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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7844, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974274


Necroptosis is a regulated cell death mechanism. However, it is unknown whether necroptosis is involved in the death of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-treated osteoblasts. Therefore, we conducted the study with TNF-α, Nec-1 (a specific inhibitor of necroptosis), and Z-IETD-FMK (a specific inhibitor of apoptosis) to determine whether necroptosis plays a role in the death of TNF-α-treated osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Cell viability, cell death, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were assayed to evaluate cytotoxicity. Specific marker proteins receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK3) and phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (p-MLKL) for necroptosis, and cleaved caspase 3 for apoptosis were detected by western blot, and mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We found that TNF-α inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Nec-1 plus Z-IETD-FMK restored cell viability and significantly decreased LDH release. In addition, TNF-α alone increased the cell population of AV+PI−, while Z-IETD-FMK caused a shift in the cell population from AV+PI− to AV+PI+. Furthermore, TNF-α significantly increased protein cleaved caspase 3. TNF-α plus Z-IETD-FMK significantly increased the proteins RIPK3 and MLKL phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 cells, while the changes in mRNA levels of RIPK3, MLKL, and caspase 3 were not consistent with the changes in the corresponding protein expression levels. In conclusion, TNF-α induced preferentially apoptosis in osteoblast cell line and necroptosis played a decisive role when TNF-α-induced death was inhibited by the inhibitor of apoptosis. Combined treatment with Nec-1 and Z-IETD-FMK protected mouse osteoblasts from death induced by TNF-α.

Animals , Rabbits , Osteoblasts/pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Caspase 8/drug effects , Caspase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Necrosis/pathology , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Cell Survival/drug effects , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/pharmacology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 186-192, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974205


ABSTRACT Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness in terms of sustained virological response and tolerability of available second generation direct-acting antivirals in Brazilian patients. Methods This was a retrospective observational study conducted in six centers in Southern Brazil. The sample comprised adult patients who were chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, regardless of virus genotype, fibrosis stage, or prior treatment. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the effectiveness among the treatments, and also to uncover the factors influencing the achievement of sustained virological response. Results A total of 296 patients were included in the study, with the majority receiving sofosbuvir with daclatasvir (59%) or sofosbuvir with simeprevir (26%). Overall sustained virological response rates were approximately 91.6%. For genotype 1, sofosbuvir with daclatasvir had an sustained virological response rate of approximately 95%, while the sustained virological response rate of sofosbuvir with simeprevir was 92%; this difference was statistically significant only for subtype 1b. The only treatment used for genotype 3 patients was sofosbuvir with daclatasvir, and lower rates of sustained virological response were observed for this group, compared to genotype 1 (84% versus 95%, p < 0.05). Apart from this difference between genotypes, and a difference between patients who achieved rapid virologic response compared with those who did not, there were no other statistically significant factors associated with sustained virological response. Conclusions The results point to the effectiveness of second-generation direct-acting antivirals in hepatitis C virus Brazilian patients, especially those with genotype 1. Furthermore, that patients with genotype 3 need more attention and adjustments in available treatment options.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Reference Values , Ribavirin/pharmacology , Time Factors , Brazil , Logistic Models , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Simeprevir/pharmacology , Sofosbuvir/pharmacology , Sustained Virologic Response , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Liver Cirrhosis/virology
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e99, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952129


Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible use of a commercial absorbed collagen sponge and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) for the prevention of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in rats. Twenty rats received intraperitoneal injections of 0.1-mg/kg of zoledronic acid three times a week for eight weeks before the extraction of both maxillary first molars after eight weeks. A collagen sponge (experimental group 1) and a collagen sponge with recombinant human BMP-2 (experimental group 2) were applied to the right extraction sockets of ten rats each. The 20 left extraction sockets (control groups 1 and 2) were left unprotected. After eight weeks, all rats were euthanized. Macroscopic analysis, micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis, and histological analysis were performed. There was a significant difference in the bone density between the control and experimental groups on micro-CT analysis. Impaired healing of the extraction sockets, indicating BRONJ, was observed in 80% of control group 1, 90% of control group 2, 30% of experimental group 1, and 20% of experimental group 2. The collagen sponge with/without BMP used for protecting the extraction socket had the potential for a positive effect in reducing the incidence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in rats.

Animals , Female , Rats , Wound Healing/drug effects , Surgical Sponges , Transforming Growth Factor beta/administration & dosage , Collagen/administration & dosage , Tooth Socket/drug effects , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/administration & dosage , Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw/prevention & control , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , X-Ray Microtomography , Zoledronic Acid
Braz. dent. j ; 27(5): 515-523, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828045


Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the administration of zoledronic acid (ZA) during orthodontic movement in rats. A hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were applied force of 30 cN with spring closed nickel-titanium to move the upper right first molar to mesial. In the Control Movement group (CM), only tooth movement was performed; the Control Acid Zoledronic group (CAZ) received a single dose (0.1 mg/kg) of ZA; the Experimental Acid Zoledronic group (EAZ) received a single dose (0.1 mg/kg) one week prior to the start of tooth movement; and the Control Without movement group (CWM) that received no drug and without application of tooth movement. The animals were euthanized after 3, 7 and 14 days. Tooth movement was measured using a caliper, the number of osteoclasts using TRAP staining, the expression of mature and immature collagen using picrosirius staining, and the presence of hyaline areas and root resorption using HE. The data were compared using two-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD, Games-Howell and chi-squared test, at the 5% significance level. It was observed a smaller number of osteoclasts and greater percentage of hyaline area in the EAZ group. There was no difference among the groups regarding bone remodeling, root resorption and tooth movement for all observed times.

