumo de sustancias psicoactivas ilegales en el embarazo constituye un problema creciente. En pocas maternidades latinoamericanas se aplica una estrategia de detección y los datos publicados son escasos. Objetivos. Comparar dos quinquenios de resultados de una estrategia de detección de sustancias psicoactivas ilegales implementada en el posparto. Población y métodos. Estudio de corte transversal. Detección por inmunoensayo en orinas de binomios madre-hijo/a, en un hospital público argentino entre 2009 y 2018. Resultados. En 76/191 binomios se detectaron sustancias en 10 años. El criterio de detección más frecuente fue la comunicación o antecedente de uso de drogas: 25/37 y 32/39 en cada quinquenio. Predominaron cannabis (21/37 y 26/39) y cocaína (19/37 y 16/39) en ambos períodos. No hubo diferencias en datos demográficos, ginecológicos, del embarazo ni neonatales en los quinquenios comparados. Conclusiones. No se encontraron diferencias en la frecuencia ni en el tipo de sustancias detectadas a lo largo de 10 años.


Introduction. The use of illicit psychoactive substances during pregnancy is a growing problem. Few Latin American maternity centers implement a screening strategy, and published data are scarce. Objectives. To compare the outcomes of 2 five-year periods of a postpartum strategy to screen for illicit psychoactive drugs. Population and methods. This was a cross-sectional study. Immunoassay detection in urine of mothernewborn infant dyads in an Argentine public hospital between 2009 and 2018. Results. Substances were detected in 76/191 dyads over 10 years. The most frequent detection criterion was reporting or history of drug use: 25/37 and 32/39 in each five-year period. Cannabis (21/37 and 26/39) and cocaine (19/37 and 16/39) predominated in both periods. No differences were observed in demographic, gynecological, pregnancy, or neonatal data between both five-year periods. Conclusions. No differences were found in the frequency or type of substances detected over 10 years


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Agents , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mothers
3.
Medisan ; 27(2)abr. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1440582

ABSTRACT

Algunas situaciones ponen en riesgo a Cuba en cuanto al uso de drogas, entre ellas el aumento del turismo, las relaciones con países que poseen altas tasas de consumo, la ubicación geográfica en corredores de narcotraficantes y la alta prevalencia de drogas porteras. Al respecto, el Sistema Nacional de Salud debe estar preparado para la prevención del problema y la atención a los afectados, de manera que resulta necesario mantener una información actualizada sobre los factores de riesgo y los principales productos utilizados por los consumidores. En la presente revisión bibliográfica sobre el tema se busca llamar la atención de los trabajadores de la salud en tal sentido, se ofrecen datos sobre la magnitud del problema y se abordan elementos de sus antecedentes, así como de la clasificación de las drogas, los factores de riesgo asociados a su consumo y las bases jurídicas para su control en Cuba.


Some situations put Cuba at risk for drug use, such as an increase in tourism, relations with countries that have high rates of substance abuse, the geographic location in drug trafficking corridors, and the high prevalence of "opening doors" drugs. In this regard, the National Health System must be prepared to prevent the problem and care for those affected, so it is necessary to maintain updated information on risk factors and main products used by consumers. In the present literature review on the subject, it is sought to draw the attention of health workers to this point, data on the magnitude of the problem and elements of its background are offered, as well as drug classification, the risk factors associated with its use and the legal bases for its control in Cuba.


Subject(s)
Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders , Drug Users , Cannabis , Risk Factors , Cocaine , Cuba , Amphetamine , Methamphetamine
4.
Singapore medical journal ; : 385-390, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984217

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Cannabis has consistently been the third most commonly abused drug among drug arrestees in Singapore over the past few years. Accordingly, this study aimed to understand the profile of cannabis users in Singapore and explore the effects of cannabis use on drug progression.@*METHODS@#A total of 450 participants who had used cannabis at least once in their lifetime were recruited from the National Addictions Management Service, prisons, the Community Rehabilitation Centre and halfway houses from August 2017 to May 2018. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered and descriptive analyses were conducted.@*RESULTS@#The mean participant age was 40.9 ± 14.51 years, and 93.1% of them were male. The participants generally initiated cannabis use during adolescence, at a mean onset age of 16.5 ± 4.46 years. Most (89.6%) were introduced to cannabis by peers. Approximately half of them (46.9%) had used cannabis before other illicit drugs and 42.1% of them had used heroin as the succeeding drug.@*CONCLUSION@#In Singapore, cannabis use is often initiated during adolescence, largely under peer influence. Cannabis users may progress to other illicit drugs, particularly heroin, later in life.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Child , Young Adult , Female , Cannabis , Singapore/epidemiology , Heroin , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Illicit Drugs
5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 802-808, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985565

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand and analyze the incidence of club drug abuse and influencing factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Qingdao, and provide reference for the AIDS prevention and intervention in this population. Methods: From March 2017 to July 31, 2022, MSM who did not abuse club drug were recruited by snowball sampling of MSM social organizations in Qingdao, a prospective cohort was established, and a follow-up survey was conducted every 6 months. The survey collected the information about the MSM's demographic characteristics, sexual characteristics, club drug abuse and others. The incidence of club drug abuse was the outcome dependent variable and the interval between the recruitment into the cohort and the incidence of club drug abuse was the time dependent variable. Cox regression analysis was conducted to identify the influencing factors for club drug abuse. Results: A total of 509 MSM were recruited at baseline survey, and 369 eligible MSM were enrolled in this cohort. A total of 62 MSM began to abuse club drug during the study period, and the cumulative follow-up time was 911.54 person-years, the incidence of club drug abuse was 6.80/100 person-years. All the club drug abusers shared drugs with others in the first club drug abuse, and 16.13% (10/62) had mix-use of club drugs. The multivariate Cox proportional risk regression analysis showed that being students (aHR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.15-4.10), receiving no HIV testing or receiving 1 HIV testing during past 6 months (aHR=4.57, 95%CI:1.80-11.60; aHR=5.15, 95%CI: 2.83-9.36), having sex only with regular sexual partners during past 6 months (aHR=4.75,95%CI:2.32-9.75), having more than 4 homosexual partners (aHR=1.70, 95%CI:1.01-2.87) and abuse of club drug of sexual partners during past 6 months (aHR=12.78, 95%CI:3.06-53.35) were significantly associated with club drug abuse in the MSM. Conclusions: The incidence of club drug abuse was at a high level in the MSM cohort in Qingdao, indicating a high risk for HIV infection. Being student, receiving less HIV testing, having sex only with regular sexual partners, having more homosexual partners and abuse of club drug of sexual partners during past 6 months were risk factors for the incidence of club drug abuse in the MSM. Targeted surveillance and intervention measures should be strengthened to reduce the risk of club drug abuse in MSM.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Homosexuality, Male , Cohort Studies , Illicit Drugs , Incidence , HIV Infections , Prospective Studies , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders
6.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 27: e20220171, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1421428

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo descrever as internações por efeitos do abuso de álcool e outras drogas e os fatores associados ao óbito. Métodos estudo transversal, observacional e retrospectivo, com dados secundários de 3.562 internações registradas no Centro de Informação e Assistência Toxicológica de um hospital de ensino no noroeste do Paraná, por vigilância epidemiológica de busca ativa, entre os anos 2009 e 2018. Os dados foram tratados por análise univariada (teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson e teste exato de Fisher). Resultados houve predomínio do sexo masculino (89,6%), e a média de idade foi de 43,62 anos (±16 anos). A maioria das internações foi por eventos traumáticos e outras causas externas (52,1%) associadas ao uso/abuso de bebida alcoólica (85,8%). O tempo médio de internação foi de 34,6 dias; 6,0% evoluíram a óbitos. Houve a associação entre o risco para óbitos e doenças endócrinas/metabólicas, cardiovasculares, gastrintestinais e geniturinárias. Conclusão as internações com maior gravidade aumentam a incidência de óbitos, e a identificação dos fatores associados direcionou as intervenções para a redução de internações, minimizando as complicações e os óbitos. Implicações para prática este estudo serve como subsídio para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de prevenção e estímulo para as ações de melhoria na rede assistencial aos usuários, fortalecendo e incrementando as políticas públicas.


