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1.
Actual. Sida Infectol. (En linea) ; 32(114): 79-83, 20240000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552337

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una micosis sistémica producida por una variedad de hongo dimorfo perteneciente al complejo Histoplasma capsulatum. Es una enfermedad prevalente en nuestro medio y sobre todo en pacientes viviendo con HIV con recuento de <200 linfocitos CD4/ml y con cargas virales mayores a 100.000 copias/ml. La presentación de la forma diseminada raramente suele afectar al aparato reproductor; siendo la forma más frecuente pulmonar


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Testis/physiopathology , Histoplasmosis/therapy , Immune System/pathology
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250556, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360208

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are 30-120nm bio particles transferred from donor to recipient cells leading to modification in their regulatory mechanisms depending upon the coded message in the form of loaded biomolecule. Cancer cells derived exosomes the true representatives of the parent cells have been found to modify the tumor surrounding/distinct regions and participate in metastasis, angiogenesis and immune suppression. Tis study was aimed to study the effects of tumor mice derived exosomes on the normal mice spleen isolated T cells by using co-culture experiments and flow cytometer analysis. We mainly focused on some of the T cells population and cytokines including IFN-γ, FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and KI67 (proliferation marker). Overall results indicated random changes in different set of experiments, where the cancer derived exosomes reduced the IFN-γ expression in both CD4 and CD8 T cells, similarly the Treg cells were also found decreased in the presence of cancer exosomes. No significant changes were observed on the Ki67 marker expression. Such studies are helpful in understanding the role of cancer exosomes in immune cells suppression in tumor microenvironment. Cancer exosomes will need to be validated in vivo and in vitro on a molecular scale in detail for clinical applications.


Os exossomos são biopartículas de 30-120 nm transferidas de células doadoras para células receptoras, levando à modificação em seus mecanismos reguladores, dependendo da mensagem codificada na forma de biomolécula carregada. Verificou-se que exossomos derivados de células cancerosas ­ os verdadeiros representantes das células-mãe ­ modificam as regiões circundantes / distintas do tumor e participam da metástase, angiogênese e imunossupressão. Este estudo teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de exossomos derivados de camundongos com tumor nas células T isoladas de baço de camundongos normais, usando experimentos de cocultura e análise de citômetro de fluxo. Concentrou-se, principalmente, em algumas populações de células T e citocinas, incluindo IFN-γ, células T reguladoras FOXP3 + (Treg) e KI67 (marcador de proliferação). Os resultados gerais indicaram mudanças aleatórias em diferentes conjuntos de experimentos, em que os exossomos derivados de câncer reduziram a expressão de IFN-γ em células T CD4 e CD8, da mesma forma que as células Treg também foram encontradas diminuídas na presença de exossomos de câncer. Nenhuma mudança significativa foi observada na expressão do marcador Ki67. Esses dados são úteis para a compreensão do papel dos exossomos do câncer na supressão de células do sistema imunológico no microambiente tumoral. Exossomos de câncer precisarão ser validados in vivo e in vitro em escala molecular com detalhes para aplicações clínicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Exosomes , Tumor Microenvironment , Immune System , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1727-1733, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528782

ABSTRACT

El bazo es el órgano linfático intraperitoneal más grande del organismo, presentando dos funciones principales: defensiva, mediante respuesta inmunitaria y filtración sanguínea. El objetivo de la presente revisión, fue obtener información actualizada sobre la anatomía del bazo de la rata albina (Rattus norvegicus albinus) y comparativa con la anatomía del bazo humano, perro, gato y cerdo, al representar las principales especies de importancia en la medicina, medicina veterinaria y en las ciencias biomédicas. Se realizó una búsqueda de material bibliográfico actualizado en diferentes sitios web científicos. Es así como, se revisaron 71 fuentes bibliográficas, en su gran mayoría artículos científicos (31), libros de anatomía humana y veterinaria (17), artículos especializados (17) y tesis (6). En general existe consenso, sobre la descripción anatómica del bazo, el cual se sitúa en la región hipocondriaca izquierda del abdomen, entre el fondo del estómago y el diafragma, irrigado por la arteria y vena esplénica. Se evidenció que existen similitudes en aspectos macroscópicos, al comparar el bazo de la rata blanca, con el bazo de otras especies (funcionalidad, peso relativo, ubicación topográfica). En aspectos microscópicos, el bazo en humanos y otros mamíferos se compone de estroma, además de parénquima, constituido a su vez por pulpa blanca y roja. En particular, existen diferencias entre el bazo de rata, humano, gato, perro y cerdo, en formas, tamaños y aspectos microscópicos, relacionados con la microcirculación e inmunidad. Mientras que existen semejanzas en procesos patológicos y respuestas a tratamientos farmacológicos y clínicos. Por lo anteriormente expuesto, se concluye que la rata albina constituye un buen modelo biológico, específicamente en aspectos anatómicos microscópicos del bazo de tipo inmunológico. Mientras que el bazo de cerdo es mejor comparativamente, en estudios anatómicos macroscópicos de tipo quirúrgicos, resultando ambos extrapolables, especialmente a la medicina humana.