Resumo A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da administração do ácido zoledrônico (ZA) durante a movimentação ortodôntica em ratos. Cento e vinte ratos Wistar, machos, foram submetidos a aplicação de uma força de 30 cN através de uma mola fechada de níquel-titânio para mover o primeiro molar superior direito para mesial. No grupo Controle Movimentação (CM), apenas a movimentação dentária foi realizada; o grupo Controle Ácido Zoledrônico (CAZ) recebeu uma única dose (0,1 mg/kg) de ZA; o grupo Experimental Ácido Zoledrônico (EAZ) recebeu uma única dose (0,1 mg/Kg) uma semana antes do início da movimentação dentária; e o grupo Controle Sem Movimentação (CWM) não receberam nenhum tipo de droga e não foi realizado movimentação dentária. Os animais foram eutanásiados após 3, 7 e 14 dias. A movimentação dentária foi mensurada através de um paquímetro, o número de osteoclastos utilizando coloração TRAP, a expressão do colágeno maturo e imaturo através da coloração Picrosírius, e a presença de áreas hialinas e reabsorção radicular utilizando HE. Os dados foram comparados utilizando ANOVA a dois critérios, Tukey HSD, Games-Howell e teste de qui-quadrado, ao nível de significância de 5%. Verificou-se menor número de osteoclastos e maior porcentagem de área hialina no grupo EAZ. Não houve diferença entre grupos quanto à neoformação óssea, reabsorção radicular e movimentação dentária em todos os tempos observados.

Animals , Male , Rats , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Orthodontics , Tooth Movement Techniques , Rats, Wistar
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e122, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951982


Abstract Osteonecrosis of the jaw is an adverse effect of bisphosphonates. While the etiopathogenesis of this condition has been investigated, the interactions and effects of bisphosphonates on oral mucosa cells remain unclear. It is hypothesized that cell culture models, such as co-culture or three-dimensional cell culture models, can provide valuable insight. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts in a co-culture model. Briefly, epithelial cells were seeded on transwell inserts and gingival fibroblasts were seeded in the lower well of 24-well plates. The latter were treated with ZA (5 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability and synthesis of the inflammatory chemokine, CCL2, were subsequently assessed. Data were subjected to statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. In the presence of ZA, the epithelial cells exhibited significant toxicity in both cell culture models and at both time points. However, greater cytotoxicity was observed in the co-culture model. Greater viability for the gingival fibroblasts was also associated with the co-culture model, and ZA-mediated toxicity was observed for the 48 h time point. ZA promoted a significant increase in CCL2 synthesis in both sets of cells, with greater CCL2 synthesis detected in the gingival fibroblasts. However, this effect was diminished in the co-culture model. Taken together, these results confirm the specific response patterns of the cells seeded in the co-culture model and also demonstrate the protective mechanism that is mediated by epithelial/mesenchymal cell interactions upon exposure to ZA.

Humans , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Coculture Techniques , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Zoledronic Acid , Gingiva/cytology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-95370


Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have tumor initiation, self-renewal, metastasis and chemo-resistance properties in various tumors including colorectal cancer. Targeting of CSCs may be essential to prevent relapse of tumors after chemotherapy. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signals are central regulators of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. These pathways are related to colorectal tumorigenesis. This study focused on PI3K and mTOR pathways by inhibition which initiate differentiation of SW620 derived CSCs and investigated its effect on tumor progression. By using rapamycin, LY294002, and NVP-BEZ235, respectively, PI3K and mTOR signals were blocked independently or dually in colorectal CSCs. Colorectal CSCs gained their differentiation property and lost their stemness properties most significantly in dual-blocked CSCs. After treated with anti-cancer drug (paclitaxel) on the differentiated CSCs cell viability, self-renewal ability and differentiation status were analyzed. As a result dual-blocking group has most enhanced sensitivity for anti-cancer drug. Xenograft tumorigenesis assay by using immunodeficiency mice also shows that dual-inhibited group more effectively increased drug sensitivity and suppressed tumor growth compared to single-inhibited groups. Therefore it could have potent anti-cancer effects that dual-blocking of PI3K and mTOR induces differentiation and improves chemotherapeutic effects on SW620 human colorectal CSCs.

