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1.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(2): 117-126, 20210630. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348662

ABSTRACT

El brote mundial del SARS-CoV-2, descrito a partir del 2019, provocó la pandemia de COVID-19, originando un riesgo para la salud de las personas, una amenaza a la vida y una emergencia de salud pública internacional, que hasta Julio del 2021 no se ha logrado controlar. La coinfección en estos pacientes, por virus, bacterias y hongos, aumenta la dificultad de diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico de la enfermedad. Es importante profundizar los conocimientos sobre el virus SARS-CoV-2 y las coinfecciones que podrían presentarse, en particular, en pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan micosis. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es, determinar la importancia de las micosis, como enfermedad oportunista, en pacientes con COVID-19. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sistemática, en la base de datos "PubMed-NCBI". Se utilizaron las palabras claves: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19 and coinfection", "Mycosis", "Aspergillus spp.", "Candida spp.", "COVID-19 and Aspergillus spp.", "COVID-19 and Candida spp.". Del análisis de la bibliografía, se concluye la importancia de las micosis respiratorias, originadas por diversos hongos en pacientes con COVID-19. Hay poca información del manejo de estas, siendo necesario fortalecer la investigación de la coinfección, para así, mejorar los flujogramas de sospecha clínica, contribuyendo a diagnósticos, tratamientos precisos y fomentar la prevención frente a esta pandemia.


The global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, described as of 2019 whose expansion caused the COVID-19 pandemic, has created a risk to people's health, presenting itself as a threat to life and an international public health emergency, which to the date cannot be controlled. Coinfection in these patients, by viruses, bacteria and fungi, increases the difficulty of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the disease. It's important to deepen the knowledge about the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the co-infections that could occur, in particular, in patients with COVID-19 who present with mycosis. The objective of this bibliographic review is to determine the importance of mycosis, as an opportunistic disease, in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2. A systematic bibliographic review was carried out in the "PubMed-NCBI" database, using the keywords and / or headings: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19 and coinfection" ,"Mycosis", "Aspergillus spp.", "Candida spp." COVID-19 and Aspergillus spp.", "COVID-19 and Candida spp.". From the analysis of the literature, one can conclude the importance of respiratory mycoses, caused by various fungal pathogens in patients with COVID-19. The disease was described in 2019 and there is few a information on cases and their management, making it necessary to strengthen the investigation of coinfection in these patients, in order to improve the flow charts of clinical suspicion, contributing to diagnoses, accurate treatments and promoting prevention against to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus , Candida , Coinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Immune Tolerance
2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(1): 61-78, mar. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1283257

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones de las vías respiratorios altas (IVRA), son debilitantes para el potencial deportivo de los atletas de élite. El ejercicio físico activa múltiples vías moleculares y bioquímicas relacionadas con el sistema inmune, sensibles a influencias nutricionales. Sobre este contexto, la inmunonutrición está adquiriendo una nueva dirección orientada a conseguir el equilibrio inmunológico, contraponiéndose con algunas de las teorías que han sentado las bases de la inmunología del ejercicio durante las últimas décadas. Objetivo. Investigar los aspectos nutricionales que puedan mejorar la respuesta inmunológica en deportistas de elite. Estudiar los posibles beneficios del equilibrio inmunológico para mejorar el rendimiento, analizar los factores nutricionales que contribuyan al equilibrio de la respuesta inmunológica y extrapolar la evidencia actual en recomendaciones prácticas de alimentación/suplementación para mejorar la homeostasis de la respuesta inmunológica en atletas de élite, teniendo en cuenta las limitaciones existentes.Resultados. La evidencia científica apunta que se puede potenciar el equilibrio inmunológico y la respuesta inmune a través de la modificación de factores nutricionales. Dentro de los cuales, la vitamina D, los probióticos, la vitamina C y el cinc son los que cuentan con mayor evidencia. Conclusión. Los avances científicos resultan prometedores y de interés para los atletas de élite, debido a que pueden disminuir la incidencia de IVRA, mejorando el éxito deportivo de los mismos. Se requieren más estudios para su validación y aplicación(AU)


Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are debilitating for the athletic potential of elite athletes. Physical exercise in elite athletes activates multiple molecular and biochemical pathways related to the immune system, which, at the same time, are sensitive to nutritional influences. Based on this context, immunonutrition is taking a new direction aimed at achieving the immunological balance. Objective. To investigate the nutritional aspects that can improve the immune response in elite athletes. To study the potential benefits of immune balance to improve performance, to analyse nutritional factors that contribute to the balance of the immune response and to extrapolate current evidence into practical dietary/supplementation recommendations to improve the homeostasis of the immune response in elite athletes, considering existing limitations. Results. Scientific evidence suggests that immune balance and immune response can be enhanced through the modification of nutritional factors. Among which, vitamin D, probiotics, vitamin C and zinc are the micronutrients with most evidence. Conclusion. Scientific advances in this field are promising and of great interest to elite athletes since it could decrease the incidence of URTI and, as a consequence, it could improve their sporting success. However, more studies are still required for its validation and application(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Nutritional Status , Eating , Athletes , Exercise , Risk Factors , Immune Tolerance , Immunity
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880182

ABSTRACT

Acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease is a refractory disease which can affect implantation and become a threat to life in severe cases. Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway necessary for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. In recent years, a large number of studies have found that it is closely related to the pathogenesis and process of acute intestinal graft-versus-host disease. The main mechanisms may involve that inflammatory factor storm after pretreatment and infusion of donor cells induces disordered intestinal immune tolerance, and abnormal oxidative stress damages intestinal mucosal barrier, leading to intestinal rejection of acute graft-versus-host disease via mTOR signal pathway of autophagy, disordered mitophagy and other related pathways.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Graft vs Host Disease , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Oxidative Stress , Signal Transduction
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 505-516, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1128387

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da manipulação da temperatura de incubação sobre a resposta imune de codornas desafiadas termicamente após eclosão. Para isso, foram utilizados 540 ovos, distribuídos em três incubadoras, com temperatura de 37,8°C e umidade de 60%. A partir do sexto dia de incubação até a eclosão, as temperaturas foram ajustadas em 37,8°C (padrão), 38,5°C (intermediária) e 39,5°C (alta). Após a eclosão as codornas foram pesadas e distribuídas, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com três temperaturas de incubação (37,8, 38,5 e 39,5°C) e duas temperaturas de ambiente (estresse e termoneutro). Aos 10, 20, 30 e 40 dias, quatro codornas por tratamento foram eutanasiadas para coleta da bolsa cloacal, do fígado e do coração, para se determinar o peso absoluto (g), o peso relativo (%) e a área dos folículos bursais. Sangue foi coletado para realização do hemograma, do leucograma e da bioquímica sérica. Os dados foram analisados e as diferenças entre as médias foram determinadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. O estresse térmico por calor, a partir dos 20 dias, promove redução no peso absoluto do fígado, do coração, da bolsa cloacal e na área dos folículos bursais, além de heterofilia, linfopenia e aumento da relação heterófilo/linfócito. Em conclusão, o estresse térmico por calor após 10 dias de idade pode causar imunossupressão.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of manipulation of the incubation temperature on the immune response of quails challenged thermally after hatching. For this, 540 eggs were distributed in three incubators, with temperature of 37.8°C and 60% humidity. From the 6th day of incubation to hatching the temperatures were adjusted to 37.8°C (standard), 38.5°C (intermediate) and 39.5°C (high). After hatching the quails were weighed and distributed in a completely randomized design with three incubation temperatures (37.8, 38.5 and 39.5°C) and two ambient temperatures (stress and thermoneutral). At 10, 20, 30 and 40 days four quail per treatment were euthanized to collect the cloacal burse, liver and heart to determine the absolute weight (g), relative weight (%) and area of the bursal follicles. Blood was sampled for determination of hemogram, leukogram and serum biochemistry. The data were analyzed and the differences between the means were determined by the Tukey test at 5%. Heat stress from 20 days onwards promotes a reduction in the absolute weight of the liver, heart, cloacal sac and in the area of the follicles. In addition, there was heterofilia, lymphopenia and increased heterophile/lymphocyte ratio. In conclusion, heat stress after 10 days of age can cause immunosuppression.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cloaca/physiology , Heat Stress Disorders/veterinary , Coturnix/physiology , Hot Temperature , Immune Tolerance , Incubators , Leukocyte Count/veterinary
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(2): 232-238, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098896

