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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 284-288, oct.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286723

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo a la infección en cavidad residual post quistectomía hepática en los pacientes del hospital Ramiro Prialé Prialé - EsSalud -Huancayo. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó una cohorte retrospectiva, entre enero del 2014 y enero del 2018. Se utilizó una ficha de recolección de datos. Se obtuvieron los riesgos relativos (RR) crudos y ajustados, con intervalos de confianza al 95%. Resultados: Participaron 83 pacientes. El 41,2% de las mujeres presentaron infección en la cavidad postquistectomía y la mediana de edad de los pacientes infecta dos fue de 33 años. Los antecedentes patológicos que se relacionaron con la infección fueron obesidad o sobrepeso (62,5%), neoplasia previa (100%) y enferme dad inmunológica previa (31%). La infección en cavidad residual postquistectomía estuvo relacionada a la presencia de obesidad o sobrepeso, diabetes mellitus, neoplasia previa , cirugía previa y al uso de antibióticos posteriores a la cirugía. Conclusiones: La obesidad o sobrepeso, diabetes mellitus, haber padecido alguna neoplasia o cirugía previa y el uso de antibióticos luego de la cirugía; son factores de riesgo para la infección en cavidad residual postquistectomía hepática en los pacientes del Hospital Nacional Ramiro Prialé Prialé EsSalud de Huancayo, Perú.


Abstract Objective: To determine the risk factors with the infection in the residual cavity after hepatic cystectomy in the patients of the Ramiro Prialé Prialé hospital - EsSalud -Huancayo. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort was conducted, between January 2014 and January 2018. A data collection sheet was used. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) were obtained, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: 83 patients participated. 41.2% of women infected in the post-cystectomy cavity and the median age of infected patients was 33 years. The pathological antecedents that were related to the infection were obesity or overweight (62.5%), previous neoplasia (100%) and previous immune disease (31%). Post-cystectomy residual cavity infection was affected by the presence of obesity or overweight (aRR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.15-2.13; p value = 0.005), diabetes mellitus (aRR: 2.67; 95% CI : 2.09-3.41; p value <0.001), previous neoplasia (aRR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.94-3.20; p value <0.001), previous surgery (aRR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.36-1.64; p value <0.001) and the use of post-surgery antibiotics (aRR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.30-3.51; p value = 0.003) Conclusions: Obesity or overweight, diabetes mellitus, having suffered some neoplasia or previous surgery and the use of antibiotics after surgery; they are factors associated with infection in the residual post-cystectomy liver cavity in patients of the Ramiro Prialé Prialé EsSalud National Hospital in Huancayo, Peru.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Infections , Peru , Ranunculaceae , Diabetes Mellitus , Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Hospitals , Immune System Diseases , Neoplasms
2.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e842, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289454

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La etiología de las enfermedades autoinmunes aún se desconoce, aunque se plantean diferentes causas. Objetivo: Describir el rol de factores como las hormonas, alimentación, estrés, enfermedades infecciosas y cáncer en las enfermedades autoinmunes. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando Google Académico y artículos de libre acceso en la base de datos PubMed y SciELO, publicados entre enero del 2014 y junio del 2020. Se consultó la bibliografía nacional e internacional relevante y actualizada, con un total de 51 referencias, de estas, tres libros básicos de la especialidad de Inmunología y 48 artículos (12 en idioma español y 36 en inglés). Se utilizaron los términos de búsqueda según los descriptores del DeCS y MeSH. Resultados: Las hormonas femeninas incrementan el riesgo de las enfermedades autoinmunes. Un desbalance en la neurohormona melatonina puede generar linfocitos autorreactivos. El estrés puede mantener respuestas inflamatorias crónicas que causen daño tisular. Una adecuada alimentación permite que los comensales de la microbiota intestinal mantengan la homeostasis del sistema inmune. Las infecciones en ocasiones desarrollan respuestas autoinmunitarias. La causalidad entre el cáncer y la autoinmunidad es bidireccional producto de procesos inflamatorios. Conclusiones: Las enfermedades autoinmunes son más frecuentes en las mujeres. Una alimentación adecuada permite que la microbiota intestinal no se altere y que mantenga la homeostasis inmunológica. Situaciones de estrés e infecciones pueden iniciar respuestas autoinmunes. El cáncer puede favorecer el desarrollo de manifestaciones autoinmunes, y estas últimas por el predominio inflamatorio, favorecen la tumorogénesis(AU)