AC133 Antigen/genetics , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chromones/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Morpholines/pharmacology , Neoplastic Stem Cells/cytology , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Quinolines/pharmacology , SOXB1 Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sirolimus/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(6): 507-514, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767923


Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the cortical bone channels network (CBCN) and osteocyte organization in relation to the bone channels. Materials and methods Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into control (CG) and test groups (TG). Twelve animals from TG received 3 ZA doses (7.5 µg/kg), and 6 animals from CG did not receive any medication. TG animals were euthanized at 14 (n = 6) and 75 (n = 6) dadys after drug injection. CBCN was analyzed in mandibles and tibias using computational routines. The osteocyte organization was qualitatively evaluated in tibias using a three-dimensional reconstruction of images from serial histological sections. Results Significant differences in CBCN of tibia were found between the treated and untreated rats, with a wider range of sizes and shapes of the channels after the use of ZA (channels area p = 0.0063, channels area SD p = 0.0276) and less bone matrix (bone volume p = 0.0388). The alterations in the channels’ morphology were more evident at 75 days after the drug injection (channels perimeter p = 0.0286). No differences were found in mandibles CBCN. The osteocyte distribution revealed more variable patterns of cell distribution in ZA groups, with non-homogeneous distribution of cells in relation to the bone channels. Conclusion Zoledronic acid induces structural changes in CBCN and modifies the osteocyte arrangement in cortical bone in the tibia; also, the variability in the morphology of bone channels became more evident after a certain time of the use of the drug.

Animals , Male , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Haversian System/drug effects , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Osteocytes/drug effects , Haversian System/anatomy & histology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tibia/anatomy & histology , Tibia/drug effects
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(5): 58-65, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764546


Introduction: Orthodontic anchorage is one of the most challenging aspects of Orthodontics. Preventing undesired movement of teeth could result in safer and less complicated orthodontic treatment. Recently, several reviews have been published about the effects of different molecules on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in Orthodontics. However, the effects of local application of these substances on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been assessed.Objectives: The aim of this research was to analyze the scientific evidence published in the literature about the effects of different molecules on orthodontic anchorage.Methods: The literature was systematically reviewed using PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from 2000 up to July 31st, 2014. Articles were independently selected by two different researchers based on previously established inclusion and exclusion criteria, with a concordance Kappa index of 0.86. The methodological quality of the reviewed papers was performed.Results: Search strategy identified 270 articles. Twenty-five of them were selected after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, and only 11 qualified for final analysis. Molecules involved in orthodontic anchorage were divided into three main groups: osteoprotegerin (OPG), bisphosphonates (BPs) and other molecules (OMs).Conclusions: Different drugs are able to alter the bone remodeling cycle, influencing osteoclast function and, therefore, tooth movement. Thus, they could be used in order to provide maximal anchorage while preventing undesired movements. OPG was found the most effective molecule in blocking the action of osteoclasts, thereby reducing undesired movements.

Introdução: a ancoragem ortodôntica é um dos aspectos mais desafiadores da Ortodontia. A prevenção de movimentos dentários indesejados poderia resultar em um tratamento ortodôntico mais seguro e menos complexo. Recentemente, foram publicadas várias revisões de literatura sobre os efeitos de diferentes substâncias na fisiologia do tecido ósseo e os efeitos colaterais clínicos na Ortodontia. Porém, os efeitos da aplicação local dessas substâncias no grau de movimentação dentária ortodôntica não foram avaliados.Objetivos: o objetivo da presente pesquisa foi analisar a evidência científica publicada na literatura sobre os efeitos de diferentes substâncias na ancoragem ortodôntica.Métodos: a literatura foi sistematicamente revisada utilizando-se as bases de dados PubMed/Medline, Scopus e Cochrane, de 2000 a 31 de julho de 2014. Os artigos foram selecionados, de maneira independente, por dois pesquisadores diferentes, tendo como base critérios de inclusão e exclusão previamente estabelecidos, com um índice Kappa de concordância de 0,86. A qualidade metodológica dos artigos revisados foi analisada.Resultados: a estratégia de pesquisa identificou 270 artigos; 25 artigos foram selecionados após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, mas apenas 11 foram qualificados para a análise final. As substâncias envolvidas na ancoragem ortodôntica foram divididas em três grupos principais: osteoprotegerina (OPG), bisfosfonatos (BFs) e outras substâncias (OSs).Conclusões: diferentes substâncias são capazes de alterar o ciclo de remodelação óssea, influenciando na função dos osteoclastos e, portanto, na movimentação dentária. Sendo assim, essas substâncias podem ser utilizadas para promover o máximo de ancoragem e prevenir movimentos indesejados. A OPG foi a substância mais eficaz no bloqueio da ação dos osteoclastos, reduzindo os movimentos indesejados.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Diclofenac/pharmacology , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Clodronic Acid/therapeutic use , Clodronic Acid/pharmacology , Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures/methods , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Celecoxib/pharmacology , Resveratrol , Zoledronic Acid , Pamidronate , Imidazoles/pharmacology
Clinics ; 70(7): 500-507, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752399