SUMMARY: The spleen is the largest intraperitoneal lymphatic organ of the body, presenting two main functions: defensive, through immune response and blood filtration. The objective of the present review was to obtain updated information on the anatomy of the spleen of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus) and to compare it with the anatomy of the human, dog, cat and pig spleen, representing the main species of importance in medicine, veterinary medicine and biomedical sciences. A search for updated bibliographic material was carried out in different scientific websites. Thus, 71 bibliographic sources were reviewed, mostly scientific articles (31), human and veterinary anatomy books (17), specialized articles (17) and theses (6). In general, there is consensus on the anatomical description of the spleen, which is located in the left hypochondriac region of the abdomen between the fundus of the stomach and the diaphragm, irrigated by the splenic artery and vein. It was evidenced that there are similarities in macroscopic aspects when comparing the spleen of the white rat with the spleen of other species (functionality, relative weight, topographic location). In microscopic aspects, the spleen in humans and other mammals is composed of stroma, in addition to parenchyma, constituted in turn by white and red pulp. In particular, there are differences between rat, human, cat, dog and pig spleens in shapes, sizes and microscopic aspects related to microcirculation and immunity. While there are similarities in pathological processes and responses to pharmacological and clinical treatments. For the above mentioned, it is concluded that the albino rat constitutes a good biological model, specifically in microscopic anatomical aspects of the spleen of immunological type. While the pig spleen is comparatively better in macroscopic anatomical studies of surgical type, both are extrapolable especially to human medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Spleen/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Comparative , Immune System/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Veterinary
4.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22 (2), 2023;22(2): 919, 16 octubre 2023. ilus, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516520

ABSTRACT

El envejecimiento y la longevidad son procesos que involucran una serie de factores genéticos, bioquímicos y ambientales. En esta revisión se tratan algunas cuestiones sobre estos dos procesos biológicos y epigenéticos. Se presentan los genes más importantes en estos procesos, así como se ejemplifican enfermedades que presentan un aceleramiento o falla en la longevidad y el envejecimiento. Se usa el análisis inteligente de datos para hallar interacciones de proteínas/genes que expliquen estos dos fenómenos biológicos.


Aging and longevity are processes that involve a series of genetic, biochemical and environmental factors. This review addresses some issues about these two biological and epigenetic processes. The most important genes in these processes are presented, as well as diseases that present an acceleration or failure in longevity and aging. Intelligent data analysis is used to find protein/gene interactions that explain these two biological phenomena.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biological Phenomena , Aging , Cellular Senescence , Genes , Genetics , Longevity , Quality of Life , Life Expectancy , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , Telomerase , Aging, Premature , Ecuador , Immune System , Metabolism
5.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(1): 7-13, mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553739

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad desmielinizante que afecta el sistema nervioso central. A pesar de los avances en materia de diagnóstico y tratamiento, se desconocen aún muchos aspectos de su etiopatogenia y fisiopatología. La EM es una de las principales causas de discapacidad neurológica y, por los elevados costos de los tratamientos inmunomoduladores e inmunosupresores, tiene un gran impacto económico en la salud pública. Por ello, se intentaron diversos tratamientos preventivos, como la utilización de la vitamina D. Debido a la acción de la vitamina D sobre el sistema inmune, ha sido prescripta en sujetos de riesgo. Sin embargo, hasta el momento actual, los estudios sobre sus efectos no resultaron concluyentes y persisten las dudas acerca de sus posibles beneficios en materia de prevención. El objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica es realizar una puesta al día y destacar los aspectos controversiales en relación al uso de la vitamina D como tratamiento preventivo de la esclerosis múltiple. (AU)


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, many aspects of its etiopathogenesis and pathophysiology remain unknown. MS is one of the main causes of neurological disability and, due to the high costs of modern immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive treatments, it has a great economic impact on public health. Therefore, numerous efforts have been made in the search for preventive treatments. For this reason, various preventive treatments were tried, such as the use of vitamin D. Due to its action on the immune system, it has been used in subjects at ME risk. However, these studies have been inconclusive to date, and its possible benefits in terms of prevention are still being questioned. The objective of this bibliographic review is to update and highlight the controversial aspects in relation to the use of vitamin D as a preventive treatment of multiple sclerosis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/prevention & control , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Immune System/drug effects , Immunity , Multiple Sclerosis/etiology
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250675, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448938

