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1.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(supl.1): e1614, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289470

ABSTRACT

Uno de los desafíos que los programadores tienen que enfrentar es la alta dimensión de grupos de datos. El proceso de reconocimiento de patrones en imagen y la minería de datos para los volúmenes grandes de información son ejemplos de ellos, optimizar la cantidad de veces que se recorre el conjunto de datos, disminuye el tiempo de procesamiento. Éste documento tiene el objetivo de caracterizar el algoritmo de tres pasos (S3), paralelo a K-medias, como una alternativa para afrontar la alta dimensión del conjunto de datos, en la clasificación no supervisada de imagen. Para el análisis de la concurrencia, se escoge, flujo de datos y el esquema instrucción única con datos múltiples. El resultado obtenido confirma que la concurrencia en ambos es posible, S3 no depende de la selección inicial de los representantes y puede ser el proceso de escogimiento de los primeros vectores centrales en K-medias. S3 es una alternativa a ser tenida en cuenta en la clasificación no supervisada de imágenes médicas y procesos de minería de datos(AU)


One of the challenges to be faced by programmers is the large dimensions of data groups. The process of pattern recognition in images and data mining for great volumes of information is an example. Optimizing the number of times that the set of data is run saves processing time. The purpose of the study was to characterize the three-step (S3) algorithm, parallel to k-means, as an alternative to cope with the large dimension of the data set in unsupervised image classification. Concurrence analysis is based on data flow and the single instruction multiple data scheme. The result obtained confirms that concurrence of both is possible. S3 does not depend on initial selection of representatives, and may be the process for selection of the first central vectors in k-means. S3 is an alternative to be considered in the unsupervised classification of medical images and data mining(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Algorithms , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Records
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1296-1301, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134439

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La Microscopía Virtual es una herramienta tecnológica que permite la visualización de imágenes digitales microscópicas de gran resolución a través de un computador imitando la funcionalidad de un microscopio óptico tradicional. El presente trabajo presenta nuestra experiencia en el uso de esta modalidad de trabajo, útil hoy en día, en medio de la pandemia por Covid-19.


SUMMARY: Virtual Microscopy is a technological tool that allows the visualization of high resolution microscopic digital images through a computer, imitating the functionality of a traditional light microscope. The present work presents our experience in the use of this working modality, useful today, in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Microscopy/methods , Virtual Reality , Microscopy/trends
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1325-1329, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134443

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To explore a new semi-automatic method to segment the teeth from the three-dimensional volume data which acquired from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner. Scanned dental cast models are used to evaluate the segmentation accuracy. The CBCT data are loaded to ORS software. Based on gray value, a semi-automatic method was used to segment teeth and then the segmented teeth were saved in STL format data. Smooth the mesh data in the Geomagic Studio software. The upper and lower dental cast models were scanned by a white light scanner and the data was saved in STL format too. After registering the model data to teeth data, the deviation between them was analyzed in the Geomagic Qualify. All teeth could be obtained, the method is simple to use and applied in orthodontic biomechanics. The entire process took less than 30 minutes. The actual measured Root Mean Square (RMS) value is 0.39 mm, less than 0.4 mm. This method can segment teeth from the jaw quickly and reliably with a little user intervention. The method has important significance for dental orthodontics, virtual jaw surgery simulation and other stomatology applications.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar un nuevo método semiautomático para segmentar los dientes a partir de datos de volumen tridimensional adquiridos mediante escáner de tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT). Los modelos escaneados de moldes dentales se utilizan para evaluar la precisión de la segmentación. Para los datos CBCT se utilizó el software ORS, y basado en el valor gris, se usó un método semiautomático para segmentar los dientes los que posteriormente se guardaron en datos de formato STL. Los datos se ingresaron en el software Geomagic Studio. Los modelo dentales superior e inferior se escanearon con un escáner de luz blanca y la información también se guardó en formato STL. Después del registro y comparación de los datos del modelo y los datos de los dientes, la desviación entre estos se analizó en el programa Geomagic Qualify. Usando este método fue posible obtener de forma fácil todos los dientes y además aplicar en la biomecánica de ortodoncia. El proceso completo demoró menos de 30 minutos. El valor real medido de la raíz cuadrada media fue de 0,39 mm, menos de 0,4 mm. Este método puede segmentar los dientes mandibulares de forma rápida y confiable, con una mínima intervención del usuario. El método tiene una importancia crítica para la ortodoncia, simulaciones virtuales de las cirugías de la mandíbula y otras aplicaciones en estomatología.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Orthodontics/methods , Tooth/anatomy & histology , Software
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1163-1171, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131502

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se, no primeiro experimento, avaliar o efeito da velocidade de captura de imagens de 25Hz, 30Hz e 50Hz na cinética dos espermatozoides equinos criopreservados. Todas as velocidades mostraram-se adequadas para capturar o movimento espermático (P>0,05). No segundo experimento, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da deposição de sêmen em lâmina sob lamínula, Leja®10 e 20, na cinética espermática. O uso de lâmina e lamínula foi superior às lejas para manter a LIN e o WOB (P<0,05). No terceiro experimento, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito das concentrações de 25, 50 e 100x106 na cinética espermática. As concentrações de 25 e 50 x106 foram superiores a 100x106 para preservar a LIN, a STR e a BCF e não afetar negativamente a motilidade (P<0,05). No quarto experimento, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos diluidores BotuCrio®, BotuSêmen®, TALP sperm e da solução fisiológica na cinética espermática. O BotuCrio® foi superior a todos os diluidores em preservar a BCF e os hiperativos (P<0,05). Conclui-se que o emprego da velocidade de captura entre 25 e 50Hz, a deposição do sêmen entre lâmina e lamínula e a rediluição em diluidor de congelação para atingir 25 a 50x106 de espermatozoides/mL são ideais para o SCA® avaliar, de forma fidedigna, o sêmen equino criopreservado.(AU)