OBJECTIVES: Remote ischemic perconditioning is the newest technique used to lessen ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, its effect in hypertensive animals has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effect of remote ischemic perconditioning in spontaneously hypertensive rats and determine whether chronic treatment with Olmesartan could influence the effect of remote ischemic perconditioning. METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups: vehicle-sham, vehicle-ischemia/reperfusion injury, vehicle-remote ischemic perconditioning, olmesartan-sham, olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion and olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning. The left ventricular mass index, creatine kinase concentration, infarct size, arrhythmia scores, HIF-1α mRNA expression, miR-21 expression and miR-210 expression were measured. RESULTS: Olmesartan significantly reduced the left ventricular mass index, decreased the creatine kinase concentration, limited the infarct size and reduced the arrhythmia score. The infarct size, creatine kinase concentration and arrhythmia score during reperfusion were similar for the vehicle-ischemia/reperfusion group and vehicle-remote ischemic perconditioning group. However, these values were significantly decreased in the olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning group compared to the olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion injury group. HIF-1α, miR-21 and miR-210 expression were markedly down-regulated in the Olmesartan-sham group compared to the vehicle-sham group and significantly up-regulated in the olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning group compared to the olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion injury group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that (1) the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning is lost in vehicle-treated rats and that chronic treatment with Olmesartan restores the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning; (2) chronic treatment with Olmesartan down-regulates HIF-1α, ...

Animals , Rats , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Tetrazoles/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial , Random Allocation , Rats, Inbred SHR
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 55(3): 240-250, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752092


Objetivos: O desuso pelo repouso no leito, pela imobilização de membros ou por missões espaciais provoca a perda óssea rápida. Fez-se este estudo para investigar os efeitos terapêuticos do ácido zoledrônico (ZOL), isoladamente e em combinação ao alfacalcidol (ALF), em um modelo de rato com osteoporose por desuso. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos de três meses foram submetidos à imobilização da pata traseira direita (IPTD) por 10 semanas para induzir a osteopenia; em seguida, foram divididos em quatro grupos: 1 – IPTD para controle positivo; 2 – IPTD mais ZOL (50 µg/kg, dose única intravenosa); 3 – IPTD mais ALF (0,5 µg/kg, via oral diariamente); 4 – IPTD mais ALF (0,5 µg/kg, via oral diariamente) mais ZOL (50 µg/kg, dose única intravenosa) por outras 10 semanas. Um grupo de ratos não imobilizados foi usado como controle negativo. No fim do tratamento, os fêmures foram removidos e testaram-se a porosidade do osso e suas propriedades mecânicas, além do peso seco e das cinzas do osso. Resultados: A terapia combinada com ZOL mais ALF foi mais eficaz em reduzir a porosidade do osso do que a monoterapia com um dos fármacos administrado isoladamente em ratos submetidos à IPTD. No que diz respeito à melhoria da resistência mecânica da diáfise femoral média, o tratamento combinado com ZOL mais ALF foi mais eficaz do que a monoterapia com um dos fármacos administrado isoladamente. Além disso, a terapia combinada com ZOL mais ALF foi mais eficaz na melhoria do peso seco e das cinzas do osso do que a monoterapia com ZOL ou ALF em ratos submetidos à IPTD. Conclusões: Esses dados sugerem que a terapia combinada com ZOL mais ALF representa uma opção terapêutica potencialmente útil para o tratamento da osteoporose por desuso. .

Objectives: Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss. We conducted the present study to investigate the therapeutic effects of zoledronic acid (ZOL), alone and in combination with alfacalcidol (ALF) in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis. Methods: In the present study, 3-month-old male Wistar rats had their right hind-limb immobilized (RHLI) for 10 weeks to induce osteopenia, then were divided into four groups: 1 – RHLI positive control; 2 – RHLI plus ZOL (50 µg/kg, i.v. single dose); 3 – RHLI plus ALF (0.5 µg/kg, oral gauge daily); 4 – RHLI plus ALF (0.5 µg/kg, oral gauge daily) plus ZOL (50 µg/kg, i.v. single dose) for another 10 weeks. One group of non-immobilized rats was used as negative control. At the end of the treatment, the femurs were removed and tested for bone porosity, bone mechanical properties, and bone dry and ash weight. Results: Combination therapy with ZOL plus ALF was more effective in decreasing bone porosity than each drug administered as monotherapy in RHLI rats. With respect to improvement in the mechanical strength of the femoral mid-shaft, the combination treatment of ZOL plus ALF was more effective than each drug administered as a monotherapy. Moreover, combination therapy using ZOL plus ALF was more effective in improving dry bone and ash weight, than single-drug therapy using ZOL or ALF in RHLI rats. Conclusions: These data suggest that combination therapy with ZOL plus ALF represents a potentially useful therapeutic option for the treatment of disuse osteoporosis. .