Resumen Objetivo describir las hospitalizaciones derivadas del abuso de alcohol y otras drogas y los factores asociados a la muerte. Métodos estudio transversal, observacional y retrospectivo, con datos secundarios de 3.562 hospitalizaciones registradas en el Centro de Información y Asistencia Toxicológica de un hospital universitario al noroeste de Paraná, por vigilancia epidemiológica de búsqueda activa, entre los años 2009 y 2018. Los datos se procesaron mediante análisis univariado (prueba chi-cuadrado de Pearson y prueba exacta de Fisher). Resultados la mayoría eran varones (89,6%) y la edad media fue de 43,62 años (±16 años). La mayoría de las hospitalizaciones se debieron a eventos traumáticos y otras causas externas (52,1%) asociadas al uso/abuso de bebidas alcohólicas (85,8%). El tiempo de hospitalización media fue de 34,6 días y el 6,0% evolucionó a la muerte. Hubo una asociación entre el riesgo de muerte y las enfermedades endocrinas/metabólicas, cardiovasculares, gastrointestinales y genitourinarias. Conclusión las hospitalizaciones con mayor gravedad aumentan la incidencia de muertes, y la identificación de los factores asociados orientó las intervenciones para disminuir las hospitalizaciones, reduciendo las complicaciones y las muertes. Implicaciones para la práctica este estudio sirve de apoyo para el desarrollo de estrategias de prevención y estímulo para acciones de mejora en la red de atención a los usuarios, fortaleciendo y ampliando las políticas públicas.


Abstract Objective To describe the hospitalizations resulting from the impacts of alcohol and other drug abuse and factors associated with death. Methods Cross-sectional, observational, and retrospective study, with secondary data from 3,562 admissions recorded at the Center for Information and Toxicological Assistance of a teaching hospital in northwest Paraná, using epidemiological surveillance of active search, from 2009 to 2018. Data were processed using univariate analysis (Pearson's Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test). Results Most were males (89.6%), and the mean age was 43.62 years (±16 years). Most hospitalizations resulted from traumatic events and other external causes (52.1%) associated with the use/abuse of alcoholic beverages (85.8%). The mean length of hospital stay was 34.6 days, and 6.0% died. There was an association between risk of death and endocrine/metabolic, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary diseases. Conclusion Hospitalizations with greater severity increase the incidence of deaths, and evidencing the associated factors directs interventions to decrease hospitalizations, reducing complications and deaths. Implications for practice The studies serve as a support for the development of prevention strategies, encouragement for improvement actions in the assistance network for users, strengthening and increasing public policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Illicit Drugs , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Alcohol-Related Disorders/mortality , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hospitalization , Socioeconomic Factors , Medical Records , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e247960, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422417

ABSTRACT

Buscou-se compreender a percepção dos profissionais das medidas socioeducativas acerca do seu engajamento e exaustão com o trabalho. Para isso, realizou-se um estudo qualitativo, descritivo e exploratório, por meio de uma entrevista semiestruturada a três integrantes da equipe técnica e dois coordenadores de segurança (idades entre 28 e 57 anos). A análise dos dados foi conduzida com o auxílio do software Iramuteq, que gerou cinco classes temáticas: a) rotina das unidades socioeducativas e as demandas do trabalho dos profissionais; b) gestão de conflitos nas unidades, da mediação à polícia; c) recursos pessoais e institucionais relacionados ao exercício da profissão; d) aspectos relacionados ao contexto de trabalho; e, por último, e) indicadores de esgotamento laboral, adversidades e adoecimento profissional. Os participantes descreveram diversas demandas relacionadas à exaustão física e psicológica (e.g. equipe reduzida, insalubridade, baixo salário e fragilidade do vínculo empregatício), mas também ressaltaram a relevância social de sua prática profissional junto aos adolescentes e o relacionamento positivo entre os profissionais como fatores que justificam o seu engajamento e permanência nas instituições socioeducativas. Conclui-se evidenciando que os contextos têm influência direta na saúde desses profissionais, o que sublinha a importância de se olhar para suas condições de trabalho e para aspectos ligados à saúde mental, promovendo, desse modo, avanços na realidade socioeducativa.(AU)


The aim was to understand the perception of professionals of socio-educational measures about their engagement and exhaustion with work. To that end, a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study was carried out by means of a semi-structured interview with three members of the technical team and two safety coordinators (ages between 28 and 57 years). Data analysis was conducted with the help of the IRAMUTEQ software, which generated five thematic classes: a) routine of socio-educational units and work demands of professionals; b) conflict management in the units, from mediation to the police; c) personal and institutional resources related to the exercise of the profession; d) aspects related to the work context; and, lastly, e) indicators of labor exhaustion, adversity, and occupational illness. Participants described several demands related to physical and psychological exhaustion (e.g. reduced team, insalubrity, low salary, and fragility of the employment relationship), but also emphasized the social relevance of their professional practice with adolescents and the positive relationship among professionals as factors that justify their engagement and permanence in socio- educational institutions. It is concluded that the contexts have a direct influence on the health of these professionals, which highlights the importance of looking at their working conditions and aspects related to mental health, thus promoting advances in the socio-educational reality.(AU)


Se procuró comprender la percepción de los profesionales que trabajan con medidas socioeducativas sobre su comprometimiento y el agotamiento en el trabajo. Para esto, se realizó un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio, por medio de una entrevista semiestructurada a tres integrantes del equipo técnico y dos coordinadores de seguridad (edades entre 28 y 57 años). El análisis de los datos fue conducido en el software IRAMUTEQ, que generó cinco clases temáticas: a) rutina de las unidades socioeducativas: demandas del trabajo de los profesionales; b) manejo de conflictos en las unidades: desde la mediación hasta la policía; c) recursos personales e institucionales relacionados al ejercicio de la profesión; d) aspectos relacionados al contexto del trabajo; e) indicadores de agotamiento laboral, adversidades y enfermedad del profesional. Los participantes describieron diversas demandas relacionadas al agotamiento físico y psicológico (por ej.: equipo reducido, insalubridad, bajos sueldos y fragilidad del vínculo laboral), pero también destacaron la importancia social de su práctica profesional junto a los adolescentes y el vínculo positivo entre los profesionales como factores que justifican su comprometimiento y permanencia en las instituciones socioeducativas. Se concluye que los contextos influyen directamente en la salud de estos profesionales, lo que rescata la importancia de verificar sus condiciones de trabajo y los aspectos relacionados a la salud mental, promoviendo, de este modo, avances en la realidad socioeducativa.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Societies , Burnout, Professional , Education , Work Engagement , Anxiety , Orientation , Personnel Loyalty , Personnel Turnover , Psychology , Public Policy , Punishment , Rehabilitation , Reinforcement, Psychology , Audiovisual Aids , Self Concept , Social Change , Social Control, Informal , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Social Values , Socialization , Sports , Suicide , Violence , Vocational Guidance , Work , Computer Simulation , Software , Occupational Risks , Cardiovascular Diseases , Illicit Drugs , Child Advocacy , Mental Health , Occupational Health , Adolescent, Institutionalized , Adolescent Behavior , Civil Defense , Parenting , Family Planning Policy , Interview , Crime , Affective Symptoms , Culture , Dangerous Behavior , Public Attorneys , Decision Making , Dehumanization , Trust , Aggression , Depersonalization , Depression , Diagnosis , Dreams , Education, Professional , Educational Status , Employment , Inpatient Care Units , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Family Conflict , Fatigue , Social Marginalization , Emotional Adjustment , Underage Drinking , Professionalism , Harassment, Non-Sexual , Freedom , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Respect , Community Support , Citizenship , Human Rights , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Labor Unions , Leisure Activities , Morale , Occupational Diseases
8.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e246660, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422419

