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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249913, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339352

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aeromonas hydrophila is a cause of infectious disease outbreaks in carp species cultured in South Asian countries including Pakistan. This bacterium has gained resistance to a wide range of antibiotics and robust preventive measures are necessary to control its spread. No prior use of fish vaccines has been reported in Pakistan. The present study aims to develop and evaluate inactivated vaccines against local strain of A. hydrophila in Pakistan with alum-precipitate as adjuvant. The immunogenic potential of vaccine was evaluated in two Indian major carps (Rohu: Labeo rohita, Mori: Cirrhinus mrigala) and a Chinese carp (Grass carp: Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were vaccinated intraperitoneally followed by a challenge through immersion. Fish with an average age of 4-5 months were randomly distributed in three vaccinated groups with three vaccine concentrations of 108, 109 and 1010 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml and a control group. Fixed dose of 0.1ml was applied to each fish on 1st day and a booster dose at 15 days post-vaccination (DPV). Blood samples were collected on 14, 28, 35, 48 and 60 DPV to determine antibody titers in blood serum using compliment fixation test (CFT). Fish were challenged at 60 DPV with infectious A. hydrophila with 108 CFU/ml through immersion. Significantly higher levels of antibody titers were observed from 28 DPV in all vaccinated groups as compared to those in the control group. In challenge experiment the average RPS (relative percent survivability) was 71% for groups vaccinated with 109 and 1010 CFU/ml and 86% for 108 CFU/ml. Vaccine with 108 CFU/ml induced highest immune response followed by 109 and 1010 CFU/ml. The immune response of L. rohita and C. idella was better than that of C. mrigala. In general, normal histopathology was observed in different organs of vaccinated fish whereas minor deteriorative changes were found in fish vaccinated with higher concentrations of the vaccine.


Resumo Aeromonas hydrophila é uma causa de surtos de doenças infecciosas em espécies de carpas cultivadas em países do sul da Ásia, incluindo o Paquistão. Essa bactéria ganhou resistência a uma ampla gama de antibióticos, e medidas preventivas robustas são necessárias para controlar sua disseminação. Nenhum uso anterior de vacinas para peixes foi relatado no Paquistão. O presente estudo tem como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar vacinas inativadas contra cepa local de A. hydrophila no Paquistão com precipitado de alúmen como adjuvante. O potencial imunogênico da vacina foi avaliado em duas carpas principais indianas (Rohu: Labeo rohita, Mori: Cirrhinus mrigala) e uma carpa chinesa (Grass Carp: Ctenopharyngodon idella). Os peixes foram vacinados por via intraperitoneal, seguido de um desafio por imersão. Peixes com idade média de 4-5 meses foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos vacinados com três concentrações de vacina de 108, 109 e 1010 unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) / ml e um grupo de controle. Foi aplicada dose fixa de 0,1ml em cada peixe no 1º dia e dose de reforço 15 dias pós-vacinação (DPV). Amostras de sangue foram coletadas em 14, 28, 35, 48 e 60 DPV para determinar os títulos de anticorpos no soro sanguíneo usando o teste de fixação de elogio (CFT). Os peixes foram desafiados a 60 DPV com infecciosa A. hydrophila com 108 CFU / ml por imersão. Níveis significativamente mais elevados de títulos de anticorpos foram observados em 28 DPV em todos os grupos vacinados, em comparação com aqueles no grupo de controle. Na experiência de desafio, o RPS médio (sobrevivência percentual relativa) foi de 71% para os grupos vacinados com 109 e 1010 CFU / ml e 86% para 108 CFU / ml. A vacina com 108 UFC / ml induziu a maior resposta imune seguida por 109 e 1010 UFC / ml. A resposta imune de L. rohita e C. idella foi melhor do que a de C. mrigala. Em geral, histopatologia normal foi observada em diferentes órgãos de peixes vacinados, enquanto pequenas alterações deteriorantes foram encontradas no grupo de controle e nos peixes vacinados com concentrações mais altas da vacina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carps , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Fish Diseases/prevention & control , Bacterial Vaccines , Aeromonas hydrophila , Alum Compounds , Immersion
2.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(3): 1-12, 2022-08-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393178

ABSTRACT

Background: This research was motivated by the complaints of tomato farmers about their crops that quickly rotted before being sold, as well as the many research results (raw materials and methods) that edible coating films could not be applied optimally. Objectives: The research was a practical recommendation by comparing the effectiveness of raw materials (polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids) with the dipping and spray methods. Materials and methods used in the comparison process were the application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the Partial Least Square (PLS) approach. Results: Dipping has a strong effect (f2 ≥ 0.35; p<0.05), while spray had a moderate effect (f2: 0.15-0.35; p<0.05). Thus, the role of dipping as a mediator was more dominant than spray. Compared to proteins and lipids, polysaccharides had the best effectiveness (ß:0.460-0.584; f2: 0.15-0.35; p<0.05). Conclusion: the three ingredients improved the quality of tomatoes, and the dipping method was easier to apply by farmers than the spray method, which had many obstacles in its application