Introduction: The etiology of autoimmune diseases is still unknown, though several causes have been suggested. Objective: Describe the role of hormones, eating, stress, infectious diseases and cancer in immune diseases. Methods: A bibliographic review was conducted using Google Scholar and open access papers published in the databases Pubmed and SciELO from January 2014 to June 2020. Relevant updated national and international bibliography was consulted, for a total 51 references: three basic books from the specialty of immunology and 48 papers (12 in Spanish and 36 in English). The search terms used were obtained from the descriptors DeCS and MeSH. Results: Feminine hormones increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. Imbalance in the neurohormone melatonin may generate autoreactive lymphocytes. Stress may maintain chronic inflammatory responses causing tissue damage. Appropriate eating habits allow gut microbiota commensals to maintain the homeostasis of the immune system. Infections occasionally develop autoimmune responses. Causality between cancer and autoimmunity is bidirectional, due to the presence of inflammatory processes. Conclusions: Autoimmune diseases are more common among women. Appropriate eating habits prevent alterations of the gut microbiota, allowing it to maintain immune homeostasis. Stress situations and infections may trigger autoimmune responses. Cancer may foster the development of autoimmune manifestations, and these, due to the inflammatory predominance, may foster tumorigenesis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Eating , Allergy and Immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Immune System , Immune System Diseases , Neurotransmitter Agents
3.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 7-14, Ene-Jun 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147872

ABSTRACT

La Artritis Reumatoide (AR) es una enfermedad crónica y autoinmune cuyo primer año de evolución es considerado por el Colegio Americano de Reumatología como su fase temprana. Con el objetivo de describir los hallazgos ultrasonográficos en las articulaciones de muñecas y manos de pacientes con sospecha clínica de AR en fase temprana referidos de la consulta de Reumatología del Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio María Pineda durante el lapso junio-agosto de 2018, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal evaluando 126 articulaciones de 21 pacientes según la escala modificada del OMERACT. Los pacientes se caracterizaron por un promedio de edad de 51,4 ± 11,1 años, siendo el grupo etario más afectado el de 41-50 años y 51-60 años. Hubo un predominio del sexo femenino (85,7%) y una media de inicio de síntomas de 5,2 ± 2,8 meses. Las principales alteraciones encontradas fueron derrame sinovial (54,7%), engrosamiento sinovial (28,5%), tenosinovitis en el grupo extensor (28,5%), erosiones óseas (11,1%) y tenosinovitis en flexores (9,5%). Los hallazgos mostraron mayor afectación de las articulaciones radiocarpianas; 12,7% y 7,9% mostraron hipertrofia sinovial y sinovitis grado I, 15% derrame sinovial grado 1 y 2 y 7,9% erosiones óseas pequeñas. El 8,7% de las II metacarpofalángicas mostraron hipertrofia sinovial grado I, 6,3% sinovitis, 13,4% derrame sinovial y 1,5% erosiones óseas medianas; el 0,79% de las II interfalángicas proximales presentaron derrame sinovial grado 1. Se observó tenosinovitis grado 1 en 25,4% de extensores y 7,9% de flexores. En conclusión, la ultrasonografía es una herramienta complementaria en el diagnóstico y seguimiento de la enfermedad reumatoide en fase temprana por lo que se sugiere fomentar su uso evitando gastos innecesarios y retrasos en el inicio del tratamiento(AU)


Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic and autoimmune disease whose first year of clinical manifestations is considered the early phase of the disease according to the American College of Rheumatology. With the aim of describing the ultrasonographic findings in the wrists and hands of patients with clinical suspicion of early phase RA referred to the Rheumatology Service of the Hospital Central Universitario Dr. Antonio Maria Pineda during the period June-August 2018, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted evaluating 126 joints of 21 patients according to the modified scale of the OMERACT. Patients had an average age of 51.4 ± 11.1 years and the most affected age groups was the 41-50 years and 51-60 years. Predominance of female sex (85.71%) as well as an average of 5.2 ± 2.8 months of time of symptoms onset was observed. The main alterations observed were synovial effusion (54.7%), synovial thickening (28.5%), tenosynovitis in extensor tendons (28.5%), bone erosions (11.1%) and tenosynovitis in flexor tendons (9.52%). The radiocarpal joints were the most affected showing grade 1 synovial hypertrophy and synovitis in 12.7% and 7.9% of joints, respectively; grade 1 and 2 synovial effusion was observed in 15% of joints and small bone erosions in 7.9%. For the second metacarpophalangeal joint, grade I synovial hypertrophy was found in 8.7% of joints, synovitis in 6.3%, synovial effusion in 13.4% and medium-sized bone erosions in 1.5%; in 0.79% of the proximal interphalangeal joints grade I synovial effusion was observed. Tenosynovitis grade 1 was observed in 25.4% of extensor tendons and 7.9% flexors. The use of ultrasonography should be encouraged as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of RA, avoiding unnecessary expenses and delay in treatment(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Ultrasonography , Hand Joints/diagnostic imaging , Synovial Fluid , Immune System Diseases
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development.@*METHOD@#In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM@*RESULTS@#Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health.@*CONCLUSION@#Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/prevention & control , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Disease Models, Animal , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Epigenomics , Female , Humans , Immune System Diseases/chemically induced , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Oxidative Stress , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Young Adult
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879866