ABSTRACT

Objetivamos reconstruir, por meio das vozes de mães de jovens negros mortos em ações policiais, a subtração da vida de seus filhos em contínuas políticas que precarizavam suas existências ao negar-lhes direitos básicos e cidadania. Participaram desta pesquisa seis mães. As conversas com elas, após cuidadosa aproximação, se iniciaram com a pergunta disparadora: "Como você gostaria de contar a história do seu filho?". Para subsidiar nossas análises, tomamos como centrais a articulação teórica e política das noções de genocídio negro e de necropolítica. Este artigo evidencia que, entre o nascimento e a interrupção da vida por balas que atravessam o corpo como um alvo predestinado, o racismo constrói trilhos de precarização da vida que a torna cada vez mais abjeta, vulnerável e descartável, conduzindo à morte precoce, ainda que preveníveis, de jovens negros, principalmente, residentes em periferias e favelas. Nesta discussão, fomentamos uma visão menos compartimentalizada das múltiplas políticas genocidas, trazendo para o diálogo outras políticas públicas, para além da segurança pública. Abordamos um continuum de produção e legitimação de mortes de jovens negros, centrando nossas análises nas formas de apagamento social e institucional desses jovens, que ocorreram anteriormente à morte física, de modo a desqualificar suas vidas. Esses processos contribuem para que a política de segurança pública extermine vidas de jovens negros sem causar ampla comoção social, a devida investigação criminal e, portanto, a responsabilização do Estado, pois já eram vidas mutiladas e desumanizadas em suas existências.(AU)


We aim to reconstruct, with the voices of mothers of young black people killed in police actions, the subtraction of their children's lives in continuous policies that undermined their existence by denying them basic rights and citizenship. Six mothers participated in this research. The conversations with them, after a careful approach, began with the triggering question: "How would you like to tell your child's story?". To support our analyses, we take as central the theoretical and political articulation of the notions of black genocide and necropolitics. This article shows that, between the birth and the interruption of life by bullets that pass through the body as a predestined target, racism builds trails of precariousness of life that makes it increasingly more abject, vulnerable, and disposable, leading to premature death, even if preventable, of young black people, mainly, living in suburbs and slums. In this discussion, we foster a less compartmentalized view of multiple genocidal policies, bringing to the dialogue other public policies, in addition to public safety. We approach a continuum of production and legitimization of deaths of young black people, centering our analysis on the forms of social and institutional erasure of these young people, which occurred before physical death, to disqualify their lives. These processes contribute to the public security policy to exterminate the lives of young black people without causing widespread social upheaval, due criminal investigation, and, thus, the accountability of the State, since they were already mutilated and dehumanized lives in their existence.(AU)


El objetivo de este artículo es reconstruir, a través de las voces de las madres de jóvenes negros asesinados en acciones policiales, la sustracción de la vida de sus hijos en políticas continuas que socavaron su existencia al negarles derechos básicos y ciudadanía. Seis madres participaron en esta investigación. Las conversaciones con estas madres, después de un enfoque cuidadoso, comenzaron con la pregunta desencadenante: "¿Cómo le gustaría contar la historia de su hijo?". Para apoyar el análisis, se tomó como eje central la articulación teórica y política de las nociones de genocidio negro y necropolítica. Este artículo muestra que, entre el nacimiento y la interrupción de la vida por balas que atraviesan el cuerpo como fin predestinado, el racismo construye senderos de precariedad de la vida que la hace cada vez más abyecta, vulnerable y desechable, conduciendo a una muerte prematura, incluso prevenible, de jóvenes negros, principalmente, residentes en la periferia y favelas. Esta discusión fomenta una visión menos compartimentada de múltiples políticas genocidas, llevando al diálogo otras políticas públicas, además de la seguridad pública. Se acerca a un continuo de producción y legitimación de muertes de jóvenes negros, centrando el análisis en las formas de borrado social e institucional de estos jóvenes, ocurridas antes de la muerte física, para descalificar sus vidas. Tales procesos contribuyen a la política de seguridad pública para exterminar la vida de los jóvenes negros sin provocar un gran revuelo social, la debida investigación criminal y, en consecuencia, la rendición de cuentas del Estado, pues ya eran vidas cuya existencia era mutilada y deshumanizada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Public Policy , Women , Adolescent , Racism , Genocide , Prejudice , Psychology , Scapegoating , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Support , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Violence , Child Labor , Emergency Feeding , Unified Health System , Brazil , Bereavement , Illicit Drugs , Child Advocacy , Nutrition Policy , Colonialism , Statistics , Criminal Law , Hazards , Adolescent Health , Whistleblowing , Dehumanization , Disasters , Educational Status , Employment , Ethics , Fear , Social Stigma , Social Discrimination , Enslavement , Underage Drinking , Help-Seeking Behavior , Political Activism , Academic Failure , Freedom , Disgust , Respect , Empowerment , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Homicide , Human Rights , Income , Anger , Loneliness , Mothers
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243764, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422423

ABSTRACT

A população em situação de rua (PSR), em seu cotidiano, se relaciona com diferentes pessoas, grupos e/ou coletivos ligados à execução das políticas públicas, às organizações não governamentais, familiares ou a membros da sociedade civil. Pensar nessas dinâmicas de trabalho, cooperação e auxílio remete a pensar sobre uma rede de apoio que constrói estratégias com essa população. Tendo presente essas problematizações, este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as narrativas das pessoas em situação de rua sobre como é produzida sua rede de apoio. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo qualitativo, de orientação etnográfica, sendo utilizada a observação participante, registros em diário de campo e entrevistas narrativas. Participaram seis pessoas em situação de rua que recebem alimentação ofertada por projetos sociais em uma cidade do interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados produzidos foram analisados a partir da Análise Temática. As análises expressam as especificidades das narrativas das trajetórias de vida associadas à chegada às ruas e à composição de uma rede de apoio na rua. Ao conhecer como se produz e opera essa rede de apoio, a partir das narrativas das pessoas em situação de rua, problematiza-se a complexidade dessa engrenagem e o desafio de produzir ações integradas entre as diferentes instâncias da rede. Nisso, destaca-se a potencialidade de práticas que levem conta à escuta, ao diálogo e à articulação na operacionalização de políticas públicas atentas às necessidades dessa população.(AU)