Antecedentes: esta investigación está motivada por las quejas de los productores de tomate sobre sus cultivos que se pudren rápidamente antes de ser vendidos, así como por los muchos resultados de la investigación (materias primas y métodos) de que las películas de recubrimiento comestibles no se pudieron aplicar de manera óptima. Objetivos: La investigación consiste en recomendaciones prácticas mediante la comparación de la eficacia de las materias primas (polisacáridos, proteínas y lípidos) con los métodos de inmersión y aspersión. Métodos: El método utilizado en el proceso de comparación es la aplicación del modelo de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM) con el enfoque de mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS). Resultados: La inmersión tiene un efecto fuerte (f2 ≥ 0,35; p<0,05), mientras que la pulverización tiene un efecto moderado (f2: 0,15-0,35; p<0,05). Por lo tanto, el papel de la inmersión como mediador es más dominante que el del rociado. Los polisacáridos tienen la mejor eficacia (ß:0,460-0,584; f2: 0,15-0,35; p<0,05) en comparación con las proteínas y los lípidos. Conclusión: es que los tres ingredientes pueden mejorar la calidad de los tomates, y el método de inmersión es más fácil de aplicar por los agricultores que el método de aspersión, que tiene muchos obstáculos en su aplicación


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Quality , Lycopersicon esculentum , Immersion , Polysaccharides/administration & dosage , Effectiveness , Proteins/administration & dosage , Latent Class Analysis , Lipids/administration & dosage
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18578, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360165

ABSTRACT

Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod., is an endemic species growing in the south of Ethiopia. M. stenopetala is often consumed as food and used in traditional medicine and it has also been traditionally used for relieving of pain in Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effect and mechanisms of action of M. stenopetala leaves methanol extract in mice. The per-oral doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of M. stenopetala extract were tested for antinociceptive action by using hot-plate, tail-immersion, and writhing tests. The possible mechanisms of in the antinociceptive action were investigated by pre-treatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist), 1 mg/kg ketanserin (5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist), and 1 mg/kg yohimbine (α2 adrenoceptor antagonist). The methanol extract of M. stenopetala showed antinociceptive effect in all tests. The significant involvement of 5-HT2A/2C receptors and α2 adrenoceptors in antinociception induced by M. stenopetala extract in the hot-plate and tail-immersion tests, as well as significant contribution of opioid receptors and α2 adrenoceptors in writhing test, were identified. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the methanol extract of M. stenopetala has potential in pain management. Thisstudywillcontributetonewtherapeuticapproachesandprovideguidancefornewdrug development studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Plant Extracts/agonists , Moringa oleifera/adverse effects , Pain , Receptors, Adrenergic/administration & dosage , Receptors, Serotonin/administration & dosage , Immersion , Narcotic Antagonists
4.
Dent. press endod ; 11(2)maio-ago.2021. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377855

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A solubilidade é uma propriedade relaciona- da à dissociação dos constituintes do material, pela ação do contato com o líquido circundante. Introdução: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da hidratação durante a varredura com microtomografia (micro-TC) sobre a alteração volumétrica do MTA HP. Métodos: foram utilizados 20 dentes incisivos superiores de acrílico com cavidade retrógrada. O cimento MTA HP foi inserido na cavidade com um condensador Paiva. As amostras foram inspecionadas visualmente com uma lupa de 5x, para garantir que não permanecessem espaços vazios ou lacunas. Os espécimes foram divididos em dois grupos (n=10). Os dentes foram escaneados logo após o manuseio do MTA. Para o grupo com imersão em água, Eppendorf hidratado foi mantido com 1mL de água durante a varredura; no outro grupo, os dentes foram escaneados sem água. Nos dois grupos, os dentes foram imersos em água durante sete dias. Em seguida, os dentes foram escaneados novamente em micro-TC usando os mesmos parâmetros e condições de cada grupo. Foi realizada a reconstrução das imagens pelo software Nrecon e o volume de solubilidade, determinado pelo software CTan, analisando-se a variação volumétrica. Resultados: O grupo de corpos de prova escaneados imersos na água apresentou maior variação volumétrica, com diferenças estatisticamente significativas em relação ao grupo escaneado sem imersão. O escaneamento do corpo de prova imerso em água favorece uma maior perda volumétrica do material. Conclusão: Os estudos para avaliar a variação volumétrica de cimentos de silicato de cálcio devem ser feitos com imersão em água.


