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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2903-2914, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887852

ABSTRACT

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of polyamines and catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to produce putrescine. Inhibition of ODC activity is a potential approach for the prevention and treatment of many diseases including cancer, as the expression levels and the activities of ODC in many abnormal cells and tumor cells are generally higher than those of normal cells. The discovery and evaluation of ODC inhibitors rely on the monitoring of the reaction processes catalyzed by ODC. There are several commonly used methods for analyzing the activity of ODC, such as measuring the yield of putrescine by high performance liquid chromatography, or quantifying the yield of isotope labelled carbon dioxide. However, the cumbersome operation and cost of these assays, as well as the difficulty to achieve high-throughput and real-time detection, hampered their applications. In this work, we optimized a real-time label-free method for analyzing the activity of ODC based on the macromolecule cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) and a fluorescent dye, DSMI (trans-4-[4-(dimethylamino) styryl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide). Finally, the optimized method was used to determine the activities of different ODC inhibitors with different inhibition mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Bridged-Ring Compounds , Imidazoles , Ornithine , Ornithine Decarboxylase , Ornithine Decarboxylase Inhibitors , Putrescine
2.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 877-888, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922482

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the etiologic agent for the COVID-19 outbreak. Currently, effective treatment options remain very limited for this disease; therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-COVID-19 agents. In this study, we screened over 6,000 compounds that included approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, and pharmacologically active compounds to identify leads that target the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro). Together with main protease (M


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921570

ABSTRACT

Olmesartan,an angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blocker,is a commonly used antihypertensive drug.Several case reports and cohort studies in recent years have described a severe gastrointestinal adverse event with chronic diarrhea,intestinal malabsorption,and weight loss after the administration of olmesartan.In such cases,the patients recovered after discontinuing olmesartan.This adverse effect is called olmesartan-associated enteropathy(OAE).This article reviews the potential pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of OAE,which broadens the disease spectrum for the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and intestinal malabsorption.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Humans , Imidazoles , Intestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Tetrazoles/adverse effects
4.
Clinics ; 76: e2348, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: TTP488, an antagonist of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products, was evaluated as a potential treatment for patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying the protective action of TTP488 against AD has not yet been fully explored. METHODS: Healthy male rats were exposed to aberrant amyloid β (Aβ) 1-42. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 1 (NLRP1) overexpression lentivirus were injected to activate the NLRP1 inflammasome and exacerbate AD. TTP488 was administered to reverse AD injury. Finally, tofacitinib and fludarabine were used to inhibit the activity of Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) to prove the relationship between the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and TTP488. RESULTS: LPS and NLRP1 overexpression significantly increased the NLRP1 levels, reduced neurological function, and aggravated neuronal damage, as demonstrated by the impact latency time of, time spent by, and length of the platform covered by, the mice in the Morris water maze assay, Nissl staining, and immunofluorescence staining in rats with AD. CONCLUSIONS: TTP488 administration successfully reduced AD injury and reversed the aforementioned processes. Additionally, tofacitinib and fludarabine administration could further reverse AD injury after the TTP488 intervention. These results suggest a new potential mechanism underlying the TTP488-mediated alleviation of AD injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Tyrosine , Transducers , Signal Transduction , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Janus Kinase 2 , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products , Imidazoles
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 45-49, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098060