ABSTRACT

A boy, aged 4 years and 6 months, had disease onset of fever, cough, pale complexion, and weakness, with hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenectasis, and pancytopenia. He had been having repeated respiratory and digestive tract infections. Gene detection showed a pathogenic heterozygous mutation, c.C2147 > T(p.T716M), in the


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Fever , Heterozygote , Humans , Immune System Diseases/genetics , Male , Mutation , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , Syndrome
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To report on the clinical features and result of genetic testing for a child featuring immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome.@*METHODS@#Clinical records, genetic testing, laboratory investigation and treatment of the child were summarized in addition with a comprehensive review of the literature.@*RESULTS@#The 3-year-old boy was administered due to intractable diarrhea, recurrent infections, liver dysfunction and failure to thrive, though no diabetes or skin disorder was observed. Laboratory testing showed elevated liver enzymes and total IgE, decreased albumin and electrolyte imbalance. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed erosion and granules in the duodenum, and edema in the terminal ileum and colon. Biopsies showed villous atrophy in the duodenum and terminal ileum. Genetic testing revealed that the patient has carried a missense c.1087A>G (p.I363V) variant in the exon 10 of the FOXP3 gene. He was treated with enteral and parenteral nutrition, anti infection and Sirolimus, and was waiting for hemopoietic stem cell transplantation.@*CONCLUSION@#Although IPEX syndrome usually occur during infancy, it should not be ruled out solely based on the age, and its presentation can be variable. For male children with refractory diarrhea, autoimmune disorder and growth retardation, the diagnosis should be suspected and confirmed by genetic testing.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Diarrhea/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Testing , Humans , Immune System Diseases/genetics , Male , Mutation , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/genetics
7.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(3): e606, sept.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138886

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los criterios de calidad en la cirugía oncológica radical se basan en la extirpación completa del tumor, con márgenes libres, sin enfermedad macroscópica residual, con una linfadenectomía adecuada y mínima manipulación tumoral posible. A pesar de conseguir estos objetivos, puede quedar enfermedad residual no visible o micrometástasis, con potencial de crecimiento y diseminación dependiendo de la capacidad tumoral y de las defensas del huésped. Objetivos: Evaluar la influencia de los factores perioperatorios sobre la inmunidad del paciente oncológico intervenido quirúrgicamente y el efecto potencial de los fármacos anestésicos en la recurrencia, así como otros factores perioperatorios que pueden afectar la diseminación tumoral a largo plazo. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica electrónica de los artículos de los últimos 10 años que cumplieran con el objetivo trazado. Desarrollo: Durante el periodo perioperatorio la activación de la respuesta al estrés quirúrgico desencadena una serie de reacciones neuroendocrinas, humorales e inmunitarias complejas. La cirugía, con indudable potencial curativo, se relaciona con un estado de inmunosupresión por activación del eje HPA (hipotálamo- hipofisario- adrenal) y la inflamación. Por otro lado, la anestesia produce cambios biomoleculares que afectan la inmunidad celular y el número de NK (natural killer), que puede influir en la recurrencia del cáncer a largo plazo. Conclusiones: Disminuir el estrés quirúrgico y el psicológico, controlar el dolor quirúrgico, mantener normotermia, y una juiciosa transfusión sanguínea, además una técnica anestésica con disminución del consumo de opiáceos, puede resultar favorecedora para proteger la respuesta inmune antimetastásica del organismo y puede tener un efecto benéfico en la enfermedad oncológica(AU)


Introduction: The quality criteria in radical oncological surgery are based on complete tumor removal, with free margins, without residual macroscopic disease, with adequate lymphadenectomy and minimal possible tumor manipulation. Despite achieving these objectives, non-visible residual disease or micrometastasis may remain, likely to grow and spread depending on tumor capacity and the host's defenses. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of perioperative factors on the immunity of cancer patients operated on and the potential effect of anesthetic drugs on recurrence, as well as other perioperative factors that may affect long-term tumor spread. Methods: An electronic bibliographic search was carried out of the articles published in the last ten years and that fulfilled the established objective. Development: During the perioperative period, activation of the response to surgical stress triggers a series of complex neuroendocrine, humoral and immune reactions. Surgery, with unquestionable curative potential, is related to a state of immunosuppression due to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammation. On the other hand, anesthesia produces biomolecular changes that affect cellular immunity and the number of natural killers, which can influence cancer recurrence in the long term. Conclusions: To reduce surgical and psychological stress, to control surgical pain, to maintain normothermia, and a judicious blood transfusion, in addition to an anesthetic technique with reduced opiates usage, can be beneficial to protect the body's antimetastatic immune response and can have a beneficial effect on oncological disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune System Diseases/complications , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/complications , Retrospective Studies , Perioperative Period/methods , Neoplasm Micrometastasis/prevention & control , Anesthetics/adverse effects
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 584-590, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138675