The objective of the first experiment was to evaluate the effect of 25, 30 and 50Hz frame acquisition rate on equine cryopreserved sperm. All frame acquisition rates tested were adequate to capture the sperm movement (P>0.05). The aim of the second experiment was to evaluate the effect of chambers, slide-coverslip, Leja®10 and 20 on sperm movement. The use of slide-coverslip was superior to maintain LIN and WOB (P<0.05). The aim of the third experiment was to evaluate the effect of 25, 50 and 100x106 sperm/mL concentration on sperm movement. Concentrations of 25 and 50x106 sperm/mL were greater than 100x106 to preserve LIN, STR and BCF and did not adversely affect motility (P<0.05). The aim of the fourth experiment was to evaluate the effect of BotuCrio®, BotuSêmen®, TALP sperm and physiological solution on sperm movement. BotuCrio® was superior among other extenders in preserving BCF and hyperactive (P<0.05). It is concluded that the use of the frame acquisition rate between 25 and 50 Hz; the deposition of semen between slide and coverslip and new dilution in the freezing extender to 25-50x106 of sperm/mL is ideal to reliably evaluate cryopreserved equine semen by SCA®.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa/physiology , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Horses/physiology , Cryopreservation/veterinary
5.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(1)ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126554

ABSTRACT

Técnicas como la Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones y la Tomografía Computarizada permiten determinar la naturaleza maligna o benigna de un tumor y estudiar las estructuras anatómicas del cuerpo con imágenes de alta resolución, respectivamente. Investigadores a nivel internacional han utilizado diferentes técnicas para la fusión de la Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones y la Tomografía Computarizada porque permite observar las funciones metabólicas en correlación con las estructuras anatómicas. La presente investigación se propone realizar un análisis y selección de algoritmos que propicien la fusión de neuroimágenes, basado en la precisión de los mismos. De esta forma contribuir al desarrollo de software para la fusión sin necesidad de adquirir los costosos equipos de adquisición de imágenes de alto rendimiento, los cuales son costosos. Para el estudio se aplicaron los métodos Análisis documental, Histórico lógico e Inductivo deductivo. Se analizaron e identificaron las mejores variantes de algoritmos y técnicas para la fusión según la literatura reportada. A partir del análisis de estas técnicas se identifica como mejor variante el esquema de fusión basado en Wavelet para la fusión de las imágenes. Para el corregistro se propone la interpolación Bicúbica. Como transformada discreta de Wavelet se evidencia el uso de la de Haar. Además, la investigación propició desarrollar el esquema de fusión basado en las técnicas anteriores. A partir del análisis realizado se constataron las aplicaciones y utilidad de las técnicas de fusión como sustitución a los altos costos de adquisición de escáneres multifunción PET/CT para Cuba(AU)


Techniques such as Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography allow to determine the malignant or benign nature of a tumor and to study the anatomical structures of the body with high resolution images, respectively. International researchers have used different techniques for the fusion of Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography because it allows observing metabolic functions in correlation with anatomical structures. The present investigation proposes to carry out an analysis and selection of algorithms that favor the fusion of neuroimaging, based on their precision. In this way, contribute to the development of fusion software without the need to purchase expensive high-performance imaging equipment, which is expensive. For the study the documentary analysis, logical historical and deductive inductive methods were applied. The best algorithm variants and techniques for fusion were analyzed and identified according to the reported literature. From the analysis of these techniques, the Wavelet-based fusion scheme for image fusion is identified as the best variant. Bicubic interpolation is proposed for co-registration. As a discrete Wavelet transform, the use of Haar's is evidenced. In addition, the research led to the development of the fusion scheme based on the previous techniques. From the analysis carried out, the applications and usefulness of fusion techniques were verified as a substitute for the high costs of acquiring PET / CT multifunction scanners for Cuba(AU)


Subject(s)
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Software/standards , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Wavelet Analysis , Cuba
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 379-382, May-June 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130887

ABSTRACT

Abstract In situations in when a dermoscopic record of a large lesion is desirable, the resulting images are usually restricted to a small field of view due to the limited diameter of dermatoscope lenses. This limitation often produces several photographs separately, thus losing the possibility of a single-image global evaluation. In these case reports, we show examples of a recently published image montage technique called Wide Area Digital Dermoscopy, in this case, applied to basal cell carcinomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Skin Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Dermoscopy/methods , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Software , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Middle Aged
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(2): 127-131, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088964