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals have revolutionized hepatitis C treatment, also for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but some controversy exists regarding the use of sofosbuvir (SOF) in patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <30 mL/min. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of these regimens for hepatitis C treatment of patients with CKD and after renal transplantation, as well as the impact of SOF on renal function in non-dialysis patients. METHODS: All patients with hepatitis C and CKD or renal transplant treated with direct-acting antivirals at a referral center in Brazil between January 2016 and August 2017 were included. Efficacy was evaluated based on viral load (HCV RNA) and a sustained virological response (SVR) consisting of undetectable RNA 12 and/or 24 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12 and SVR24) was defined as cure. Safety was determined by adverse events and ribavirin, when combined, was administered in escalating doses to all patients with GFR <60 mL/min. The impact of SOF on renal function was determined by the measurement of baseline creatinine during and after the end of treatment and its increase was evaluated using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients (52.7% females) with a mean age of 60.72±10.47 years were included. The combination of SOF+daclatasvir was the predominant regimen in 75.6% of cases and anemia was present in 28% of patients who used ribavirin (P=0.04). The SVR12 and SVR24 rates were 99.3% and 97.1%, respectively. The treatment was well tolerated and there were no major clinically relevant adverse events, with the most prevalent being asthenia (57.7%), itching (41.1%), headache (40.7%), and irritability (40.2%). Among conservatively treated and renal transplant patients, oscillations of creatinine levels (AKIN I) were observed in 12.5% of cases during treatment and persisted in only 8.5% after the end of treatment. Of these, 2.0% had an initial GFR <30 mL/min and this percentage decreased to 1.1% after SOF use. Only 0.5% and 1.6% of the patients progressed to AKIN II and AKIN III elevation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The direct-acting antivirals were safe and efficacious in CKD patients treated with SOF-containing regimens, with the observation of high SVR rates, good tolerability and few severe adverse events. The combination with ribavirin increased the risk of anemia and the administration of escalating doses seems to be useful in patients with GFR <60 mL/min. In patients with GFR <30 mL/min, SOF had no significant renal impact, with serum creatinine returning to levels close to baseline after treatment.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Os antivirais de ação direta revolucionaram o tratamento da hepatite C, inclusive para os pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC), porém ainda há divergências no emprego do sofosbuvir (SOF) quando taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG) <30 mL/min. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança desses esquemas no tratamento da hepatite C em pacientes com DRC e pós-transplante renal, além de avaliar o impacto do SOF sobre a função renal dos não-dialíticos. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes com hepatite C e DRC ou transplante renal que realizaram tratamento com antivirais de ação direta em centro referenciado do Brasil no período de janeiro/2016 a agosto/2017 foram incluídos. A eficácia foi avaliada por meio da carga viral (HCV-RNA), considerando-se cura uma resposta virológica sustentada (RVS) com resultado indetectável após 12 e/ou 24 semanas do término do tratamento (RVS12 e RVS24). A segurança foi determinada pelos eventos adversos e a ribavirina, quando associada, foi introduzida de forma escalonada em todos os pacientes com TFG <60 mL/min. Para determinação do impacto do SOF sobre a função renal, foram observadas as dosagens de creatinina basal, durante e após término do tratamento com seu incremento avaliado por meio da classificação de AKIN (acute kidney injury network). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 241 pacientes, sendo 52,7% do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 60,72±10,47 anos. A associação de SOF+daclatasvir predominou em 75,6% dos casos e anemia esteve presente em 28% dos pacientes que utilizaram ribavirina (P=0,040). As taxas de RVS12 e RVS24 foram de 99,3% e 97,1%. O tratamento foi bem tolerado, com eventos adversos pouco relevantes, sendo os mais prevalentes: astenia (57,7%), prurido (41,1%), cefaleia (40,7%) e irritabilidade (40,2%). Entre os pacientes em tratamento conservador e transplantados renais, os valores de creatinina sofreram oscilações AKIN I em 12,5% dos casos, durante o tratamento, persistindo em apenas 8,5% da amostra após o término, dos quais 2,0% apresentavam TFG <30 mL/min inicialmente, com queda para 1,1% após uso do SOF. Apenas 0,5% e 1,6% evoluíram com elevação AKIN II e AKIN III. CONCLUSÃO: Os antivirais de ação direta foram seguros e eficazes em pacientes com DRC tratados com esquemas contendo SOF, apresentando altas taxas de RVS, boa tolerabilidade e poucos eventos adversos graves. A associação com ribavirina aumentou o risco de anemia, portanto sua introdução de forma escalonada parece ser útil nos pacientes com TFG <60 mL/min. Em pacientes com TFG <30 mL/min o SOF não apresentou impacto renal significativo, com creatinina sérica retornando a valores próximos ao basal após o tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Drug Therapy, Combination , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/surgery , Simeprevir/administration & dosage , Sofosbuvir/administration & dosage , Sustained Virologic Response , Genotype , Glomerular Filtration Rate/genetics , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(1): 39-44, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098056

