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1.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 143-156, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971476

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify subtypes of genomic variants associated with the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) by conducting systematic literature search in electronic databases up to May 31, 2021. The main outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and durable clinical benefit (DCB) were correlated with tumor genomic features. A total of 1546 lung cancer patients with available genomic variation data were included from 14 studies. The Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog G12C (KRASG12C) mutation combined with tumor protein P53 (TP53) mutation revealed the promising efficacy of ICI therapy in these patients. Furthermore, patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) classical activating mutations (including EGFRL858R and EGFRΔ19) exhibited worse outcomes to ICIs in OS (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01‍‒‍1.95; P=0.0411) and PFS (adjusted HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.49‍‒‍2.63; P<0.0001), while classical activating mutations with EGFRT790M showed no difference compared to classical activating mutations without EGFRT790M in OS (adjusted HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.48‍‒‍1.94; P=0.9157) or PFS (adjusted HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.39‍‒‍1.35; P=0.3050). Of note, for patients harboring the Usher syndrome type-2A(USH2A) missense mutation, correspondingly better outcomes were observed in OS (adjusted HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32‍‒‍0.82; P=0.0077), PFS (adjusted HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38‍‒‍0.69; P<0.0001), DCB (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 4.74; 95% CI, 2.75‍‒‍8.17; P<0.0001), and ORR (adjusted OR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.88‍‒‍6.33; P<0.0001). Our findings indicated that, USH2A missense mutations and the KRASG12Cmutation combined with TP53 mutation were associated with better efficacy and survival outcomes, but EGFR classical mutations irrespective of combination with EGFRT790M showed the opposite role in the ICI therapy among lung cancer patients. Our findings might guide the selection of precise targets for effective immunotherapy in the clinic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Treatment Outcome
2.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 49-58, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Programmed death 1 (PD-1) associated fulminant type 1 diabetes (PFD) is a rare acute and critical in internal medicine, and its clinical characteristics are still unclear. This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics of PFD patients to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 10 patients with PFD admitted to the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, combined with the data of 66 patients reported in the relevant literature, analyzed and summarized their clinical and immunological characteristics, and compared the patients with PFD with different islet autoantibody status.@*RESULTS@#Combined with our hospital and literature data, a total of 76 patients with PFD were reported, with the age of (60.9±12.1) years old, 60.0% male and body mass index of (22.1±5.2) kg/m2. In 76 patients, the most common tumors were lung cancer (43.4%) and melanoma (22.4%). Among PD-1 inhibitors, the most common drugs are nivolumab (37.5%) and pembrolizumab (38.9%). 82.2% of PFD patients developed diabetes ketoacidosis. The median onset time from PD-1 related inhibitor treatment to hyperglycemia was 95 (36.0, 164.5) d, and the median treatment cycle before the onset of diabetes was 6 (2.3, 8.0) cycles. 26% (19/73) of PFD patients had positive islet autoantibodies, and the proportion of ketoacidosis in the positive group was significantly higher than that in the negative group (100.0% vs 75.0%, P<0.05). The onset time and infusion times of diabetes after PD-1 inhibitor treatment in the autoantibody positive group were significantly lower than those in the autoantibody negative group (28.5 d vs 120.0 d; 2 cycles vs 7 cycles, both P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#After initiation of tumor immunotherapy, it is necessary to be alert to the occurrence of adverse reactions of PFD, and the onset of PFD with islet autoantibody positive is faster and more serious than that of patients with autoantibodies negative. Detection of islet autoantibodies and blood glucose before and after treatment with PD-1 inhibitors is of great value for early warning and prediction of PFD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ketosis , Autoantibodies
3.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 84-92, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971237