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Inferior eyelid laxity is classically evaluated using "snap-back" and "distraction" tests. This study aimed to assess the reproducibility of the technique used to indirectly quantify the horizontal tension in the lower eyelids using digital image processing. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted to assess the reproducibility of a new technique that quantifies the horizontal tension in the lower eyelid. The study was conducted at the Hospital das Clínicas of Porto Alegre. The protocol was established by two trained ophthalmologist examiners, allowing intra- and interobserver agreement analyses. Image acquisition was done in two stages: the first image was captured with the eyelid in primary gaze position and the second with the eyelid in traction position. All images and measurements were processed using Image J 1.33m software from the National Institute of Health. The Bland-Altman method, intraclass correlation coefficients, concordance correlation coefficients, and technical measurement error were used to evaluate reproducibility. Results: The study participants comprised healthy individuals with no ophthalmologic pathologies. The measurements obtained in the neutral position showed a slightly higher agreement than those obtained in the traction position. The mean difference between the measurements performed in the traction position was 0.028 ± 0.7 mm and 0.014 ± 0.9 mm in the intra- and interobserver analyses, respectively. The Bland-Altman method demonstrated adequate confidence limits for both measurements. Correlation coefficients for measurements varied between 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.95] and 0.91 (95% CI 0.77-0.97) in the neutral position and between 0.72 (95% CI 0.37-0.89) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.4-0.91) in the traction position. Conclusion: A high intra- and interobserver concordance was observed in the studied method to quantify lower eyelid tension. The proposed method is simple and easily reproducible, and to the best our knowledge, this is the first method that quantifies lower eyelid horizontal tension on the basis of digital image processing. This modified distraction test might be useful in studies quantifying lower eyelid horizontal tension.


RESUMO Objetivo: A frouxidão palpebral inferior é avaliada classicamente por meio de testes de "snap-back" e "distraction test". O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a reprodutibilidade da técnica utilizada para quantificar indiretamente a tensão horizontal nas pálpebras inferiores através do processamento digital de imagens. Métodos: Este estudo longitudinal foi realizado para avaliar a reprodutibilidade de uma nova técnica que quantifica a tensão horizontal na pálpebra inferior. O estudo foi realizado no Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre. O protocolo foi estabelecido por dois examinadores oftalmologistas treinados, permitindo análises de concordância intra e interavaliador. A aquisição de imagens foi feita em duas etapas: a primeira imagem foi capturada com a pálpebra na posição primária do olhar e a segunda com pálpebra tracionada. Todas as imagens e medições foram processadas usando o software Image J 1.33m do National Institute of Health. O método de Bland-Altman, os coeficientes de correlação intraclasses, os coeficientes de correlação de concordância e o erro técnico da medida foram utilizados para avaliar a reprodutibilidade. Resultados: Os participantes do estudo foram indivíduos saudáveis e sem patologias oftalmológicas. As medidas obtidas na posição neutra mostraram concordância levemente maior do que as obtidas na posição tracionada. A diferença média entre as medidas realizadas na posição tracionada foi de 0,028 ± 0,7mm e 0,014 ± 0,9mm nas análises intra e interobservadores, respectivamente. O método de Bland-Altman demonstrou limites de confiança adequados para ambas as medidas. Os coeficientes de correlação para as medidas variaram entre 0,87 [intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC) 0,68-0,95) e 0,91 (IC 95% 0,77-0,97) na posição neutra e entre 0,72 (IC 95% 0,37-0,89) e 0,76 (IC 95% 0,46-0,91) na posição tracionada. Conclusão: Observou-se elevada concordância intra e interobservador no método estudado para quantificar a tensão palpebral inferior. O método proposto é simples e facilmente reproduzível, e, do melhor modo possível, este é o primeiro método que quantifica a tensão horizontal da pálpebra inferior com base no processamento digital de imagens. Este teste de distração modificado pode ser útil em estudos que quantifiquem a tensão horizontal da pálpebra inferior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/standards , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Eyelid Diseases/physiopathology , Eyelid Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Software , Photography/methods , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Eyelids/physiopathology , Eyelids/diagnostic imaging
8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4948, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090075

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To develop a computational algorithm applied to magnetic resonance imaging for automatic segmentation of brain tumors. Methods A total of 130 magnetic resonance images were used in the T1c, T2 and FSPRG T1C sequences and in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes of patients with brain cancer. The algorithms employed contrast correction, histogram normalization and binarization techniques to disconnect adjacent structures from the brain and enhance the region of interest. Automatic segmentation was performed through detection by coordinates and arithmetic mean of the area. Morphological operators were used to eliminate undesirable elements and reconstruct the shape and texture of the tumor. The results were compared with manual segmentations by two radiologists to determine the efficacy of the algorithms implemented. Results The correlated correspondence between the segmentation obtained and the gold standard was 89.23%. Conclusion It is possible to locate and define the tumor region automatically with no the need for user interaction, based on two innovative methods to detect brain extreme sites and exclude non-tumor tissues on magnetic resonance images.


RESUMO Objetivo Desenvolver um algoritmo computacional aplicado a imagens de ressonância magnética, para segmentação automática de tumores cerebrais. Métodos Foram utilizadas 130 imagens de ressonância magnética nas sequências T1c, T2 e FSPRG T1c e nos planos axial, sagital e coronal de pacientes acometidos com câncer cerebral. Os algoritmos empregaram técnicas de correção de contraste, normalização de histograma e binarização, para desconectar estruturas adjacentes do cérebro e realçar a região de interesse. A segmentação automática foi realizada por meio da detecção por coordenadas e por média aritmética da área. Operadores morfológicos foram utilizados para eliminar elementos indesejáveis e reconstruir a forma e a textura do tumor. Os resultados foram comparados com as segmentações manuais de dois médicos radiologistas, para determinar a eficácia dos algoritmos implementados. Resultados Os acertos foram de 89,23% na correspondência entre a segmentação obtida e o padrão-ouro. Conclusão É possível localizar e delimitar a região tumoral de forma automática, sem necessidade de interação com o usuário baseado em dois métodos inovadores de detecção dos extremos do cérebro e de exclusão dos tecidos não tumorais em imagens de ressonância magnética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Algorithms , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Reference Standards , Brain , Reproducibility of Results , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods
9.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 38e1-37e7, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989689