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common hepatotropic viral infection affecting the patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Treatment of chronic HCV infection in stage 4 and 5 CKD includes a combination of elbasvir/grazoprevir and glecaprevir/pibrentasvir, which are not available in many countries. OBJECTIVE: Hence, we have conducted this study to look for the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir combination therapy in this difficult to treat population. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, prospective, open-label study in which Stage 5 CKD patients on maintenance hemodialysis with HCV infection. Total of 18 patients was included. sofosbuvir with daclatasvir or ledipasvir was used according to genotype for 12 weeks. HCV RNA, genotype, transient elastography (TE) was considered for every patient. HCV RNA was quantified at 4th week, 12th week and 12 weeks post-treatment to look for sustained virologic response (SVR 12). RESULTS: Infection due to genotype 1 was seen in 12 (66.7%) patients followed by genotype 3 in 4 (22.3%) with each patient of genotype 2 and 5. The median value of HCV RNA was 2,35,000 IU/mL. On TE, all had liver stiffness of <9.4 KPa. All patients had HCV RNA of <15 IU/mL at 4th and 12th week of treatment and 12 weeks post-treatment. No significant change in hemoglobin, eGFR and liver stiffness was observed. CONCLUSION: Full dose sofosbuvir i.e. 400 mg, in combination with NS5A inhibitors daclatasvir or ledipasvir is found to be safe and effective in patients with end stage renal disease, who are on maintenance hemodialysis.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é a infecção viral hepática mais comum que afeta pacientes em hemodiálise de manutenção. O tratamento da infecção crônica por HCV no estágio 4 e 5 da doença renal crônica inclui uma combinação de elbasvir/grazoprevir e glecaprevir/pibrentasvir, que não estão disponíveis em muitos países. OBJETIVO: Portanto, realizamos este estudo para procurar a segurança e eficácia da terapia combinada de sofosbuvir nesta população de difícil tratamento. MÉTODOS: Realizamos um estudo de centro único, prospectivo e aberto, no qual pacientes com doença renal crônica em estágio 5 em hemodiálise de manutenção com infecção por HCV. Um total de 18 pacientes foi incluído. Sofosbuvir com daclatasvir ou ledipasvir foi usado de acordo com o genótipo por 12 semanas. O HCV RNA, genótipo, elastografia transitória foi considerado para cada paciente. O HCV RNA foi quantificado na 4ª semana, 12ª semana e 12 semanas após o tratamento para procurar uma resposta virológica sustentada. RESULTADOS: A infecção por genótipo 1 foi observada em 12 (66,7%) pacientes, seguido pelo genótipo 3 em 4 (22,3%), em um paciente do genótipo 2 e em outro, 5. O valor mediano do HCV RNA foi de 2.35.000 IU/mL. Na elastografia transitória, todos tinham rigidez hepática de <9.4 KPa. Todos os pacientes tinham RNA HCV <15 IU/mL na 4ª e 12ª semana de tratamento e 12 semanas após o tratamento. Não foi observada nenhuma alteração significativa na hemoglobina, eGFR e rigidez hepática. CONCLUSÃO: A dose completa sofosbuvir ou seja, 400 mg, em combinação com inibidores NS5A daclatasvir ou ledipasvir foi considerada segura e eficaz em pacientes com doença renal em estágio final, que estão em manutenção hemodiálise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles/administration & dosage , Fluorenes/administration & dosage , Sofosbuvir/administration & dosage , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , RNA, Viral , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Treatment Outcome , Hepacivirus/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sustained Virologic Response , Genotype , Middle Aged
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 25-29, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089328

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: To analyze the effectiveness and the safety of Sofosbuvir-based regimens to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A retrospective, observational study in patients with chronic HCV infection and CKD treated with Sofosbuvir-based regimens was performed. Liver fibrosis, comorbidities, HCV genotype and sustained virological resposnse (SVR) at 12th week post-treatment were evaluated. Kidney function was accessed by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The assumed level of significance was 5 %. Results: Thirty-five patients were treated. The mean age was 52.1 ± 10.9 years, 19 (54.3 %) were women, 32 (91.4 %) were already kidney transplanted and 3 (8.6 %) were on hemodialysis. The SVR by intention to treat was 88.6 %. The mean GFR was 65.8 ± 28.6 and 63.7 ± 28.3 ml/min pre- and post-treatment respectively (p > 0.05). Treatment was interrupted in 1 (2.85 %) patient due to anemia and in 2 (5.7 %) due to loss of kidney function. Conclusion: Sofosbuvir-based regimens are effective to treat HCV in patients with CKD. In patients with mild CKD this type of therapy seems to be safe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Kidney Transplantation , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatinine/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Sustained Virologic Response , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880764

