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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e219912, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254429

ABSTRACT

Aim: Evaluation of the reliability of 3D computed tomography (3D-CT) in the diagnosis of mandibular fractures. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study was carried out, through the application of a questionnaire for 70 professionals in the area of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Radiology. 3D-CT images of mandibular fractures were delivered to the interviewees along with a questionnaire. Participants answered about the number of traces, the region and the type of fracture. The correct diagnosis, that is, the expected answer, was based on the reports of a specialist in oral and maxillofacial radiology after viewing the images in the axial, sagittal and coronal sections. The resulting data from the interviewees was compared with the expected answer and then, the data was analyzed statistically. Results: In the sample 56.9% were between 22 and 30 years old, 52.8% were oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMF), 34.7% were residents in OMF surgery and 12.5% OMF radiologists. Each professional answered 15 questions (related to five patients) and 50.8% of the total of these was answered correctly. Specialists in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology correctly answered 53.9%. Interviewees with experience between 6 and 10 years correctly answered 58.2%. In identifying fracture traces, 46.1% of the questions were answered correctly. In terms of location, 5.6% of interviewees answered wrongly while 14.2% answered wrongly regarding classification. Conclusion: 3D computed tomography did not prove to be a reliable image for diagnosing mandibular fractures when used alone. This made necessary an association with axial, sagittal and coronal tomographic sections


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Surveys and Questionnaires , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mandibular Fractures
2.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 381-385, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288606

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Objective: The study of sports biomechanics in sports medicine usually requires a special image analysis system (software) to obtain 3D kinematics data. Taking the swimming project in sports medicine as an example, 3D water images in water have always been relatively complicated and difficult. As light travels in different media, it will refract and reflect. When testing underwater movements, if only a land camera or an underwater camera is used for testing, the error caused by light refraction will be larger, which will affect the accuracy of the test data even more. Methods: Taking breaststroke movement as an example, a three-dimensional measurement method based on the Kwon3D movement analysis system is introduced. This method is different from the simple underwater camera test. It is a three-dimensional test method combining a land camera and an underwater camera. Two underwater cameras and two land cameras were used to simultaneously calibrate the water and underwater space with the same calibration frame in the experiment after analyzing and verifying the accuracy of 3D reconstruction. Results: The comprehensive reconstruction error is small, and the average relative error is less than 1%. Conclusions: The application of three-dimensional image analysis technology of vision systems in sports medicine is reasonable and worth promoting. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Antecedente: Objetivo: O estudo da biomecânica do esporte na medicina esportiva geralmente requer o uso de um sistema especial de análise de imagens (software) para a obtenção de dados cinemáticos 3D. Tomando o projeto de natação na medicina esportiva como exemplo, a análise de imagens 3D da água na água sempre foi um teste relativamente complicado e difícil. À medida que a luz viaja em diferentes meios, ela refratará e refletirá. Ao testar movimentos subaquáticos, se apenas uma câmera terrestre ou subaquática for usada para o teste, o erro causado pela refração da luz será maior, o que afetará a precisão dos dados de teste ainda mais. Métodos: Tomando o movimento de nado peito como exemplo, um método de medição tridimensional baseado no sistema de análise de movimento Kwon3D é introduzido. Este método é diferente do teste simples de câmera subaquática. É um método de teste tridimensional que combina uma câmera terrestre e uma câmera subaquática. No experimento, duas câmeras subaquáticas e duas câmeras terrestres foram usadas para calibrar simultaneamente a água e o espaço subaquático com o mesmo quadro de calibração. Depois de analisar e verificar a precisão da reconstrução 3D. Resultados: O erro de reconstrução abrangente é pequeno e o erro relativo médio é inferior a 1% Conclusões: A aplicação da tecnologia de análise de imagem tridimensional do sistema de visão na medicina esportiva é razoável e vale a pena promover. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Antecedente: Objetivo: El estudio de la biomecánica del deporte en la medicina deportiva generalmente requiere el uso de un sistema de análisis de imágenes especial (software) para obtener datos de cinemática 3D. Tomando como ejemplo el proyecto de natación en medicina deportiva, el análisis de imágenes de agua en 3D en el agua siempre ha sido una prueba relativamente complicada y difícil. A medida que la luz viaja en diferentes medios, se refractará y reflejará. Al probar los movimientos bajo el agua, si solo se utiliza una cámara terrestre o una cámara submarina para realizar la prueba, el error causado por la refracción de la luz será mayor, lo que afectará aún más la precisión de los datos de la prueba. Métodos: tomando como ejemplo el movimiento de la brazada, se introduce un método de medición tridimensional basado en el sistema de análisis de movimiento Kwon3D. Este método es diferente de la simple prueba de cámara subacuática. Es un método de prueba tridimensional que combina una cámara terrestre y una cámara submarina. En el experimento, se utilizaron dos cámaras submarinas y dos cámaras terrestres para calibrar simultáneamente el agua y el espacio submarino con el mismo marco de calibración. Después de analizar y verificar la precisión de la reconstrucción 3D. Resultados: el error de reconstrucción integral es pequeño y el error relativo promedio es inferior al 1%. Conclusiones: La aplicación de la tecnología de análisis de imágenes tridimensionales del sistema de visión en la medicina deportiva es razonable y vale la pena promoverla. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Swimming/physiology , Video Recording/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology , Algorithms , Calibration , Water
3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 390-394, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288600