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the study was to verify and compare the accuracy of full-arch digital impressions obtained using two intraoral scanners and three scanning methodologies. Methods: A resin model created with dental 3-D printing was scanned by a reference scanner (Zfx Evolution - Zimmer Biomet, Palm Beach Gardens, FL) in order to obtain a 3D reference; the same resin model was then scanned with two different intraoral scanners (Zfx IntraScan and Carestream 3600 - CS 3600®, Carestream, Rochester, NY, USA) using: Technique A (from tooth #27 up to tooth #17); Technique B (from tooth #11 up to tooth #17 and then from tooth #21 up to tooth #27) and Technique C (from tooth #22 up to tooth #17, and then from tooth #12 up to tooth #27 - the MeshLab software v. 1.3.3 was then used to match the two scans). The scans obtained were superimposed over the reference scan by means of a software, and the volumetric discrepancies were calculated. Results: The mean results for the Zfx Intrascan scanner were: Technique A = 302.47 ± 37.42 µm; Technique B = 180.45 ± 29.86 µm; Technique C = 147.34 ± 28.23 µm. The mean results for the Carestream 3600 scanner were: Technique A = 303.59 ± 40.20 µm; Technique B = 181.53 ± 29.61 µm; Technique C = 142.28 ± 35.33 µm. Technique C, used by both scanners, produced less volumetric discrepancies compared to the other techniques. Conclusions: The scanning technique had a statistically significant effect on the quality of the scan (p< 0.0001), whereas the scanner did not present any significant influence (p= 0.91).


RESUMO Objetivo: o objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar e comparar a precisão de modelos digitais de uma arcada dentária completa obtidos utilizando-se dois tipos de scanners e três metodologias de digitalização. Métodos: um modelo de resina feito com impressão 3D foi digitalizado em um scanner de referência (Zfx Evolution - Zimmer Biomet, Palm Beach Gardens, FL) para se obter uma referência em 3D; o mesmo modelo de resina foi, então, digitalizado com dois scanners intrabucais diferentes (Zfx IntraScan e Carestream 3600 - CS 3600®, Carestream, Rochester, NY, EUA) utilizando: Técnica A (do dente #27 ao dente #17); Técnica B (do dente #11 ao dente #17 e, em seguida, do dente #21 ao dente #27); e Técnica C (do dente #22 ao dente #17 e, em seguida, do dente #12 ao dente #27 - osoftware MeshLab v. 1.3.3 foi, então, usado para mesclar as duas leituras). Em seguida, as imagens digitalizadas foram sobrepostas à imagem de referência, utilizando-se um software, e as discrepâncias volumétricas foram calculadas. Resultados: a média dos resultados para o scanner Zfx Intrascan foram: Técnica A = 302,47 ± 37,42 µm; Técnica B = 180,45 ± 29,86 µm; Técnica C = 147,34 ± 28,23 µm. A média dos resultados para o scanner Carestream 3600 foram: Técnica A= 303,59 ± 40,20 µm; Técnica B = 181,53 ± 29,61 µm; Técnica C = 142,28 ± 35,33 µm. A Técnica C, utilizada em ambos os scanners, produziu as menores discrepâncias volumétricas, quando comparada às outras técnicas. Conclusões: a técnica de digitalização teve um efeito estatisticamente significativo sobre a qualidade do modelo digital (p< 0,0001), enquanto o tipo de scanner usado não apresentou qualquer influência significativa (p= 0,91).


Subject(s)
Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Dental Arch , Dental Models , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Software , Dental Impression Technique , Computer-Aided Design
10.
Clinics ; 74: e573, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001827

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is considered a promising new target for neurostimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with postural instability and gait disturbance that is refractory to other treatment modalities. However, the PPN is typically difficult to visualize with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at clinical field strengths, which greatly limits the PPN as a viable surgical target for deep brain stimulation (DBS). Thus, the aim of this study is to directly visualize the PPN based on 7.0T ultrahigh-field MRI. METHODS: Five PD patients were enrolled and scanned using the MP2RAGE sequence on a 7.0T ultrahigh-field MRI scanner. Then, the MP2RAGE sequences were imported into a commercially available navigation system. The coordinates of the directly localized PPN poles were recorded in the navigation system relative to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure plane. RESULTS: Our results indicated that the PPN presented intermediate signal intensity in the 7.0T ultrahigh-field MR images in comparison with the surrounding structure, such as the hypo-intensity of the periaqueductal gray and the hyperintensity of the neighboring white matter tracts, in PD patients. The mean coordinates for the rostral and caudal poles of PPN were 6.50 mm and 7.20 mm lateral, 1.58 mm and 2.21 mm posterior, and 8.89 mm and 13.83 mm relative to the posterior commissure. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide, for the first time, direct visualization of the PPN using the MP2RAGE sequence on a 7.0T ultrahigh-field MRI, which may improve the accuracy of stereotactic targeting of the PPN and improve the outcomes in patients undergoing DBS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Parkinson Disease/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Image Enhancement/instrumentation , Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/instrumentation , Image Enhancement/methods , Stereotaxic Techniques/instrumentation , Data Accuracy
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 324-330, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990046