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the antitumor effect of ponatinib on the growth of cholangiocarcinoma xenograft derived from a clinical patient in a mouse model expressing FGFR2-CCDC6 fusion protein.@*METHODS@#Lung metastatic tumor tissue was collected from a patient with advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and implanted subcutaneously a NOD/SCID/ Il2rg-knockout (NSG) mouse. The tumor tissues were harvested and transplanted in nude mice to establish mouse models bearing patient-derived xenograft (PDX) of cholangiocarcinoma expressing FGFR2-CCDC6 fusion protein. The PDX mouse models were divided into 4 groups for treatment with citrate buffer (control group), intragastric administration of 20 mg/kg ponatinib dissolved in citrate buffer (ponatinib group), weekly intraperitoneal injections of 50 mg/kg gemcitabine and 2.5 mg/ kg cisplatin (gemcitabine group), or ponatinib combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin at the same doses (10 mice in each group, and 9 mice were evaluated in ponatinib group). The expressions of p-FGFR, p-FRS2, p-AKT, p-ERK, CD31, and Ki-67 in the xenografts were evaluated with immunohistochemistry, and cell apoptosis was analyzed with cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) staining and TUNEL staining. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of FGFR2, p-FGFR, AKT, p-AKT, ERK, p-ERK, FRS2 and p-FRS2 in the tumor tissues.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those in the control group, the mice in ponatinib group showed a significantly reduced tumor volume (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ponatinib can regulate FGFR signaling to inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells in mice bearing patient-derived cholangiocarcinoma xenograft with FGFR2 fusion. FGFR inhibitor can serve as a treatment option for patients with cholangiocarcinoma with FGFR2 fusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Duct Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cholangiocarcinoma/genetics , Cytoskeletal Proteins , Heterografts , Humans , Imidazoles , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, Nude , Mice, SCID , Pyridazines , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2 , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1892-1898, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-formamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) combined with interferon (IFN-α-2b) on the proliferation and apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells, and explore its possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#CCK-8 method was used to detect the inhibition of cell proliferation. Wright Giemsa method was used to stain and cell morphology was observed by light microscopy. FITC Annexin V/PI double staining method was used to analyze the change of apoptosis rate. Immunocytochemistry method was used to detect the expression of wild-type P53 protein.@*RESULTS@#Different concentration of AICAR was inhibitory effect on K562 cells at different time point of action for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and the inhibition was time and dose-dependent (r=0.71, r=0.84). The combination of AICAR and IFN-α-2b could effectively inhibit the proliferation and promote apoptosis of K562 cells. The inhibition rate of K562 cells was (45.26±2.54)%, and the early apoptosis rate was (33.72±0.23)%, which was statistically significantly different from the control group, AICAR or IFN-ɑ-2b alone (P<0.05). The combination of two drugs promoted the expression of wild-type p53 protein.@*CONCLUSION@#AICAR and/or IFN-ɑ-2b can inhibit the cell proliferation and promote the apoptosis of K562 cells. The combination of two drugs shows synergistic antitumor effect, and its mechanism may be related to the promotion of high expression of wild-type p53 protein.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Formamides , Humans , Imidazoles , Interferons , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Ribonucleotides/pharmacology
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of olmesartan on age-associated migration and invasion capacities and microRNA (miRAN) axis in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMCs).@*METHODS@#Cultured HA-VSMCs were divided into control group, bleomycin-mediated senescence (BLM) group and bleomycin + olmesartan treatment group. Wound-healing assay and Boyden chambers invasion assay were used to assess the changes in migration and invasion of the cells, gelatin zymography was used to analyze matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activation in the cells. The differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by miRNA microarray assay and validated by quantitative real-time PCR. MiR-3133 inhibitor was used to examine the effects of molecular manipulation of olmesartan on age-associated migration and invasion and MMP-2 activation in the cells.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those of the control group, the percentage of the repopulated cells and the number of cells crossing the basement membrane increased significantly in BLM group [(78.43±12.76)% (42.47±7.22)%, < 0.05; 33.33±5.51 13.00±4.36, < 0.05]. A significant increase of MMP-2 activation was found in BLM group as compared with the control group (1.66 ± 0.27 0.87 ± 0.13, < 0.05). Olmesartan significantly inhibited BLM-induced enhancement of cell migration and invasion and MMP-2 secretion in the cells. MiR-3133 was significantly downregulated in BLM group and upregulated in olmesartan group. Transfection with miR-3133 inhibitor significantly reversed the effects of olmesartan on age-associated migration and invasion of the cells [(85.87±7.39)% (49.77±3.05)%; 34.67±2.31 20.00±4.58, < 0.05] and MMP-2 activation in the cells (1.76±0.19 0.94±0.10, < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Olmesartan inhibits the migration and invasion of ageassociated HA-VSMCs probably by upregulating of the miR-3133 axis.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Imidazoles , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , MicroRNAs , Genetics , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Tetrazoles
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827415