ABSTRACT

Em março de 2020 a situação causada pela covid-19 foi elevada à categoria de pandemia, impactando de inúmeras formas a vida em sociedade. O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender os impactos da pandemia na atuação e saúde mental do psicólogo hospitalar, profissional que atua nos espaços de saúde e tem experienciado mais de perto o sofrimento dos doentes e dos profissionais de saúde frente à covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo com 131 psicólogos que atuam em hospitais. Os profissionais foram convidados a participar através de redes sociais e redes de contatos das pesquisadoras, utilizando-se a técnica Bola de Neve. Foram utilizados dois questionários, disponibilizados na plataforma Google Forms, um abordando os impactos da pandemia sentidos pelos profissionais e outro referente ao sofrimento psíquico. Os dados foram analisados a partir de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Foram observados impactos na atuação de quase a totalidade dos participantes, constatada a necessidade de preparação dos profissionais para o novo cenário, a percepção de pouco apoio institucional e quase metade da população estudada referiu-se a sintomas de sofrimento psíquico considerável desde o início da pandemia. É fundamental dar atenção a sinais e sintomas de sofrimento psíquico, procurando evitar o adoecimento de uma categoria profissional que se encontra na linha de frente do combate aos danos psicológicos da pandemia e cuja própria saúde mental é pouco abordada na literatura.(AU)


In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic breakout hugely impacted life in society. This study analyzes how the pandemic impacted hospital psychologists' mental health and performance, professional who more closely experienced the suffering of patients and health professionals in this period. An exploratory and descriptive study was conducted with 131 hospital psychologists. Professionals were invited to participate through the researchers' social and contact networks using the Snowball technique. Data were collected by two questionnaires available on the Google Forms platform, one addressing the impacts felt by professionals and the other regarding psychic suffering, and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that almost all participants had their performance affected by the need to prepare for the new scenario, the perceived little institutional support. Almost half of the study sample reported considerable psychological distress symptoms since the beginning of the pandemic. Paying attention to signs and symptoms of psychic suffering is fundamental to avoid compromising a professional category that is on the front line of combating the psychological damage caused by the pandemic and whose own mental health is little addressed by the literature.(AU)


En marzo de 2020, la situación provocada por el COVID-19 se caracterizó como pandemia e impactó el mundo de diversas maneras. El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender los impactos de la pandemia en la salud mental y la actuación del psicólogo en los hospitales, uno de los profesionales que trabaja en espacios sanitarios y que ha experimentado más de cerca el sufrimiento de pacientes y profesionales sanitarios frente al COVID-19. Este es un estudio exploratorio descriptivo, realizado con 131 psicólogos que trabajan en hospitales. Los profesionales recibieron la invitación a participar a través de las redes sociales y redes de contactos de las investigadoras, mediante la técnica snowball. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios disponibles en la plataforma Google Forms: uno sobre los impactos de la pandemia en los profesionales y el otro sobre el sufrimiento psíquico. Los datos se analizaron a partir de estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Se observaron impactos en el trabajo de casi todos los participantes, la necesidad de preparación de los profesionales para este nuevo escenario, la percepción de poco apoyo institucional, y casi la mitad de la población estudiada reportaron sentir síntomas de considerable angustia psicológica desde el inicio de la pandemia. Es esencial prestar atención a los signos y síntomas del sufrimiento psíquico, buscando evitar la enfermedad de una categoría profesional que está a la vanguardia de la lucha contra el daño psicológico de la pandemia y cuya propia salud mental se aborda poco en la literatura.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Anxiety , Orientation , Physicians , Protective Clothing , Respiration , Respiratory Tract Infections , Safety , Attention , Set, Psychology , Social Adjustment , Social Isolation , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , Software , Immunoglobulin M , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Irritable Mood , Family , Carrier State , Epidemiologic Factors , Public Health Practice , Quarantine , Sanitation , Hygiene , Public Health , Epidemiology , Risk , Disease Outbreaks , Data Collection , Survival Rate , Mortality , Transportation of Patients , Triage , Contact Tracing , Occupational Health , Immunization , Universal Precautions , Infection Control , Immunization Programs , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Coronavirus , Comprehensive Health Care , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Remote Consultation , Containment of Biohazards , Pulmonary Ventilation , Emergency Plans , Disaster Vulnerability , Declaration of Emergency , Death , Trust , Air Pollution , Ethanol , Economics , Emergencies , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Empathy , Ethics, Professional , Professional Training , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Family Relations , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Fear , Epidemics , Social Networking , Binge Drinking , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment , Emotional Adjustment , Emergency Medical Dispatch , Survivorship , Family Separation , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Embarrassment , Sadness , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociodemographic Factors , Suicide Prevention , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Health Services Research , Immune System , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anger , Loneliness , Masks , Mass Media , Negativism , Nurses, Male , Nursing Assessment
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255195, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529228

ABSTRACT

A pandemia de covid-19 provocou intensas mudanças no contexto do cuidado neonatal, exigindo dos profissionais de saúde a reformulação de práticas e o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias para a manutenção da atenção integral e humanizada ao recém-nascido. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a atuação da Psicologia nas Unidades Neonatais de um hospital público de Fortaleza (CE), Brasil, durante o período de distanciamento físico da pandemia de covid-19. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, do tipo relato de experiência, que ocorreu no período de março a agosto de 2020. No contexto pandêmico, o serviço de Psicologia desenvolveu novas condutas assistenciais para atender às demandas emergentes do momento, como: atendimento remoto; registro e envio on-line de imagens do recém-nascido a seus familiares; visitas virtuais; e reprodução de mensagens de áudio da família para o neonato. Apesar dos desafios encontrados, as ações contribuíram para a manutenção do cuidado centrado no recém-nascido e sua família, o que demonstra a potencialidade do fazer psicológico.(AU)