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Basketball sports will effect on the morphology and structure of the hand bones and joints. Objective: The article selected nine professional basketball players (basketball group) and 11 non-basketball players (control group) in the provincial youth team. A 64-row spiral computed tomography scan was used to scan the wrist and three-dimensional reconstruction. The volume of each carpal bone and the computed tomography value (bone density) were measured. Methods: To explore the influence of basketball sports on the hand bones and joints' morphological structure, the paper analyzes the structural characteristics of the computed tomography images of young male basketball players' wrist bones. Results: Compared with the carpal bones in the control group, the volume of the right navicular bone and the small polygonal bone, the left-hand navicular bone, the large triangular bone, and the small polygonal bone in the basketball group increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: Basketball can increase the volume of the part of the wrist bones of adolescent male athletes and reduce the bone density; the morphological structure of the non-smashing wrist bones of basketball players has similar changes to that of the spikers. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: O basquetebol afetará a morfologia e a estrutura dos ossos e articulações da mão. Objetivo: o artigo selecionou nove jogadores profissionais de basquete (grupo de basquete) e 11 não jogadores de basquete (grupo de controle) da equipe juvenil da província. Uma tomografia computadorizada espiral de 64 linhas foi usada para digitalizar o punho e a reconstrução tridimensional. O volume de cada osso do carpo e o valor da tomografia computadorizada (densidade óssea) foram medidos. Métodos: Para explorar a influência dos esportes de basquete sobre os ossos da mão e a estrutura morfológica das articulações, o artigo analisa as características estruturais das imagens de tomografia computadorizada de ossos do punho de jovens jogadores de basquete do sexo masculino. Resultados: Em comparação com os ossos do carpo no grupo de controle, o volume do osso navicular direito e o osso poligonal pequeno, o osso navicular esquerdo, o osso triangular grande e o osso poligonal pequeno no grupo de basquete aumentaram significativamente (P <0,05). Conclusões: O basquete pode aumentar o volume dos ossos do punho de atletas adolescentes do sexo masculino e reduzir a densidade óssea; a estrutura morfológica dos ossos do pulso que não se quebram em jogadores de basquete tem mudanças semelhantes às dos espigões. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: el baloncesto afectará la morfología y la estructura de los huesos y articulaciones de la mano. Objetivo: El artículo seleccionó nueve jugadores de baloncesto profesionales (grupo de baloncesto) y 11 jugadores no baloncesto (grupo de control) en el equipo juvenil provincial. Se utilizó una tomografía computarizada en espiral de 64 filas para escanear la muñeca y la reconstrucción tridimensional. Se midieron el volumen de cada hueso del carpo y el valor de la tomografía computarizada (densidad ósea). Métodos: Para explorar la influencia de los deportes de baloncesto en la estructura morfológica de los huesos de la mano y las articulaciones, el artículo analiza las características estructurales de las imágenes de tomografía computarizada de los huesos de la muñeca de los jóvenes jugadores de baloncesto. Resultados: En comparación con los huesos del carpo en el grupo de control, el volumen del hueso navicular derecho y el hueso poligonal pequeño, el hueso navicular izquierdo, el hueso triangular grande y el hueso poligonal pequeño en el grupo de baloncesto aumentaron significativamente (P <0,05). Conclusiones: El baloncesto puede aumentar el volumen de los huesos de la muñeca de los deportistas varones adolescentes y reducir la densidad ósea; la estructura morfológica de los huesos de las muñecas que no se rompen de los jugadores de baloncesto tiene cambios similares a los de los atacantes. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Wrist Joint/diagnostic imaging , Basketball , Carpal Bones/diagnostic imaging , Bone Density/physiology , Athletes , Wrist Joint/growth & development , Algorithms , Adaptation, Physiological , Carpal Bones/growth & development , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 861-867, Jul.-Aug. 2021. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1285260

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical structures of the skulls of peccaries to establish the basis for their clinical study and future preclinical research. Ten skulls of adult peccaries were subjected to tomographic examination. The data obtained were processed via three-dimensional image reconstruction software (3D images). The reconstructions obtained from the neurocranium of the studied specimens allowed the identification and description of the following structures: nasal bone, frontal bone, parietal bones, incisor bone, maxillary bone, zygomatic bone, temporal bone, palatal bone, occipital bone, vomer bone, pterygoid bone, sphenoid bone, paranasal sinuses and orbit. Computed tomography proved to be an important diagnostic tool in the investigation of the skull of this species, allowing the acquisition of anatomical values not yet documented for the species in the literature.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as estruturas anatômicas dos crânios de catetos, a fim de se estabelecerem as bases para seu estudo clínico e futuras pesquisas pré-clínicas. Dez crânios de catetos adultos foram submetidos a exame tomográfico. Os dados obtidos foram introduzidos em um software de reconstrução de imagens tridimensionais (imagens em 3D). As reconstruções obtidas do neurocrânio dos espécimes estudados permitiram a identificação e a descrição das seguintes estruturas: osso nasal, osso frontal, ossos parietais, osso incisivo, osso maxilar, osso zigomático, osso temporal, osso palatino, osso occipital, osso vômer, osso pterigoide, osso esfenoide, seios paranasais e órbita. A tomografia computadorizada mostrou-se como uma ferramenta diagnóstica importante na investigação do crânio dessa espécie, permitindo a aquisição de valores anatômicos ainda não documentados para a espécie na literatura.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Artiodactyla/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/veterinary , Printing, Three-Dimensional
5.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 201-206, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280061