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El desarrollo de aloanticuerpos neutralizantes anti-factor VIII en hemofilia A es la complicación más seria relacionada al tratamiento. La inducción de tolerancia inmune (ITI) o inmunotolerancia es el único tratamiento que erradica inhibidores, permitiendo utilizar nuevamente factor VIII para el tratamiento o profilaxis de eventos hemorrágicos. Objetivo: reportar la experiencia en niños sometidos a inmunotolerancia en la red pública del país. Pacientes y Método: Análisis retrospectivo y descriptivo de 13 niños con Hemofilia A severa e inhibidores persistentes de alto título, que recibieron ITI y seguimiento completo. Se utilizó concentrado de FVIII plasmático en dosis de 70-180 UI/Kg/diarias, definiendo éxito como la negativización del inhibidor y recu peración de la vida media del FVIII. Resultados expresados en media (rango). Resultados: En 13 pacientes se identificó el inhibidor, a una edad de 17,6 meses (2-48), tras 35,2 días (9-112) de exposición a FVIII. Once pacientes (84,6%) recuperaron la vida media del FVIII, tras 49,6 meses (26-70) de tratamiento. En los pacientes que respondieron, el título del inhibidor se negativizó en 7,3 meses (1-20). Conclusiones: En niños con hemofilia A e inhibidores persistentes de alto título, la ITI tiene un elevado éxito. Dado que el tiempo de respuesta es variable, la inmunotolerancia debe ser personalizada.


Abstract: Introduction: The development of anti-factor VIII neutralizing antibodies in hemophilia A is the most severe com plication related to treatment. Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the only known treatment for eradicating inhibitors. A successful ITI allows using factor VIII (FVIII) again for the treatment or prophylaxis of hemorrhagic events. Objective: To report the experience of pediatric patients who underwent ITI in the country's public health care network. Patients and Method: Retrospective and descriptive analysis of 13 pediatric patients with severe Hemophilia A and high-titer inhibitors persis tence who underwent ITI and complete follow-up. Plasma-derived FVIII concentrate was used at 70 180 IU/kg/day doses. The success of the treatment is defined by achieving a negative titer and a half life recovery of the FVIII. The results were expressed in median (range). Results: In 13 patients, the inhibitor was identified at an average age of 17.6 months, after 35.2 days of exposure to the FVIII. 11 patients (84.6%) recovered the half-life of FVIII after 49.6 months of treatment. In the patients who responded to treatment, the inhibitor titer was negative at 6 months on average. Conclusions: ITI is the treatment of choice for patients with hemophilia A and inhibitors persistence. ITI must be perso nalized since the time response is variable in each patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Factor VIII/therapeutic use , Hemophilia A/therapy , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Immunotherapy/methods , Isoantibodies/immunology , Factor VIII/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hemophilia A/immunology
7.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 187-189, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827829

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is still raging across the world. Everyday thousands of infected people lost their lives. What is worse, there is no specific medicine and we do not know when the end of the pandemic will come. The nearest global pandemic is the 1918 influenza, which caused about 50 million deaths and partly terminate the World War Ⅰ. We believe that no matter the virus H1N1 for the 1918 influenza or 2019-nCoV for COVID-19, they are essentially the same and the final cause of death is sepsis. The definition and diagnostic/management criteria of sepsis have been modified several times but the mortality rate has not been improved until date. Over decades, researchers focus either on the immunosuppression or on the excessive inflammatory response following trauma or body exposure to harmful stimuli. But the immune response is very complex with various regulating factors involved in, such as neurotransmitter, endocrine hormone, etc. Sepsis is not a kind of disease, instead a misbalance of the body following infection, trauma or other harmful stimulation. Therefore we should re-think sepsis comprehensively with the concept of systemic biology, i.e. inflammationomics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Inflammation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Sepsis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765710