The street population, in their daily lives, relates to different people, groups and/or collectives linked to the execution of public policies, to non-governmental organizations, family members, or to members of civil society. Thinking about these dynamics of work, cooperation, and assistance leads to thinking about a support network that builds strategies with this population. Having these problematizations in mind, this study aims to analyze the narratives of homeless people about how their support network is produced. To this end, a qualitative study was carried out, with ethnographic orientation, using participant observation, records in a field diary, and narrative interviews. Participated in the research six homeless people who receive food offered by social projects in a municipality in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul. The data produced were analyzed using the Thematic Analysis. The analyzes express the specifities of the narratives of life trajectories associated with the arrival on the streets and the composition of a support network on the street. By knowing how the support network is produced and operated, the complexity of this gear and the challenge of producing integrated actions between the different instances of the network are problematized. Thus, it highlights the potential of practices that consider listening, dialogue, and articulation in the operationalization of public policies that are attentive to the needs of this population.(AU)


Las personas en situación de calle en su cotidiano se relacionan con distintas personas, grupos y/o colectivos, que están vinculados a la ejecución de políticas públicas, organizaciones no gubernamentales, familiares o miembros de la sociedad civil. Pensar en estas dinámicas de trabajo, cooperación y ayuda nos lleva a una red de apoyo que construye estrategias con estas personas. Teniendo en cuenta esta problemática, este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar las narrativas de las personas en situación de calle acerca de cómo se produce su red de apoyo. Con este fin, se realizó un estudio cualitativo, etnográfico, utilizando observación participante, registros de diario de campo y entrevistas narrativas. Este estudio incluyó a seis personas en situación de calle que reciben alimentos ofrecidos por proyectos sociales en una ciudad del interior de Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil). Se utilizó el Análisis Temático. Los análisis expresan las especificidades de las narrativas de las trayectorias de vida asociadas con la llegada a las calles y la composición de una red de apoyo en la calle. Al saber cómo se produce y opera la red de apoyo, a partir de las narrativas de las personas en la calle, se problematizan la complejidad de este equipo y el desafío de producir acciones integradas entre las diferentes instancias de la red. Destaca el potencial de las prácticas que tienen en cuenta la escucha, el diálogo y la articulación en la implementación de políticas públicas que estén atentas a las necesidades de esta población.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Public Policy , Ill-Housed Persons , Community Support , Poverty , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Relief Work , Safety , Social Change , Social Conditions , Social Isolation , Social Support , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Unemployment , Violence , Emergency Feeding , Health Surveillance , Occupational Risks , Illicit Drugs , Charities , Hygiene , Disease , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Hunger , Crack Cocaine , Clothing , Interview , Community Health Services , Community Participation , Substance-Related Disorders , Criminology , Shelter , Disaster Vulnerability , Health Risk , Personal Autonomy , Gift Giving , Human Rights Abuses , Alcoholism , Economics , User Embracement , Existentialism , Family Conflict , Drug Users , Alcoholics , Social Stigma , Emergency Shelter , Social Discrimination , Social Marginalization , Food Deprivation , Frailty , Freedom , Self-Neglect , Solidarity , Life Course Perspective , Housing Instability , Social Status , Citizenship , Family Support , Health Services Needs and Demand , Human Rights , Income , Mental Disorders
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e252476, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448942

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a vivência de trabalho precoce de adolescentes e jovens em cumprimento de medida socioeducativa, no estado da Paraíba. Os instrumentos utilizados foram um Questionário Mosquito Diagnóstico e uma Entrevista Semiestruturada. A análise foi realizada com o software Iramuteq, (Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires), através da Análise Hierárquica Descendente, que gerou seis classes: significado do trabalho; infância e escola; condições objetivas de vida; trabalho, drogas e ato infracional; consequências do trabalho infantil; e trabalho infantojuvenil. A perspectiva teórica utilizada foi a psicologia histórico-cultural e os dados discutidos a partir do conceito de vivência. Conclui-se que as vivências e situações sociais de desenvolvimento foram caracterizadas pelo trabalho precoce que oportunizou o envolvimento com atos infracionais e as instituições responsáveis pela garantia de direitos em vez de garantir a proteção social, criminalizaram por meio de medidas socioeducativas.(AU)


This article aims to analyze the experience of child labor of adolescents and youngsters that are complying a social-educational measure, in the State of Paraíba. The instruments utilized were a Questionnaire Mosquito Diagnóstico and a Semi-Structured Interview. The analysis was performed by using the Iramuteq software (Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires), by using Descending Hierarchical Analysis, which generated six classes: meaning of labor; childhood and school; objective conditions of life; labor, drugs, and act of infraction; consequences of child labor; and child labor. The theoretical perspective used was historical-cultural psychology and the data were discussed from the concept of experience. It was concluded that the experiences and social situations of development were characterized by child labor, which enabled the involvement with acts of infraction; and the institutions responsible for guaranteeing rights, instead of guaranteeing social protection, criminalized by using social-educational measures.(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la vivencia precoz de adolescentes y jóvenes que cumplen medidas socioeducativas en el estado de Paraíba (Brasil). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron un Cuestionario Mosquito Diagnóstico y una entrevista semiestructurada. El análisis se realizó con el software Iramuteq (Interface de R pour les Multidimensionnelles Analyzes de Textes et de Questionnaires), mediante análisis jerárquico descendente, que generó seis clases: Significado del trabajo; Infancia y escuela; Condiciones objetivas de vida; Trabajo, drogas y acto de infracción; Consecuencias del trabajo infantil; y Trabajo infantojuvenil. La perspectiva teórica que se utilizó fue la psicología histórico-cultural, y los datos se discutieron desde el concepto de vivencia. Se concluye que las vivencias y situaciones sociales de desarrollo se caracterizaron por trabajo infantil que permitió la participación en infracciones y que las instituciones responsables de garantizar los derechos en lugar de la protección social los criminalizaron mediante medidas socioeducativas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Child Labor , Adolescent , Education , Personality , Play and Playthings , Poverty , Prejudice , Sex Work , Psychology , Public Policy , Punishment , Schools , Self Concept , Social Change , Social Class , Social Conditions , Social Support , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Stereotyping , Student Dropouts , Suicide, Attempted , Theft , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Work Hours , Child Abuse, Sexual , Mainstreaming, Education , Occupational Risks , Accidents, Occupational , Family , Illicit Drugs , Child, Abandoned , Child Advocacy , Child, Institutionalized , Child Welfare , Self-Injurious Behavior , Civil Rights , Family Planning Policy , Sexual Harassment , Communication , Adult , Legislation , Counseling , Crime , Dangerous Behavior , Adolescent Health , Death , Deinstitutionalization , Friends , Minors , Aggression , Human Rights Abuses , Educational Status , Employment , Health Vulnerability , Job Market , Bullying , Remuneration , Social Discrimination , Drug Trafficking , Enslaved Persons , Social Capital , Emotional Adjustment , Underage Drinking , Literacy , Help-Seeking Behavior , Self-Control , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Psychosocial Support Systems , Work-Life Balance , Frailty , Survivorship , Recidivism , Academic Failure , Adverse Childhood Experiences , Cyberbullying , Data Analysis , Involuntary Commitment , Return to School , Sustenance , Emotional Abuse , Financial Stress , Life Course Perspective , Housing Instability , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Homicide , Household Work , Human Rights , Institutionalization , Juvenile Delinquency , Language , Mental Health Services
11.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1520895

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo visa avaliar, através de uma revisão narrativa da literatura, como o controle do Estado exerceu ao longo da história do Brasil a regulamentação do uso de drogas. Método Foram consultados livros, artigos de periódicos acadêmicos indexados, trabalhos completos apresentados em congressos e documentos históricos disponíveis na internet relativos ao tema. Resultados A primeira legislação penal em relação ao uso de drogas surge apenas no Brasil império. Nesse período começam a surgir também os primeiros problemas devido ao uso de drogas. A criação de cursos superiores nas áreas de saúde e de ciências naturais veio a formar profissionais capacitados na manipulação e fiscalização de produtos químicos e farmacêuticos. Com o tempo, observando-se os efeitos, algumas substâncias passam a ser proscritas. Conclusão Por toda história do país, o uso e a regulação das drogas, permearam todas as épocas influenciando na cultura, educação e no modo de vida da população. Atualmente há um grande debate acerca das políticas sobre drogas no Brasil, principalmente sobre a maconha e seus usos terapêuticos, mostrando novamente a influência do Estado sobre a saúde e a segurança da população.