Introduction: Solubility is a property related to the dissocia- tion of the constituents of the material by the action of contact with the surrounding liquid, for this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the hydration during the scanning in the microtomography on the volumetric alteration of the MTA HP. Methods: Twenty acrylic teeth upper incisor with retrograde cavity were utilized. The MTA HP cement was inserted into the cavity using a Paiva condensor. The specimens were visually inspected with a 5x magnifying glass to ensure they did not remain void or gaps. The specimens were divided into 2 groups (n=10). The teeth were scanned shortly after handling the MTA. For the group with water immersion, hydrated Eppendorf was kept with 1mL the water during the scanning and the other group, the teeth were scanning without water. In the two groups the teeth were immersed into water during 7 days. Next the teeth were newly scanned in the Micro-CT using the same parameters and conditions of each group. Reconstruction of images by the Nrecon software and the solubility volume determined by the CTan, analyzing the volumetric change. Results: The group of specimens scanned immersed into the water presented higher volumetric change with statistically significant differences in relation the group scanned without immersion. The scanning of the specimen immersed in water favors the greater volumetric loss of the material. Conclusion: Studies to evaluate volumetric change of calcium silicate cements should be made immersed in wate


Subject(s)
Pemetrexed , Immersion , Minerals , Solubility , Methods
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 285-290, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153367

ABSTRACT

Synthetic androgens (male hormones) administered to fish nursery are being used in aquaculture to avoid sexual differentiation and unwanted spawning at the eggs or the first feeding fry stage of fish. Present trial was conducted with the aim to produce male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by egg immersion technique. Through this little insight, the effect of different hormone concentrations (17α-methyltestosterone @ HC:150, 300, 450 and 600 µgl-1) with immersion times (IT: 24, 48 and 72 hrs) and their interaction effect (HC x IT) on the hatching percentage of Cyprinus carpio eggs, percent survival and percent of male's production was evaluated specifically. Results showed that egg hatching percentage decreased with increased IT likewise, survival of treated fry was affected by increasing the IT (P<0.001). The main interaction effect of HC x IT showed that the highest percent of male individuals (95%) was obtained at 450-600 µgl-1 HC for 72 hrs IT, followed by 88-92.50% at 150-300 µgl-1 HC for 72-hrsof IT, 87.50% at 48-hrs of IT for rest of the hormone treatments, and lowest 47.50% was recorded in control (P<0.05). Increased percent male of Cyprinus carpio was obtained with increasing HC across all ITs. It was observed that the immersion treatment at 600µgl-1 for 72 hours was more effective to change the sex ratio of pre hatch Cyprinus carpio. A comparative outlook made from this experimental trial that sex induction of Cyprinus carpio by eggs immersion using synthetic male steroid hormone is an alternative safe technique of fish sex reversal in contrast to oral administration of hormone in fish feed.


Andrógenos sintéticos (hormônios masculinos) administrados ao viveiro de peixes estão sendo usados ​​na aquicultura para evitar a diferenciação sexual e a desova indesejada nos ovos ou no primeiro estágio de alimentação dos peixes. O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de produzir carpa comum masculina (Cyprinuscarpio) pela técnica de imersão em ovos. Com essa pequena percepção, o efeito de diferentes concentrações hormonais (17α-metiltestosterona @ HC: 150, 300, 450 e 600 µgl-1) com tempos de imersão (IT: 24, 48 e 72 horas) e seu efeito de interação (HC x IT) na porcentagem de eclosão dos ovos de Cyprinuscarpio, a porcentagem de sobrevivência e a porcentagem da produção masculina foram avaliadas especificamente. Os resultados mostraram que a porcentagem de incubação de ovos diminuiu com o aumento da TI da mesma forma, a sobrevivência dos alevinos tratados foi afetada pelo aumento da TI (P <0,001). O principal efeito de interação do HC x IT mostrou que o maior percentual de indivíduos do sexo masculino (95%) foi obtido com 450-600 µgl-1 HC por 72 horas de TI, seguido por 88-92,50% com 150-300 µgl-1 HC para 72 horas de TI, 87,50% às 48 horas de TI para o restante dos tratamentos hormonais, e 47,50% mais baixos foram registrados no controle (P <0,05). A porcentagem aumentada de macho de Cyprinuscarpio foi obtida com o aumento do HC em todas as TIs. Observou-se que o tratamento de imersão a 600µgl-1 por 72 horas foi mais efetivo na alteração da razão sexual do Cyprinuscarpio antes da eclosão. Uma perspectiva comparativa feita a partir deste ensaio experimental de que a indução sexual de Cyprinuscarpio por imersão de ovos usando hormônio esteróide masculino sintético é uma técnica alternativa segura de reversão do sexo em peixes, em contraste com a administração oral de hormônio na alimentação de peixes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Carps/physiology , Androgens/pharmacology , Methyltestosterone/administration & dosage , Sex Ratio , Aquaculture , Immersion
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091638

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the topography and microhardness of composite resin restorations submitted to different finishing and polishing systems before and after erosive challenge. Material and Methods: Thirty standardized cavities prepared in enamel-dentin blocks of bovine incisors were restored with Z350 composite resin, and randomly distributed into three groups (n=10) according to the finishing and polishing systems: G1 = Soflex 4 steps, G2 = Soflex Spiral 2 steps and G3 = PoGo (single step). The specimens were half protected with nail varnish and submitted to five immersions in Pepsi Twist®, for 10 minutes each, five times/day during six consecutive days. The initial and final challenge surface microhardness (SMHinitial and SMHfinal) of the composite resin was evaluated and the percentage of SMH loss (%SMHL) was calculated. After protection removal, the topographic change linear (Ra) and volumetric (Sa) roughness was evaluated in initial and final areas by using 3D non-contact optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed by paired Student's t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: There was significant intra-group %SMHL in composite resin (p<0.05). Differences among groups in %SMHL, Ra/Sa in resin composite were not observed (p>0.05). SEM images revealed structural changes between the initial and final surfaces for all groups. Conclusion: The three types of finishing and polishing systems had a similar influence on %SMHL, Ra and Sa in the nanofilled composite resin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Composite Resins , Dental Enamel , Dentin , Incisor , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Immersion
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786599