Rats , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Hydroxycholecalciferols/therapeutic use , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Synergism , Hindlimb Suspension , Hydroxycholecalciferols/pharmacology , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Osteoporosis/etiology
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 55(2): 103-112, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-746141


Objetivos: Este estudo foi desenvolvido para investigar a eficácia e a segurança do ácidozoledrônico (ZOL) e do propranolol (PRO) como monoterapia e terapia combinada em ummodelo de rato com osteoporose pós-menopáusica. Métodos: Ratas Wistar fêmeas foram ovariectomizadas (OVX) ou submetidas à cirurgia simulada (placebo) aos três meses de idade. Doze semanas depois da cirurgia, as ratas foram divididas em seis grupos: (1) placebo + veículo; (2) OVX + veículo; (3) OVX + ZOL (100 µg/kg, dose única intravenosa); (4) OVX + ZOL (50 µg/kg, dose única intravenosa); (5) OVX + PRO (0,1 mg/kg, via subcutânea, cinco dias por semana); (6) OVX + ZOL (50 µg/kg, dose única intravenosa) + PRO (0,1 mg/kg, via subcutânea, cinco dias por semana) durante 12 semanas. Depois do tratamento, testou-se a densidade óssea, a porosidade e a microarquitetura tra-becular dos fêmures. Também foram avaliados marcadores bioquímicos séricos e urinários. Resultados: A terapia combinada com ZOL mais PRO foi mais eficaz em corrigir a diminuição do cálcio sérico e o aumento do nível sérico de fosfatase alcalina e fosfatase ácida resistenteao tartarato do que a monoterapia com ZOL ou PRO. Além disso, a terapia combinada comZOL mais PRO foi mais eficaz em corrigir o aumento dos níveis urinários de cálcio, fósforo ecreatinina do que a monoterapia com ZOL ou PRO. A terapia combinada com ZOL mais PRO também preservou a microarquitetura trabecular e a porosidade do osso cortical. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que a terapia combinada com ZOL mais PRO pode ser aabordagem mais eficaz para o tratamento da osteoporose grave em humanos. .

Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate further the efficacy and safety of zoledronic acid (ZOL) and propranolol (PRO) as monotherapy and combination therapy in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods: Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated at 3 months ofage. Twelve weeks post-surgery, rats were randomized into six groups: (1) sham + vehicle; (2) OVX + vehicle; (3) OVX + ZOL (100 뀅g/kg, i.v. single dose); (4) OVX + ZOL (50 뀅g/kg, i.v. single dose); (5) OVX + PRO (0.1 mg/kg, s.c. 5 days per week); (6) OVX + ZOL (50 뀅g/kg, i.v. single dose) + PRO (0.1 mg/kg, s.c. 5 days per week) for 12 weeks. After treatment, femurs were tested for bone density, porosity and trabecular micro-architecture. Biochemical markers in serum and urine were also determined. Results: Combined treatment with ZOL plus PRO corrected the decrease in serum calcium and increase in serum alkaline phosphatase and tartarate resistant acid phosphatase level better than single-drug therapy using ZOL or PRO. Moreover, combined treatment with ZOL plus PRO corrected the increase in urine calcium, phosphorous and creatinine level better than single-drug therapy using ZOL or PRO. Combination therapy using ZOL plus PRO also preserved the trabecular micro-architecture and cortical bone porosity. Conclusion: These data suggest that combined treatment with ZOL plus PRO could be a more effective approach for treating severe osteoporosis in humans. .

Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Bone Density/drug effects , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/drug therapy , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/drug therapy , Propranolol/pharmacology , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 18(1): 234-247, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-736431


OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de dor crônica e sua associação com a situação socioeconômica, demográfica e atividade física no lazer em idosos. MÉTODOS: Este estudo é parte do inquérito epidemiológico e transversal de base populacional e domiciliar EpiFloripa Idoso 2009-2010 realizado com 1.705 idosos (≥ 60 anos), residentes em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. A partir da resposta afirmativa de dor crônica, foram investigadas as associações com as variáveis obtidas por meio de entrevista estruturada. Realizou-se a estatística descritiva, incluindo cálculos de proporções e intervalos de confiança 95% (IC95%). Na análise bruta e ajustada, empregou-se regressão de Poisson, estimando-se as razões de prevalência, com intervalos de confiança de 95% e valores p ≤ 0,05. RESULTADOS: Dentre os idosos investigados, 29,3% (IC95% 26,5 - 32,2) relataram dor crônica. Na análise ajustada, observou-se que as variáveis sexo feminino, menor escolaridade e pior situação econômica ficaram associadas significativamente com maior prevalência de dor crônica; ser fisicamente ativo no lazer ficou associado significativamente com menor prevalência do desfecho. CONCLUSÕES: Percebe-se que a dor crônica é um agravo que acomete considerável parcela de idosos, havendo desigualdades sociais na sua frequência e sendo beneficamente afetada pela atividade física no lazer. É necessário que políticas públicas de saúde subsidiem programas multidisciplinares de controle da dor incluindo a prática regular de atividade física, voltada especificamente à promoção da saúde do idoso, evitando assim que a dor crônica comprometa a qualidade de vida desta população. .