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El síndrome IPEX (inmunodesregulación, poliendocrinopatía y enteropatía autoinmune ligada a X) causado por mutaciones en el gen FOXP3, se caracteriza por diarrea prolongada, alteraciones endocrinológicas y dermatitis. El tratamiento consiste en la administración de medicamentos inmunosupresores, siendo el trasplante de médula ósea la única cura potencial. OBJETIVO: Describir una nueva mutación del gen FOXP3, así como los hallazgos y evolución de un paciente con síndrome IPEX. CASO CLÍNICO: Lactante menor masculino que debutó al mes de vida con diarrea cró nica, falla intestinal e infecciones recurrentes. Exámenes de laboratorio y biopsia intestinal sugerentes de enteropatía autoinmune. Durante el seguimiento, el paciente presentó refractariedad al manejo inmunosupresor con esteroides, ciclosporina y tacrolimus, falleciendo a los 7 meses de edad por complicaciones vasculares. Antecedente familiar por línea materna de múltiples muertes en hombres menores de 1 año. Ante la sospecha de síndrome IPEX se realizó exoma en trío que reportó una mutación probablemente patogénica en el gen FOXP3. CONCLUSIÓN: Se documentó una nueva mutación del gen FOXP3 en paciente con síndrome IPEX. A pesar de la baja prevalencia de esta enfermedad, es importante el reconocimiento de síntomas no específicos pero sugerentes del diagnóstico.


INTRODUCTION: The IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syn drome is caused by the mutations of the FOXP3 gene, characterized by persistent diarrhea, endo crine disorders, and dermatitis. The treatment is the administration of immunosuppressive drugs, where hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only potential cure. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new FOXP3 gene mutation, as well as the findings and evolution of a patient with IPEX syndrome. CLINICAL CASE: Male infant presenting at one month of age with chronic diarrhea, intestinal failure, and recurrent infections. Lab tests and intestinal biopsy suggested autoimmune enteropathy. During follow-up, the patient presented resistance to immunosuppressive treatment with corticosteroids, cyclosporine, and tacrolimus, dying at 7 months of age due to vascular complications. He had a ma ternal family history of multiple deaths of men under 1 year of age. IPEX syndrome was suspected therefore a trio whole-exome sequencing was performed that showed a probably pathogenic FOXP3 gene mutation. CONCLUSION: A new FOXP3 gene mutation is reported in a patient with IPEX syndro me. Despite the low prevalence of this disease, it is important to recognize non-specific but suggestive symptoms for its diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/congenital , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Immune System Diseases/congenital , Pedigree , Genetic Markers , Chronic Disease , Fatal Outcome , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Diarrhea/genetics , Immune System Diseases/diagnosis , Immune System Diseases/genetics , Mutation
9.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 20(supl.1): e0145, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135577

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To present the results of preliminary research on the characterization of dental surgeons in the state of Pernambuco, during a pandemic of COVID-19. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, and exploratory study, whose population was composed of dental surgeons with active enrollment in the Regional Dentistry Council of Pernambuco. Data collection was performed using an electronic form and included characterization of professionals (gender, age, time since graduation, marital status, family income and field of work) and health status (vaccination schedule, presence of comorbidities, biosafety knowledge and testing for COVID-19). Preliminary data correspond to the first week of collection, which were analyzed from the frequency, proportions, and measures of central tendency distributions. Results: Of the 363 dental surgeons, for the field of work, 38.6% work in both the public and private sectors. Comorbidities related to the worsening of COVID-19 were identified in 35.0% of participants, 24.5% are not up to date with influenza and hepatitis vaccines, and 79.3% have not been tested for COVID-19. Regarding the biosafety instructions for COVID-19, 30.7% received no training. Conclusion: It is necessary to immunize dental surgeons to prevent immunological diseases and expansion of the testing capacity for COVID-19, especially for professionals belonging to the risk group. In addition to guaranteeing the offer of qualification courses on biosafety, which is essential for the safe resumption of activities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Oral Health/education , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dentists , COVID-19/immunology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Immune System Diseases/immunology
10.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 28(108): 30-37, 20201000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349405

ABSTRACT

La disfunción inmune asociada a la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) es generada por una estimulación crónica del sistema inmune secundaria a la imposibilidad del organismo de erradicar el virus. La misma se encuentra exacerbada en el contexto de la coinfección por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). La inflamación sistémica producto de la coinfección por ambos virus genera un aumento de la morbilidad y mortalidad en los individuos afectados. Son varios los mediadores solubles de activación inmunológica, como IP-10, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß (marcadores de inflamación sistémica); IL-17 (linfocitos T CD4+ Th17); IL-2, IFN-γ (linfocitos T CD4+ Th1); IL-8 (inducción de neutrofilia); CD23s, ICAMs, CD14s, CD163s (marcadores de activación de monocitos/macrófagos), niveles circulantes de lipopolisacárido (LPS) (translocación bacteriana); entre otros. Actualmente se necesitan más estudios para lograr definir cuáles serían los biomarcadores de progresión óptimos para el seguimiento de los individuos coinfectados por VIH/VHC. El objetivo de esta revisión es realizar una reseña sobre los mecanismos inmunopatológicos de la infección por VIH/VHC involucrados en la inflamación, daño hepático y su impacto en la morbimortalidad de los individuos coinfectados