The present study aims to evaluate, through a narrative review of the literature, how State's control has exercised regulation of drug use throughout the history of Brazil. Method Books, articles from indexed academic journals, complete works presented at conferences and historical documents available on the internet relating to the topic were consulted. Results The first criminal legislation related to drug use only appeared in Imperial Brazil. During this period, the first problems due to drug use also begin to appear. The creation of higher education courses in the areas of health and natural sciences resulted in the training of professionals capable of handling and supervising chemical and pharmaceutical products. Over time, observing the effects, some substances become proscribed. Conclusion Throughout the country's history, the use and regulation of drugs has permeated all eras, influencing culture, education and the population's way of life. There is currently a great debate about drug policies in Brazil, mainly regarding marijuana and its therapeutic uses, once again showing the influence of the State on the health and safety of the population.


Subject(s)
Toxicology , Brazil , Illicit Drugs , Recreational Drug Use , Legislation, Drug
12.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 57(spe): e20230032, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1521574

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify condom use and drug consumption in migrants, as well as the association between these variables. Method: A systematic search was carried out for articles published in Spanish and English (2017-2022), in PubMed, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE, Elsevier, Scielo, Redalyc, with eligible studies reporting on condom use and drug consumption, and their association. Results: The search strategy found 147 articles with the combination of terms and other sources. After excluding articles by title, abstract, and finding that they had the study variables, eight articles were included for qualitative analysis and only three met the criteria for quantitative analysis. Conclusion: Drug consumption favors inconsistent condom use, increasing the risk of acquiring an STI, and can lead to other mental health issues derived from the use of these substances.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar o uso de preservativo e o consumo de drogas em migrantes, bem como a associação entre essas variáveis. Método: Foi realizada uma busca sistemática de artigos publicados em espanhol e inglês (2017-2022), em PubMed, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE, Elsevier, Scielo, Redalyc, com estudos elegíveis relatando o uso de preservativos e consumo de drogas, e sua associação. Resultados: Com a estratégia de busca foram identificados 147 artigos com a combinação de termos e outras fontes. Após eliminar os artigos por título, resumo e identificar que continham as variáveis do estudo, oito artigos foram incluídos para análise qualitativa e apenas três atenderam aos critérios para análise quantitativa. Conclusão: O consumo de drogas estimula o uso inconsistente do preservativo, o que aumenta o risco de aquisição de uma IST, além de outros problemas de saúde mental decorrentes do consumo dessas substâncias.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar el uso del condón y el consumo de drogas en migrantes, así como la asociación entre estas variables. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de artículos publicados en español e inglés (2017-2022), en PubMed, EBSCO, WEB of SCIENCE, Elsevier, Scielo, Redalyc, siendo que los estudios elegibles informaron sobre el uso del condón y el consumo de drogas, y su asociación Resultados: Con la estrategia de búsqueda se identificaron 147 artículos con la combinación de términos y de otras fuentes. Después de la eliminación de artículos por título, resumen, identificar que cuenten con las variables de estudio, se incluyeron ocho artículos para el análisis cualitativo y únicamente tres cumplieron con los criterios para el análisis cuantitativo. Conclusión: El consumo de drogas favorece el uso inconstante del condón, y esto incrementa el riesgo de adquirir alguna ITS, además de otras cuestiones de salud mental derivadas del consumo de estas sustancias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Substance-Related Disorders , Emigrants and Immigrants , Illicit Drugs , Condoms
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255714, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529210

ABSTRACT

Uma das demandas centrais das pessoas em situação de rua é a dificuldade de acesso a trabalho e renda, o que tanto pode levá-las a essa circunstância como dificultar sua saída das ruas. Nessa direção, em parceria com o Movimento Nacional da População em Situação de Rua em Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (MNPR/RN), Brasil, realizamos projeto de extensão com os objetivos de fortalecer as ações de geração de renda para os militantes do referido movimento e para o movimento em si e de promover a organização coletiva e política dos militantes do MNPR/RN em torno da pauta trabalho. Baseamo-nos na Economia Solidária para elaborar ações de geração de renda e fortalecimento político, e na Psicologia Social do Trabalho para informar sobre as intervenções realizadas pela equipe extensionista. Como estratégia de ação, foram realizados cinco bazares solidários em 2019, os quais envolveram militantes do MNPR/RN e extensionistas em reuniões preparatórias, arrecadação de materiais e efetivação dos bazares. Avaliou-se que os bazares foram uma ótima estratégia para a arrecadação de fundos para o movimento e a geração de renda imediata para os militantes envolvidos, mas que não garantiram a médio e longo prazo a renda dessas pessoas. Também possibilitaram o fortalecimento da autonomia, da participação ativa como trabalhadores e trabalhadoras e do aprendizado mútuo sobre princípios da Economia Solidária.(AU)


One of the main demands of people living on the streets is the difficulty in accessing work and income, which can either lead them to this circumstance or make it difficult for them to leave the streets. In this direction, in partnership with the National Movement of Homeless Population in Natal, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (Movimento Nacional População de Rua - MNPR/RN), we carried out an extension project with the objectives of strengthening the actions to generate income for the militants of the referred movement and for the movement itself and to promote the collective and political organization of the MNPR/RN militants around the work agenda. We start with the Solidarity Economy for the elaboration of actions to generate income and political strengthening, and from the Social Psychology of Work to inform about the interventions carried out by the extension team. As an action strategy, five solidarity bazaars were held in 2019, involving MNPR/RN militants and extension workers in preparatory meetings, collection of materials, and holding the bazaars. The bazaars were considered an excellent strategy for raising funds for the movement and generating immediate income for the activists involved, but that they could not guarantee the income of these people in the medium and long term. It also allowed for the strengthening of autonomy, active participation as a female or male worker, and mutual learning on the principles of Solidarity Economy.(AU)


Una de las principales demandas de las personas en situación de calle es la dificultad para acceder al trabajo y a los ingresos, lo que puede llevarlos a esta situación o dificultarles su salida de la calle. En este sentido, en colaboración con el Movimiento Nacional de Población en Situación de Calle en Natal/RN (MNPR/RN), realizamos un proyecto de extensión con los objetivos de fortalecer las acciones de generación de ingresos para los activistas del referido movimiento y para el movimiento en sí y de promover la organización colectiva y política de los activistas del MNPR/RN en torno a las normas del trabajo. Partimos de la economía solidaria para desarrollar acciones de generación de ingresos y de fortalecimiento político, y desde la Psicología Social del Trabajo para informar de las intervenciones que realiza el equipo de extensión. Como estrategia de acción, en el 2019 se realizaron cinco ferias solidarias, en las cuales participaron activistas y grupos de extensión del MNPR/RN en reuniones preparatorias, recolección de materiales y realización de las ferias. Se consideró que las ferias son una excelente estrategia para recaudar fondos para el movimiento y generar ingresos inmediatos para los activistas involucrados, pero no pueden garantizar los ingresos de estas personas a mediano y largo plazo. También permiten fortalecer la autonomía, la participación activa como trabajador y trabajadora, y el aprendizaje mutuo sobre los principios de la economía solidaria.(AU)