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: We applied three-dimensional gait analysis to assess the effects of enhanced active contraction of the transversus abdominis (EACTA) during walking. We sought to evaluate the effect of EACTA during walking in order to improve walking quality. Methods: Thirty college students were recruited and trained to perform EACTA during walking. We examined gait parameters under different conditions, including EACTA and habitual ACTA (natural walking with mild contraction of the feedforward mechanism of ACTA, HACTA) during walking using three-dimensional gait analysis. We compared differences in gait parameters under the two walking conditions using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. Results: The following gait parameters were significantly lower under EACTA conditions than under HACTA conditions (P < 0.05): stance phase, 59.151% ± 1.903% vs. 59.825% ± 1.495%; stride time, 1.104 s ± 0.080 s vs. 1.134 s ± 0.073 s:; stance time, 0.656 s ± 0.057 s vs. 0.678 s ± 0.053 s; and swing time, 0.447 s ± 0.028 s vs. 0.454 s ± 0.031 s, respectively. Gait parameters single support phase and mean velocity were significantly higher for EACTA than for HACTA conditions (both P < 0.05). Conclusions: Overall, the results revealed that EACTA during walking can improve gait. This method is simple, and EACTA training during walking to improve gait quality in daily life could provide a positive basis for people to strengthen the transverse abdominal muscle. Level of evidence III; Retrospective comparative study .


RESUMEN Introducción: Aplicamos el análisis tridimensional de la marcha para evaluar los efectos del aumento de la contracción activa del músculo transverso del abdomen (EACTA) durante la caminata. Buscamos evaluar el efecto del EACTA durante la caminata para mejorar su calidad. Métodos: Treinta estudiantes universitarios fueron reclutados y entrenados para realizar el EACTA durante la caminata. Examinamos los parámetros de la marcha en diferentes condiciones, incluyendo EACTA y ACTA habitual (caminata natural con leve contracción del mecanismo de feedforward del ACTA, HACTA) durante la caminata usando análisis tridimensional de la marcha. Comparamos las diferencias en los parámetros de la marcha en las dos condiciones de caminata en el software estadístico SPSS 16.0. Resultados: Los siguientes parámetros de marcha fueron significativamente más bajos en la condición EACTA que en condiciones HACTA (P <0,05): fase de apoyo 59,151 ± 1,903% vs 59,825 ± 1,495%, tiempo de zancada 1,104 s ± 0,080 s vs 1,134 s ± 0,073 s, tiempo de apoyo 0,656 s ± 0,057 s vs 0,678 s ± 0,053 s y tiempo de balance 0,447 s ± 0,028 s vs 0,454 s ± 0,031 s, respectivamente. Los parámetros de la marcha, fase de apoyo simple y velocidad promedio fueron significativamente mayores en el EACTA que en las condiciones HACTA (ambos P <0,05). Conclusiones: En general, los resultados revelaron que el EACTA durante la caminata puede mejorar la marcha. Este método es simple, y el entrenamiento del EACTA durante la caminata para mejorar la calidad de la marcha en la vida diaria puede ser una base positiva para el fortalecimiento del músculo transverso del abdomen. Nivel de evidencia III; Estudio retrospectivo comparativo .


RESUMO Introdução: Aplicamos a análise tridimensional da marcha para avaliar os efeitos do aumento da contração ativa do músculo transverso do abdome (EACTA) durante a caminhada. Procuramos avaliar o efeito do EACTA durante a caminhada para melhorar sua qualidade. Métodos: Trinta estudantes universitários foram recrutados e treinados para realizar o EACTA durante a caminhada. Examinamos os parâmetros da marcha em diferentes condições, incluindo EACTA e ACTA habitual (caminhada natural com leve contração do mecanismo de feedforward do ACTA, HACTA) durante a caminhada usando análise tridimensional da marcha. Comparamos as diferenças nos parâmetros da marcha nas duas condições de caminhada no software estatístico SPSS 16.0. Resultados: Os seguintes parâmetros da marcha foram significativamente mais baixos na condição EACTA do que em condições HACTA (P < 0,05): fase de apoio 59,151 ± 1,903% vs. 59,825 ± 1,495%, tempo de passada 1,104 s ± 0,080 s vs. 1,134 s ± 0,073 s, tempo de apoio 0,656 s ± 0,057 s vs. 0,678 s ± 0,053 s e tempo de balanço 0,447 s ± 0,028 s vs. 0,454 s ± 0,031 s, respectivamente. Os parâmetros da marcha fase de apoio simples e velocidade média foram significativamente maiores no EACTA do que nas condições HACTA (ambos P < 0,05). Conclusões: No geral, os resultados revelaram que o EACTA durante a caminhada pode melhorar a marcha. Esse método é simples, e o treinamento do EACTA durante a caminhada para melhorar a qualidade da marcha na vida diária pode ser uma base positiva para o fortalecimento do músculo transverso do abdome. Nível de evidência III; Estudo retrospectivo comparativo .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Abdominal Muscles/physiology , Gait , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Gait Analysis
6.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 104-107, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280098

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT With the rapid development and application of computer technology, the application of computer science knowledge in basketball is also more and more extensive. Based on genetic algorithm and the background subtraction method, video analysis and 3D detection simulation model of shot jump action precision were constructed in this study. According to the genetic algorithm search method, jump shot precision was analyzed, and the problems encountered in the actual shooting process of basketball players were studied and solved. The results show that this study is necessary and feasible.