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study evaluated color stability of Dentca 3D-printed denture teeth, in comparison to color stabilities of four conventional types of denture teeth, upon being immersed in various colorants.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four types of conventional prefabricated denture teeth (Surpass, GC, Artic 6, Heraeus Kulzer, Premium 6, Heraeus Kulzer, Preference, Candulor), 3D-printed denture teeth (Dentca); and Z250 (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were prepared for testing. The samples were immersed in erythrosine 3%, coffee, cola, and distilled water (DW) at 37℃. Color change (ΔE) was measured by spectrophotometer before immersion and at 7, 14, and 21 days after immersion. One-way analysis of variance was performed along with Tukey's honestly significant difference multiple comparisons test (P<.05).RESULTS: No great difference was observed between the color change of Dentca denture teeth and that of conventional denture teeth in most cases (P>.05). The color change of Dentca denture teeth immersed in erythrosine 3% was greater than that of Surpass (ΔE = 0.67 ± 0.25) after 1 week; Artic 6 (ΔE = 1.44 ± 0.38) and Premium 6 (ΔE = 1.69 ± 0.35) after 2 weeks; and Surpass (ΔE = 1.79 ± 0.49), Artic 6 (ΔE = 2.07 ± 0.21), Premium 6 (ΔE = 2.03 ± 0.75), and Preference (ΔE = 2.01 ± 0.75) after 3 weeks (P<.05).CONCLUSION: A color change was observed in Dentca denture teeth when immersed in some colorants; however, the maximum value of ΔE for Dentca denture teeth was within the clinically acceptable range.


Subject(s)
Coffee , Cola , Dentures , Erythrosine , Immersion , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Tooth , Water
8.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 21: 42454, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1053528

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: compreender a prática do banho enrolado em bebês prematuros, em unidade neonatal, na perspectiva de enfermeiros. Métodos: pesquisa qualitativa, realizada por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, com 13 enfermeiros atuantes em unidades neonatais, captados através da técnica de amostragem bola de neve. Dados submetidos à análise temático-categorial. Resultados: os enfermeiros consideraram benefícios relacionados ao conforto e à estimulação no banho enrolado, entretanto, citaram desafios para a prática, relacionados ao desconhecimento, à baixa adesão e sobrecarga de trabalho da equipe de enfermagem, ausência de rotinas e protocolos institucionais, além da escassez ou mesmo inadequação dos recursos materiais disponíveis nas instituições. Conclusão: a prática do banho enrolado, na perspectiva de enfermeiros, tem efeitos positivos para o desenvolvimento de bebês prematuros, porém existem desafios gerenciais que precisam ser superados para efetiva implementação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Middle Aged , Baths/methods , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Nurses, Pediatric , Immersion , Humanization of Assistance
9.
Arq. odontol ; 56: 1-8, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1087806

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:O objetivo do estudo foi verificar, in vitro, a alteração de cor da resina composta Beautiful-Bulk®, exposta aos líquidos pigmentantes. Métodos:Foram confeccionados 60 espécimes da resina (15,0 mm de diâmetro e 1,0 mm de espessura, n = 5) nas cores A2, B2 e C2. Os espécimes foram mantidos em uma sala escura por sete dias, em ambiente seco, a 37 °C e, em seguida, foram fotografados com aparelho celular iPhone 6S®. Os espécimes foram divididos aleatoriamente e submetidos a ciclos de imersão em quatro líquidos: água destilada (controle), suco de açaí, Coca-Cola® e molho de tomate. As imersões foram realizadas em sete e quatorze dias de forma cíclica, após a confecção dos espécimes, três vezes ao dia, durante 20 minutos. Ao fim de cada ciclo, novas fotografias foram realizadas. As imagens foram analisadas no programa Adobe Photoshop® e os dados convertidos em L*a*b através de um histograma. A variação de cor (∆E) foi analisada pela escala CIE-Lab. Resultados:A análise dos resultados (One-way ANOVA, Teste de Tukey, p < 0,05) demonstrou que o grupo controle produziu maior alteração de cor (p < 0,05) em sete e quatorze dias na cor A2. A cor B2, no ciclo de quatorze dias, apresentou maior alteração de cor (p < 0,05) para os espécimes imersos em molho de tomate sem diferença estatística (p > 0,05) do controle. Para a cor C2, os espécimes imersos em molho de tomate tiveram maior alteração de cor (p < 0,05) em sete dias. Conclusão:Conclui-se que todas as substâncias pigmentantes e a água destilada foram capazes de produzir grandes alterações de cor na resina Beautifil Bulk®. Existe uma interação significativa entre a cor da resina e agentes pigmentantes.