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Palatal rugae is an irregular soft tissue, which is located in the front third of the hard palate, and is asymmetrically distributed from the middle suture to the sides. The difference, stability and extensive characteristics of palatal rugae morphology have gradually make it a characteristic indicator of forensic identification. However, a mature digital palatal rugae identification system has not yet been established at present. Feature extraction is the premise of palatal rugae image recognition. In order to obtain palatal rugae feature information in all directions and improve the reliability of forensic identification, it is necessary to collect palatal rugae images from a plurality of different angles. When the collected images are sent to the recognition system, the diversity of angles will often cause problems such as error recognition. If the tilted images are not rotated properly, it will make the forensic identification face many difficulties. To solve the problem of image skew caused by the diversity of acquisition angle, an algorithm based on orientation vector to correct the tilted palatal rugae images was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the criteria for standard palatal rugae image and the selection rules for feature points were set; Secondly, characterizing feature points according to the rules, and fitting two lines and find their direction vector; Finally, to obtain the corrected images, the tilted images were rotated by the angle determined by the two direction vectors. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can correct the tilted palatal rugae images collected from different angles and has strong robustness.


RESUMEN: Las rugas palatinas son tejidos blandos irregulares, que se ubican en el tercio frontal del paladar duro y se distribuyen asimétricamente desde la sutura mediana hacia los lados. La diferencia, la estabilidad y las características extensivas de la morfología de las rugas palatinas la han convertido gradualmente en un indicador característico de la identificación forense. Sin embargo, un sistema de identificación de rugas palatinas digitales maduras todavía no se ha establecido en la actualidad. La extracción de características es la premisa del reconocimiento de imágenes de las rugas palatinas. Para obtener información sobre las características de las rugas palatinas en todas las direcciones, y mejorar la confiabilidad de la identificación forense, es necesario recopilar imágenes de las rugas palatinas desde una pluralidad de ángulos diferentes. Cuando las imágenes recogidas se envían al sistema de reconocimiento, la diversidad de ángulos a menudo causará problemas como el reconocimiento de errores. Si las imágenes inclinadas no se giran correctamente, la identificación forense se enfrentará a muchas dificultades. Para resolver el problema del sesgo de la imagen causado por la diversidad del ángulo de adquisición, en este documento se propuso un algoritmo basado en el vector de orientación para corregir las imágenes de las arrugas palatinas inclinadas. En primer lugar, se establecieron los criterios para la imagen de las rugas palatinas estándar, y las reglas de selección para los puntos de características. En segundo lugar, se determinaron puntos de características según las reglas, y se ajustaron dos líneas y encontrar la dirección del vector. Finalmente, para obtener las imágenes corregidas, las imágenes inclinadas se giraron según el ángulo determinado por la dirección de dos vectores. Los resultados de la simulación muestran que el algoritmo propuesto puede corregir las imágenes de rugas palatinas inclinadas recopiladas desde diferentes ángulos y tiene una gran robustez.


Subject(s)
Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Palate, Hard/anatomy & histology , Forensic Dentistry/methods , Algorithms , Calibration , Simulation Exercise
12.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 33(4): 518-527, out.-dez. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-980150

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Hoje em dia há uma enorme demanda para identificação individual tanto no campo da justiça civil e criminal. Existem várias maneiras de identificar indivíduos, dependendo se ele está vivo ou morto (cadáver ou esqueleto). Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de criar um banco de dados para a espessura do tecido mole facial em indivíduos vivos de uma determinada população brasileira, de acordo com idade, sexo e índice de massa corporal. Métodos: medições da espessura de tecidos moles faciais foram realizadas em 101 pacientes (62 homens e 39 mulheres, com idade entre 18 e 106 anos). TC foi realizado tendo em conta 20 pontos craniométricos selecionados previamente. A espessura dos tecidos moles nestes pontos foram inicialmente medida e comparada com a idade, sexo e estado nutricional e com dados de outras populações em todo o mundo. Resultados: De acordo com o sexo não houve diferenças significativas nos pontos: násio, rínion, meio do filtro labial midphiltrum , supradentale, e órbita lateral. Distâncias com diferenças significativa para ambos os sexos entre as diferentes populações foram: supradentale; infradentale; supramentale; órbita lateral; arco zigomático e linha oclusal. Alguns pontos antropométricos mostraram diferenças significativas entre sexo, faixa etária e estado nutricional. Entre os sexos, os homens apresentaram médias maiores. Entre os grupos etários, houve também diferenças significativas em algumas distâncias. Em relação ao estado nutricional, as distâncias foram menores entre peso normal e maior entre os obesos. Conclusão: Ao considerar várias populações, a espessura do tecido mole mostrou diferenças significativas em muitos pontos craniométricos destacando como eles podem ser distintas.


Introduction: Nowadays there is a huge demand for individual identification in both civil and criminal justice fields. There are several ways to identify individuals, depending on whether he is alive or dead (cadaver or skeleton). This research aimed to create a database for facial soft tissue thickness in living individuals of a specific Brazilian population, according to age, sex and body mass index. Methods: Measurements of facial soft tissues thickness were done in 101 patients (62 men and 39 women, aged 18 to 106 years). CT scans were performed taking into account 20 craniometric points previously selected. The soft tissue thickness in these points were initially found and compared with age, sex and nutritional status, and with another populations data worldwide. Results: According about sex was no significant difierence in points: nasion, rhinion, midphiltrum, supradentale and lateral orbit. Distances with significant difference for both sexes between the diferent populations were: supradentale; infradentale; supramentale; lateral orbit; zygomatic arch and occlusal line. Some anthropometric points showed significant differences between sex, age groups and nutritional status. Between sexes, men had greater means. Among age groups, there was also significant differences in some distances. In relation to nutritional status, the distances were lower among normal weight and higher among the obese. Conclusion: When considering various populations, soft tissue thickness had significant differences in many craniometric points highlighting how distinct they might be.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Anthropometry/methods , Cephalometry/methods , Forensic Anthropology/methods , Comparative Study , Ethnic Groups , Pilot Projects
13.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(6): 619-623, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974191