The COVID-19 pandemic brought intense changes to neonatal care and required health professionals to reformulate practices and develop new strategies to ensure comprehensive and humanized care for newborn. This study aims to report the experience of the Psychology Service in the Neonatal Units of a public hospital in Fortaleza, in the state of Ceará, Brazil, during the social distancing period of the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive experience report study was conducted from March to August 2020. During the pandemic, the Psychology Service developed new care practices to meet the emerging demands of that moment, such as remote care, recordings and online submission of newborns' pictures and video images for their family, virtual tours, and reproduction of family audio messages for the newborns. Despite the challenges, the actions contributed to the maintenance of a care that is centered on the newborns and their families, which shows the potential of psychological practices.(AU)


La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha traído cambios intensos en el contexto de la atención neonatal, que requieren de los profesionales de la salud una reformulación de sus prácticas y el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias para asegurar una atención integral y humanizada al recién nacido. El objetivo de este artículo es reportar la experiencia del Servicio de Psicología en las Unidades Neonatales de un hospital público de Fortaleza, en Ceará, Brasil, durante el periodo de distanciamiento físico en la pandemia de la COVID-19. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, un reporte de experiencia, que se llevó a cabo de marzo a agosto de 2020. En el contexto pandémico, el servicio de Psicología desarrolló nuevas conductas asistenciales para atender a las demandas emergentes del momento, tales como: atención remota; grabación y envío em línea de imágenes del recién nacido; visitas virtuales; y reproducción de mensajes de audio de la familia para el recién nacido. A pesar de los desafíos encontrados, las acciones contribuyeron al mantenimiento de la atención centrada en el recién nacido y su familia, lo que demuestra el potencial de la práctica psicológica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Psychology , Teleworking , COVID-19 , Neonatology , Anxiety , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Apgar Score , Patient Care Team , Patient Discharge , Pediatrics , Perinatology , Phototherapy , Prenatal Care , Quality of Health Care , Respiration, Artificial , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Survival , Congenital Abnormalities , Unconscious, Psychology , Visitors to Patients , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital , Health Care Levels , Brazil , Breast Feeding , Case Reports , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Cardiotocography , Health Behavior , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Child Development , Child Health Services , Infant Mortality , Maternal Mortality , Cross Infection , Risk , Probability , Vital Statistics , Health Status Indicators , Life Expectancy , Women's Health , Neonatal Screening , Nursing , Enteral Nutrition , Long-Term Care , Parenteral Nutrition , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Pliability , Comprehensive Health Care , Low Cost Technology , Pregnancy Rate , Life , Creativity , Critical Care , Affect , Crying , Humanizing Delivery , Uncertainty , Pregnant Women , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Disease Prevention , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Information Technology , Child Nutrition , Perinatal Mortality , Resilience, Psychological , Fear , Feeding Methods , Fetal Monitoring , Patient Handoff , Microbiota , Integrality in Health , Ambulatory Care , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Maternal Health , Neonatal Sepsis , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Psychosocial Support Systems , Survivorship , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Family Support , Gynecology , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hyperbilirubinemia , Hypothermia , Immune System , Incubators , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Length of Stay , Life Change Events , Love , Maternal Behavior , Maternal Welfare , Medicine , Methods , Nervous System Diseases , Object Attachment , Obstetrics
8.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (39): e22208, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1523004

ABSTRACT

Resumo Neste artigo, discutimos de que modo o discurso biomédico sobre carga viral indetectável (re)organiza as trajetórias afetivas e sexuais de mulheres jovens vivendo com HIV. Realizamos entrevistas semiestruturadas com cinco jovens vivendo com HIV/aids, com idade entre 18 e 30 anos, tanto pela internet, como em um serviço de saúde especializado (SAE) em Salvador-Ba, no período entre 2015 e 2017. As interações online aconteceram através do Whatsapp e Facebook. As jovens vivenciam a necessidade de negociar o prazer e a prevenção. Posicionam-se como sujeitos de "risco" e adotam a noção de carga viral indetectável como forma de sentirem-se seguras na prevenção. Os novos discursos biomédicos são incorporados em seus cotidianos, e os sentimentos de medo, rejeição e a "possibilidade" de "perigo" para o outro (soronegativo) contribuem para a reorganização de suas vidas e de seus relacionamentos.