Aim: This study sought to verify, in vitro, the color change of the nanoparticle composite resin, Beautiful Bulk®, exposed directly to pigmented liquids. Methods: Sixty test specimens were made in a Metal matrix (15.0 mm X 1.0 mm) using composite resin (n = 5) in colors A2, B2, and C2. The specimens were photographed with a smartphone (iPhone 6S®) seven days after the preparation. The specimens were kept in the dark for seven days, dry, at 37°C. The specimens were then randomly divided and immersed in four liquids: distilled water (control), açaí juice, Coca-Cola®, and tomato sauce. The immersions were performed in seven and fourteen days cyclically, three times a day, for 20 minutes. At the end of each immersion cycle, new photographs were taken with the same smartphone. The images were analyzed in the Adobe Photoshop® program, and the data was converted to L* a* b* through a histogram. The color variation (∆E) was analyzed by the CIE-Lab scale. Results: Analysis of the results (Tukey's test, p < 0.05) showed that the control group produced a greater color change (p < 0.05) in seven and fourteen days in the A2 shade. The B2 shade, in fourteen days, showed a greater color change (p < 0.05) for the specimens immersed in tomato sauce with no statistical difference (p > 0.05) of the control. For the C2 shade, the specimens immersed in tomato sauce presented a greater color change (p < 0.05) at seven days. Conclusion: It could therefore be concluded that there is a significant interaction between the composite resin and pigment agents. All pigmented substances produced color changes in the composite resin.


Subject(s)
Resins, Synthetic , Pigmentation , Color , Composite Resins , Dental Materials , Immersion
10.
Rev. Salusvita (Online) ; 39(1): 255-275, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140922

ABSTRACT

O Deep Water Running (DWR) é um método bastante difundido para o condicionamento cardiovascular e reabilitação em atletas. Contudo, nos últimos anos, foram realizadas investigações científicas sobre o DWR em populações especiais. Porém, ainda existem poucas evidências sobre as respostas musculoesqueléticas e cardiorrespiratórias em indivíduos obesos. O objetivo foi realizar um estudo de revisão sistemática de literatura referente às respostas musculoesqueléticas e cardiorrespiratórias, mediante ao treinamento em água funda em obesos. Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura de 2009 a 2019, por meio de levantamento de artigos científicos nas bases de dados eletrônica PubMed, e Scielo. Para tanto, foram utilizadas as seguintes palavras-chave: aquatic, deep water running, water-based, head-out aquatic, physical activity, obesity, overweight, também foram aplicados os operadores boleanos "and" e "OR". Foram encontrados 11 estudos de ensaios clínicos, cujos temas estavam relacionados com as variáveis de interesse do presente estudo. Baseado na literatura científica selecionada, conclui-se que a técnica de DWR é uma estratégia de treinamento e reabilitação física extremamente indicada para potencializar a força e resistência muscular, melhorar a capacidade funcional, cardiorrespiratória e qualidade de vida em obesos.


Deep Water Running (DWR) is a widely used method for cardiovascular conditioning and rehabilitation in athletes. Although, in recent years, scientific investigations have been conducted on DWR in special populations. However, there is still little evidence on musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory responses in obese individuals.The objective was to perform a systematic review on musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory responses, through deep water running in obese patients. It is a systematic reviewfrom 2009 to 2019, by means of a survey of scientific articles in the electronic databases PubMed, and Scielo. The following keywords were used: aquatic, deep water running, water-based, head-out aquatic, physical activity, obesity, overweight, and boolean operators "and" and "OR". Were found 11 clinical trial studies, whose themes were related to the variables of interest of the present study. Based on the selected scientific literature, it is concluded that the DWR technique is a strategy of training and physical rehabilitation extremely indicated to potentiate muscular strength and endurance, improve functional capacity, cardiorespiratory capacity and quality of life in obese patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Running/physiology , Exercise Therapy/methods , Muscle Strength/physiology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Immersion , Obesity/rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Swimming Pools , Water
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1669-1676, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038666