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study is to describe the simplified facial pattern of young Brazilian men and women using the facial index (FI), upper face index (UFI), and nasal index (NI) in indirect anthropometric measurements applied to frontal photographic images. The images were obtained from 660 adult white men and 689 adult white women aged 30 years ± 6 months, and classified according to regions of birth, as follows: south (S), southeast (SE), midwest (MW), northeast (NE), and north (N). The nasion, zygion, gnathion, stomion, subnasale, and alare landmarks were labeled on the images using the SAFF 2D® software. Based on the coordinates, the linear distances between the landmarks of interest were calculated and presented as indices. The analysis of variance and Student's t-test were used for assessing the regions of birth and gender, respectively. The collected data allowed obtaining the facial profile of the young adult Brazilian population. There were differences in the facial profiles between men and women and also between some regions, especially between the N and the other Brazilian regions (p<0.05). The UFI did not show a statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between genders for any of the regions. The discriminant analysis for gender assessment demonstrated higher accuracy when the three indices were analyzed together. In the decision tree for gender assessment, the NI showed better results than the other indices.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo é verificar o padrão facial simplificado a partir dos índices facial (IF), da face superior (IFS) e nasal (IN) de homens e mulheres jovens brasileiros a partir da antropometria indireta aplicada em imagens fotográficas em norma frontal. Foram utilizadas imagens de adultos brancos de 30 anos (± 6 meses), sendo 689 do gênero feminino e 660 do masculino, divididos pela região de nascimento, sendo Sul, Sudeste, Centro-oeste, Nordeste e Norte. Os pontos: násio, zígio, gnátio, estômio, subnasal e alar foram marcados nas imagens por meio do software SAFF 2D®. A partir das coordenadas geradas em pixels, foram calculadas as distâncias lineares entre os pontos de interesse, que foram transformadas em índices. Os índices foram analisados estatisticamente de acordo com a região do nascimento pela análise de variância e o gênero pelo teste t de Student. Com os dados foi possível traçar o perfil simplificado da face da população brasileira de adultos jovens por meio da fotoantropometria. Foram observadas diferenças no perfil facial entre os gêneros e também entre algumas regiões, com maior frequência entre a região N e as demais partes do país (p<0,05). Quando separados por regiões do país, o IFS não mostrou diferença estatisticamente significante (p>0,05) entre os gêneros para nenhuma região. A análise discriminante para estimativa de gênero mostra que melhores taxas de acerto são alcançadas quando considerados os três índices em conjunto. Para a árvore de decisão de estimativa de gênero, o IN desempenhou os melhores resultados, quando comparado aos demais índices analisados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Photography , Anthropometry/methods , Face/anatomy & histology , Software , Brazil , Sex Characteristics , Anatomic Landmarks
14.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(2): 75-86, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953020

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper was to emphasize the importance of the orthodontic setup in treatment planning for skeletal Class III malocclusion correction in an adult patient with moderate lower anterior crowding and anterior crossbite associated with two supernumerary lower incisors.


RESUMO O objetivo desse artigo é enfatizar a importância do setup ortodôntico no planejamento do tratamento da má oclusão de Classe III esquelética de uma paciente adulta com apinhamento anteroinferior moderado e mordida cruzada anterior associada à presença de dois incisivos inferiores supranumerários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Orthodontics, Corrective/methods , Patient Care Planning , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/surgery , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/therapy , Orthodontic Wires , Orthodontics, Corrective/instrumentation , Tooth Extraction , Tooth Movement Techniques/instrumentation , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Radiography, Dental , Cephalometry/methods , Treatment Outcome , Orthodontic Brackets , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Photography, Dental , Dental Arch/surgery , Dental Arch/pathology , Esthetics, Dental , Incisor/pathology , Malocclusion/therapy , Malocclusion/diagnostic imaging , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/diagnostic imaging
16.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 33(1): 115-118, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883647

ABSTRACT

Os princípios para uma rinoplastia bem-sucedida incluem consulta e planejamento pré-operatório e uma análise clínica abrangente que defina as metas da cirurgia. Mais recentemente, a digitalização e a impressão doméstica em 3 dimensões tornaram-se disponíveis. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever um método de digitalização em 3 dimensões e de impressão doméstica da anatomia real do paciente para ser usada como ajuda intraoperatória. Nós apresentamos uma forma de uso desta tecnologia no transoperatório, auxiliando o cirurgião a comparar os resultados obtidos após suas manobras, verificar a sua adesão ao plano cirúrgico previamente estabelecido e melhorar a sua tomada de decisão durante a cirurgia. Em conclusão, a aplicação da impressão doméstica em 3 dimensões demonstra um efeito positivo sobre o tratamento de alterações estéticas do nariz.