Abstract In this article, we discuss how the biomedical discourse of undetectable viral load reorganises the affective and sexual trajectories of young women living with HIV. We conducted semi-structured interviews with five young women living with HIV/AIDS, aged between 18 and 30 yo, on the internet and at a specialized health service (SAE) in Salvador-Ba, between 2015 and 2017. The online interactions occurred through Whatsapp and Facebook. Young women experience the need to negotiate pleasure and prevention. They position herself as at "risk" subjects and adopt the notion of undetectable viral load as a way to feel safe in prevention. The new biomedical discourses are incorporated into their daily lives, and the fear, rejection and "possibility" of "danger" for another (seronegative) contributed to the reorganization of their lives and relationships.


Resumen En este artículo, discutimos cómo el discurso biomédico sobre la carga viral indetectable (re)organiza las trayectorias afectivas y sexuales de las mujeres jovens que viven con el VIH. Realizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas con cinco jovenes que viven con VIH/ SIDA, con edades entre 18 y 30 años, tanto en línea como en un servicio especializado de salud (SAE) en Salvador-Ba, entre 2015 y 2017. Las interacciones en línea ocorrieron través de Whatsapp y Facebook. Las mujeres jóvenes experimentan la necesidad de negociar el placer y la prevención. Se posicionan como sujetos de "riesgo" y adoptan la noción de una carga viral indetectable como forma de sentirse seguras en la prevención. Los nuevos discursos biomédicos se incorporan a su cotidianidad, y los sentimientos de miedo, rechazo y "posibilidad" de "peligro" para el otro (seronegativo) contribuyen a la reorganización de sus vidas y relaciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sexual Behavior , Emotions , Social Media , Risk Groups , Brazil , Immune System
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 69 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1434417

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Em menos de duas décadas, a imunoterapia consolidou-se como um dos pilares do tratamento do câncer. Apesar da sua potencial elevada eficácia e resposta duradoura, a proporção de pacientes que apresentam resposta objetiva é relativamente baixa e existem poucos biomarcadores para selecionar os pacientes com maior potencial de resposta. OBJETIVO: Nossa hipótese era de que era possível avaliar globalmente o sistema imune do paciente através da mensuração por imagem do timo e do baço e usar essas métricas como fator prognóstico e preditivo de resposta a bloqueadores de checkpoint. RESULTADOS: Os principais resultados foram: 1) As medidas tímicas não se correlacionam com a sobrevida em pacientes tratados com imunoterapia; 2) Há aumento do volume esplênico após o uso de imunoterapia na maior parte dos pacientes, mas o grau de aumento não se correlaciona com resposta à terapia; 3) Maior volume esplênico está associado a pior sobrevida livre de progressão em pacientes com melanoma tratados com imunoterapia, mas essa correlação não pôde ser replicada em outros tipos tumorais. CONCLUSÃO: a espessura tímica não se correlaciona com desfechos clínicos em pacientes oncológicos tratados com imunoterapia. Menor volume esplênico antes de iniciar imunoterapia está relacionada a melhor prognóstico em pacientes com melanoma, mas não em outros tipos tumorais.


INTRODUCTION: In less than two decades, immunotherapy has established itself as one of the pillars of cancer treatment. Despite its potentially high efficacy and long-lasting response, the proportion of patients who have an objective response is relatively low and there are few biomarkers to select patients with the greatest response potential. OBJECTIVE: Our hypothesis was that it was possible to assess the patient's immune system globally by measuring the thymus and spleen by imaging and using these metrics as a prognostic and predictive factor of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. RESULTS: The main results were: 1) Thymic measurements do not correlate with survival in patients treated with immunotherapy; 2) There is an increase in splenic volume after the use of immunotherapy in most patients, but the degree of increase does not correlate with response to therapy; 3) Greater splenic volume is associated with worse progression free survival in patients with melanoma treated with immunotherapy, but this correlation could not be replicated in other tumor types. CONCLUSION: thymic thickness does not correlate with clinical outcomes in cancer patients treated with immunotherapy. Smaller splenic volume before starting immunotherapy is associated with better prognosis in patients with melanoma, but not other tumor types


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Splenomegaly , Diagnostic Imaging , Immunotherapy , Spleen , Thymus Gland , Biomarkers , Immune System , Neoplasms/therapy
10.
The Nigerian Health Journal ; 23(3): 799-809, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512051

ABSTRACT

Children under the age of five are prone to foodborne diseases, resulting from poor food hygiene because of their less effective immune systems. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene among nursing mothers attending under-five clinics.Method: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study, involving 330 nursing mothers attending the under-five clinic in health care facilities. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.A p-value < 0.05 at 95% confidence interval was considered statistically significant.Result: Eighty-two percent of the respondents had good knowledge of food hygiene; 95.2% had a good attitude and 82.7% demonstrated good practice. Knowledge on food hygiene was significantly associated with the age of the respondents (P=0.008) and their educational status (P=0.001), those with tertiary education doing better. Similarly, respondents with tertiary education had significantly better attitude (P=0.001 and practice (P=0.001). The predictors of knowledge on food hygiene were education status (odds ratio [OR] =0.249, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.126, 0.492) and occupation of the respondents (OR = 2.158, 95% CI: 1.156, 4.026). Educational status was also the predictor for positive attitude (OR =0.143, 95% CI: 0.031, 0.667) and practice of food hygiene (OR =0.394, 95% CI: 0.210, 0.738).Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene among the respondents was good. Predictors of knowledge included level of education and occupation. Government at the State and Local Government levels should organize regular health promotion on food hygiene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Food , Health Promotion , Immune System , Botulism , Food Hygiene , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Education
11.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 1146-1150, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009467