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of chronic pain and its association with socioeconomic and demographic status, and leisure physical activity in the elderly population. METHODS: This study is part of an epidemiological cross-sectional population-based household survey called EpiFloripa Elderly 2009-2010, which was conducted with 1,705 elderly individuals (≥ 60 years) residents of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina. From the positive response to chronic pain, the associations with the variables were investigated through a structured interview. Descriptive statistics were conducted, including ratio calculation and 95% confidence intervals. In crude and adjusted analysis, Poisson regression was utilized, estimating prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals and ≤ 0.05 p-values. RESULTS: Among the subjects, 29.3% (IC95% 26.5 - 32.2) reported chronic pain. Adjusted analysis showed that being female, having less years of schooling, and being in worse economic situation were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of chronic pain. Being physically active during leisure time was significantly associated with lower prevalence of the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, it is clear that chronic pain affects a considerable amount of elderly individuals. Social inequalities are a harmful influence in these individuals' quality of life, inasmuch as those inequalities increase the frequency with which chronic pain afflicts them. At the same time, physical activity during leisure time decreases chronic pain frequency. It is fundamental that public health policies subsidize multidisciplinary pain management programs, which should include health targeted physical activity for the elderly, thus preventing the decrease in quality of life that chronic pain brings to this population. .

Animals , Humans , Early Growth Response Protein 1/genetics , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , /metabolism , Sulindac/analogs & derivatives , Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Butadienes/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Early Growth Response Protein 1/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Intestines/cytology , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines/metabolism , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Microscopy, Confocal , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , /antagonists & inhibitors , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulindac/pharmacology , Transfection , Up-Regulation/drug effects , ets-Domain Protein Elk-1/genetics , ets-Domain Protein Elk-1/metabolism
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 22(6): 893-901, 16/12/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732955


OBJECTIVES: to analyze the Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength (PFMS) of pregnant women with one or more vaginal or cesarean deliveries; to compare the PFMS of these with pregnant women with the PFMS of primiparous women. METHODS: cross-sectional study with women up to 12 weeks pregnant, performed in Itapecerica da Serra, São Paulo state, from December 2012 to May 2013. The sample consisted of 110 pregnant women with one or more vaginal deliveries or cesarean sections and 110 primigravidae. The PFMS was evaluated by perineometry (Peritron(tm)) and vaginal digital palpation (modified Oxford scale). RESULTS: the average PFMS in pregnant women with a history of vaginal delivery or cesarean section was 33.4 (SD=21.2) cmH2O. From the Oxford scale, 75.4% of the pregnant women with previous vaginal or cesarean deliveries presented grade ≤ 2, and 5.5% grade ≥ 4; among the primiparae, 39.9% presented grade ≤ 2, and 50.9% grade ≥ 4, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). From the perineometry, there was no statistically significant difference between the PFMS and age, type of delivery, parity, body mass index, and genitourinary tract symptoms, however, there was a statistically significant difference between the pregnant women with and without a history of episiotomy (p=0.04). In the palpation, none of the variables showed a statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: pregnancy and childbirth can reduce the PFMS. .

OBJETIVOS: analisar a força muscular do assoalho pélvico de gestantes com um ou mais partos normais ou cesarianas; comparar a a força muscular do assoalho pélvico dessas gestantes com a de primigestas. MÉTODO: estudo transversal com gestantes até 12 semanas de gravidez, realizado em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, de dezembro de 2012 a maio de 2013. A amostra foi composta por 110 gestantes, com um ou mais partos normais ou cesarianas e 110 primigestas. A força muscular do assoalho pélvico foi avaliada pela perineometria e palpação digital vaginal (Escala de Oxford modificada). RESULTADOS: a média da força muscular do assoalho pélvico em gestantes com antecedentes de parto normal ou cesariana foi 33,4 (desvio-padrão=21,2) cmH2O. Pela escala de Oxford, 75,4% das gestantes com partos ou cesarianas anteriores apresentaram grau ≤2 e 5,5%, grau ≥4; entre as primigestas, 39,9% apresentaram grau ≤2 e 50,9%, grau ≥4, com diferença estatisticamente significante (p<0,001). Pela perineometria, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre a força muscular do assoalho pélvico e idade, tipo de parto, paridade, índice de massa corpórea e sintomas do trato geniturinário, mas houve entre as gestantes com e sem antecedente de episiotomia (p=0,04). Na palpação, nenhuma das variáveis mostrou diferença estatisticamente significante. CONCLUSÃO: a gravidez e o parto podem reduzir a força muscular do assoalho pélvico. .

OBJETIVOS: analizar la Fuerza Muscular del Suelo Pélvico (FMSP) de embarazadas con uno o más partos normales o cesáreas; comparar la FMSP de estas embarazadas con la FMSP de primigestas. MÉTODO: estudio transversal con embarazadas hasta 12 semanas de embarazo, realizado en Itapecerica de la Serra, SP, de diciembre de 2012 a mayo de 2013. La muestra fue de 110 embarazadas con uno o más partos normales o cesáreas y 110 primigestas. La FMSP fue evaluada por la perineometría (Peritron(tm)) y palpación digital vaginal (escala de Oxford modificada). RESULTADOS: el promedio de la FMSP en embarazadas con antecedentes de parto normal o cesárea fue 33,4 (de=21,2) cmH2O. Por la escala de Oxford, 75,4% de las embarazadas con partos o cesáreas anteriores presentaron grado ≤ 2 y 5,5%, grado ≥ 4; entre las primigestas, 39,9% presentaron grado ≤ 2 y 50,9%, grado ≥ 4, con diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0,001). Por la perineometría, no hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre la FMSP y edad, tipo de parto, número de partos anteriores, índice de masa corporal y síntomas del tracto genitourinario, pero hubo entre las embarazadas con y sin antecedente de episiotomía (p=0,04). En la palpación, ninguna de las variables mostró diferencia estadísticamente significativa. CONCLUSIÓN: el embarazo y el parto pueden reducir la FMSP. .