RESUMO Com o rápido desenvolvimento e aplicação da tecnologia da computação, a aplicação do conhecimento da ciência da computação no basquete também vem crescendo cada vez mais. Com base no algoritmo genético e no método da subtração de fundo, construiu-se um modelo de análise de vídeo e simulação de detecção 3D para a precisão de arremesso. De acordo com o método de busca do algoritmo genético, analisou-se a precisão do arremesso, e os problemas encontrados no processo de arremesso dos jogadores de basquete foram estudados e resolvidos. Os resultados mostram que este estudo é necessário e viável.


RESUMEN Con el rápido desarrollo y aplicación de la tecnología de la computación, la aplicación del conocimiento de la ciencia de la computación en el baloncesto también viene creciendo cada vez más. Basándose en el algoritmo genético y en el método de la sustracción de fondo, se construyó un modelo de análisis de video y simulación de detección 3D para la precisión de lanzamiento. De acuerdo con el método de búsqueda del algoritmo genético, se analizó la precisión del lanzamiento, y los problemas encontrados en el proceso de lanzamiento de los jugadores de baloncesto fueron estudiados y resueltos. Los resultados muestran que este estudio es necesario y viable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Basketball , Simulation Technique/methods , Videotape Recording , Algorithms , Imaging, Three-Dimensional
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 571-582, May-June 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1278365

ABSTRACT

The outcome of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in dogs is directly related to surgical planning. Templating of radiographs prior to THA should help the surgeon anticipate prosthesis size and femoral shape allowing canal fill of the proximal metaphysis by the implant ensuring primary stable fixation. The canal flare index (CFI) obtained from radiograph has been used as a measure of risk of complications for the technique in human beings and dogs. However, standard radiographs only provide limited data for the selection of cementless prostheses and the assessment of their fit within the femoral canal, due to factors like radiographic magnification and femoral rotation. Therefore, three-dimensional evaluation based on computed tomography (CT) may be a better tool for CFI measurement. The aim of this study was to compare anatomical measurement with CFI values obtained from craniocaudal radiography and CT. Craniocaudal radiographs using a horizontal radiographic beam (CR), CT, and anatomical macroscopic measurements (A) were obtained from 45 femurs from 23 canine cadavers. The differences between the values of CFI obtained from radiograph (CFI-R), computed tomography on transverse (CFI- TT) and longitudinal axis (CFI-TL) compared to the CFI obtained from macroscopic measurements - gold standard - (CFI-A), and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) between the values, were evaluated by the Bland-Altman method. Dimensions obtained from CT techniques had a greatest mean difference from anatomical and CFI values were also different (P=0.032). Under the experimental conditions, the craniocaudal radiograph, provided the most accurate measurement of the CFI (mean difference: 0.087 ± 0.42).(AU)


O resultado da artroplastia total do quadril (ATQ) em cães está diretamente relacionado ao planejamento cirúrgico. O templating radiográfico pré-operatório da ATQ deve ajudar o cirurgião a prever o tamanho da prótese e o formato do fêmur, o que permitirá um preenchimento ideal da metáfise proximal pelo implante, garantindo, assim, fixação primária estável. O índice de alargamento do canal (Canal Flare Index - CFI) obtido em radiografias tem sido utilizado como fator de risco de complicações para a técnica em humanos e cães. No entanto, as radiografias podem fornecer apenas dados limitados para a seleção de próteses não cimentadas e a avaliação do seu encaixe no canal femoral, devido a fatores como ampliação radiográfica e rotação femoral. Portanto, a avaliação tridimensional baseada na tomografia computadorizada (TC) pode ser uma ferramenta vantajosa para a mensuração do CFI. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a medida anatômica com os valores de CFI obtidos na radiografia craniocaudal e na TC. Radiografias craniocaudais utilizando feixe radiográfico horizontal (CR), tomografia computadorizada e medidas macroscópicas anatômicas (A) foram obtidas de 45 fêmures de 23 cadáveres caninos. As diferenças entre os valores de CFI obtidos na radiografia (CFI-R), na tomografia computadorizada no eixo transversal (CFI-TT) e no eixo longitudinal (CFI-TL), em comparação com os valores de CFI obtidos nas medições macroscópicas - padrão-ouro - (CFI-A) e os limites de concordância de 95% (LOA) entre os valores, foram avaliadas pelo método de Bland-Altman. As dimensões obtidas pelas técnicas de TC apresentaram maior diferença média dos valores anatômicos, e as do CFI também foram diferentes (P=0,032). Nas condições experimentais, a radiografia craniocaudal forneceu a medida mais precisa do CFI (diferença média: 0,087 ± 0,42) para representar o padrão-ouro deste estudo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/methods , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/veterinary , Femur/surgery , Femur/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/veterinary
9.
Rev. Bras. Odontol. Leg. RBOL ; 8(1): [23-32], 20210427.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281473