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar Urochloa spp. submetida a duas situações de estresse hídrico: déficit e alagamento. As forrageiras estudadas foram: U. humidicola cv. Tully, U. humidicola cv. Llanero, U. brizantha cv. BRS Piatã, U. brizantha cv. Xaraés, U. decumbens cv. Basilisk e U. ruziziensis cv. Kenedy, e os parâmetros avaliados foram relacionados às características estruturais e morfogênicas. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação pertencente à Unidade Universitária de Aquidauana. Os tratamentos consistiram em diferentes condições de umidade do solo: 50 e 80% da capacidade de retenção de umidade do solo, e lâminas de 0cm, 1cm e 5cm de água acima do solo, com quatro repetições, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. O modelo considerou o efeito de umidade do solo para cada espécie forrageira a 5% de significância. As características estruturais e morfogênicas do capim-tully não foram afetadas pelas diferentes condições hídricas aqui avaliadas. O capim-llanero não reagiu ao alagamento. O capim-piatã foi tolerante às condições de déficit hídrico e apresentou mecanismos de adaptação ao alagamento. A U. decumbens cv. Basilisk apresentou respostas adaptativas que melhoram sua tolerância ao alagamento. A U. ruziziensis cv. Kenedy apresentou-se inapta às condições de alagamento e de déficit hídrico.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate braquiarias submitted to two situations of water stress: deficit and flood. The studied forages were: U. humidicola cv. Tully, U. humidicola cv. Llanero, U. brizantha cv. BRS Piatã, U. brizantha cv. Xaraés, U. decumbens cv. Basilisk and U. ruziziensis cv. Kenedy, and the parameters evaluated were related to the structural and morphogenic characteristics. The work was carried out in a greenhouse at the University Unit of Aquidauana. The treatments consisted of different soil moisture conditions: 50 and 80% of the moisture retention capacity of the soil, and slides of 0cm, 1cm and 5cm of water above the soil, with four replications, in a completely randomized design. The model considered the effect of soil moisture for each forage species at 5% of significance. The structural and morphogenic characteristics of grass-tully were not affected by the different water conditions evaluated here. The grass-llanero did not react to flooding. The grass-piatã was tolerant to water deficit conditions and presented adaptation to flooding. The U. decumbens cv. Basilisk presented adaptive responses that improved its tolerance to flooding. The U. ruziziensis cv. Kenedy was unfit for flood and water deficit conditions.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pasture/analysis , Poaceae/anatomy & histology , Poaceae/growth & development , Immersion
12.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(1): 19-22, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990059

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the color alteration of four brands of artificial teeth (Art Plus, Trilux, Bionote and Biolux), after immersion in color solutions of coffee, red wine and urucum. We used 80 artificial teeth, which were standardized with 2 mm thickness. Then, they were subjected to finishing and polishing, and divided into 4 groups (n = 05), which were immersed in one of the 3 types of dye, plus distilled water (control). The samples were immersed daily for 4 hours, then they were removed, washed in tap water, dried with absorbent paper and immersed in distilled water for the subsequent hours in a biological glasshouse at 37 ºC, for 21 days. The evaluation of the color change was made in the periods of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days, by means of the tristimulus colorimeter. The data were subjected to the ANOVA and Tukey test with a 5 % significance. The results showed that the urucum was the substance that caused the greatest staining while the coffee and the wine did not show statistical difference. Regarding trademarks, Trilux presented a statistical difference compared to the other commercial brands, revealing colorimetric alteration only in the 14-day period. It was concluded that the composition of the artificial teeth, the type of pigmenting agent and the immersion time determine the color change.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la alteración de color de cuatro marcas de dientes artificiales (Art Plus, Trilux, Bionote y Biolux), después de inmersión en soluciones colorantes de café, vino tinto y urucum. Se utilizaron 80 dientes artificiales, los cuales fueron estandarizados con 2 mm de espesor. En seguida, los mismos fueron sometidos al acabado y pulido, y divididos en 4 grupos (n = 5), los cuales fueron inmersos en uno de los 3 tipos de colorante, más agua destilada (control). Las muestras permanecieron inmersas diariamente durante 4 horas, luego fueron retiradas, lavadas en agua corriente, secas con papel absorbente e inmersas en agua destilada por las horas subsiguientes en invernadero biológico a 37 ºC, por 21 días. La evaluación del cambio de color se realizó en los períodos de 0, 7, 14 y 21 días, por medio del colorímetro tristimulo. Los datos fueron sometidos a la prueba ANOVA y Tukey con un 5 % de significancia. Los resultados demostraron que el urucum fue la sustancia que provocó mayor manchado mientras que el café y el vino no presentaron diferencia estadística. En cuanto a las marcas comerciales, el Trilux presentó una diferencia estadística en comparación con las otras marcas comerciales, revelando alteración colorimétrica sólo en el período de 14 días. Se concluyó que la composición de los dientes artificiales, el tipo de agente pigmentante y el tiempo de inmersión determinan el cambio de color.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth, Artificial , Tooth Discoloration , Acrylic Resins , Wine , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Coffee , Colorimetry , Coloring Agents , Immersion
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20170449, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975886

ABSTRACT

Abstract The stable long-term performance of resin cement under oral environmental conditions is a crucial factor to obtain a satisfactory success of the allceramic dental restoration. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating and comparing the surface morphology and mechanical property of conventional and self-adhesive resin cement after aqueous aging. Materials and Methods: Disc-shaped specimens of 3 conventional (C1: Multilink N, C2: Duolink, C3: Nexus 3) and 3 self-adhesive (S1: Multilink Speed, S2: Biscem, S3: Maxcem) types of resin cements were subjected to irradiation. After 24 h, the Knoop microhardness of each resin cement was evaluated. The specimens were immersed separately in distilled water and maintained at 37°C. A total of 5 specimens of each resin cement were collected at the following time intervals of immersion: 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. The samples were used to evaluate the Knoop parameters of microhardness, sorption and solubility. The surface morphology of the specimens after 18 months of immersion was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The sorption and solubility data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The Knoop microhardness was tested by the ANOVA repeated measures (P<0.05). Results: The sorption and solubility parameters of C1 and S1 exhibited significant fluctuations during the aqueous aging. The hardness of the S1 and S2 specimens decreased significantly after an 18-month water immersion. The S1, S2 and S3 specimens indicated higher filler exposure and stripping and apparent pores and cracks compared to specimens C1, C2 and C3, respectively. Conclusion: The surface of selfadhesive resin cements is more susceptible to aqueous damage than that of the conventional resin cements.