The immune dysfunction associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is generated by a chronic stimulation of the immune system, because of the inability to eradicate the virus from the host. This immune dysfunction is exacerbated in the context of coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Systemic inflammation caused by coinfection with both viruses generates an increase in morbidity and mortality in affected individuals. There are several soluble mediators of immunological activation, such as IP-10, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß (systemic inflammation markers); IL-17 (CD4+ T cells Th17); IL-2, IFN-γ (CD4+ T cells Th1); IL-8 (neutrophilia); CD23s, ICAMs, CD14s, CD163s, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (monocyte/macrophage activation markers and bacterial translocation); among others. Currently, more studies are needed to define optimal progression biomarkers for the follow-up of HIV/HCV coinfected individuals. In this review, we focus on the immunopathological mechanisms of HIV/HCV infection involved in inflammation, liver damage and its impact on the morbidity and mortality of affected individuals


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , HIV Infections/immunology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Hepatitis/immunology , Immunity , Immune System Diseases , Inflammation/immunology
11.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 21(2): e86, mayo.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093810

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el hipotiroidismo es una enfermedad sistémica, crónica caracterizada por la disminución de la producción de hormonas tiroideas, en muchas ocasiones el trastorno inmunológico forma parte del mecanismo etiopatogénico de la enfermedad. Se asocian con otras enfermedades autoinmunes como es el caso de la artritis reumatoide, generando de esta forma un complejo cortejo sintomático en el que ambas afecciones pueden coexistir provocando importantes grados de discapacidad funcional y de disminución de la percepción de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Objetivo: describir la relación existente entre las enfermedades tiroideas y la artritis reumatoide. Método: estudio descriptivo en 265 pacientes con artritis reumatoide según los criterios del Colegio Americano de Reumatología para describir la relación entre esta enfermedad y los trastornos de la glándula tiroides. Se utilizó coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para determinar la relación existente entre ambas afecciones. Resultados: promedio de edad general de 58,39 años y de pacientes con hipotiroidismo de 66,32 años. Predominio de pacientes femeninas (76,98 por ciento ) y con tiempo de evolución entre 3 y 5 años. El 29,81 por ciento de los casos presentó diagnóstico de hipotiroidismo confirmado, con predominio en pacientes femeninas (86,08 por ciento ), edad mayor de 65 años (49,37 por ciento ) y tiempo de evolución de la artritis reumatoide mayor de cinco años (53,16 por ciento ). Conclusiones: existe un elevado por ciento de pacientes con hipotiroidismo y artritis reumatoide; aunque ambas afecciones comparten mecanismos inmunológicos comunes, no se encuentra una relación directa entre ambas, no pudiéndose establecer una relación causa efecto entre ambas afecciones(AU)


Introduction: hypothyroidism is a systemic, chronic disease characterized by decreased production of thyroid hormones, in many cases the immune disorder is part of the etiopathogenic mechanism of the disease. They are associated with other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, thus generating a complex symptomatic courtship in which both conditions can coexist leading to significant degrees of functional disability and decreased perception of quality of life related to health. Objective: to describe the relationship between thyroid diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Method: descriptive study in 265 patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology to describe the relationship between this disease and disorders of the thyroid gland. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between both conditions. Results: average age of 58.39 years and of patients with hypothyroidism of 66.32 years. Predominance of female patients (76.98 percent) and with evolution time between 3 and 5 years. The 29.81 percent of the cases presented a diagnosis of confirmed hypothyroidism, with predominance in female patients (86.08 percent), age over 65 years (49.37 percent) and time of evolution of rheumatoid arthritis greater than five years (53.16 percent). Conclusions: there is a high percentage of patients with hypothyroidism and rheumatoid arthritis; although both conditions share common immunological mechanisms, there is no direct relationship between the two, and a causal relationship can´t be established between the two conditions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Quality of Life , Autoimmune Diseases , Hypothyroidism/complications , Immune System Diseases
12.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 21(supl.1): e61, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099111