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate whether necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) can protect islet cells from the damage induced by TNF-α.@*METHODS@#After isolation and purification, the neonatal porcine islet cell clusters (NICCs) were divided into 3 groups (islets 10 000 IEQ/group): a Nec-1 group (Nec-1+TNF-α was added to the culture medium), a TNF-α group (TNF-α was added to the culture medium), and a control group (pure medium). The number of cells was observed after 48 h of co-culture. The cell death was evaluated by AO/EB staining. Insulin secretion and DNA of islets were detected by chemiluminescence and nucleic acid quantitative analysis. RT-PCR assay was used to examine the mRNA expressions of insulin gene, glueogan gene and somatostatin gene. Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect the viability of B cells.@*RESULTS@#The number of islets in Nec-1 group, TNF-α group and the control group were (8 425±2 187), (4 325±778), and (7 122±1 558) IEQ, respectively. Compared to the other two groups, the number of dead cells in TNF-α group was greatly increased. The insulin/DNA values in the Nec-1 group, TNF-α group and blank control group were (13.21±3.15), (2.47±0.45), and (7.44±0.97) mIU/mg, respectively. Compared to the TNF-α group and the control group, the mRNA relative expression levels of insulin gene (6.73±1.07), glucagon gene (10.13±1.98), somatostatin gene (8.57±1.11) were significantly increased in the Nec-1 group (all <0.05), the rate of live cells (97.32±1.87)% and live B cells (90.86±3.68)% were increased significantly in the Nec-1 group (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#TNF-α can induce neonatal porcine islet cells damage, which is attenuated in the presence of Nec-1. Nec-1 can increase the content of endocrine cells in NICCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Imidazoles , Indoles , Insulin , Islets of Langerhans , Swine , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics
12.
Medwave ; 20(7): e8010, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122665

ABSTRACT

Las terapias target constituyen hoy en día una alternativa terapéutica cada vez más utilizada para el manejo de pacientes con melanoma metastásico. Sin embargo, se han descrito múltiples efectos farmacológicos adversos asociados a su uso, siendo los cutáneos los de mayor prevalencia. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 55 años con diagnóstico de melanoma cutáneo metastásico etapa IV, BRAFV600E mutado, en tratamiento con dabrafenib/trametinib que consultó por desarrollo de lesiones nodulares eritematosas sensibles en extremidades superiores e inferiores, asociadas a sensación febril durante el curso del tratamiento. Se descartó alguna infección sobreagregada. Se realizó una biopsia de las lesiones cutáneas, con confirmación diagnóstica histopatológica de una paniculitis mixta de predominio septal, granulomatosa y con vasculitis leucocitoclástica. La paniculitis asociada a esta terapia ha sido descrita en la literatura y se ha considerado un efecto farmacológico inmunomediado adverso, relacionándose a un mejor pronóstico para el melanoma metastásico en tratamiento. Por lo tanto, así como en el caso presentado, se evita la suspensión del fármaco y se asocia terapia sintomática en caso de mayores molestias del paciente. Es de alta relevancia para el dermatólogo conocer e interpretar adecuadamente este efecto adverso farmacológico, y así indicar el manejo más adecuado para el paciente.


Target therapies are currently a therapeutic option increasingly used for the management of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, there are multiple adverse pharmacological effects associated with their use that have been described. Cutaneous adverse reactions are the most frequent. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a diagnosis of stage IV BRAFV600E-mutated metastatic cutaneous melanoma undergoing treatment with dabrafenib/trametinib, who consulted due to the development of erythematous nodular lesions in the upper and lower limbs associated with febrile sensation during the course of treatment. Infection was ruled out and a biopsy of the skin lesions was done, which provided the histopathological confirmation of a predominantly septal, granulomatous with leukocytoclastic vasculitis, mixed panniculitis. Panniculitis associated with this therapy has been described in the literature and has been considered an immune-mediated pharmacological adverse effect. It is considered to be related to a better prognosis in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Consequently, as shown in this case report, target therapy should not be discontinued and symptomatic medication should be given to alleviate patient discomfort. The dermatologist should know and properly interpret this adverse effect and prescribe the most appropriate management for the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Panniculitis/chemically induced , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Oximes/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyrimidinones/administration & dosage , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Panniculitis/diagnosis , Panniculitis/therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Molecular Targeted Therapy/adverse effects , Dermatologists , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Melanoma/drug therapy
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 301-314, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775476