Subject(s)
Water/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Solubility , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Hardness Tests , Immersion
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765440

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of progressive speed increase during underwater gait training on stroke patients' balance, gait, and endurance, as well as to compare the effects of underwater gait training and land gait training. METHODS: Subjects were randomly allocated into three groups. Underwater gait training group (n=10), land gait training group (n=9) and control group (n=9). The groups performed their respective programs as well as conventional physical therapy 3 times/week for 8 weeks. The patients were assessed before and after the experiment in terms of the Berg balance scale, characteristics of gait, and 6-minute walking test. RESULTS: The beneficial effect perceived in the speed increase underwater gait training (UGT) group was significantly greater than in the groups who were trained with speed increase land gait training (LGT) group, and the control group regarding the following aspects: the Berg balance scale, the affected step length, the affected stride length, and the 6-minute walking test (p<0.05). The LGT group showed a more significant effect on the Berg balance scale, the affected step length, the affected stride length, and the 6-minute walking test (p<0.05), compared to the control group. Furthermore, the UGT group showed a significantly greater effect on the gait speed when compared to the control groupb (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study shows that progressive UGT is effective in improving balance, gait, and endurance in stroke patients. Therefore, we believe that progressive UGT may be used as a method for general physical therapy in patients with stroke.


Subject(s)
Gait , Humans , Immersion , Locomotion , Methods , Stroke , Walking
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of commercial plum beverages on dental erosion and whether the addition of calcium to these beverages would inhibit dental erosion. METHODS: We analyzed three groups as follows: Maesil 1 group (Chorok Maesil), Maesil 2 group (Sunkist plum), both of which were selected from commercially-available plum beverages, and Calcium-added maesil group (addition of 3% calcium to Chorok Maesil). For negative and positive control groups, Jeju Samdasoo and Coca Cola were selected, respectively. The characteristics of the experimental beverages were analyzed, and the specimens were immersed in the experimental beverage. The degree of erosion was measured by Vickers hardness number (VHN) and scanning electron microscope images. RESULTS: Positive control group had the lowest pH (2.50±0.03), followed by Maesil 2 (pH 2.59±0.01), Maesil 1 (pH 2.81±0.02), calcium-added maesil (pH 4.19±0.01), and negative control group (pH 7.57±0.06). Significant differences were found in surface microhardness between positive control, Maesil 1, Maesil 2 and calcium-added maesil group before immersion and at 30 minutes after immersion (P<0.05), and change in VHN (positive control group, −80.94±20.63; Maesil 1 group, −69.33±24.88; and Maesil 2 group, −78.49±18.60 in comparison with negative control group, −6.57±26.73). There was no significant difference (P<0.05) in change in VHN between calcium-added maesil (−13.02±17.33) and negative control group. CONCLUSIONS: Plum beverages can potentially induce dental erosion due to their low pH. However, adding calcium to these beverages can reduce the risk of dental erosion. Therefore, the risk of dental erosion must be considered during consumption of plum beverages, and the addition of calcium into plum beverages may be considered as a way to prevent dental erosion.


Subject(s)
Beverages , Calcium , Coca , Cola , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immersion , Prunus domestica
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dry syrups on bovine tooth surfaces. METHODS: Each specimen of the extracted bovine teeth enamel was treated with two types of dry syrup (experimental group), mineral water (negative control group), and liquid syrup (positive control group) (n=12 per group). The specimens were immersed for 1, 5, and 10 minutes and subsequently analyzed for surface microhardness changes using a Vickers hardness tester. RESULTS: The surface microhardness of sound enamel decreased as the immersion time increased. In addition, the microhardness difference (ΔVHN) among the groups after immersion for 10 minutes in both liquid syrup and two types of dry syrup was higher than that after immersion in mineral water (P0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results imply the erosive potential of dry syrup on tooth surfaces. The longer the contact time with teeth, greater is the risk of dental erosion. Therefore, it is recommended that the mouth be rinsed with water after drinking the syrup.


Subject(s)
Dental Enamel , Drinking , Hardness Tests , Immersion , Mineral Waters , Mouth , Tooth , Water
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764480