ABSTRACT

A system was proposed to scan dental models to record three-dimensional features seen in the anterior teeth to create a database of dental profiles. Dental casts were randomly selected to create indentations in cowhide leather. Reid Bite Reader was used to measure the bite forces generated by Reynolds Controlled Bite Force Generator to make the teeth impressions. Using the Immersion MicroScribe® 3D, information from the 53 bitemark depressions and 62 sets of dental casts were transferred to an Excel Spreadsheet. Software was developed to perform the 3D comparison using metric and pattern analysis. Statistical analysis showed 100% success when comparing both arches together of the dental casts with the bitemarks or different dental casts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Forensic Dentistry , Jaw Relation Record
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e036, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249381

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Evaluating factors that may influence the nose dimensions and, therefore, contribute to the singularity of a person, is important for obtaining a precise facial reconstruction (FR) in forensic anthropology. Thus, the aim in this study was to evaluate the influence of sex, skeletal class, and facial type on nose dimensions of Brazilian individuals using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. CBCT images of 54 males and 67 females were classified according to skeletal class (class I, II, or III) and facial type (brachycephalic, dolichocephalic and mesocephalic). Linear and angular measurements of the nose were performed using the CS 3D Imaging software. The measurements obtained for males and females were compared by one-way ANOVA. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the measurements in the different skeletal classes and facial types. Significance level was set at 5%. All linear measurements were greater in males (p < 0.05); the angular measurements, however, did not differ between sexes (p > 0.05). Linear and angular measurements of class III males were significantly different from the other classes; the same was observed for the angular measurements in females (p < 0.05). Regarding facial types, some linear measurements were significantly greater in dolichocephalics males (p < 0.05). For females, there was no influence of facial type (p > 0.05), except for the nasal convexity angle. Nose dimensions differed in specific points among different skeletal classes and facial types, and there was sexual dimorphism in all linear nose dimensions. This information may be applicable for nose reconstructions, allowing more reliable FR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Spiral Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Brazil , Nose/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Face/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e024, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153617

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an essential imaging method that increases the accuracy of diagnoses, planning and follow-up of endodontic complex cases. Image postprocessing and subsequent visualization relies on software for three-dimensional navigation, and application of indexation tools to provide clinically useful information according to a set of volumetric data. Image postprocessing has a crucial impact on diagnostic quality and various techniques have been employed on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. These include: multiplanar reformations (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR). A recent advance in 3D data visualization is the new cinematic rendering reconstruction method, a technique that generates photorealistic 3D images from conventional CT and MRI data. This review discusses the importance of CBCT cinematic rendering for clinical decision-making, teaching, and research in Endodontics, and a presents series of cases that illustrate the diagnostic value of 3D cinematic rendering in clinical care.


Subject(s)
Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Software , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Imaging, Three-Dimensional
12.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 36(82): 15-20, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290838

ABSTRACT

El tratamiento ortodóncico permite rehabilitar la función como también la estética facial y de la sonrisa. En muchos casos, esto puede realizarse sin la utilización de brackets. Las placas alineadoras realizan movimientos en las arcadas dentarias y las posibilidades y los resultados obtenidos cada vez son mejores. La utilización del sistema de alineación con placas permite que muchos pacientes, que no están dispuestos a utilizar brackets, encuentren una respuesta a sus problemas de oclusión (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Orthodontic Appliances, Removable , Orthodontic Brackets , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Esthetics, Dental , Tooth Movement Techniques/methods , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Advance Care Planning
13.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(3): 1-7, 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281352

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the volume of odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra on CBCT images can be used for sex estimation. Material and Methods: The volume of odontoid process on CBCT images of 138 subjects was measured. In addition, the patients were classified into five age groups. The comparisons between the groups in relation to sex and age were performed by using Mann-Whitney's test and Kruskal-Wallis' test, respectively. The ROC curve was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the volume to determine the sex. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between age and volume. Males had significantly larger volumes than females. Values of volume equal to or greater than 1.254 mm3 have sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 68.1% to determine male sex. Conclusion: The volume of the odontoid process tends to be larger in males than in females and can be used as sex estimation (AU)


Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o volume do processo odontóide da segunda vértebra cervical em imagens de TCFC pode ser usado para estimativa do sexo. Material e Métodos: O volume do processo odontóide em imagens CBCT de 138 indivíduos foi medido. Além disso, os pacientes foram classificados em cinco faixas etárias. As comparações entre os grupos em relação ao sexo e idade foram realizadas por meio dos testes de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, respectivamente. A curva ROC foi utilizada para avaliar a sensibilidade e especificidade do volume para determinar o sexo. Resultados: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre idade e volume. Os machos tiveram volumes significativamente maiores do que as fêmeas. Valores de volume igual ou superior a 1,254 mm3 apresentam sensibilidade de 68,2% e especificidade de 68,1% para determinação do sexo masculino. Conclusão: O volume do processo odontóide tende a ser maior no sexo masculino do que no feminino e pode ser usado como estimativa do sexo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnostic Imaging , Sex Determination Processes , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
14.
Edumecentro ; 12(4): 227-234, oct.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142859

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La pandemia producida por el coronavirus SARS-COV-2 provocó la implementación de medidas para el aislamiento y el distanciamiento físico y social en el mundo y particularmente en Cuba. La aplicación WhatsApps posee características que justifican su uso en la enseñanza de posgrado en Imagenología, como modalidad virtual, por lo que se creó el grupo "Radiología" formado por docentes y residentes de diferentes hospitales en Cuba y otros países; esta plataforma permitió mantener y potenciar la docencia en tiempos de pandemia con casos reales de la COVID-19 y otras enfermedades que fueron analizadas por esta vía. Es objetivo de los autores compartir sus experiencias por ser novedosas, factibles, estables y bien aceptadas en el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje.