The principles for a successful rhinoplasty include preoperative consultation and planning, as well as a comprehensive clinical analysis and defining rhinoplasty goals. Three-dimensional domestic scanning and printing have recently become available. We sought to objectively describe this method as an intraoperative aid in patients' anatomy. This method can be used trans-operatively to help surgeons compare the results of his or her technique, check adherence to the surgical plan, and improve his or her surgical decision-making. We found that the application of 3-dimensional printing had a positive effect on the treatment of patients with aesthetic nose disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 21st Century , Rhinoplasty , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Bioprinting , Inventions , Rhinoplasty/instrumentation , Rhinoplasty/methods , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/instrumentation , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Bioprinting/instrumentation , Bioprinting/methods , Inventions/standards , Inventions/ethics
17.
HU rev ; 44(1): 7-13, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-981853

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Diabetes mellitus é uma doença metabólica que afeta vários órgãos-alvo, incluindo os ossos. Objetivo: Avaliar pelo método de esqueletonização o efeito do Diabetes mellitus tipo I (DM1) na microarquitetura de osso esponjoso. Material e métodos: Quatorze ratos Wistar foram divididos em: Saudável (S, n=7) e Diabético (D, n=7). O DM1 foi induzido por meio de injeção endovenosa de estreptozotocina no grupo D, sendo a confirmação da condição realizada por checagem do nível glicêmico. Os animais foram sacrificados após 35 dias da indução no grupo D, juntamente com os do grupo S. As epífises femorais foram seccionadas, removidas, desmineralizadas e incluídas em parafina. Dois cortes (5 µm) foram obtidos, corados em Hematoxilina e Eosina, e analisados ao Microscópio de Luz. Foi realizada a delimitação interativa das trabéculas ósseas, seguido pelo processo de binarização utilizando threshold global, feita por dois operadores distintos. Depois, foi realizado o processo de esqueletonização para acesso às características das trabéculas e da rede de interconexão entre elas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: Área óssea em micrômetros quadrados (B.Ar, seguido pela proporção em porcentagem BV/TV), Índice de Modelo estrutural (SMI), Dimensão Fractal (FD), Número de trabéculas (Tb.N), Número de ramos (B.N), Número total de junções (Junc.N), Média de pontos terminais (End.p), Média de extensão de cada ramo (R.Le) e Número de junções triplas (Triple.points.N). Resultados: Houve diferença significante apenas no parâmetro SMI para os diferentes operadores (p<0,0001), sendo o mesmo retirado da análise entre diabetes vs saudável. Houve diferença significante na quantidade óssea, sendo maior no grupo S (0,46±0,09) comparado ao grupo D (0,41±0,07) (p=0,0082). Os demais parâmetros não mostraram diferença significante. Conclusão: Conclui-se que a área óssea no grupo saudável é maior em comparação ao DM1. Dentro das limitações deste estudo, parece que a distribuição espacial das trabéculas e suas características de interconexão não são alteradas no diabetes.


Introduction: Diabetes is a metabolic disease that affects several target-organs, including bone. Objective: Analyze the effects of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (DM1) on the trabecular bone microarchitecture by using the skeletonization process. Material and methods: Fourteen Wistar rats were divided in two groups: Health (S, n=7) and Diabetic (D, n=7). DM1 was induced with streptozotocin in D group, and glycemic levels were tested on peripheral blood samples. After 35 days, the animals were euthanized and had their femurs removed. The epiphysis were decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Five microns sections were stained in Hematoxylin and Eosin, and analyzed at the light microscope. Bone trabeculae were manually delimited, and then the binarization process with a global threshold was performed for each image. The whole process were conducted by two operators separately. Skeletonization was applied to binary images in order to evaluate the trabeculae characteristics and their network. Bone area (B.Ar), Bone proportion (BV/TV) Strucutre Model Index (SMI), Fractal Dimension (FD), Trabeculae number (Tb.N), Mean branches (B.N), Mean junction points (Junc.N), Mean End-points (End.p), Mean branches length (B.Le), and Mean triple points (Triple.points.N) were evaluated. Results: There was a significant difference only for SMI between different operators (p<0.0001), being this parameter excluded for the evaluation between health and diabetic groups. There was a significant difference between S and D for bone area, with S (0.46±0.09) higher than D (0.41±0.07) (p=0.0082). The other parameters analyzed were not significantly different. Conclusion: Bone trabecular area was higher in health compared with diabetes. Within the limitations of this study, one could suggest that there are no alterations of the spatial distribution of the trabeculae with their network and their inner structural characteristics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Cancellous Bone/ultrastructure , Rats, Wistar
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(6): 674-679, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893666

ABSTRACT

Abstract To calculate root canal volume and surface area in microCT images, an image segmentation by selecting threshold values is required, which can be determined by visual or automatic methods. Visual determination is influenced by the operator's visual acuity, while the automatic method is done entirely by computer algorithms. Objective: To compare between visual and automatic segmentation, and to determine the influence of the operator's visual acuity on the reproducibility of root canal volume and area measurements. Material and methods: Images from 31 extracted human anterior teeth were scanned with a μCT scanner. Three experienced examiners performed visual image segmentation, and threshold values were recorded. Automatic segmentation was done using the "Automatic Threshold Tool" available in the dedicated software provided by the scanner's manufacturer. Volume and area measurements were performed using the threshold values determined both visually and automatically. Results: The paired Student's t-test showed no significant difference between visual and automatic segmentation methods regarding root canal volume measurements (p=0.93) and root canal surface (p=0.79). Conclusion: Although visual and automatic segmentation methods can be used to determine the threshold and calculate root canal volume and surface, the automatic method may be the most suitable for ensuring the reproducibility of threshold determination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Endodontics , X-Ray Microtomography , Algorithms , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods
19.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 22(6): 68-73, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891114