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic surgery in locally advanced gastric cancer patients with neoadjuvant SOX chemotherapy combined with PD-1 inhibitor immunotherapy. Methods: Between November 2020 and April 2021, patients with locally advanced gastric cancer who were admitted to the Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology were prospectively enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were: (1) patients who signed the informed consent form voluntarily before participating in the study; (2) age ranging from 18 to 75 years; (3) patients staged preoperatively as cT3-4N+M0 by the TNM staging system; (4) Eastern Collaborative Oncology Group score of 0-1; (5) estimated survival of more than 6 months, with the possibility of performing R0 resection for curative purposes; (6) sufficient organ and bone marrow function within 7 days before enrollment; and (7) complete gastric D2 radical surgery. Exclusion criteria were: (1) history of anti-PD-1 or PD-L1 antibody therapy and chemotherapy; (2) treatment with corticosteroids or other immunosuppre- ssants within 14 days before enrollment; (3) active period of autoimmune disease or interstitial pneumonia; (4) history of other malignant tumors; (5) surgery performed within 28 days before enrollment; and (6) allergy to the drug ingredients of the study. Follow-up was conducted by outpatient and telephone methods. During preoperative SOX chemotherapy combined with PD-1 inhibitor immunotherapy, follow-up was conducted every 3 weeks to understand the occurrence of adverse reactions of the patients; follow-up was conducted once after 1 month of surgical treatment to understand the adverse reactions and survival of patients. Observation indicators were: (1) condition of enrolled patients; (2) reassessment after preoperative therapy and operation received (3) postoperative conditions and pathological results. Evaluation criteria were: (1) tumor staged according to the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system; (2) tumor regression grading (TRG) of pathological results were evaluated with reference to AJCC standards; (3) treatment-related adverse reactions were evaluated according to version 5.0 of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events; (4) tumor response was evaluated by CT before and after treatment with RECIST V1.1 criteria; and (5) Clavien-Dindo complication grading system was used for postoperative complications assessment. Results: A total of 30 eligible patients were included. There were 25 males and 5 females with a median age of 60.5 (35-74) years. The primary tumor was located in the gastroesophageal junction in 12 cases, in the upper stomach in 8, in the middle stomach in 7, and in the lower stomach in 3. The preoperative clinical stage of 30 cases was III. Twenty-one patients experienced adverse reactions during neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy, including four cases of CTCAE grade 3-4 adverse reactions resulting in bone marrow suppression and thoracic aortic thrombosis. All cases of adverse reactions were alleviated or disappeared after active symptomatic treatment. Among the 30 patients who underwent surgery, the time from chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy to surgery was 28 (23-49) days. All 30 patients underwent laparoscopic radical gastrectomy, of which 20 patients underwent laparoscopic-assisted radical gastric cancer resection; 10 patients underwent total gastrectomy for gastric cancer, combined with splenectomy in 1 case and cholecystectomy in 1 case. The surgery time was (239.9±67.0) min, intraoperative blood loss was 84 (10-400) ml, and the length of the incision was 7 (3-12) cm. The degree of adenocarcinoma was poorly differentiated in 18 cases, moderately differentiated in 12 cases, nerve invasion in 11 cases, and vascular invasion in 6 cases. The number lymph nodes that underwent dissection was 30 (17-58). The first of gas passage, the first postoperative defecation time, the postoperative liquid diet time, and the postoperative hospitalization time of 30 patients was 3 (2-6) d, 3 (2-13) d, 5 (3-12) d, and 10 (7-27) d, respectively. Postoperative complications occurred in 23 of 30 patients, including 7 cases of complications of Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa or above. Six patients improved after treatment and were discharged from hospital, while 1 patient died 27 days after surgery due to granulocyte deficiency, anemia, bilateral lung infection, and respiratory distress syndrome. The remaining 29 patients had no surgery-related morbidity or mortality within 30 days of discharge. Postoperative pathological examination showed TRG grades 0, 1, 2, and 3 in 8, 9, 4, and 9 cases, respectively, and the number of postoperative pathological TNM stages 0, I, II, and III was 8, 7, 8, and 7 cases, respectively. The pCR rate was 25.0% (8/32). Conclusion: Laparoscopic surgery after neoadjuvant SOX chemotherapy combined with PD-1 inhibitor immunotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer is safe and feasible, with satisfactory short-term efficacy. Early detection and timely treatment of related complications are important.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Gastrectomy/methods , Esophagogastric Junction/pathology , Laparoscopy , Immunotherapy , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
4.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 182-187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969823

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical and chest computed tomography (CT) features and the outcome of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis (CIP). Methods: Clinical and chest CT data of 38 CIP patients with malignant tumors from the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between August 2017 and April 2021 were retrospectively reviewed, and the outcomes of pneumonitis were followed up. Results: The median time from the administration of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) to the onset of CIP was 72.5 days in 38 patients with CIP, and 22 patients developed CIP within 3 months after the administration of ICIs. The median occurrence time of CIP in 24 lung cancer patients was 54.5 days, earlier than 119.0 days of non-lung cancer patients (P=0.138), with no significant statistical difference. 34 patients (89.5%) were accompanied by symptoms when CIP occurred. The common clinical symptoms were cough (29 cases) and dyspnea (27 cases). The distribution of CIP on chest CT was asymmetric in 31 cases and symmetrical in 7 cases. Among the 24 lung cancer patients, inflammation was mainly distributed ipsilateral to the primary lung cancer site in 16 cases and diffusely distributed throughout the lung in 8 cases. Ground glass opacities (37 cases) and consolidation (30 cases) were the common imaging manifestations, and organizing pneumonia (OP) pattern (15 cases) was the most common pattern. In 30 CIP patients who were followed up for longer than one month, 17 cases had complete absorption (complete absorption group), and 13 cases had partial absorption or kept stable (incomplete absorption group). The median occurrence time of CIP in the complete absorption group was 55 days, shorter than 128 days of the incomplete absorption group (P=0.022). Compared with the incomplete absorption group, there were less consolidation(P=0.010) and CIP were all classified as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) pattern (P=0.004) in the complete absorption group. Conclusions: CIP often occurs within 3 months after ICIs treatment, and the clinical and CT findings are lack of specificity. Radiologic features may have a profound value in predicting the outcome of CIP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 170-174, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969821