ABSTRACT

Bone homeostasis is based on the dynamic balance of bone formation and bone resorption. An imbalance in bone homeostasis is a major contributor to many skeletal diseases, including osteoporosis. Changes in the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota (GM) are supposed to have a significant impact on bone homeostasis and are closely correlated with changes in bone mass and bone microarchitecture. The "gut-immune" axis, which is formed by the interaction between the host intestinal immune system and GM, is essential for maintaining bone homeostasis, as well as regulating the body's immunological response and maintaining immune homeostasis throughout the intestine and body. The article reviews recent advances in the study of GM, the immune system, and their synergistic impact on bone homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Tract , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Immune System , Bone Density , Homeostasis
12.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 1729-1747, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007389

ABSTRACT

The detection of immune cell subsets plays a very important role in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of various benign and malignant diseases and health management. In order to better carry out in-depth research on different functional immune cell subsets, establish reference intervals for clonality related indicators, establish special reference intervals for immune aging, individualized dynamic monitoring and treatment recovery, and discover the clinical significance of immune cells other than lymphocytes, it is urgent to analyze the peripheral blood immune cell subsets in a refined way. Multiparameter flow cytometry is an important technical method to detect immune cell subsets and evaluate immune function. In order to standardize the refined detection methods and protocols of peripheral blood immune cell subsets by flow cytometry, and further promote its application in clinical diagnosis and treatment of diseases and health management, Laboratory Medicine Committee of Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine (LMC-CAIM) organized experts to formulate this expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , East Asian People , Flow Cytometry/methods , Immune System/cytology
13.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 824-860, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010782

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota plays a key role in host health and disease, particularly through their interactions with the immune system. Intestinal homeostasis is dependent on the symbiotic relationships between the host and the diverse gut microbiota, which is influenced by the highly co-evolved immune-microbiota interactions. The first step of the interaction between the host and the gut microbiota is the sensing of the gut microbes by the host immune system. In this review, we describe the cells of the host immune system and the proteins that sense the components and metabolites of the gut microbes. We further highlight the essential roles of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the nuclear receptors expressed in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and the intestine-resident immune cells. We also discuss the mechanisms by which the disruption of microbial sensing because of genetic or environmental factors causes human diseases such as the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Immune System , Intestines
14.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 776-785, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010769

ABSTRACT

Interactions between gut microbiome and host immune system are fundamental to maintaining the intestinal mucosal barrier and homeostasis. At the host-gut microbiome interface, cell wall-derived molecules from gut commensal bacteria have been reported to play a pivotal role in training and remodeling host immune responses. In this article, we review gut bacterial cell wall-derived molecules with characterized chemical structures, including peptidoglycan and lipid-related molecules that impact host health and disease processes via regulating innate and adaptive immunity. Also, we aim to discuss the structures, immune responses, and underlying mechanisms of these immunogenic molecules. Based on current advances, we propose cell wall-derived components as important sources of medicinal agents for the treatment of infection and immune diseases.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Intestinal Mucosa , Bacteria , Immune System , Symbiosis , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunity, Innate
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468849

ABSTRACT

Although propolis has been reported for having anti-inflammatory activities, its effects on complement system has not been much studied. This research was conducted to find out the effects of Indonesian propolis on the expression levels of C3, C1r/s, Bf, MBL, and C6 in zebrafish larvae which were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Counting of macrophages migrating to yolk sac and liver histology were carried out. Larvae were divided into four groups: CON (cultured in E3 medium only), LPS (cultured in a medium containing 0.5 μg/L LPS), LPSIBU (cultured in a medium containing LPS, and then treated with 100 μg/L ibuprofen for 24 hours), and LPSPRO (cultured in a medium containing LPS, and then immersed in 14,000 μg/L propolis for 24 hours) groups. The results showed that complement gene expression in larvae from the LPSIBU and LPSPRO groups were generally lower than in larvae from the LPS group. The number of macrophage migrations to the yolk in the LPSPRO group was also lower than in the LPS group. Histological structure of liver in all groups were considered normal. This study shows that Indonesian propolis has the potential to be used as an alternative to the substitution of NSAIDs.