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en el síndrome de solapamiento o superposición existen simultáneamente manifestaciones clínicas o serológicas de dos o más enfermedades autoinmunes sistémicas. Afectan al 5 por ciento de la población con predominio en mujeres. Presentación del Caso: hombre de 48 años, sin antecedentes patológicos personales. Acude con dolor en ambas manos, inflamación en las articulaciones metacarpo e interfalángicas proximales, bilateral y simétrica, acompañada de rigidez matinal que duraba casi todo el día desde hace 4 meses. Se le diagnostica artritis reumatoidea y se inicia tratamiento que abandonó. Luego aparece un cuadro que es interpretado como un solapamiento por lo que es ingresado con un cuadro clínico florido. En los exámenes de laboratorio: las transaminasas, la creatín fosfoquinasa, el lactato deshidrogenasa, se encontraban elevadas. Por la clínica y los complementarios se diagnosticó Síndrome de Solapamiento de polimiosistis-esclerodermia. Se comenzó tratamiento con inmunosupesores. El paciente evolucionó desfavorablemente y falleció. Discusión: el diagnóstico de este caso se realizó por las manifestaciones clínicas como fascie esclerodérmica, signo de sal y pimienta, fibrosis de predominio distal en ambas manos, telangiectasias peribucales. Los diagnósticos diferenciales son las enfermedades autoinmunes sistémicas cuando se presentan como cuadros únicos. El tratamiento de primera línea y el pronóstico dependen de las enfermedades que se solapen(AU)


Introduction: In the syndrome of overlap or overlap there are simultaneously clinical or serological manifestations of two or more systemic autoimmune diseases. They affect 5 percent of the population with predominance in women. Case Presentation: A 48-year-old man with no personal pathological history. He came with pain in both hands, inflammation in the metacarpal and interphalangeal proximal joints, bilateral and symmetrical, accompanied by morning stiffness that lasted almost all day for 4 months. He was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and started treatment that he abandoned. Then a picture appears that is interpreted as an overlap so it is entered with a florid clinical picture. In laboratory tests: transaminases, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, were elevated. Clinical and complementary diagnosis of Polymyosis-Sclerosis Overlap Syndrome was diagnosed. Treatment with immunosupers was started. The patient evolved unfavorably and died. Discussion: The diagnosis of this case was made by clinical manifestations such as sclerodermic fascia, salt and pepper sign, predominantly distal fibrosis in both hands, perioral telangiectasias. Differential diagnoses are systemic autoimmune diseases when presented as single frames. First-line treatment and prognosis depend on overlapping diseases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Telangiectasis , Polymyositis/complications , Immune System Diseases/complications
13.
Sci. med. (Porto Alegre, Online) ; 29(1): ID32159, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009925

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: relatar o caso de um paciente diagnosticado com imunodeficiência comum variável e doença de Crohn-like, descrevendo o quadro clínico, o processo de investigação diagnóstica, as abordagens terapêuticas e a evolução clínica do paciente. Realizar revisão bibliográfica de relatos de caso que abordem pacientes com a associação imunodeficiência comum variável e doença de Crohn-like. Enfatizar a importância do diagnóstico e tratamento precoces. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Um paciente masculino foi diagnosticado com imunodeficiência comum variável aos nove anos de idade e doença inflamatória intestinal inespecífica aos 10 anos, após realização de colonoscopia e biópsia colônica indicando moderado infiltrado linfoplasmocitário, eosinofílico e alguns neutrófilos em lâmina própria, com ausência de granulomas. Aos 14 anos, foi confirmado o diagnóstico de doença de Crohn-like por especialista após correlação entre história clínica e exames complementares. Atualmente com 18 anos, o paciente está em tratamento com imunoglobulina humana endovenosa, infliximabe e azatioprina, com estabilização do quadro clínico. CONCLUSÕES: A revisão da literatura identificou 11 relatos de caso sobre a associação imunodeficiência comum variável e doença de Crohnlike, inexistindo trabalhos brasileiros, o que ressalta a raridade de tal associação. Neste relato, o paciente recebeu tratamentos amplos e empíricos devido à dificuldade em se chegar a um diagnóstico específico, o qual somente foi realizado aos 14 anos, quando se iniciou tratamento mais direcionado e individualizado. Apesar de atualmente estável, o paciente apresentou diversas complicações durante a investigação diagnóstica, o que ressalta a importância de diagnóstico precoce e tratamento mais preciso e dirigido às necessidades de saúde desses pacientes.


AIMS: To report the case of a patient diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency and Crohn-like disease, describing the clinical picture, the diagnostic investigation process, the therapeutic approaches and the clinical outcome of the patient. To carry out a literature review of case reports addressing patients with the common variable immunodeficiency and Crohn-like disease association. Emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: A male patient was diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency at nine years of age and with non-specific inflammatory bowel disease at 10 years, after colonoscopy and colonic biopsy indicated moderate lymphoplasmacytic, eosinophilic infiltrate and some neutrophils in lamina propria, with absence of granulomas. At age 14, the diagnosis of Crohn-like disease was confirmed by specialist after correlation between clinical history and complementary exams. Currently with 18 years of age, the patient is under treatment with intravenous human immunoglobulin, infliximab and azathioprine, with stabilization of the clinical picture. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review identified 11 case reports on the association between common variable immunodeficiency and Crohn-like disease, with no Brazilian studies, which highlights the rarity of such association. In this report, the patient received extensive and empirical treatments due to the difficulty in reaching a specific diagnosis, which was only performed at age 14, when more targeted and individualized treatment was started. Although currently stable, the patient presented several complications during the diagnostic investigation, which emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and more precise treatment, targeted to meet the health needs of these patients.