Subject(s)
Psychology, Social , Work , Ill-Housed Persons , Economics , Solidarity , Income , Poverty , Prejudice , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Rest , Retirement , Safety , Self Care , Self Concept , Social Change , Social Conditions , Social Desirability , Social Isolation , Social Planning , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Social Work , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Stereotyping , Unemployment , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Population Characteristics , Body Image , Brazil , Family , Illicit Drugs , Hygiene , Mental Health , Hunger , Workplace , Community-Institutional Relations , Privacy , Credentialing , Shelter , Capitalism , Democracy , Dehumanization , Gift Giving , Human Rights Abuses , Diet , Education , Educational Status , Health Status Disparities , Job Market , User Embracement , Products Commerce , Family Conflict , Social Stigma , Social Participation , Binge Drinking , Social Discrimination , Social Marginalization , Sociological Factors , Literacy , Social Segregation , Survivorship , Academic Failure , Self-Management , Freedom , Self-Neglect , Right to Health , Right to Work , Workhouses , Freedom of Movement , Food Insecurity , Housing Instability , Health Disparate, Minority and Vulnerable Populations , Access to Healthy Foods , Home Environment , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Working Conditions , Health Policy , Holidays , Housing , Human Rights , Individuation , Interpersonal Relations , Labor Unions , Leisure Activities , Occupations
14.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244329, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422404

ABSTRACT

Este artigo relaciona o paradigma manicomial, relativo à assistência psiquiátrica, à compreensão e ao manejo do campo da saúde mental, ao paradigma proibicionista, referente ao porte, uso e à circulação de drogas, como duas séries de políticas e práticas sociais que operam a guerra de raças que está na base do Estado brasileiro. Com isso, propomos uma investigação arqueogenealógica acerca do emaranhado de condições de emergência das práticas e objetos de saber-poder mobilizados por esses dois paradigmas, atentando ao caráter político das verdades que as sustentam. Dedicamo-nos especialmente ao período entre o final do século XIX e o começo do XX ao interrogar as dinâmicas de forças que constituem as práticas sociais e seus efeitos de subjetivação, produzidos pela sujeição de corpos por meio de uma diversidade de mecanismos morais, disciplinares, eugênicos, higienistas e biopolíticos que articulam os anseios de modernização e produtividade do Estado brasileiro à gestão dos problemas de saúde e segurança do país, colocando a pobreza, o vício e a doença como desdobramento da sua constituição racial. Concluímos, por fim, que o conflito de raças aparece como fundo intrínseco que se atualiza no cerne e a partir dos campos problemáticos da saúde mental e das drogas, colocando como saída dos impasses sociais e políticos eliminar ou pelo menos diluir, via miscigenação ou submissão para integração, o elemento físico e cultural do negro do Brasil.(AU)


This article puts in relation the asylum paradigm, associated to psychiatric care, to the understanding and management of the mental health field, to the prohibitionist paradigm, that refers to the possession, use and circulation of drugs, as two series of social policies and practices that operate racial war that is in the base of the Brazilian State. So on, we propose an archeogenealogical investigation about the emergency conditions of the practices and objects of knowledge-power organized by these two paradigms, paying attention to the political character of the truths that support them. Looking especially at the period between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, we questioned the dynamics of forces that constitute social practices and their effects of subjectivation, produced by the subjection of bodies through moral, disciplinary, eugenic, hygienist and biopolitics mechanisms that articulate the modernization and productivity aspirations of the Brazilian State to the management of the country's health and safety problems, understanding poverty, addiction and disease as consequences of its racial constitution. We conclude that the conflict of races is an intrinsic background that is updated at the heart of the problematic fields of mental health and drugs. Considering this, the solution for social and political impasses is the elimination or at least dilution, through miscegenation or submission for integration, of the physical and cultural element of black people in Brazil.(AU)


Este artículo relaciona el paradigma asilar de atención psiquiátrica, comprensión y manejo del campo de la salud mental, con el paradigma prohibicionista, referente a al uso y circulación de drogas, como dos series de políticas y prácticas sociales que operan la guerra racial que está en el fundamento del Estado brasileño. Así, proponemos una investigación arqueogenealógica sobre las condiciones de emergencia de prácticas y objetos de saber-poder movilizados por estos dos paradigmas, prestando atención al carácter político de las verdades que los sustentan. Nos dedicamos especialmente al período entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX buscando la dinámica de fuerzas que constituyen a las prácticas sociales y sus efectos de subjetivación, producidos por la sujeción de los cuerpos a través de una diversidad de mecanismos morales, disciplinarios, eugenésicos, higienistas y biopolíticos que articulan las aspiraciones de modernización y productividad del Estado brasileño a la gestión de los problemas de salud y seguridad del país, comprendiendo la pobreza, la adicción y la enfermedad como resultado de su constitución racial. Finalmente, concluimos que el conflicto racial aparece como un trasfondo intrínseco que se actualiza en el cerne y desde los campos problemáticos de la salud mental y de las drogas, tomando como soluciones a los impasses sociales y políticos nacionales, la eliminación o al menos la dilución, a través del mestizaje o de la sumisión para fines de integración, del elemento físico y cultural del negro en Brasil.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Illicit Drugs , Mental Health , Public Health , Racial Groups , Pathology Department, Hospital , Physiology , Prejudice , Primary Prevention , Psychiatry , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Psychomotor Agitation , Social Alienation , Social Work , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Legislation, Labor , Black or African American , Bronchitis , Cannabis , Family , Dopamine , Poverty Areas , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Cure in Homeopathy , Population Control , Civil Rights , Cocaine , Community Health Services , Substance-Related Disorders , Disaster Vulnerability , Culture , Personal Autonomy , Dangerous Behavior , Aggression , Depression , Growth and Development , Ethanol , Humanization of Assistance , Ethics , Fetishism, Psychiatric , Racism , Medicalization , Criminal Behavior , Social Segregation , Freedom , Workhouses , Mania , Hallucinations , Anthropology, Cultural
15.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e247962, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1422424

ABSTRACT

Resumo Conceitos como o de alteridade, encontro de saberes, polifasia cognitiva, o princípio de familiaridade e de representações sociais operaram na complexa tarefa de compreender como os encontros entre profissionais e usuários sustentavam e/ou transformavam as práticas de acolhimento. Entretanto, a experiência da minha pesquisa de doutorado me levou a questionar os próprios conceitos utilizados da Teoria das Representações Sociais. Ao final do ensaio, após discutir aspectos teórico-metodológicos, o princípio de familiaridade e a questão da tensão e dos afetos nas representações sociais, espero evidenciar como o movimento provocado pelo encontro com usuários e profissionais de uma Rede de Atenção Psicossocial levou-me a questionar pontos essenciais da teoria: o papel domesticador das representações, a forma ainda estática de evidenciar os fenômenos, a separação entre um sujeito que representa e o objeto representado e a dificuldade em usar suas ferramentas conceituais para acompanhar processos me fazem repensar meu lugar e minha função de pesquisador.