ABSTRACT

Systemic target therapeutic drugs, such as sorafenib, lenvatinib, or regorafenib are the only drugs that are known to be effective against advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these agents show a limited efficacy in killing residual tumors. Immunotherapy is an alternative approach to this treatment and has been used to successfully treat different cancers, including HCC. HCC is an inflammation-induced cancer and represents a very interesting target for immunotherapeutics. Immunotherapies aim to reverse the immune tolerance and suppression found in tumor microenvironments and include approaches, such as adoptive cell therapy, immune checkpoint inhibition, and cancer vaccination. Adoptive cell therapy uses autologous natural killer or cytokine-induced killer cells by cultivating them ex vivo and subsequently reinfusing them into the patient. Immune checkpoint inhibitors reactivate tumor-specific T cells by suppressing checkpoint-mediated inhibitory signaling. Cancer vaccination induces a tumor-specific immune response by activating effector T lymphocytes. A wide range of potential immunotherapy-related adverse events occur; therefore, a multidisciplinary collaborative management is required across the clinical spectrum. This review summarizes the current status of immunotherapy for HCC and provides a perspective on its future applications.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells , Homicide , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Immunotherapy , Neoplasm, Residual , Oncolytic Viruses , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Microenvironment , Vaccination
9.
Immune Network ; : e19-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764012

ABSTRACT

The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (aVD₃), is known to exert beneficial effects in the treatment of autoimmune diseases because of its immunosuppressive effects. However, clinical application of aVD₃ remains limited because of the potential side effects, particularly hypercalcemia. Encapsulation of aVD₃ within biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) would enhance the delivery of aVD₃ to antigen presenting cells, while preventing the potential systemic side effects of aVD₃. In the present study, polymeric NPs containing ovalbumin (OVA) and aVD₃ (NP[OVA+aVD₃]) were prepared via the water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation method, after which their immunomodulatory effects were examined. Bone marrow-derived immature dendritic cells (DCs) treated with NP(OVA+aVD₃) did not mature into immunogenic DCs but were converted into tolerogenic DCs, which express low levels of co-stimulatory molecules and MHC class II molecules, produce lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines while increasing the production of IL-10 and TGF-β, and induce the generation of Tregs. Intravenous injection with NP(OVA+aVD₃) markedly suppressed the generation of OVA-specific CTLs in mice. Furthermore, OVA-specific immune tolerance was induced in mice orally administered with NP(OVA+aVD₃). These results show that biodegradable NPs encapsulating both antigen and aVD₃ can effectively induce antigen-specific immune suppression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigen-Presenting Cells , Autoimmune Diseases , Cholecalciferol , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Hypercalcemia , Immune Tolerance , Injections, Intravenous , Interleukin-10 , Methods , Mice , Nanoparticles , Ovalbumin , Polymers , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Vitamins
10.
Gut and Liver ; : 430-439, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The current study aims to investigate the protective effects of Bifidobacterium infantis on the abnormal immune response to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Eight-week-old BALB/c mice were separated into five groups at random (control, DSS, DSS+B9 [B. infantis 1×10⁹ CFU], DSS+B8 [B. infantis 1×10⁸ CFU], and DSS+B7 [B. infantis 1×10⁷ CFU]). Colitis was induced by 5% DSS ad libitum for 7 days, at which time we assessed weight, the disease activity index (DAI) score, and the histological damage score. The nuclear transcription factor Foxp3 (a marker of Treg cells), cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and related proteins (programmed cell death ligand 1 [PD-L1] and programmed cell death 1 [PD-1]) were detected by an immunohistochemical method and Western blot. RESULTS: B. infantis increased weight, decreased DAI scores and histological damage scores, increased the protein expression of Foxp3 (p<0.05) and cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β1 in mouse colon tissue (p<0.05), and increased the expression of PD-L1 in the treatment groups relative to that in the DSS group (p<0.05). The effect of B. infantis on Foxp3 and PD-L1 was dose dependent in the treatment groups (p<0.05). PD-L1 was positively correlated with Foxp3, IL-10, and TGF-β1. CONCLUSIONS: In a mouse model of IBD, B. infantis can alleviate intestinal epithelial injury and maintain intestinal immune tolerance and thus may have potential therapeutic value for the treatment of immune damage in IBD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bifidobacterium , Blotting, Western , Cell Death , Colitis , Colon , Cytokines , Dextrans , Immune Tolerance , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-10 , Methods , Mice , Models, Theoretical , Sodium , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Transcription Factors , Transforming Growth Factors
11.
Immune Network ; : e6-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740208