Subject(s)
Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Digestive System Diseases , Immune System Diseases
14.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 35(4): 135-144, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1102289

ABSTRACT

El lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) es una enfermedad autoinmune que puede tener repercusiones negativas en la calidad de vida (CV) de quienes la padecen. La CV puede verse influida por factores sociodemográficos (FSD) relacionados con la enfermedad en sí. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre los FSD y la CV en pacientes con LES. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, de campo y observacional, donde se evaluaron 100 pacientes con diagnóstico de LES. Se emplearon dos encuestas: una para la recolección de datos sociodemográficos y el formulario de la Escala GENCAT. Resultados: La edad promedio fue 42,9 años ± 13,5, el sexo más afectado fue femenino con 93%, los años de estudio promedio fueron 11,4 años ± 4,4 y el tiempo de evolución del LES promedio fue 11,1 años ± 9,5. La CV según el formulario de la Escala GENCAT fue aceptable; la edad avanzada y mayor tiempo de evolución de LES se asoció con menor CV, y mayor escolaridad se asoció con mayor CV. Conclusiones: La CV fue aceptable según la Escala GENCAT, y se encontraron asociaciones entre la CV y edad, años de estudio y tiempo de evolución del LES que fueron estadísticamente significativas(AU)


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that can have a negative impact on the quality of life (QoL) of those who suffer from it. QoL may be influenced by sociodemographic factors (SDF) related to the disease itself. Objective: Determine the relationship between the SDF and the QoL in patients with SLE. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, field and observational study, where 100 patients with a diagnosis of SLE were evaluated. Two surveys were used: one for the collection of sociodemographic data and the GENCAT Scale form. Results: The average age was 42.9 years ± 13.5, the most affected sex was female with 93%, the average study years were 11.4 years ± 4.4 and the evolution time of the average SLE was 11.1 year ± 9.5. TheQoL according to the GENCAT Scale form was acceptable; the advanced age and longer time of evolution of SLE was associated with lower QoL, and higher schooling was associated with higher QoL. Conclusions: The QoL was acceptable according to the GENCAT Scale, and associations were found between the QoL and age, years of study and time of evolution of the disease, which were statistically significant(AU)


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Socioeconomic Factors , Immune System Diseases , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/physiopathology , Internal Medicine , Antibodies
15.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 285-288, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762325

ABSTRACT

An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a solid tumor of unknown etiology frequently affecting children and young adults and commonly affecting the lung or orbital region. We present a case involving a 41-year-old man who had an IMT combined with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the retroperitoneum. He presented with only pain in the right lower abdomen without accompanying symptoms; a retroperitoneal mass was found on computed tomography. The tumor had invaded the end of the ileum and was attached to the omentum, so mass excision could not be performed. The tumor was completely excised surgically and had histological features diagnostic of an IMT. Histologic findings of the omentum were positive for Ziehl-Nielsen staining for acid-fast bacilli and for a positive polymerase chain reaction for M. tuberculosis. The patient had no apparent immune disorder. These findings made this case exceptional because IMTs, which are mostly due to atypical mycobacteria, have been found mainly in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Adult , Child , Humans , Ileum , Immune System Diseases , Immunocompromised Host , Inflammation , Lung , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Myofibroblasts , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Omentum , Orbit , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tuberculosis , Young Adult
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785903

ABSTRACT

Macrophages play essential roles in innate immune responses by producing various immune mediators. Therefore, modulating macrophage function is an attractive strategy to treat immune disorders. Aralia cordata var. continentalis (AC), known as “Dokwhal” in Korea, possesses various biological and medicinal functions, including immunomodulation. The present study investigated the effect of the hot water extract of AC (HAC) on RAW264.7 murine macrophages. When these cells were treated with HAC, nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was induced dose-dependently. In addition, HAC treatment triggered the secretion of innate immune cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6. Phagocytosis, measured by FITC-dextran internalization showed that HAC stimulated the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Furthermore, HAC promoted the production of reactive oxygen species in RAW264.7 cells, determined by CM-H2DCFDA. In addition, the immunoblot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed that NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways, which are important signaling mediators of inflammation, are upregulated by HAC. In conclusion, these findings suggested that HAC can stimulate macrophage activity, and NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways might be involved in the immunostimulatory effects of HAC.