Abstract Concepts such as alterity, encounter of knowledge, cognitive polyphasia, the principle of familiarity and the very concept of social representations operated in the complex task of understanding how the encounters between professionals and users supported and / or transformed user embracement practices. However, the experience of my doctoral research led me to question the very concepts used in the Theory of Social Representations. At the end of the essay, after discussing theoretical and methodological aspects, the principle of familiarity and the issue of tension and affects in social representations, I hope to show how the movement caused by the encounter with users and professionals of a Psychosocial Care Network, led me to question essential points of the theory: the domesticating role of representations, the still static way of showing phenomena, the separation between a subject that represents and the object represented and the difficulty in using their conceptual tools to accompany processes makes me rethink my place and role as a researcher.


Resumen Conceptos como la alteridad, el encuentro de saberes, la polifasia cognitiva, el principio de familiaridad y el concepto mismo de representaciones sociales operaron en la compleja tarea de comprender cómo los encuentros entre profesionales y usuarios apoyaron y / o transformaron las prácticas de acogimiento. Sin embargo, la experiencia de mi investigación doctoral me llevó a cuestionar los propios conceptos utilizados en la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales. Al final del ensayo, después de discutir aspectos teóricos y metodológicos, el principio de familiaridad y el tema de tensión y afectos en las representaciones sociales, Espero mostrar cómo el movimiento provocado por el encuentro con usuarios y profesionales de una Red de Atención Psicosocial, me llevó a cuestionar puntos esenciales de la teoría: el rol domesticador de las representaciones, la forma todavía estática de mostrar los fenómenos, la separación entre un sujeto que representa y el objeto representado y la dificultad para utilizar sus herramientas conceptuales para acompañar procesos, me hace repensar mi lugar y rol como investigador.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychology, Social , Qualitative Research , Social Representation , Pain , Politics , Prejudice , Psychiatry , Psychology , Public Policy , Rehabilitation , Sex Offenses , Social Isolation , Social Support , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms , Thinking , Unemployment , Health Surveillance , Ill-Housed Persons , Family , Illicit Drugs , Hygiene , Mental Health , Crack Cocaine , Life , Substance-Related Disorders , Affective Symptoms , State , Aggression , Depressive Disorder , Economics , Empathy , Methodology as a Subject , User Embracement , Ethics , Mental Fatigue , Drug Users , Drug Overdose , Compassion Fatigue , Emotional Adjustment , Pessimism , Psychological Trauma , Psychiatric Rehabilitation , Occupational Stress , Incivility , Survivorship , Worldview , Freedom , Self-Neglect , Solidarity , Psychological Distress , Food Insecurity , Home Environment , Social Vulnerability , Homicide , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Intelligence , Life Change Events , Loneliness , Mental Disorders
16.
Licere (Online) ; 25(4): 154-180, 12.2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428141

ABSTRACT

Como pesquisadores, que vivem o esporte, nos engajamos no deslinde de compreender sobre as relações esporte, drogas e juventudes. Nesse sentido, alguns estudos demonstram o esporte como artefato salvacionista para as juventudes no sentido de não-uso de drogas. Esses dados dão suporte à visão de que somado à lacuna de estudos no GESEF/UFRGS no que tange ao uso das drogas, cotejaram o objetivo principal desta investigação, que visa em compreender, por meio do uso de uma análise dos eixos norteadores dos estudos sobre esse universo, as teias de significados que essa tríade se configura. Ao analisar esse conjunto, podemos perceber como a juventude e as drogas coexistem nesse espaço, e o esporte não é necessariamente um meio de salvação.


As researchers who experience sport, we are engaged in trying to understand the relationship between sport, drugs and youth. In this sense, some studies demonstrate sport as a salvationist artifact for youths in the sense of not using drugs. These data support the view that, in addition to the lack of studies in the GESEF/UFRGS regarding drug use, they collated the main objective of this investigation, which aims to understand, through the use of an analysis of the guiding axes of studies on this universe, the webs of meanings that this triad configures. By analyzing this set, we can see how youth and drugs coexist in this space, and sport is not necessarily a means of salvation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Sports , Illicit Drugs , Adolescent
17.
Rev. enferm. Cent.-Oeste Min ; 12: 4426, nov. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1413084

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: estimar a prevalência de consumo de drogas por gestantes que realizavam pré-natal de baixo risco na atenção primária de saúde.Método: estudo observacional, transversal, realizado com 270 gestantes, em 14 unidades básicas de saúde de dois municípios do noroeste do Paraná, com altos índices de vulnerabilidade social. Utilizou-se formulário estruturado, características sociodemográficas, dados gestacionais e de uso de drogas pela gestante, e família e estatística descritiva. Resultados:eram pardas/negras, idade materna de 25 a 35 anos, com mínimo nove anos de instrução, companheiro fixo e multigestas. A prevalência do consumo de drogas, em poliuso, foi 46,2%: tabaco, 28,5%; álcool, 14%, e maconha, 3,3%.O uso de drogas apresentou padrão intergeracional e o companheiro utilizava drogas similares à gestante.Conclusão:destaca se a alta prevalência do envolvimento com drogas por gestantes e limitações e desafios dos profissionais de saúde para a detecção precoce do uso


Objective:to estimate the prevalence of drug use by pregnant women undergoing low-risk prenatal care in primary health care. Method:observational and cross-sectional study, carried out with 270 pregnant women, in 14 basic health units in two municipalities in northwestern Paraná, with high levels of social vulnerability. A structured form was used, sociodemographic characteristics, gestational data and drug use by the pregnant woman and her family, and descriptive statistics. Results:they were brown/black, maternal age from 25 to 35 years old, with a minimum of nine years of education, a steady partner and multipregnant. The prevalence of drug use, in polyuse, was 46.2%: tobacco, 28.5%; alcohol, 14%, and marijuana, 3.3%. The use of drugs showed an intergenerational pattern and the partner used drugs similar to the pregnant woman. Conclusion:the high prevalence of involvement with drugs by pregnant women and the limitations and challenges of health professionals for the early detection of use is highlighted.


Objetivo:estimar la prevalencia del uso de drogas entre las mujeres embarazadas que recibieron atención prenatal de bajo riesgo en la atención primaria de salud. Método:estudio observacional y transversal, realizado con 270 mujeres embarazadas, en 14 unidades básicas de salud en dos municipios del noroeste de Paraná, con altos niveles de vulnerabilidad social. Se utilizó un formulario estructurado, con características sociodemográficas, datos gestacionales y de consumo de drogas por parte de la gestante y su familia, y estadística descriptiva. Resultados:eran morenas/negras, edad materna de 25 a 35 años, con un mínimo de nueve años de educación, pareja estable y gestaciones múltiples. La prevalencia de consumo de drogas, en poliusos, fue del 46,2%: tabaco, 28,5%; alcohol, 14%, y marihuana, 3,3%. El consumo de drogas mostró un patrón intergeneracional y la pareja consumió drogas similares a la gestante. Conclusión:se destaca la alta prevalencia de involucramiento con drogas por parte de gestantes y las limitaciones y desafíos de los profesionales de la salud para la detección precoz del consumo


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy , Illicit Drugs , Maternal-Child Nursing , Substance-Related Disorders
18.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 595-600, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984152