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibody in operable, borderline or potentially resectable locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(ESCC) in the real world. Methods: The study retrospectively analyzed 28 patients with operable or potentially resectable locally advanced ESCC patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy combined with PD-1 inhibitor in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from April 2020 to March 2021. According to the clinical TNM staging system of the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, there were 1, 15, 10, 1 and 1 case of stage Ⅱ, Ⅲ, ⅣA, ⅣB and unknown stage respectively. The treatment was two cycle of dual drug chemotherapy regimen including taxane plus platinum or fluorouracil combined with PD-1 antibody followed by tumor response assessment and surgery if the patient was eligible for resection. Results: Of the 28 patients, 1, 2, 3 and 4 cycles of chemotherapy combined with PD-1 antibody treatment completed in 1, 21, 5, and 1 patient, respectively. Objective response rate (ORR) was 71.4% (20/28), and disease control rate (DCR) was 100% (28/28). The incidence of adverse events exceeding grade 3 levels was 21.4% (6/28), including 3 neutropenia, 1 leukopenia, 1 thrombocytopenia and 1 immune hepatitis. There was no treatment-related death. Of the 23 patients underwent surgery, R0 resection rate was 87.0% (20/23), 13 patients had down staged to the T1-2N0M0 I stage, the pCR rate was 17.3% (4/23), and the pCR rate of primary tumor was 21.7% (5/23). Four patients received definitive chemoradiotherapy. One patient rejected surgery and other treatment after achieved PR response. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined PD-1 inhibitor is safe and has high efficacy in operable, borderline or potentially resectable locally advanced ESCC, and it is a promising regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Cisplatin , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 111-116, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969813

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women worldwide, and 85% of these patients have non-small cell lung cancer. In recent years, the clinical use of targeted drug therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors has dramatically changed the treatment landscape for advanced NSCLC. The mechanism and the value of targeted therapies have been a hot topic of research, as KRAS is one of the earliest discovered and most frequently mutated oncogenes, which is activated by binding to GTP and triggers a series of cascade reactions in cell proliferation and mitosis. The KRAS protein acts as a molecular switch and is activated by binding to GTP, triggering a series of cascade responses in cell proliferation and mitosis. Clinically, patients with KRAS mutated NSCLC have poor response to systemic medical therapy and poor prognosis. Since the first report of KRAS gene in 1982, research on KRAS targeted therapeutics has been slow, and previous studies such as farnesyltransferase inhibitors and downstream protein inhibitors of KRAS signaling pathway have not achieved the expected results, making KRAS long defined as a "non-druggable target". The deeper understanding of the crystal structure of KRAS has led to the discovery of potential therapeutic sites for KRAS and the development of several drugs directly targeting KRAS, especially KRAS G12C inhibitors such as AMG510 (sotorasib) and MRTX849 (adagrasib), which have shown encouraging results in clinical trials. In recent years, studies on the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors for KRAS-mutated NSCLC have made some progress. In this review, we systematically introduce the basic understanding of RAS gene and clinical characteristics of KRAS mutated NSCLC patients, summarize the medical treatments for KRAS mutated NSCLC, including chemotherapy, anti-vascular drug therapy and tumor immunotherapy, and focus on the review and outlook of the research progress of KRAS targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/therapeutic use , Genes, ras , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Guanosine Triphosphate/therapeutic use , Mutation
7.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 351-356, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986860