Embora a própolis tenha sido relatada por ter atividade anti-inflamatória, seus efeitos no sistema complemento, uma parte do sistema imunológico inato, não foram muito estudados. Esta pesquisa foi conduzida para descobrir os efeitos da própolis da Indonésia nos níveis de expressão de C3, C1r/s, Bf, MBL e C6 em larvas de peixe-zebra induzidas por lipopolissacarídeo (LPS). Foram realizadas contagens de macrófagos que migram para o saco vitelino e histologia do fígado. As larvas foram divididas em quatro grupos: CON (cultivadas apenas em meio E3), LPS (cultivadas em meio contendo 0,5 μg/L de LPS), LPSIBU (cultivadas em meio contendo LPS e, em seguida, tratadas com 100 μg/L de ibuprofeno por 24 horas) e LPSPRO (cultivado em meio contendo LPS, e então imerso em própolis 14,000 μg/L por 24 horas). Os resultados mostraram que a expressão do gene do complemento em larvas dos grupos LPSIBU e LPSPRO foi geralmente menor que em larvas do grupo LPS. O número de migrações de macrófagos para a gema no grupo LPSPRO também foi menor que no grupo LPS. A estrutura histológica do fígado em todos os grupos foi considerada normal. Este estudo mostra que a própolis indonésia tem potencial para ser utilizada como alternativa na substituição dos AINEs (anti-inflamatórios não esteroides).


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Liver/anatomy & histology , Zebrafish/genetics , Zebrafish/metabolism , Propolis/analysis , Yolk Sac/drug effects , Immune System/drug effects
16.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401953

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a new disease that has brought a great impact on global morbidity and mortality. There have been increasingly frequent reports of persistent symptoms and/or clinical manifestations attributed to COVID-19 after the acute phase of the disease. In this article, we present a case of post-COVID-19 telogen effluvium in a 39-year-old hypertensive and obese patient who looked for medical attention due to massive hair loss. Previous history of moderate COVID-19 4 months ago. After investigation and exclusion of other possible causes of telogen effluvium well established in the literature, the condition was attributed to the previous episode of COVID-19. Persistent fever, the cytokine storm, and the entire immunological cascade of COVID-19 can lead to apoptosis of the keratinocytes of the hair follicles, initiating the catagen phase early followed by the telogen phase with a consequent capillary release. Late symptoms possibly secondary to COVID-19 should receive attention and interest from the medical and scientific community. As it is a new disease, whose late consequences are not yet fully known/elucidated, careful observation and careful clinical follow-up of these patients are recommended (AU)


A COVID-19 é uma doença nova que vem provocando grande impacto na morbimortalidade mundial. Relatos de persistência de sintomas e/ou manifestações clínicas atribuídas à COVID-19 após a fase aguda da doença tem sido cada vez mais frequentes. Neste artigo, apresentamos um caso de eflúvio telógeno pós COVID-19 em um paciente de 39 anos, hipertenso e obeso, que procurou atendimento médico devido à queda volumosa de cabelos. Histórico prévio de COVID-19 moderada há 4 meses. Após investigação e exclusão de outras possíveis causas de eflúvio telógeno bem estabelecidas na literatura o quadro foi atribuído ao episódio prévio de COVID-19. É possível que a febre persistente, a tempestade de citocinas e toda a cascata imunológica da COVID-19 possam levar à apoptose dos queratinócitos dos folículos capilares, iniciando, assim, precocemente a fase catágena seguida pela fase telógena com consequente liberação capilar. Sintomas tardios possivelmente secundários à COVID-19 devem ser alvo de atenção e interesse da comunidade médica e científica. Por se tratar de uma doença nova, cujas consequências tardias ainda não se encontram completamente conhecidas/ elucidadas, recomenda-se a observação atenta e o seguimento clínico criterioso desses pacientes (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cytokines , Coronavirus Infections , Alopecia , Fever , Immune System
18.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 38(2): e1484, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408689

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La lactancia materna es el elemento más importante en el fortalecimiento inmunológico del lactante, porque aporta IgA, lactoferrina, citoquinas, caseína y otros componentes que permiten una acción antiinfecciosa, antimicrobiana y trófica del crecimiento intestinal, se logra así la integración del sistema inmune madre-hijo. Objetivo: Evaluar el resultado de la intervención educativa Un regalo para el recién nacido en las puérperas pertenecientes al Grupo Básico de Trabajo del Policlínico José Martí. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuasi-experimental de intervención educativa comunitaria en Gibara en el período de julio del 2019 a febrero del 2020. El universo estuvo constituido por 47 puérperas, se seleccionaron 35 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, exclusión y salida. Resultados: Después de aplicada la intervención, en el nivel de conocimientos sobre los beneficios de la lactancia materna fue adecuado en un 97,1 por ciento. Sobre el conocimiento y habilidad técnica adecuada para lactar antes de la intervención eran inadecuados y después un 100 por ciento de las pacientes adquirieron correctamente la habilidad. La evaluación de los conocimientos generales sobre los beneficios de la lactancia demostró el número de pacientes con conocimientos adecuados en un 94,3 por ciento. Conclusiones: La estrategia educativa sobre lactancia materna fue efectiva, porque se logró un nivel de conocimiento y de práctica alto en la mayoría de las mujeres y casi todas las madres lactaron a sus infantes como mínimo por seis meses(AU)