ABSTRACT The pandemic produced by the SARS-COV-2 coronavirus led to the implementation of measures for isolation and physical and social distancing in the world and particularly in Cuba. The WhatsApps application has characteristics that justify its use in postgraduate teaching in Imaging, as a virtual modality, for which the "Radiology" group was created, made up of teachers and residents of different hospitals in Cuba and other countries; This platform made it possible to maintain and promote teaching in times of pandemic with real cases of COVID-19 and other diseases that were analyzed in this way. It is the objective of the authors to share their experiences as they are novel, feasible, stable and well accepted in the teaching-learning process.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Education, Medical , Information Technologies and Communication Projects
15.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 108(3): 104-112, dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147587

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar ex vivo, mediante reconstrucción tridimensional con tomografía computarizada de haz cónico, la presencia de vacíos, el volumen y la adaptación de la obturación a las paredes de conductos con reabsorciones dentinarias internas simuladas empleando gutapercha inyectable o cono único de gutapercha más sellador biocerámico. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron 10 incisivos centrales superiores humanos extraídos, en cada uno de los cuales se talló una reabsorción artificial para su obturación. La muestra fue sometida, de manera sucesiva, a dos condiciones experimentales diferentes: grupo 1, gutapercha inyectable con sistema EQ-V Master; grupo 2, cono de gutapercha más sellador biocerámico BioRoot RCS. Luego, se realizaron tomografías computarizadas de haz cónico y se hizo el estudio tridimensional. A continuación, se utilizó un programa para identificar los vacíos en la obturación y analizar cuantitativamente el volumen y la superficie cubierta por la obturación en los tercios coronario, medio (ampolla) y apical. Los datos fueron evaluados con la prueba de Wilcoxon (P<0,05). Resultados: El volumen de obturación y la superficie dentinaria en contacto con la obturación fueron similares para las dos técnicas empleadas. Las diferencias entre ambos grupos no fueron estadísticamente significativas (P>0,05). Conclusión: Aunque se observaron vacíos con ambas técnicas (en contacto con la superficie dentinaria cuando se empleó gutapercha inyectable, y en el interior de la obturación cuando se usó cono único de gutapercha más sellador BioRoot RCS), las dos rellenaron adecuadamente las reabsorciones simuladas (AU)


Aim: Ex vivo, tridimensional evaluation with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), of the presence of voids, the obturation volume and adaption to the root canal walls with simulated internal root resorption, using injected gutta-percha or bioceramic sealer with single gutta-percha cone. Materials and methods: Ten maxillary extracted central human incisors were used and artificial internal root resorption was created in each one. For the root canal obturation, each tooth was subjected to two different experimental conditions successively, conforming two matched groups: Group I: EQ-V Master injected thermo plasticized gutta-percha system. Group II: gutta- percha point plus BioRoot RCS bioceramic sealer. First, the root canals were filled with injected gutta-percha and then, with the bioceramic sealer. Then the teeth were scanned with CBCT and subsequently a digital three-dimensional reconstruction was performed. The presence of voids, obturation volumne and the dentin wall surface covered by the filling material was quantitative analyzed through a software; at the coronal, middle (blister) and apical thirds. The data was analyzed by using Wilcoxon test (P<0.05). Results: The filling material volume and the dentin wall surface covered by it, was similar in both root canal obturation techniques. There was no significant difference between both groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Although voids were observed in both groups (when the injected thermo plasticized gutta-percha system was used the voids were at the external surface and when BioRoot RCS + gutta-percha cone was used the voids were into the filling material), the obturation of simulated root canal resorption cavities was similar with both obturation techniques (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials , Biocompatible Materials , Organically Modified Ceramics , Gutta-Percha , Root Resorption , Materials Testing , Statistical Analysis , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1686-1692, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134499

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The emergence of the digital society in the 21st century due to great advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) has allowed the development of research, communication, and collaboration activities related to knowledge and information. ICTs have influenced many aspects of society, especially educational work, and many educational establishments have adopted these technologies in a bid to enhance their teaching methods. One of the most representative cases is the global expansion of e-learning platforms. Until now, the traditional method of study of human anatomy, a key component of any study plan in the health education area, has been mainly based on classic texts. However, different types of software made an appearance in this century such as the three-dimensional (3D) atlases consisting of digital illustrations of the human body. However, there might be a high cost of investment involved when purchasing these kind of software. This research aimed to study the perception of human anatomy students regarding the use of models of 3D-scanned real cadaveric samples available at http://anatomiahumana3d.com, as a complementary educational resource to conventional study. A satisfaction survey was designed which consisted of four items. The survey was answered by 134 students. The format of the models, functionality of the resource, content and teaching of the resource, and finally the general evaluation, reached 96.8%, 84.05%, 81.14%, and 89.4% of perception of satisfaction, respectively. The results show that the new generations of students are immersed in a technological environment, therefore, both general and anatomy teaching could benefit from the use of new technologies.