ABSTRACT

We explored clinicopathological features and treatment strategies for thoracic SMARCA4-deficient undifferentiated tumor (SMARCA4-UT). Thoracic SMARCA4-UT is a new entity recently acknowledged in the 2021 edition of World Health Organization Classification of Thoracic Tumors, and doctors are relatively unfamiliar with its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Taking a case of SMARCA4-UT treated in Peking University First Hospital as an example, this multi-disciplinary discussion covered several hot issues on diagnosing and treating thoracic SMARCA4-UT, including histological features, immu- nohistochemical and molecular phenotype, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy, and pathological assessment of neoadjuvant therapy response. The patient was an older man with a long history of smoking and was admitted due to a rapidly progressing solid tumor in the lower lobe of the right lung. Histologically, tumor cells were epithelioid, undifferentiated, diffusely positive for CD34, and partially positive for SALL4.The expression of BRG1 protein encoded by SMARCA4 gene was lost in all of tumor cells, and next-generation sequencing(NGS)confirmed SMARCA4 gene mutation (c.2196T>G, p.Y732Ter). The pathological diagnosis reached as thoracic SMARCA4-UT, and the preoperative TNM stage was T1N2M0 (ⅢA). Tumor proportion score (TPS) detected by immunohistochemistry of programmed cell death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1, clone SP263) was 2%. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) detected by NGS of 1 021 genes was 16. 3/Mb. Microsatellite detection showed the tumor was microsatellite stable (MSS). Neo-adjuvant therapy was implemented with the combined regimen of chemotherapy and ICI. Right lower lobectomy was performed through thoracoscopy after the two weeks' neoadjuvant. The pathologic assessment of lung tumor specimens after neoadjuvant therapy revealed a complete pathological response (CPR). The post-neoadjuvant tumor TNM stage was ypT0N0M0. Then, five cycles of adjuvant therapy were completed. Until October 2022, neither tumor recurrence nor metastasis was detected, and minimal residual disease (MRD) detection was negative. At present, it is believed that if BRG1 immunohistochemical staining is negative, regardless of whether SMARCA4 gene mutation is detected, it should be classified as SMARCA4-deficient tumors. SMARCA4-deficient tumors include a variety of carcinomas and sarcomas. The essential criteria for diagnosing SMARCA4-UT includes loss of BRG1 expression, speci-fic histological morphology, and exclude other common thoracic malignant tumors with SMARCA4-deficiency, such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. SMARCA4-UT is a very aggressive malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. It has almost no targeted therapy mutations, and little response to chemotherapy, but ICI is currently the only effective drug. The successful diagnosis and treatment for this case of SMARCA4-UT should enlighten significance for various kinds of SMARCA4-deficient tumors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma , DNA Helicases , Nuclear Proteins , Transcription Factors
8.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 448-458, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986813

ABSTRACT

Objective: Total neoadjuvant therapy has been used to improve tumor responses and prevent distant metastases in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Patients with complete clinical responses (cCR) then have the option of choosing a watch and wait (W&W) strategy and organ preservation. It has recently been shown that hypofractionated radiotherapy has better synergistic effects with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors than does conventionally fractionated radiotherapy, increasing the sensitivity of microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer to immunotherapy. Thus, in this trial we aimed to determine whether total neoadjuvant therapy comprising short-course radiotherapy (SCRT) combined with a PD-1 inhibitor improves the degree of tumor regression in patients with LARC. Methods: TORCH is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, phase II trial (TORCH Registration No. NCT04518280). Patients with LARC (T3-4/N+M0, distance from anus ≤10 cm) are eligible and are randomly assigned to consolidation or induction arms. Those in the consolidation arm receive SCRT (25Gy/5 Fx), followed by six cycles of toripalimab plus capecitabine and oxaliplatin (ToriCAPOX). Those in the induction arm receive two cycles of ToriCAPOX, then undergo SCRT, followed by four cycles of ToriCAPOX. Patients in both groups undergo total mesorectal excision (TME) or can choose a W&W strategy if cCR has been achieved. The primary endpoint is the complete response rate (CR, pathological complete response [pCR] plus continuous cCR for more than 1 year). The secondary endpoints include rates of Grade 3-4 acute adverse effects (AEs) etc. Results: Up to 30 September 2022, 62 patients attending our center were enrolled (Consolidation arm: 34, Induction arm:28). Their median age was 53 (27-69) years. Fifty-nine of them had MSS/pMMR type cancer (95.2%), and only three MSI-H/dMMR. Additionally, 55 patients (88.7%) had Stage III disease. The following important characteristics were distributed as follows: lower location (≤5 cm from anus, 48/62, 77.4%), deeper invasion by primary lesion (cT4 7/62, 11.3%; mesorectal fascia involved 17/62, 27.4%), and high risk of distant metastasis (cN2 26/62, 41.9%; EMVI+ 11/62, 17.7%). All 62 patients completed the SCRT and at least five cycles of ToriCAPOX, 52/62 (83.9%) completing six cycles of ToriCAPOX. Finally, 29 patients achieved cCR (46.8%, 29/62), 18 of whom decided to adopt a W&W strategy. TME was performed on 32 patients. Pathological examination showed 18 had achieved pCR, four TRG 1, and 10 TRG 2-3. The three patients with MSI-H disease all achieved cCR. One of these patients was found to have pCR after surgery whereas the other two adopted a W&W strategy. Thus, the pCR and CR rates were 56.2% (18/32) and 58.1% (36/62), respectively. The TRG 0-1 rate was 68.8% (22/32). The most common non-hematologic AEs were poor appetite (49/60, 81.7%), numbness (49/60, 81.7%), nausea (47/60, 78.3%) and asthenia (43/60, 71.7%); two patients did not complete this survey. The most common hematologic AEs were thrombocytopenia (48/62, 77.4%), anemia (47/62, 75.8%), leukopenia/neutropenia (44/62, 71.0%) and high transaminase (39/62, 62.9%). The main Grade III-IV AE was thrombocytopenia (22/62, 35.5%), with three patients (3/62, 4.8%) having Grade IV thrombocytopenia. No Grade V AEs were noted. Conclusions: SCRT-based total neoadjuvant therapy combined with toripalimab can achieve a surprisingly good CR rate in patients with LARC and thus has the potential to offer new treatment options for organ preservation in patients with MSS and lower-location rectal cancer. Meanwhile, the preliminary findings of a single center show good tolerability, the main Grade III-IV AE being thrombocytopenia. The significant efficacy and long-term prognostic benefit need to be determined by further follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Chemoradiotherapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Prospective Studies , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 700-704, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985977