Introduction: Breastfeeding is the most important element for immune strengthening of the infant because it provides IgA, lactoferrin, cytokines, casein and other substances that allow antiinfectious, antimicrobial and trophic action of intestinal growth; thus the integration of the mother-child immune system is achieved. Objective: To evaluate the results of the educational intervention concerning breastfeeding "Un regalo para el recién nacido" [a gift for the newborn], developed with the puerperal women belonging to the basic work group of José Martí outpatient polyclinic. Methods: A quasiexperimental study of community educational intervention was carried out in Gibara Municipality, eastern Cuba, from July 2019 to February 2020. The universe consisted of 47 puerperal women and 35 patients who met the inclusion, exclusion and exit criteria were selected. Results: After the intervention was applied, the level of knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding was adequate, accounting for 97.1 percent. Before the intervention, the knowledge and appropriate technical skills for breastfeeding were inadequate, while after the intervention, 100 percent of the patients acquired the skill appropriately. The assessment of general knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding showed that the number of patients with adequate knowledge accounted for 94.3 percent. Conclusions: The educational strategy on breastfeeding was effective because a high level of knowledge and practice was achieved in most women, while almost all the mothers breastfed their infants for at least six months(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding , Immune System
19.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 251-255, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400205

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 é a enfermidade causada pelo SARS-CoV-2, descrita em 2019, em Wuhan. Desde então, causou a morte de milhões de pessoas. A doença caracteriza-se entre sintomas gripais e gastrointestinais, podendo evoluir com gravidade. A importância de compreender como melhorar a eficácia da vacinação levou à investigação de fatores que podem influenciar a resposta imune. A prática de exercícios foi identificada como um fator que pode melhorar a função imunológica e, portanto, ser um potencial adjuvante para respostas imunes. O treinamento crônico, ou altos níveis de atividade física durante um período prolongado (mês/ anos) e, separadamente, o exercício agudo ­ a realização de uma única sessão de exercício (minutos/horas), são dois segmentos relacionados à resposta imunológica ao exercício físico. O exercício agudo é conhecido por gerar efeitos de curto prazo sobre o sistema imune, mas parecem existir efeitos contrastantes entre sessões de exercícios moderados e exercícios prolongados. Na ausência de uma medicação profilática ou tratamento efetivo, a existência de vacinas e associação com a prática de exercícios, particularmente em populações em risco de disfunção imunológica, como idosos, deve ser estimulada. Assim, nesta revisão os autores buscam dissertar e hipotetizar sobre os efeitos do exercício nas respostas à vacinação. Enfim, a prática de exercícios se apresenta como adjuvante dos efeitos imunológicos sobre a vacinação, todavia, com o andamento da vacinação global para SARS-CoV-2, serão necessários estudos com acompanhamento regular para que possamos avaliar a correlação entre a atividade física e a resposta imunológica a estes imunizantes.


COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which was first described in Wuhan in 2019. Since then, it has caused the death of millions of people. COVID-19 is characterized by flulike and gastrointestinal symptoms and may become severe. The importance of understanding how to improve vaccination effectiveness has led to the investigation of factors that may influence immune response. Exercise has been associated with improved immune function and, therefore, may be a potential adjuvant to vaccine-induced immune responses. Chronic training (high levels of physical activity over a prolonged period [months/ years]) or acute exercise alone (engaging in a single exercise session [minutes/hours)] are two segments related to the immune response to physical exercise. Acute exercise is known to have short-term effects on the immune system, but there seems to be contrasting effects between moderate exercise sessions and prolonged exercise. In the absence of prophylactic medication or effective treatment, vaccination plus exercise, particularly in populations at risk for immune dysfunction such as older adults, should be encouraged. Thus, in this review, we aimed to discuss and hypothesize the effects of exercise on vaccination responses. Exercise is presented as an adjuvant to improve the immunological effects of vaccination; however, as the COVID-19 vaccination advances worldwide, studies with regular monitoring will be necessary to evaluate the correlation between physical activity and the immune response to these vaccines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Immunity , Signs and Symptoms , Therapeutics , Risk Factors , Allergy and Immunology , Immune System
20.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Prevención y Control de Enfermedades; 1 ed; Abr. 2022. 844-85 p. ilus.(Boletín Epidemiológico, 31, SE 15).
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1373211

ABSTRACT

Las vacunas generan por sí mismas un incremento en la esperanza de vida en el ser humano y evitan cerca de 3 millones de muertes infantiles al año, según estimaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Pero para tener éxito, las vacunas deben ser usadas de forma generalizada en la población objetivo, su administración a millones de personas sanas implica un riesgo que asumir, ya que ningún producto con potencial para generar protección a través del sistema inmune, resulta inocuo en el 100% de los casos. La monitorización de la seguridad de las vacunas es uno de los requerimientos más importantes y exigidos por las agencias reguladoras de medicamentos para otorgar la autorización de su comercialización


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiologic Measurements , Life Expectancy , Epidemiological Monitoring , Immune System
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