ABSTRACT

Neuropathic pain is a chronic debilitating symptom characterized by spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia. It occurs in distinct forms, including brush-evoked dynamic and filament-evoked punctate mechanical allodynia. Potassium channel 2.1 (Kir2.1), which exhibits strong inward rectification, is and regulates the activity of lamina I projection neurons. However, the relationship between Kir2.1 channels and mechanical allodynia is still unclear. In this study, we first found that pretreatment with ML133, a selective Kir2.1 inhibitor, by intrathecal administration, preferentially inhibited dynamic, but not punctate, allodynia in mice with spared nerve injury (SNI). Intrathecal injection of low doses of strychnine, a glycine receptor inhibitor, selectively induced dynamic, but not punctate allodynia, not only in naïve but also in ML133-pretreated mice. In contrast, bicuculline, a GABA receptor antagonist, induced only punctate, but not dynamic, allodynia. These results indicated the involvement of glycinergic transmission in the development of dynamic allodynia. We further found that SNI significantly suppressed the frequency, but not the amplitude, of the glycinergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (gly-sIPSCs) in neurons on the lamina II-III border of the spinal dorsal horn, and pretreatment with ML133 prevented the SNI-induced gly-sIPSC reduction. Furthermore, 5 days after SNI, ML133, either by intrathecal administration or acute bath perfusion, and strychnine sensitively reversed the SNI-induced dynamic, but not punctate, allodynia and the gly-sIPSC reduction in lamina IIi neurons, respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that blockade of Kir2.1 channels in the spinal dorsal horn selectively inhibits dynamic, but not punctate, mechanical allodynia by enhancing glycinergic inhibitory transmission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bicuculline , Pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Glycine , Metabolism , Hyperalgesia , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Imidazoles , Pharmacology , Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials , Physiology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neurons , Metabolism , Neurotransmitter Agents , Pharmacology , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Phenanthrolines , Pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying , Metabolism , Receptors, GABA-A , Metabolism , Receptors, Glycine , Metabolism , Strychnine , Pharmacology , Synaptic Transmission , Physiology , Tissue Culture Techniques , Touch
14.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 248-260, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777191

ABSTRACT

Prostaglandin (PG) E plays critical roles during pregnancy and parturition. Emerging evidence indicates that human labour is an inflammatory event. We sought to investigate the effect of PGE on the output of proinflammatory cytokines in cultured human uterine smooth muscle cells (HUSMCs) from term pregnant women and elucidate the role of subtypes of PGE receptors (EP, EP, EP and EP). After drug treatment and/or transfection of each receptor siRNA, the concentrations of inflammatory secreting factors in HUSMCs culture medium were detected by the corresponding ELISA kits. The results showed that, PGE increased interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) output, decreased chemokine (c-x-c motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) output in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on IL-1β and chemokine (c-c motif) ligand 2 (CCL-2) secretion of HUSMCs. EP/EP agonist 17-phenyl-trinor-PGE stimulated IL-6 and TNFα whilst suppressing IL-1β and CXCL8 output. The effects of 17-phenyl-trinor-PGE on IL-1β and CXCL8 secretion were remained whereas its effect on IL-6 and TNFα output did not occur in the cells with EP knockdown. The stimulatory effects of 17-phenyl-trinor-PGE on IL-6 and TNFα were remained whereas the inhibitory effects of 17-phenyl-trinor-PGE on IL-1β secretion was blocked in the cells with EP knockdown. Either of EP and EP agonists stimulated IL-1β and TNFα output, which was reversed by EP and EP siRNA, respectively. The inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) blocked EP/EP modulation of TNFα and CXCL8 output. PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and P38 inhibitor SB202190 blocked 17-phenyl-trinor-PGE-induced IL-1β and IL-6 output, respectively. The inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase and PKA prevented EP and EP stimulation of IL-1β and TNFα output, whereas PLC and PKC inhibitors blocked EP- and EP-induced TNFα output but not IL-1β output. Our data suggest that PGE receptors exhibit different effects on the output of various cytokines in myometrium, which can subtly modulate the inflammatory microenvironment in myometrium during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Chromones , Pharmacology , Cytokines , Metabolism , Female , Humans , Imidazoles , Pharmacology , Inflammation , Morpholines , Pharmacology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Cell Biology , Myometrium , Cell Biology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Pregnancy , Pyridines , Pharmacology , Receptors, Prostaglandin E , Physiology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813060