Calcium , Calmodulin , Calpain , Binding Sites , Calcium/pharmacology , Calmodulin/antagonists & inhibitors , Calpain/antagonists & inhibitors , Calpain/metabolism , Fluorescent Dyes , Felodipine/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine/pharmacology , Molecular Conformation , Naphthalenesulfonates/pharmacology , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 761-766, 09/09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723987


The prevention of Chagas disease is based primarily on the chemical control of Triatoma infestans (Klug) using pyrethroid insecticides. However, high resistance levels, correlated with control failures, have been detected in Argentina and Bolivia. A previous study at our laboratory found that imidacloprid could serve as an alternative to pyrethroid insecticides. We studied the delayed toxicity of imidacloprid and the influence of the blood feeding condition of the insect on the toxicity of this insecticide; we also studied the effectiveness of various commercial imidacloprid formulations against a pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans population from the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Variations in the toxic effects of imidacloprid were not observed up to 72 h after exposure and were not found to depend on the blood feeding condition of susceptible and resistant individuals. Of the three different studied formulations of imidacloprid on glass and filter paper, only the spot-on formulation was effective. This formulation was applied to pigeons at doses of 1, 5, 20 and 40 mg/bird. The nymphs that fed on pigeons treated with 20 mg or 40 mg of the formulation showed a higher mortality rate than the control group one day and seven days post-treatment (p < 0.01). A spot-on formulation of imidacloprid was effective against pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans populations at the laboratory level.

Animals , Insect Vectors , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Triatoma/drug effects , Argentina , Bolivia , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/transmission , Columbidae/parasitology , Feeding Behavior , Insecticide Resistance , Imidazoles/chemistry , Insect Vectors/metabolism , Insecticides/chemistry , Nitro Compounds/chemistry , Nymph/drug effects , Triatoma/classification , Triatoma/metabolism
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jun; 52(6): 589-596
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153737


Mast cells are numerous at anatomical sites close to external environment, virtually at the portals of infection. A few data indicated that these cells express cytoplasmic Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognizing virus-derived molecules. Accordingly, mast cells could participate in anti-viral defense or/and in viral-related diseases. However, data concerning the influence of viruses on mast cell activity are limited. Thus, the aim of our study was to determine mast cell response to TLR7 ligand, i.e. resiquimod (R848), a synthetic mimic of viral ssRNA. Since mast cells play a central role in allergic reactions the effect of TLR7 agonist was also investigated on FcεRI-dependent mast cell response. Experiments were carried out in vitro on freshly isolated fully mature rat peritoneal mast cells. Mast cells exhibit constitutive TLR7 molecule expression and its up-regulation after the agonist challenge. TLR7-mediated mast cell stimulation resulted in cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) and interferon (IFN)-β synthesis, whereas no histamine and CXCL8 secretion was stated. Moreover, mast cell priming with TLR7 ligand caused the reduction in anti-IgE-induced histamine release. The results suggest that ssRNA viruses could directly activate mast cells to alter their phenotype and to release of potent proinflammatory mediators or indirectly modulate IgE-dependent allergic processes.

Animals , Cell Degranulation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Female , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin E/physiology , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Leukotrienes/metabolism , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/immunology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Toll-Like Receptor 7/antagonists & inhibitors , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(1): 11-18, 01/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697671


Central α2-adrenoceptors and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) are involved in the control of sodium and water intake. Bilateral injections of moxonidine (α2-adrenergic/imidazoline receptor agonist) or noradrenaline into the LPBN strongly increases 0.3 M NaCl intake induced by a combined treatment of furosemide plus captopril. Injection of moxonidine into the LPBN also increases hypertonic NaCl and water intake and reduces oxytocin secretion, urinary sodium, and water excreted by cell-dehydrated rats, causing a positive sodium and water balance, which suggests that moxonidine injected into the LPBN deactivates mechanisms that restrain body fluid volume expansion. Pretreatment with specific α2-adrenoceptor antagonists injected into the LPBN abolishes the behavioral and renal effects of moxonidine or noradrenaline injected into the same area, suggesting that these effects depend on activation of LPBN α2-adrenoceptors. In fluid-depleted rats, the palatability of sodium is reduced by ingestion of hypertonic NaCl, limiting intake. However, in rats treated with moxonidine injected into the LPBN, the NaCl palatability remains high, even after ingestion of significant amounts of 0.3 M NaCl. The changes in behavioral and renal responses produced by activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN are probably a consequence of reduction of oxytocin secretion and blockade of inhibitory signals that affect sodium palatability. In this review, a model is proposed to show how activation of α2-adrenoceptors in the LPBN may affect palatability and, consequently, ingestion of sodium as well as renal sodium excretion.