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Plaster dental casts are routinely used during clinical practice to access maxillary dental arch form and assist on fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires. Recently introduced, digital model technology may offer a limitation for the obtainment of a dental physical record. In this context, a tool for dental arch form assessment for chairside use is necessary when employing digital models. In this regard, paper print of the dental arch seems thus to be useful. Methods: In the present study, 37 lower arch models were used. Intercanine and intermolar widths and dental arch length measurements were performed and compared using plaster dental casts, digital models and paper print image of the models. Ortho Insight 3D scanner was employed for model digitalization. Results: No statistically significant differences were noted regarding the measurements performed on the plaster or digital models (p> 0.05). Paper print images, however, showed subestimated values for intercanine and intermolar widths and overestimated values for dental arch length. Despite being statistically significant (p< 0.001), the differences were considered clinically negligible. Conclusion: The present study suggests that paper print images obtained from digital models are clinically accurate and can be used as a tool for dental arch form assessment for fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires.


RESUMO Introdução: os modelos de gesso são usados rotineiramente, durante a prática clínica, para avaliação da forma da arcada inferior e para auxiliar na confecção de arcos ortodônticos individualizados. A tecnologia dos modelos digitais, introduzida recentemente, pode oferecer uma limitação na obtenção de um registro físico da arcada dentária. Assim, quando se utilizam modelos digitais, faz-se necessária uma ferramenta clínica para obtenção da forma da arcada. Com essa finalidade, poderia-se imprimir, em papel, uma imagem da arcada dentária obtida a partir do modelo de gesso. Métodos: nesse estudo, 37 modelos da arcada inferior foram utilizados, nos quais foram realizadas medições das distâncias intercaninos, intermolares e comprimento da arcada; sendo, então, comparadas entre modelos de gesso, modelos digitalizados com um scanner Ortho Insight 3D e imagens impressas em folha de papel A4. Resultados: não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas medidas realizadas nos modelos de gesso e modelos digitais (p > 0,05). As imagens impressas, contudo, mostraram valores subestimados para as distâncias intercaninos e intermolares, e superestimados para o comprimento da arcada. Apesar de serem estatisticamente significativas (p< 0,001), as diferenças foram consideradas clinicamente insignificantes. Conclusão: o presente estudo sugere que as imagens obtidas por meio dos modelos digitais e impressas em papel são clinicamente acuradas e podem ser utilizadas como uma ferramenta auxiliar na confecção dos arcos ortodônticos individualizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Dental Arch/anatomy & histology , Dental Arch/diagnostic imaging , Dental Models , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Orthodontics/instrumentation , Orthodontics/methods , Software , Casts, Surgical , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Dental Impression Technique , Technology, Dental , Copying Processes , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Models, Anatomic
20.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 30(3): f:87-l:91, jul.-set. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-848719

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Diferentes tecnologias têm sido utilizadas para avaliar a função sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo. De particular interesse, está a ecocardiografia com strain bidimensional (2DSTE). Dois métodos diferentes têm sido usados para quantificar a deformação miocárdica (strain miocárdico) pela 2DSTE: block matching e optical flow. Ambos estão presentes em ecocardiógrafos comercialmente disponíveis. Entretanto, não há consenso a respeito se as medidas do strain longitudinal por estes métodos são sobreponíveis. Objetivo: Comparar os valores de pico do strain miocárdico longitudinal obtidos através da 2DSTE pelos dois diferentes métodos (block matching x optical flow). Método: Foram realizadas as medidas do strain em 16 segmentos miocárdicos do ventrículo esquerdo, conforme orientação da Sociedade Americana de Ecocardiografia pela técnica do block matching (Vivid 7, GE, Horten, Noruega) e, imediatamente após, pela técnica do optical flow (My Lab 60, Esaote, Florença, Itália) de forma randomizada e seus valores foram comparados. Resultados: Houve 28 indivíduos com idade 27,9 ± 7,7 anos, sendo 50% do sexo masculino e todos com fração de ejeção superior a 55%. A medida do strain longitudinal global foi maior pela técnica de block matching (p = 0,02). Na análise dos 16 segmentos, houve 10 segmentos com valores diferentes, em especial os segmentos apicais. Conclusão: Os valores do strain miocárdico longitudinal obtidos por métodos diferentes não são sobreponíveis e devem ser usados com cautela. Sendo assim, valores de normalidade também variam de acordo com o fabricante e o método utilizado


Introduction: Different technologies have been used to evaluate left ventricular systolic function. Of particular interest is the two-dimensional strain echocardiography (2DSTE). Two different methods have been used to quantify myocardial strain by 2DSTE: block matching and optical flow. Both are present in commercially available echocardiographs. However, there is no consensus as to whether the longitudinal strain measures using these methods are overlapping. Objective: To compare the longitudinal myocardial strain peak values obtained through 2DSTE using two different methods (block matching x optical flow). Method: Strain measurements in 16 left ventricular myocardial segments were taken as recommended by the American Society of Echocardiography using block matching (Vivid 7, GE, Horten, Norway) and, immediately after, using optical flow (My Lab 60, Esaote, Florence, Italy) in a randomized way and their values were compared. Results: There were 28 individuals aged 27.9 ± 7.7, of whom 50% were male and all with an ejection fraction greater than 55%. Global longitudinal strain was higher using block matching (p = 0.02). In the analysis of the 16 segments, 10 segments had different values, especially the apical segments. Conclusion: Longitudinal myocardial strain values obtained by different methods are not overlapping and must be used with caution. Normality values also vary according to the manufacturer and the method used


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Ventricles , Risk Factors , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Stroke Volume
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