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of SB203580, a p38MAPK specific inhibitor, on ropivacaine-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.
 Methods: PC12 cells were divided into three groups: the normal group (Group N), cells were cultured for 48 h; the ropivacaine group (Group R), cells were cultured with 15 mmol/L ropivacaine hydrochloride for 48 h; the ropivacaine+SB203580 group (Group R+S), cells were cultured with 15 mmol/L ropivacaine hydrochloride plus 10 μmol/L SB203580 for 48 h. The cell survival rates were detected by MTT assay. The protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, phosphor-p38 (p-p38) and cystolic cytochrome C (Cyt C) were detected by Western blotting.
 Results: Compared with the Group N, the number and survival rate of PC12 cells in the Group R and the Group R+S were significantly reduced (all P<0.05); the number and survival rate of PC12 cells in the Group R+S were significantly higher than those in the Group R (both P<0.05). Compared with the Group N, the levels of p-p38 and cleaved caspase-3, and the content of cytoplasmic Cyt C in the PC12 cells from the Group R and the Group R+S were significantly enhanced (all P<0.05); compared with the Group R, the levels of p-p38 and cleaved caspase-3, and the content of cytoplasmic Cyt C in the PC12 cells from the Group R+S were decreased (all P<0.05).
 Conclusion: The ropivacaine-induced cytotoxicity can be attenuated via inhibition of p38MAPK; which is related to decrease in Cyt C content and cleaved caspase-3 expression.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics, Local , Toxicity , Animals , Apoptosis , Imidazoles , PC12 Cells , Pyridines , Rats , Ropivacaine , Toxicity , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical features of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with T315 I mutation (CML-T315I) and compare the effectiveness of different treatments.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and outcomes of 19 patients with CML-T315I receiving different treatments. The T315 I mutations in these patients were detected by examination of BCR-ABL kinase domain (KD) mutation by RTQ-PCR and Sanger sequencing. The relapse following the treatments, defined as hematological, cytogenetic and molecular biological recurrences, were analyzed in these patients.@*RESULTS@#Of the 19 patients with CML-T315I, 14 (73.7%) were in CML-CP stage at the initial diagnosis, and 13 (81.2%) were high-risk patients based on the Sokal scores. All the 19 patients were treated with TKI after the initial diagnosis, and during the treatment, 15 (78.9%) patients were found to have additional chromosomal aberrations, and 10 (52.6%) had multiple mutations; 13 (68.4%) of the patients experienced disease progression (accelerated phase/blast crisis) before the detection of T315I mutation, with a median time of 40 months (5-120 months) from the initial diagnosis to the mutation detection. After detection of the mutation, 12 patients were treated with ponatinib and 7 were managed with the conventional chemotherapy regimen, and their overall survival rates at 3 years were 83.3% and 14.2%, respectively ( < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#CML patients resistant to TKI are more likely to have T315I mutations, whose detection rate is significantly higher in the progressive phase than in the chronic phase. These patients often have additional chromosomal aberrations and multiple gene mutations with poor prognoses and a high recurrence rate even after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Long-term maintenance therapy with ponatinib may improve the prognosis and prolong the survival time of the patients.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl , Humans , Imidazoles , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Mutation , Pyridazines , Retrospective Studies
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7844, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974274

ABSTRACT

Necroptosis is a regulated cell death mechanism. However, it is unknown whether necroptosis is involved in the death of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-treated osteoblasts. Therefore, we conducted the study with TNF-α, Nec-1 (a specific inhibitor of necroptosis), and Z-IETD-FMK (a specific inhibitor of apoptosis) to determine whether necroptosis plays a role in the death of TNF-α-treated osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Cell viability, cell death, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were assayed to evaluate cytotoxicity. Specific marker proteins receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK3) and phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (p-MLKL) for necroptosis, and cleaved caspase 3 for apoptosis were detected by western blot, and mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We found that TNF-α inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Nec-1 plus Z-IETD-FMK restored cell viability and significantly decreased LDH release. In addition, TNF-α alone increased the cell population of AV+PI−, while Z-IETD-FMK caused a shift in the cell population from AV+PI− to AV+PI+. Furthermore, TNF-α significantly increased protein cleaved caspase 3. TNF-α plus Z-IETD-FMK significantly increased the proteins RIPK3 and MLKL phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 cells, while the changes in mRNA levels of RIPK3, MLKL, and caspase 3 were not consistent with the changes in the corresponding protein expression levels. In conclusion, TNF-α induced preferentially apoptosis in osteoblast cell line and necroptosis played a decisive role when TNF-α-induced death was inhibited by the inhibitor of apoptosis. Combined treatment with Nec-1 and Z-IETD-FMK protected mouse osteoblasts from death induced by TNF-α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Osteoblasts/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Caspase 8/drug effects , Caspase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Necrosis/pathology , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Cell Survival/drug effects , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/pharmacology
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(8): e8519, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011607