ABSTRACT

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique subset of cells with different functional characteristics compared to classical dendritic cells. The pDCs are critical for the production of type I IFN in response to microbial and self-nucleic acids. They have an important role for host defense against viral pathogen infections. In addition, pDCs have been well studied as a critical player for breaking tolerance to self-nucleic acids that induce autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. However, pDCs have an immunoregulatory role in inducing the immune tolerance by generating Tregs and various regulatory mechanisms in mucosal tissues. Here, we summarize the recent studies of pDCs that focused on the functional characteristics of gut pDCs, including interactions with other immune cells in the gut. Furthermore, the dynamic role of gut pDCs will be investigated with respect to disease status including gut infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancers.


Subject(s)
Dendritic Cells , Immune Tolerance , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interferon Type I , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Mucous Membrane
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775136

ABSTRACT

Food allergen-specific immune tolerance is defined as nonresponsiveness of the adaptive immune system to food antigens. Failed development or inhibition of such tolerance may cause food allergy. With the increasing incidence rate of food allergy year by year, more and more studies have found the association between food allergy and various diseases. The development of food allergen-specific immune tolerance in childhood has been taken more and more seriously. In recent years, many studies have shown that the development of food allergen-specific immune tolerance is influenced by various factors, which can be roughly divided into antigens, organisms, and environment. This article reviews the influencing factors for the development of immune tolerance to food allergens in children, in order to provide help for reducing the incidence of food allergy and improving the prognosis of food allergy.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Child , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Incidence
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774566

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of Yunkang Oral Liquid on preventing lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced abortion and regulating immune tolerance in mice,sixty normal ICR mice were randomly divided into normal group,model group,Yunkang Oral Liquid high,middle and low dose groups and progesterone group.Abortion model was established by tail vain injection of LPS(0.1μg/mouse)on the 7th day of pregnancy.Since the first day of pregnancy,the same volume of distilled water,Yunkang Oral Liquid at the dose of 36,18 and 9 m L·kg~(-1)·d~(-1),and progesterone at the dose of 0.038 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)were given in corresponding groups.The mice were sacrificed at the 9th day of pregnancy,and the embryo loss of each group was calculated.The levels of Th1 type cytokines(TNF-α,IFN-γ)and Th2 type cytokines(IL-4,IL-10)in uterus homogenate were detected by ELISA.HE staining was performed to examine the histopathological changes in the decidua.The expression levels of CD14,F4/80 in macrophages of uterus were detected by immunohistochemistry.Western blot was used to investigate the protein expression of TLR4,MyD88 and NF-κB in uterine decidua.In our study,all Yunkang Oral Liquid groups could significantly reduce the embryo absorption rate of mice,while high dose group can significantly increase the levels of IL-10 and IL-4;both medium and high dose groups can significantly decrease TNF-α,and IFN-γlevelsin the uterus of model mice,reduce the protein expression of NF-κB,MyD88 and TLR4 in uterine decidua tissue.Various treatment groups could reduce the counts of F4/80,CD14 macrophages and decrease expression area in uterine tissue.Our results showed that Yunkang Oral Liquid could prevent LPS-induced abortion,and the mechanism may be associated with inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway and regulating the balance of Th1/Th2 immune factors,which could improve the endometrial receptivity of mice,and promote the development of decidua and implantation of embryo.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Animals , Female , Immune Tolerance , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , NF-kappa B , Pregnancy
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774176