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the ever-changing cultural makeup of society, the ability to deliver culturally appropriate healthcare is essential. An educational method aimed at increasing cultural knowledge and sensitivity in the education of healthcare professionals is cultural immersion, which creates opportunities for transformational learning through direct interactions with culturally diverse populations. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the qualitative effects of cultural immersion experiences on graduate-level healthcare professional students. METHODS: A search of the CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) databases was performed, utilizing search terms including cultural immersion, cultural sensitivity, educational outcomes, and healthcare professionals. The search was limited to publications within the last 10 years. The articles were screened according to title, abstract, and full-text following the application of inclusion/exclusion criteria. Themes identified within each article were collected and categorized, using a qualitative methodology, into 5 overarching domains to assess the educational experiences. Studies were scored for quality using the qualitative portion of the McGill Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool–2011. RESULTS: Nine studies incorporating a total of 94 participants with experiences in 14 culturally diverse environments revealing 47 individually identified themes were included in the review. The results indicated that all cultural immersion experiences stimulated increased cultural awareness and sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Cultural immersion experiences produced a positive, multi-domain effect on cultural learning in students of the health professions. The results of this review provide support for implementing cultural immersion experiences into the education of healthcare professionals with the goal of increasing cultural sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Education , Health Occupations , Humans , Immersion , Learning , Methods , Nursing
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polishing methods on the color stability of composite resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two bulk-fill and four conventional resin composites were filled in cylindrical molds (6 mm diameter, 4 mm height) and light-cured. The specimens were stored in 34℃ distilled water for 24 h. Spectrophotometer was used to determine the color value according to the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) color space. Each group was divided into three groups according to polishing methods (n = 5). Group 1 was control group (Mylar strip group), group 2 was polished with PoGo, and group 3 was polished with Sof-Lex Spiral wheels. Color evaluation was performed weekly for 4 weeks after immersion in 34℃ distilled water. The results were analyzed by generalized least squares method (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Generalized least squares analysis revealed that Sof-Lex Spiral wheels group showed the significantly lower ΔE values compared to PoGo and control group (P < 0.05). The ΔE values of polished group showed the significantly lower than the ΔE values of unpolished group (P < 0.05). Regarding color changes of composite resins, there was no significant difference between the ΔE values of Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350 XT Universal restorative in all time intervals (P < 0.05). Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill showed the significantly lower ΔE values compared to other composite resins in 1, 2, 3 weeks (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, polishing methods influence the color stabilities of composite resins. The group polished with Sof-Lex Spiral Wheels showed more resistance to discoloration than group polished with PoGo.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Composite Resins , Fungi , Immersion , Least-Squares Analysis , Methods , Water
19.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 255-261, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762238

ABSTRACT

In this study, a restoration process was developed with potassium hydroxide (KOH), in order to improve each of the structures for their posterior fixation, through the use of new methods such as the Chilean conservative fixative solution (SFCCh), with exceptional results. Restore anatomical pieces corresponding to corpse and organs, being these last set with the SFCCh. In this work dealt with processes of restoration with potassium hydroxide, sodium chloride, and sodium hypochlorite, the process began with the cleanliness and suture of the structures for subsequent fixing in Chilean conservative fixative solution, making use of a corpse and different anatomical parts. Work based on items found in the database, Elsevier, Science Direct, ProQuest, and MEDLINE. At the end of the process of restoration and conservation of the anatomical pieces, was observed an improvement in muscle pigment with decrease of rigidity in the specimen, additionally a recovery of appearance in the vascular-nervous elements was achieved. The organs were much more malleable and the structures facilitate the identification of specific details, its subsequent immersion in SFCCh allows the longer preservation of the obtained results. The restoration with potassium hydroxide allows the improvement in the appearance of the different anatomical structures and simultaneously to facilitate its study. The SFCCh is an alternative that replaces partially the use of formaldehyde. In addition, it presents toxicity reduction.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Formaldehyde , Immersion , Potassium , Sodium Hydroxide , Sodium Hypochlorite , Sutures
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762140

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To review the clinical features and natural courses of cold urticaria (ColdU) in a tropical country. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients who visited Siriraj Urticaria Clinic, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, and were diagnosed with ColdU between 2007 and 2018. Data on provocation and threshold tests, clinical courses, and laboratory work-up were analyzed and compared with data reported by studies in temperate countries. RESULTS: Of 1,063 chronic urticaria patients, 27 (2.5%) were diagnosed with ColdU, with a mean age of symptom onset of 34.8 years. Half of the patients had a history of atopy, and 1 (3.7%) had a history of anaphylaxis. All patients were positive to 1 of 3 provocation tests: an ice cube test; TempTest 4.0; or a tray filled with ice, salt and water. Thirteen patients underwent the ice cube test, and all had positive results. TempTest was performed on 15 patients, 8 of whom had positive results, with a mean critical temperature threshold (CTT) of 21.0°C. All of the 7 patients who had a negative TempTest result later produced positive results to the immersion of their hand and forearm in a tray filled with ice, salt, and water. All patients were treated with H1-antihistamines, the vast majority (96.3%) being non-sedating H1-antihistamines. Some (14.8%) needed to be administered oral corticosteroids, ciclosporin, or omalizumab. Six patients (22.2%) were in remission. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve demonstrated 5-year and 10-year remission rates of 13.8% and 42.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of anaphylaxis in patients with ColdU in a tropical country was lower than those reported by other studies conducted intemperate climates. On the other hand, the number of female patients, mean age at symptom onset, atopy rate, rate of concomitant chronic spontaneous urticaria and mean CTT were higher.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anaphylaxis , Climate , Cyclosporine , Female , Forearm , Hand , Humans , Ice , Immersion , Omalizumab , Retrospective Studies , Thailand , Tropical Climate , Urticaria , Water
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