ABSTRACT

Objective: Cancer immunotherapy can lead to various side effects, termed immune-related adverse events (irAE). This study summarized and analyzed the clinical and pathological characteristics of immune-mediated liver injury caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ILICI). Methods: This is a retrospective case series study involving 11 patients diagnosed with ILICI at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from November 2019 to November 2021. Patient demographic information and clinical data, including gender, age, ILICI onset, clinical and radiological manifestations, pathological features, treatment, and resumption of ICI were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: The patients were primarily males (9/11) with a median age of 65 (range: 32-73) years. ICI mainly resulted in either partial remission (4/11) or stable disease (3/11). ILICI occurred after a median of two cycles of anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) therapy, with a median time from the initial and last anti-PD-1 therapy to ILICI onset of 57 days and 17 days, respectively. ILICI was mostly severe (3/11) or very severe (6/11). While the clinical and radiological manifestations were non-specific, the pathological features were active lobular hepatitis and portal inflammation, with prominent CD8+T lymphocyte infiltration. The basic treatment was hepatoprotective drugs (10/11). Glucocorticoids were used as the primary therapy (9/11) but were ineffective in 4 of 9 cases. Of these, 3 of 9 cases received combined treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), only one of whom achieved remission. By the end of the study, 2 of 11 cases had resumed ICI and neither had experienced an ILICI relapse. Conclusion: The ILICI patients in this study had a corresponding history of ICI treatment and pathological features. The main treatment included hepatoprotective drugs and glucocorticoids. Immunosuppressive drugs were added for some cases but had poor efficacy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Liver , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
10.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 333-345, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982705

ABSTRACT

The anti-tumor effect of anti-PD-1 antibody has long been shown to be strongly related to the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). This study aimed to mechanistically assess whether Chang Wei Qing (CWQ) Decoction can enhance the anti-tumor effect of PD-1 inhibitor therapy. PD-1 inhibitor therapy showed the significant anti-tumor effect in patients with mismatch repair-deficient/microsatellite instability-high (dMMR/MSI-H) colorectal cancer (CRC), rather than those with mismatch repair-proficient/microsatellite stable (pMMR/MSS) CRC. Hence, immunofluorescence double-label staining was utilized to explore the difference in the TIME between dMMR/MSI-H and pMMR/MSS CRC patients. Flow cytometry was used to analyze T-lymphocytes in tumors from mice. Western blot was used to measure the expression of PD-L1 protein in mouse tumors. The intestinal mucosal barrier of mice was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. 16S rRNA-gene sequencing was used to examine the structure of the gut microbiota in mice. Subsequently, Spearmanapos;s correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the gut microbiota and tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes. The results showed that dMMR/MSI-H CRC patients had more CD8+T cells and higher expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins. In vivo, CWQ enhanced the anti-tumor effect of anti-PD-1 antibody and increased the infiltration of CD8+ and PD-1+CD8+ T cells in tumors. Additionally, the combination of CWQ with anti-PD-1 antibody resulted in lower inflammation in the intestinal mucosa than that induced by anti-PD-1 antibody alone. CWQ and anti-PD-1 antibody co-treatment upregulated PD-L1 protein and reduced the abundance of Bacteroides in the gut microbiota but increased the abundance of Akkermansia,Firmicutes, andActinobacteria. Additionally, the proportion of infiltrated CD8+PD-1+, CD8+, and CD3+ T cells were found to be positively correlated with the abundance of Akkermansia. Accordingly, CWQ may modulate the TIME by modifying the gut microbiota and consequently enhance the anti-tumor effect of PD-1 inhibitor therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , B7-H1 Antigen , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms , Tumor Microenvironment
11.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 392-399, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982171