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish a combined high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to detect the synthetic cannabinoid CUMYL-PEGACLONE in e-cigarette oil and hair.@*METHODS@#HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS were used to establish the detection method of CUMYL-PEGACLONE, and the hair of drug-involved persons and the seized e-cigarette oil were detected.@*RESULTS@#The main mass spectrometry characteristic ions m/z of CUMYL-PEGACLONE measured by GC-MS were 91, 179, 197, 254 and 372. CUMYL-PEGACLONE had a good linear relationship in the mass concentration range of 2-50 ng/mL, and the linear correlation coefficient (r) was greater than 0.99. The limit of detection (LOD) of CUMYL-PEGACLONE in hair was 0.01 ng/mg, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.02 ng/mg. The LOD of CUMYL-PEGACLONE in e-cigarette oil was 1 ng/mg, and the LOQ was 2 ng/mg. The average recoveries of CUMYL-PEGACLONE under the attempt at high, intermediate and low levels in blank human hair and e-cigarette oil matrix were 98.2%-132.4% and 93.5%-110.6%, and the intraday and intraday precision were 1.2%-12.9% and 0.7%-2.9%. CUMYL-PEGACLONE was detected in the hair of 15 drug-involved persons. Except for 1 person who was lower than LOQ, the concentration of CUMYL-PEGACLONE in the hair of other 14 persons was 0.035-0.563 ng/mg. The mass fraction of CUMYL-PEGACLONE in 2 e-cigarette oil were 0.17% and 0.21%, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The established HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods are applied to the detection of HPLC-MS/MS in drug-related cases, which provides strong evidence support for the handling authority to quickly investigate these cases, and also provides a reference for the identification of such substances in future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Illicit Drugs/analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Cannabinoids , Hair/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Substance Abuse Detection/methods
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 380-386, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935399

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the correlation between club drug use and anal canal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Taizhou. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Taizhou. HIV-negative MSM were recruited by convenient sampling in voluntary counseling and testing clinics of Taizhou prefectural CDC from August 2016 to October 2017, and HIV-positive MSM were recruited through the routine follow-up and management by Taizhou prefectural CDC from August 2016 to June 2019. A face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted to collect the information about the socio-demographic characteristics, sexual orientation, sexual behavior, club drug use and other information of the participants. Anal canal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. The correlation between club drug use and the prevalence of HPV infection were evaluated with χ2 test and logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 69 HIV-negative and 345 HIV-infected MSM were included. The prevalence of any type of anal canal HPV infection in HIV-negative MSM (27.5%, 19/69) was lower than that in HIV-positive MSM (66.4%, 229/345) (χ2=36.114,P<0.001). The prevalence of self-reported club drug use in HIV-negative MSM was higher (17.4%, 12/69) than that in HIV-positive MSM (7.0%, 24/345) (χ2=7.886, P=0.005). For HIV-negative MSM, the prevalence of club drug use was higher in MSM who had homosexual group sex (P=0.036); the prevalence of HPV infection was 50.0% (6/12) in club drug users and 22.8% (13/57) in non-club drug users (χ2=3.674, P=0.055). For HIV-positive MSM, the prevalence of HPV infection was 70.8% (17/24) in club drug users and 66.0% (212/321) in non-club drug users (χ2=0.230, P=0.632). Multivariable logistic regression model showed that HPV infection in MSM was positively correlated with HIV infection (OR=5.42, 95%CI: 2.92-10.06), and the association between HPV infection and club drug use (OR=1.66, 95%CI: 0.75-3.71) was not significant. Conclusions: HIV infection was positively correlated with anal canal HPV infection in MSM in Taizhou. Club drug use was positively correlated with high-risk sexual behaviors, while its association with HPV infection needs further study.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Anal Canal , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections , Homosexuality, Male , Illicit Drugs , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections , Risk Factors , Sexual Behavior , Sexual and Gender Minorities
20.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE0305345, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1374015

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o aprendizado de pessoas com deficiência visual após participação em jogo educativo sobre drogas psicoativas. Métodos Pesquisa quase-experimental, realizada em uma associação de cegos e em laboratório experimental de ensino de saúde de uma universidade, com 60 cegos maiores de 18 anos, com cegueira ou baixa visão, alfabetizados em Braille ou capazes de ler textos com letras ampliadas. Foi aplicado o jogo educativo de tabuleiro "Drogas: jogando limpo", que contempla conteúdo sobre o conceito, tipos de drogas, prejuízos, fatores de risco, situações envolvendo o uso das drogas e fatores de proteção/prevenção. Aprendizagem foi avaliada em entrevista individual, antes e após aplicação do jogo com questões organizadas por níveis de complexidades. Comparação do número de acertos avaliados pelo teste McNemar. Resultados Questões de baixa complexidade apresentaram diferença significativa (p=0,0001) nos acertos após uso do jogo e elevado índice de acertos antes e após (81,7% e 98,3%). Não houve diferença estatística nas questões de média e alta complexidade. Conclusão O jogo Drogas: jogando limpo, contribuiu, de forma significativa, para a aprendizagem das pessoas com deficiência visual, representando estratégia de inclusão de individuos com deficiência no acesso à informação.


Resumen Objetivo Evaluar el aprendizaje de personas con discapacidad visual después de la participación en juego educativo sobre drogas psicoactivas. Métodos Investigación cuasi experimental, realizada en una asociación de ciegos y en un laboratorio experimental de enseñanza de salud de una universidad, con 60 ciegos de más de 18 años, con ceguera o con baja visión, alfabetizados en Braille con capacidad para leer textos con letras ampliadas. Se aplicó un juego educativo de tablero "Drogas: jugando limpio", que contempla contenidos sobre el concepto, tipos de drogas, perjuicios, factores de riesgo, situaciones que involucran el uso de drogas y factores de protección/prevención. El aprendizaje fue evaluado en entrevista individual, antes y después de la aplicación del juego con preguntas organizadas por niveles de complejidad. Comparación del número de aciertos evaluados por la prueba McNemar. Resultados Preguntas de baja complejidad presentaron diferencias significativas (p=0,0001) en los aciertos después del uso del juego y elevado índice de aciertos antes y después (81,7 % y 98,3 %). No hubo diferencia estadística en las preguntas de mediana y alta complejidad. Conclusión El juego Drogas: jugando limpio, contribuyó, de forma significativa, para el aprendizaje de las personas con discapacidad visual, lo que representa una estrategia de inclusión de personas con discapacidad para el acceso a la información.


Abstract Objective Evaluate the learning of visually disabled people after participating in an educational game about psychoactive drugs. Methods Quasi-experimental research, conducted in an association of the blind and in an experimental laboratory of health teaching at a university, involving 60 blind people over the age of 18, blind or with low vision, literate in Braille or able to read texts with enlarged letters. The educational board game "Drugs: playing fair" was applied, which covers content on the concept, types of drugs, harms, risk factors, situations involving the use of drugs and protection/prevention factors. Learning was evaluated in an individual interview, before and after the application of the game, with questions organized by levels of complexity. Comparison of the number of hits evaluated using the McNemar test. Results Questions of low complexity presented a significant difference (p=0.0001) in the hits after using the game and a high index of hits before and after (81.7% and 98.3%). There was no statistical difference in the medium and high complexity questions. Conclusion The game Drugs: playing fair, significantly contributed to the learning of people with visual disabilities, representing a strategy to include individuals with disabilities in the access to information.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Play and Playthings , Illicit Drugs , Blindness , Vision, Low , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Education of Visually Disabled , Health Promotion , Vision Disorders , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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