RESUMEN: El comienzo de la sociedad digital en el siglo XXI debido a los grandes avances en las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) ha permitido el desarrollo de actividades de investigación, comunicación y colaboración relacionadas con el conocimiento y la información. Las TIC han influido en muchos aspectos de la sociedad, especialmente en el trabajo educativo, y muchos establecimientos educativos han adoptado estas tecnologías en un intento por mejorar sus métodos de enseñanza. Uno de los casos más representativos es la expansión global de las plataformas de e-learning. Hasta ahora, el método tradicional de estudio de la anatomía humana, componente clave de cualquier plan de estudios en el área de educación para la salud, se ha basado principalmente en textos clásicos. Sin embargo, en este siglo aparecieron diferentes tipos de software, como los atlas tridimensionales (3D) que consisten en ilustraciones digitales del cuerpo humano. Sin embargo, puede haber un alto costo de inversión involucrado al adquirir este tipo de software. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar la percepción de los estudiantes de anatomía humana sobre el uso de modelos de muestras de cadáveres reales escaneados en 3D disponibles en http://anatomiahumana3d.com, como recurso educativo complementario al estudio convencional. Se diseñó una encuesta de satisfacción que constaba de cuatro ítems. La encuesta fue respondida por 134 estudiantes. El formato de los modelos, funcionalidad del recurso, contenido y didáctica del recurso, y finalmente la evaluación general, alcanzaron el 96,8%, 84,05%, 81,14% y 89,4% de percepción de satisfacción, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que las nuevas generaciones de estudiantes se encuentran inmersas en un entorno tecnológico, por lo que tanto la enseñanza general como la de anatomía podrían beneficiarse del uso de las nuevas tecnologías.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Anatomy/education , Models, Anatomic , Personal Satisfaction , Cadaver , Surveys and Questionnaires , Human Body , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Measurement , Information Technology
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1223-1228, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134429

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that has become a risk factor for the development of respiratory problems, meaning it is necessary to generate models that assess lung function in obese patients for proper treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate a model for analyzing respiratory function according to body composition, by analyzing the structure and function of the airways by computed tomography (CT). Lung function and body fat percentage (BF%) were measured in three male subjects (25 ± 6 years), with different body mass index (BMI; normal, overweight, obese). A third-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the airways was performed using CT. Trachea, right and left main bronchi and anterior segmental bronchus of the right and left lung were measured. Three measurement points were established for each structure, and the average value of these three points was used for the analysis. An increase in the thickness of the airways wall of the left and right main bronchi and right segmental bronchus was observed as BMI and BF% increased. The same was observed for the percentage of airway wall area (%AWA) and airway resistance in the main and segmental bronchi. The proposed 3D reconstruction model and the three-point analysis simplified image assessment and allowed to observe the problems caused by obesity in lung function.


RESUMEN: La obesidad es una epidemia mundial, la que se ha transformado en un factor de riesgo en el desarrollo problemas respiratorios. Al respecto, generar modelos de evaluación de la función pulmonar en pacientes obesos es relevante para su adecuado tratamiento. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar un modelo de la estructura y función de las vías aéreas (VA) con tomografía computarizada (TC) que permita analizar su compor- tamiento de acuerdo a la composición corporal. A tres sujetos de sexo masculino (25±6 años), de distinto índice de masa corporal (IMC; normal, sobrepeso, obeso), se les midió función pulmonar y porcentaje de grasa corporal (% GC). A través de TC se realizó una reconstrucción en tercera dimensión (3D) de las VA. Se realizaron mediciones de las VA de la tráquea, bronquios principales derecho e izquierdo y bronquio segmentario anterior del pulmón derecho e izquierdo. Para cada estructura se establecieron tres puntos de medición, el valor utilizado para los análisis fue el promedio de estos tres puntos. En los tres participantes se observó un aumento del grosor de la pared de las vías aéreas de los bronquios principal derecho e izquierdo y bronquio segmentario derecho a medida que aumenta el IMC y el % GC. Por otra parte, el porcentaje de área de la pared de las vías aéreas (% APVA) se comportó de la misma manera para ambos bronquios principales y segmentarios. La resistencia de las vías aéreas (RVA), tanto general como específica, aumentó en paralelo con el % APVA en los bronquios principales y segmentarios. A través de un modelo de reconstrucción 3D de la estructura de la VA por TC, evaluando tres puntos, se pudo observar los problemas que trae la obesidad a la función pulmonar simplificando el análisis de imagen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory System/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Airway Resistance/physiology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Pilot Projects , Anthropometry , Overweight , Lung/physiology , Obesity
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1325-1329, oct. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134443