ABSTRACT

With the development of precision medicine for lung cancer, targeted therapy has greatly improved the survival and prognosis of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the occurrence of acquired drug resistance ultimately leads to patients with no targeted drugs available and no standard treatment options for this group of patients afterwards. The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has revolutionized the treatment of advanced NSCLC. However, due to the unique features of NSCLC with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, such as immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), single ICIs treatment has limited clinical benefits in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutation, and the combination of ICIs with chemotherapy and/or targeted therapies is the trend. This review further discusses potential subpopulations with EGFR mutations that may benefit from ICIs treatment, and analyzes how decisions can be made in the era of combined immunotherapy to maximize the efficacy of ICIs treatment in EGFR mutation targeted therapy for NSCLC patients with drug resistance, with the aim of achieving individualized treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 257-264, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are commonly occurred in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, evidence of irAEs derived from the Chinese population is relatively lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of irAEs in Chinese patients with lung cancer after receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).@*METHODS@#Clinical and follow-up data from lung cancer patients who received at least one time of ICIs from January 2018 to September 2021 at Huadong Hospital, Fudan University were included. Statistical descriptions and Kaplan-Meier method were used to analyze the overall incidence of irAEs, as well as the incidence and outcomes of each type of irAEs.@*RESULTS@#135 patients were included in the study. 106 patients (78.5%) presented at least one type of irAEs, and the median time to first irAEs onset was 28 d. Most irAEs occurred at early time after treatment, and most irAEs were mild-moderate and reversible. 57 patients (42.2%) died at the study cutoff. The mortality rate of severe irAEs was 12.6% (n=17), and among them 7 patients (41.2%) died of pneumonitis. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) time of the total population was 505 d (95%CI: 352-658) and 625 d (95%CI: 491-759), respectively. Patients who presented any irAEs achieved a longer PFS than those who did not (median PFS: 533 d vs 179 d, P=0.037, HR=0.57), while patients who presented skin toxicities achieved a longer OS than patients who did not (median OS: 797 d vs 469 d, P=0.006, HR=0.70).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In real-world settings, irAEs in lung cancer patients were commonly observed, with pneumonitis as the most common fatal irAEs. In addition, patients who presented any irAEs may tend to achieve a longer PFS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
13.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 351-354, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981276

ABSTRACT

In recent years,great progress has been achieved in the application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in tumor immunotherapy.However,a variety of adverse reactions induced by ICI have been reported.Despite the high overall incidence of adverse reactions caused by ICI,some adverse reactions,such as immune-related pancreatitis,are rare in clinical practice.In this paper,a case of immune-related pancreatitis after treatment of advanced gastric cancer with nivolumab was identified.We analyzed the cause,treatment,incidence,and risk factors of the adverse reaction,aiming to improve the clinical diagnosis,treatment,and safe medication of rare adverse reactions associated with ICI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nivolumab/adverse effects , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Pancreatitis/drug therapy , Stomach Neoplasms
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1403-1424, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981146