ABSTRACT

Recurrent hepatitis C (HCV) after liver transplantation (LT) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Antiviral treatment is recommended to avoid unfavorable outcomes. Direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have transformed HCV treatment, with higher efficacy and fewer side-effects than interferon-based therapies traditionally used. To evaluate DAA treatment outcomes at a Brazilian transplant unit, data of patients who finished HCV treatment at the Liver Transplant Unit of the University of Campinas were analyzed. Treatment consisted of sofosbuvir, daclatasvir, and ribavirin, for 12 or 24 weeks, according to the national guidelines. Fifty-five patients completed antiviral treatment and 54 had HCV-viral load results available. The majority of patients were male (78%), 58 years old on average, 65% had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before LT, and 67% were interferon treatment-experienced. Most patients had HCV genotype 1 (65%), 35% had genotype 3, and started treatment on an average of 38 months after LT (range: 2-228). Fifty-eight percent were treated for 12 weeks and 42% for 24 weeks, using a mean dose of ribavirin of 10.1 mg/kg (4.2-16.1). There were no treatment interruptions due to serious side effects. The sustained virological response rate was 98%. Only one patient relapsed, a genotype 3 cirrhotic treated for 12 weeks. The average follow-up after starting antivirals was 20 months. There were no recurrences of HCC, but there was one rejection episode and one cirrhosis decompensation episode, both 12 weeks after treatment. DAA treatment is safe and effective in the post-LT setting and was not associated to HCC recurrence in the cohort studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Sofosbuvir/administration & dosage , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Drug Therapy, Combination , Sustained Virologic Response , Genotype
19.
Medwave ; 19(6): e7666, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008000

ABSTRACT

Resumen La tinea nigra es una infrecuente micosis superficial causada por el hongo dematiáceo Hortaea werneckii. Se presenta habitualmente en zonas costeras tropicales, siendo muy escasos los reportes en países sudamericanos con climas más templados. Habitualmente corresponde a infecciones importadas por viajeros. Se presenta el caso de una paciente adulta chilena, sin historia previa de viajes recientes, cursando con cuadro clínico y microbiológico compatible con tinea nigra palmar, tratado con itraconazol oral y sertaconazol tópico con respuesta favorable. Esta paciente corresponde al primer caso reportado en Chile de origen autóctono.


Abstract Tinea nigra is an infrequent superficial mycosis caused by the dematiaceous fungus Hortaea werneckii. It usually occurs in tropical coastal areas, with very few reports in South American countries with temperate climates, generally corresponding to infections imported by travelers. We present the case of a Chilean adult patient, with no previous history of recent trips, with clinical and microbiological background consistent with palmar tinea nigra, treated with oral itraconazole and topical sertaconazole with a favorable response. This article is the first case reported in Chile, of autochthonous origin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Thiophenes/administration & dosage , Tinea/diagnosis , Itraconazole/administration & dosage , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Tinea/drug therapy , Chile , Treatment Outcome
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 317-322, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974227

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is one of the major causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation. Treatment using direct-acting antivirals has revolutionized the treatment of hepatitis C virus, increasing long-term prognosis after cure. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals in a Public Health System in southern Brazil. Methods A retrospective study evaluated all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who underwent treatment at one center of the Public Health Department of the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil, according to the Brazilian Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines. The effectiveness was assessed in terms sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment. Results A total of 1002 patients who were treated for chronic hepatitis C virus infection were evaluated. The mean age was 58.6 years, 557 patients (55.6%) were male and 550 (54.9%) were cirrhotic. Overall sustained virological response was observed in 936 (93.4%) patients. There was a difference in sustained virological response rate varied according to sex, 91.6% in men and 95.7% in women (p= 0.009), length of treatment in genotype 1, 92.7% with 12 weeks and 99.1 with 24 weeks (p= 0.040), and genotype, 94.7% in genotype 1, 91.7% in genotype 2, and 91.4% in genotype 3 (p= 0.047). Conclusion The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection for genotypes 1, 2 or 3 with the therapeutic regimens established by the Brazilian guidelines showed high rates of SVR, even in cirrhotic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Sustained Virologic Response , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Hepacivirus/genetics , Viral Load , Hepatitis C, Chronic/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Simeprevir/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Genotype , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Liver Cirrhosis
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