Animals , Rats , /pharmacology , Body Fluids/drug effects , Homeostasis/drug effects , Parabrachial Nucleus/drug effects , /administration & dosage , Body Fluids/physiology , Captopril/administration & dosage , Captopril/pharmacology , Drinking/drug effects , Furosemide/administration & dosage , Furosemide/pharmacology , Homeostasis/physiology , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Parabrachial Nucleus/physiology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103944


Spillage of cyst contents during surgical operation is the major cause of recurrence after hydatid cyst surgery. Instillation of a scolicidal agent into a hepatic hydatid cyst is the most commonly employed measure to prevent this complication. SB202190 is a pyridinyl imidazole derivative and is known to be a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of SB202190 was investigated. Freshly isolated Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices were subjected to SB202190 treatment (10, 20, 40, and 80 microM), and the effects on parasite viability were monitored by trypan blue staining. Corresponding effects were visualized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Dose-dependent protoscolex death within a few days of SB202190 treatment was observed. Although the in vitro scolicidal effect of SB202190 was satisfactory, the in vivo efficacy of this drug and also possible side effects remain to be further investigated.

Animals , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Echinococcus granulosus/drug effects , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Pyridines/pharmacology , Survival Analysis
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(8): 997-1001, Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610976


In this paper, we assessed the suitability of using the neonicotinoid imidacloprid with standard ovitraps by evaluating the ovicidal properties of imidacloprid and its influence on the oviposition response of gravid females of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae). First, we calculated the imidacloprid lethal dose 99 (LD99) by exposing third instar larvae of the target species to different concentrations of the insecticide. Next, Ae. aegypti eggs were exposed to the imidacloprid LD99 for 24 h and hatching inhibition was recorded. Finally, we investigated any potential repellent effect of the imidacloprid solution on the oviposition response of gravid Aedes females in field and laboratory conditions. The LD99 obtained from larvae tests proved to be sufficient to keep any exposed eggs from hatching. No repellent effect was observed; females laid as many eggs in imidacloprid-treated ovitraps as in traps containing either clean water or temephos-treated water in both field and laboratory conditions. Our results indicate that imidacloprid is a suitable insecticide for treating ovitraps against Ae. aegypti.

Animals , Female , Aedes/anatomy & histology , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Oviposition/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Laboratories
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227748


Bisphosphonates are used routinely to reduce bone-related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. We evaluated the effects of zoledronic acid, a third generation, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, to prevent bone metastasis in breast cancer. Zoledronic acid or vehicle alone was administered to nude mice either simultaneously or after intracardiac injection of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Nude mice treated with zoledronic acid at early time points showed a lower incidence of bone metastases than did vehicle-treated nude mice, but these differences were not statistically significant. Only 37.5% of mice treated with zoledronic acid at the time of tumor cell inoculation developed bone metastases compared to over 51.8% of mice receiving vehicle alone (P = 0.304). Cell count of apoptosis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining in metastatic bone tissue significantly increased in the zoledronic acid-treated groups compared to non-treated group (1,018.3 vs 282.0; P = 0.046). However, metastatic tumor cells, which invade soft tissue around the bone, did not show extensive apoptosis; there were no differences between the zoledronic acid-treated and control groups. These results suggest that zoledronic acid increases apoptosis of metastatic breast tumor cells in the bone and could therefore reduce metastatic tumor burden. These results support the use of zoledronic acid to reduce the incidence of bone metastasis in breast cancer.

Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Bone Neoplasms/prevention & control , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Nude , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121835


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate the anti-angiogenic inhibitory effect of KR-31831, a newly developed anti-angiogenic agent, on an in vivo human ovarian carcinoma model using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Xenografted ovarian tumors were established by subcutaneous injection of SKOV3 cells into mice. The mice were treated daily with KR-31831 at 50 mg/kg for 21 days. Tumor tissues were excised corresponding to the DCE-MRI sections for evaluation of MVD with CD31 immunohistochemistry. All in vivo MRIs were performed on a 7.0 Tesla micro-MRI System. DCE-MRI was acquired prior to initiating treatment with KR-31831 and again on days 3 and 21 after treatment. The permeability parameters (Ktrans, ve, and vp) were estimated using a pharmacokinetic model. RESULTS: Qualitatively, the Ktrans parametric mapping showed different changes before and after treatment with KR-31831 in the treatment group. For quantification of this change, the median of Ktrans values were compared before and after treatments in the control and KR-31831-treated groups. A non-parametric statistical test (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) showed decreasing Ktrans values on day 21 compared to days 0 and 3 in the KR-31831-treated group (p < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in the control group (p = 0.84). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that DCE-MRI can be a useful tool by which to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect of KR-31831 on a xenografted human ovarian carcinoma model.

Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Contrast Media , Female , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Microvessels/pathology , Neoplasm Transplantation , Ovarian Neoplasms/blood supply