ABSTRACT

Malignant tumors are diseases that seriously threaten human health and social development. Traditional tumor therapies such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy cannot fully meet the needs of clinical treatment, and emerging immunotherapy has become a research hotspot in the field of tumor treatment. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been approved as a tumor immunotherapy method for the treatment of various tumors, such as lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer and colorectal cancer, etc. However, during the clinical use of ICIs, only a small number of patients experienced durable responses, which also led to drug resistance and adverse reactions. Therefore, the identification and development of predictive biomarkers is crucial to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ICIs. The predictive biomarkers of tumor ICIs mainly include tumor biomarkers, tumor microenvironment biomarkers, circulation-related biomarkers, host environmental biomarkers and combinatorial biomarkers. They are of great significance for screening, individualized treatment and prognosis evaluation of tumor patients. This article reviews the advances of predictive markers for tumor ICIs therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms , Biomarkers , Immunotherapy/methods , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1663-1670, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#As the efficacy of programmed cell death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors combined with chemotherapy in curing breast cancer is still controversial, this meta-analysis compares the efficacy and safety of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors combined with chemotherapy and chemotherapy alone in the treatment of breast cancer, which provides guidance for the clinical treatment.@*METHODS@#Relevant studies published as of April 2022 in the various databases including EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library were selected. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which control patients underwent chemotherapy alone and experimental group patients underwent combination chemotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment were included in this investigation. Investigations without complete information, researches from which information could not be extracted, duplicate articles, animal studies, review articles, and systematic reviews were excluded. STATA 15.1 was employed for all statistical analyses.@*RESULTS@#In total, eight eligible studies were identified, revealing that combination chemotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment was linked to significant increases in progression-free survival (PFS) relative to chemotherapy alone (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-0.99, P = 0.032) but not overall survival (HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.80-1.06, P = 0.273). Pooled adverse event rates were also increased within the group of combination treatment relative to the chemotherapy group (risk ratio [RR] = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.14, P = 0.002). Specifically, nausea rates were lesser within the group of combination treatment relative to the group of chemotherapy (RR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25-0.92, P = 0.026). Subgroup analyses indicated that the PFS of patients who underwent combination atezolizumab or pembrolizumab and chemotherapy treatment were substantially longer than those of patients who underwent chemotherapy alone (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.89, P ≤0.001; HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.67-0.92, P = 0.002).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The pooled results suggest that combination chemotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment approaches help prolong PFS in breast cancer patients, but have no statistically significant effect on overall survival (OS). Additionally, combination therapy can significantly improve complete response rate (CRR) compared with chemotherapy alone. However, combination therapy was associated with greater rates of adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1422-1429, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly used as first-line therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring no actionable mutations; however, data on their efficacy among patients presenting with intracranial lesions are limited. This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of ICIs combined with chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients with measurable brain metastasis at initial diagnosis.@*METHODS@#Our study retrospectively analyzed clinical data of a total of 211 patients diagnosed with driver gene mutation-negative advanced NSCLC with measurable, asymptomatic brain metastasis at baseline from Hunan Cancer Hospital between January 1, 2019 and September 30, 2021. The patients were stratified into two groups according to the first-line treatment regimen received: ICI combined with chemotherapy ( n = 102) or chemotherapy ( n = 109). Systemic and intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Adverse events were also compared between the groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the chemotherapy-based regimen, the ICI-containing regimen was associated with a significantly higher intracranial (44.1% [45/102] vs . 28.4% [31/109], χ2 = 5.620, P = 0.013) and systemic (49.0% [50/102] vs . 33.9% [37/109], χ2 = 4.942, P = 0.019) ORRs and longer intracranial (11.0 months vs . 7.0 months, P <0.001) and systemic (9.0 months vs . 5.0 months, P <0.001) PFS. Multivariable analysis consistently revealed an independent association between receiving ICI plus platinum-based chemotherapy as a first-line regimen and prolonged intracranial PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37-0.73, P <0.001) and systemic PFS (HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.35-0.66, P <0.001). No unexpected serious adverse effects were observed.@*CONCLUSION@#Our study provides real-world clinical evidence that ICI combined with chemotherapy is a promising first-line treatment option for driver gene mutation-negative advanced NSCLC patients who present with brain metastasis at initial diagnosis.@*CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION@#https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ , OMESIA, NCT05129202.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Brain Neoplasms/genetics
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1523-1531, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980918

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer has the highest risk of brain metastasis (BM) among all solid carcinomas. The emergence of BM has a significant impact on the selection of oncologic treatment for patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the most promising treatment option for patients without druggable mutations and have been shown to improve survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) BM in clinical trials with good safety. Moreover, ICI has shown certain effects in NSCLC BM, and the overall intracranial efficacy is comparable to extracranial efficacy. However, a proportion of patients showed discordant responses in primary and metastatic lesions, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may exist underlying ICI activity in BM. According to studies pertaining to tumor immune microenvironments, ICIs may be capable of provoking immunity in situ . Meanwhile, systematic immune cells activated by ICIs can migrate into the central nervous system and exert antitumor effects. This review summarizes the present evidence for ICI treatment efficacy in NSCLC BM and proposes the possible mechanisms of ICI treatment for NSCLC BMs based on existing evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment
18.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 69(4)out-dez. 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1537291

ABSTRACT

Os inibidores de checkpoints imunológicos (ICI) são uma classe de medicamentos cada vez mais utilizados para tratar o câncer. No entanto, eles têm sido associados a um risco aumentado de reativação da tuberculose (TB) em pacientes com infecção tuberculosa latente (ILTB). Relato do caso: Mulher, 61 anos, com câncer de orofaringe desenvolveu reativação de TB pulmonar enquanto recebia nivolumabe. Acredita-se que a reativação da TB em pacientes em ICI seja em virtude da inibição da via PD-1 que desempenha um papel no controle da ILTB. A incidência de reativação da TB em pacientes em ICI é maior do que na população geral. Conclusão: O uso crescente de ICI provavelmente levará a um aumento no número de casos de reativação da TB. Sugere-se proceder ao rastreamento rotineiro para ILTB nos pacientes que estão sendo considerados para tratamento com ICI, especialmente em países com alta incidência de TB.