Subject(s)
Aralia , Cytokines , Immune System Diseases , Immunity, Innate , Immunomodulation , Inflammation Mediators , Interleukin-6 , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Korea , Macrophages , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Phagocytosis , Reactive Oxygen Species , Water
17.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 138-151, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771295

ABSTRACT

As a promising candidate seed cell type in regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted considerable attention. The unique capacity of MSCs to exert a regulatory effect on immunity in an autologous/allergenic manner makes them an attractive therapeutic cell type for immune disorders. In this review, we discussed the current knowledge of and advances in MSCs, including its basic biological properties, i.e., multilineage differentiation, secretome, and immunomodulation. Specifically, on the basis of our previous work, we proposed three new concepts of MSCs, i.e., "subtotipotent stem cell" hypothesis, MSC system, and "Yin and Yang" balance of MSC regulation, which may bring new insights into our understanding of MSCs. Furthermore, we analyzed data from the Clinical Trials database ( http://clinicaltrials.gov ) on registered clinical trials using MSCs to treat a variety of immune diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis. In addition, we highlighted MSC clinical trials in China and discussed the challenges and future directions in the field of MSC clinical application.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Humans , Immune System Diseases , Allergy and Immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Allergy and Immunology , Physiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Regenerative Medicine
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has been known to play an important role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. It has also been implicated in diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and immune diseases. Several cross-sectional studies conducted worldwide have found that vitamin D is negatively correlated with obesity. In Korea, however, the results of similar studies were found to be inconsistent.METHODS: The study consisted of 585 adults over 18 years of age, who visited a health promotion center at a university hospital from March, 2015 to February, 2016 and their serum vitamin D levels were recorded. They were divided into two groups according to their sex. The correlation coefficients were calculated using Pearson correlation analysis between obesity and vitamin D. Finally, subjects with vitamin D levels less than <20 ng/mL were classified as deficient. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio of vitamin D deficiency.RESULTS: We observed a significant negative correlation between obesity and vitamin D (P<0.05) among the women but not in the men. The following are the details of the findings: ≥25 in body mass index (model 3 adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–10.67), ≥85 cm in waist circumference (model 3 adjusted OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.02–4.01), ≥30% in body fat (model 3 adjusted OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.17–4.62).CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, we suggest that obesity and vitamin D are negatively correlated and that obesity in women predisposes them to vitamin D deficiency.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Adult , Animals , Body Mass Index , Calcium , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Fat Body , Female , Health Promotion , Homeostasis , Humans , Immune System Diseases , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Metabolism , Obesity , Odds Ratio , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency , Waist Circumference
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(1): 91-95, ene. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902625

ABSTRACT

Much emphasis has been given to the deafness of Ludwig van Beethoven and its potential causes. However, when analyzing several symptoms reported by himself throughout his life in many letters and his final illness, a common etiology emerges. This article reports the medical history of this artist, based on authoritative scientific sources.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/history , Deafness/history , Famous Persons , Immune System Diseases/history , Music/history , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Deafness/etiology , Germany , Immune System Diseases/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/history
20.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 34(4): 237-244, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1006112

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes con infección por VIH-SIDA atendidos en la consulta externa y hospitalización de los Servicios de Medicina Interna e Infectología del Hospital Universitario de Caracas. Métodos: Se recolectó información de los pacientes a través de una historia médica dirigida que incluyó información sociodemográfica, médica, de hábitos sexuales y respecto a la infección por VIH, así como conocimiento del paciente sobre su enfermedad. Resultados: la muestra constó de 100 pacientes, con una media de edad de 39 años; el 75% de los pacientes fue de sexo masculino y se observó que la mayoría de ellos tenía una depresión ausente o mínima (64). El grado de adherencia al tratamiento se midió con de la escala CEAT, observándose una media del índice de adhesión total de 73,16. La mayoría se agrupaba en la máxima puntuación para nuestra escala de evaluación de conocimiento de su enfermedad (33%), equivalente a un conocimiento aceptable. Conclusión: La población afectada son en su mayoría hombres en edad productiva. El estado de ánimo de los pacientes es un factor fundamental. El 13% requirió derivación al servicio de psiquiatría. Al correlacionar la adherencia con el grado de depresión, se obtuvo que dicha asociación era estadísticamente significativa con una p = 0,039. El conocimiento de la enfermedad en general fue aceptable, sin embargo independientemente del grado de información general que la población posea acerca de la enfermedad, no se modificaron las conductas de riesgo(AU)


Objective: To characterize the patients with HIV-AIDS infection treated in the ambulatory setting and hospitalization of the Internal Medicine and Infectology wards of the Hospital Universitario de Caracas, Venezuela. Methods: Patient information was collected through a medical history that included sociodemographic and medical information, sexual habits and HIV infection, as well as the patient´s knowledge about their disease. Results: The sample consisted of 100 patients, with a mean age of 39 years; 75% of them were male. Most of the patients had non or minimal depression (64%). The degree of adhesion to the treatment was measured applying the CEAT scale, with a mean index of total adhesion in 73. Most of them people had highest score for our scale to assess disease knowledge (33%), equivalent to an acceptable knowledge. Conclusions: The majority of the population affected was in a productive age. The patients' mood was a fundamental factor and 13% were referred to a psychiatric consultation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sexual Behavior , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Social Class , Immune System Diseases
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