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To explore a new semi-automatic method to segment the teeth from the three-dimensional volume data which acquired from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner. Scanned dental cast models are used to evaluate the segmentation accuracy. The CBCT data are loaded to ORS software. Based on gray value, a semi-automatic method was used to segment teeth and then the segmented teeth were saved in STL format data. Smooth the mesh data in the Geomagic Studio software. The upper and lower dental cast models were scanned by a white light scanner and the data was saved in STL format too. After registering the model data to teeth data, the deviation between them was analyzed in the Geomagic Qualify. All teeth could be obtained, the method is simple to use and applied in orthodontic biomechanics. The entire process took less than 30 minutes. The actual measured Root Mean Square (RMS) value is 0.39 mm, less than 0.4 mm. This method can segment teeth from the jaw quickly and reliably with a little user intervention. The method has important significance for dental orthodontics, virtual jaw surgery simulation and other stomatology applications.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar un nuevo método semiautomático para segmentar los dientes a partir de datos de volumen tridimensional adquiridos mediante escáner de tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT). Los modelos escaneados de moldes dentales se utilizan para evaluar la precisión de la segmentación. Para los datos CBCT se utilizó el software ORS, y basado en el valor gris, se usó un método semiautomático para segmentar los dientes los que posteriormente se guardaron en datos de formato STL. Los datos se ingresaron en el software Geomagic Studio. Los modelo dentales superior e inferior se escanearon con un escáner de luz blanca y la información también se guardó en formato STL. Después del registro y comparación de los datos del modelo y los datos de los dientes, la desviación entre estos se analizó en el programa Geomagic Qualify. Usando este método fue posible obtener de forma fácil todos los dientes y además aplicar en la biomecánica de ortodoncia. El proceso completo demoró menos de 30 minutos. El valor real medido de la raíz cuadrada media fue de 0,39 mm, menos de 0,4 mm. Este método puede segmentar los dientes mandibulares de forma rápida y confiable, con una mínima intervención del usuario. El método tiene una importancia crítica para la ortodoncia, simulaciones virtuales de las cirugías de la mandíbula y otras aplicaciones en estomatología.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Orthodontics/methods , Tooth/anatomy & histology , Software
19.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(2): 165-167, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138530

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Right ventricular restrictive physiology (RVRP) occurs in diverse clinical scenarios, most frequently after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can comprehensively evaluate RVRP using 4D flow along with anatomical and fibrosis characterization. Also, RVRP is associated with less pulmonary regurgitation and fewer right ventricle enlargement; its long term protective role is debated. RVRP is a challenging and relevant diagnosis, which hallmark is the presence of antegrade pulmonary arterial Flow in late diastole throughout the respiratory cycle. Also, other hemodynamic findings could aid such us flow in; caval veins, suprahepatic, coronary sinus and tricuspid valve. Obtaining all these flow curves is virtually impossible by echocardiography. CMR with 4DF is a unique and powerful technique enabling this comprehensive hemodynamic evaluation as depicted in this case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Regional Blood Flow , Tetralogy of Fallot/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Hemodynamics
20.
Medisan ; 24(4)jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1125136

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de páncreas se origina en la glándula pancreática y es una de las neoplasias más invasivas debido a su rápida diseminación, la falta de síntomas específicos en sus inicios y su diagnóstico tardío. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con cáncer de páncreas según variables de interés. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en el Servicio de Imagenología del Hospital Provincial Clinicoquirúrgico Docente Saturnino Lora de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2013 hasta diciembre de 2017, de 70 pacientes con diagnóstico tomográfico sugestivo de dicha neoplasia maligna. Resultados: En la serie el tumor exocrino pancreático primó en pacientes mayores de 60 años de edad (37,1 %), del sexo masculino (54,2 %) y de la raza mestiza (61,4 %). El diagnóstico histológico predominante fue el de adenocarcinoma ductal poco diferenciado (47,2 %), en tanto, los factores de riesgo mayormente asociados al proceso neoplásico fueron las comidas grasas (68,6 %), el tabaquismo (61,4 %) y el alcoholismo (50,0 %), y el antecedente patológico personal más frecuente, la diabetes mellitus (37,1 %). Conclusiones: La tomografía axial computarizada proporciona una descripción detallada de las neoplasias pancreáticas y su extensión, lo cual es de gran utilidad para la estadificación de estas y, además, determina la conducta terapéutica a seguir.


Introduction: The pancreas cancer originates in the pancreatic gland and it is one of the more invasive neoplasms due to its quick dissemination, lack of specific symptoms in its beginnings and its late diagnosis. Objective: To characterize patients with pancreas cancer according to variables of interest. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Imaging Service of Saturnino Lora Teaching Provincial Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2013 to December, 2017 to 70 patients with suggestive tomographic diagnosis of this malignancy. Results: In the series the pancreatic exocrine tumor prevailed in patients older than 60 years (37.1 %), the male sex (54.2 %) and mixed race (61.4 %). The predominant histologic diagnosis was the ductal adenocarcinoma hardly differentiated (47.2 %), as long as, the risk factors mostly associated with the neoplasm were fatty foods (68.6 %), nicotine addiction (61.4 %) and alcoholism (50.0 %), and the most frequent personal pathological history was diabetes mellitus (37.1 %). Conclusions: The computerized axial tomography provides a detailed description of the pancreatic neoplasms and their extension, which is very useful for the staging of these malignancies and, also, it determines the therapeutic behavior we should follow.


Subject(s)
Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Neoplasm Staging
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