Subject(s)
Latent Tuberculosis , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
19.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 27(1): 91-102, 2023. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1451963

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En melanoma metastásico, uno de los estándares de tratamiento es la inmunoterapia anti-PD-1 y anti-CTLA-4. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar factores pronósticos asociados con la supervivencia de pacientes con melanoma metastásico, con primera línea con inmunoterapia anti-PD-1 o anti-PD-1 y anti-CTLA-4, en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Colombia.Métodos. Se revisaron 63 historias clínicas del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de enero de 2016 a abril de 2020. Se realizó un análisis de supervivencia con método de Kaplan-Meier, prueba log-rank y regresión de Cox.Resultados. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron mujeres (58,7%); 47,6% tenían subtipo lentiginoso acral, 17,4% BRAF mutado, 20,6% compromiso en SNC, 50,8% recibieron nivolumab, 41,3% pembrolizumab y 7,9% nivolumab + ipilimumab. La mediana de supervivencia libre de progresión fue de 7,3 meses, con una tasa a 1, 2 y 3 años de 38,0%, 22,0% y 12,0% respectivamente; la mediana de supervivencia global fue 12,2 meses con una tasa a 1, 2 y 3 años de 50,0%, 25,0% y 19,0%. Como factor pronóstico protector para SLP se encontró el recibir nivolumab en comparación con pembrolizumab (HR=0,427; IC95% 0,21-0,86) y para SG el estado funcional al diagnóstico (ECOG 2 HR=12,38; IC95% 2,20-69,45).Conclusión. La SLP y SG fueron menores a la de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados en población caucásica, pero similar a la encontrada en estudios que incluyen mayor proporción del subtipo histológico lentiginoso acral, como la nuestra. Se encontraron como factores pronósticos el tipo de inmunoterapia utilizada y el estado funcional al diagnóstico.


Introduction: In metastatic melanoma, one of the standard treatments is anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy. This research aimed to determine prognostic factors associated with the survival of patients with metastatic melanoma who started first-line treatment with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INC) (Bogotá, Colombia).Methods: A total of 63 medical records from the INC were reviewed from January 2016 to April 2020. A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression.Results: Most patients were women (58.7%); 47.6% had acral lentiginous subtype, 17.4% BRAF-mutated melanoma, 20.6% CNS involvement, 50.8% received nivolumab, 41.3% pembrolizumab, and 7.9% nivolumab + ipilimumab. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.3 months with a rate at 1, 2, and 3 years of 38%, 22%, and 12%, respectively, while median overall survival (OS) was 12.2 months with a rate of 50%, 25%, and 19% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. A protective prognostic factor for PFS was to receive nivolumab compared to pembrolizumab (HR=0.427; CI95% 0.21-0.86), and for OS, functional status at diagnosis (ECOG 2 HR=12.38; CI95% 2.20-69.45).Conclusion: PFS and OS were lower than those of randomized clinical trials in the Caucasian population, but similar to those found in studies that include a higher proportion of the acral lentiginous histological subtype, such as ours. The type of immunotherapy used and functional status at diagnosis were found as prognostic factors


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Neoplasms , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
20.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 179-183, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971024

ABSTRACT

Management and treatment of terminal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains heavily debated. We sought to investigate the efficacy of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor plus anlotinib as a potential solution for terminal mCRPC and further evaluate the association of genomic characteristics with efficacy outcomes. We conducted a retrospective real-world study of 25 mCRPC patients who received PD-1 inhibitor plus anlotinib after the progression to standard treatments. The clinical information was extracted from the electronic medical records and 22 patients had targeted circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) next-generation sequencing. Statistical analysis showed that 6 (24.0%) patients experienced prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and 11 (44.0%) patients experienced PSA reduction. The relationship between ctDNA findings and outcomes was also analyzed. DNA-damage repair (DDR) pathways and homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway defects indicated a comparatively longer PSA-progression-free survival (PSA-PFS; 2.5 months vs 1.2 months, P = 0.027; 3.3 months vs 1.2 months, P = 0.017; respectively). This study introduces the PD-1 inhibitor plus anlotinib as a late-line therapeutic strategy for terminal mCRPC. PD-1 inhibitor plus anlotinib may be a new treatment choice for terminal mCRPC patients with DDR or HRR pathway defects and requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Treatment Outcome , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
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