ABSTRACT

Glioma is one of the most common primary tumors in the human brain with poor prognosis. The local and systemic immunosuppressive environment created by glioma cells enables them to evade immunosurveillance. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a critical component of the immunosuppression system. They are a heterogeneous cell population composed of early myeloid progenitor cells and precursor cells. Although the cells are diverse in phenotypes and functions, they all have strong immunosuppressive functions. MDSCs are extensively infiltrated into tumor tissues and play an important role in the glioma immunosuppressive microenvironment, which also hinders the immunotherapeutic effects of glioma. This article will review the phenotypic characteristics of MDSCs in the glioma microenvironment and their role in the progression of glioma. It is of positive significance to better understand the pathogenesis of glioma and explore effective comprehensive treatments.


Subject(s)
Glioma , Pathology , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells , Cell Biology , Tumor Microenvironment
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(1): 1-7, feb. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887426

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Con el incremento de la proctocolitis alérgica inducida por proteínas de la dieta (PAIPD), son necesarios estudios que aclaren su fisiopatología y determinar marcadores no invasivos y sencillos para el diagnóstico y la evaluación del desarrollo de tolerancia. No hallamos estudios publicados sobre la función del índice de neutrófilos/linfocitos (INL) y el volumen plaquetario medio (VPM), que son marcadores no invasivos fácilmente medibles, en pacientes con PAIPD. Objetivos: Determinar la relación entre el INL y el VPM con el diagnóstico y desarrollo de tolerancia en niños con PAIPD. Métodos: Estudio transversal retrospectivo, los datos se obtuvieron del sistema de registros médicos, los síntomas y los resultados de laboratorio de los pacientes con diagnóstico de PAIPD fueron controlados en los consultorios de alergia y gastroenterología. Se compararon valores del hemograma al momento del diagnóstico con el grupo de niños sanos de edad y sexo similares. Resultados: Entre los 59 pacientes con diagnóstico de PAIPD, los varones representaron el 47,4% y las niñas, el 52,6%. El VPM y el volumen plaquetario relativo (VPR) eran significativamente más altos entre los pacientes con PAIPD en comparación con el grupo de referencia (n: 67) (p < 0,001). Asimismo, VPM y el VPR fueron significativamente elevados en pacientes que no desarrollaron tolerancia comparados con los que la desarrollaron (p= 0,01). Con el INL no hubo diferencias entre los grupos. Conclusiones: El VPM y el VPR se consideraron marcadores adecuados para predecir el pronóstico de los pacientes con PAIPD dado que son rápidos, costo-efectivos y fáciles de medir.


Background. Today, as a result of an increase in the frequency of food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), there is a need for studies not only to enlighten the pathophysiology of the disease but also to determine simple, non-invasive markers in both diagnosis, and evaluation of the development of tolerance. No study has been found in the literature about the place of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV), which are easy to calculate and non-invasive markers. Objectives. The purpose is to determine the relation between NLR and MPV with the diagnosis and development of tolerance in children with FPIAP. Methods. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, clinical, demographic symptoms and laboratory findings of patients, monitored with FPIAP diagnosis in allergy and gastroenterology clinics, were acquired from the patient record system. Hemogram values at the time of diagnosis were compared with the values of healthy children of the same age and gender. Results. Among 59 patients diagnosed with FPIAP, males constitute 47.4% and females constitute 52.6%. MPV and platelet crit (PCT) values were significantly high when compared to the control group (n: 67) in FPIAP cases (p <0.001). Also, MPV and PCT values were significantly high in non-tolerance developing cases when compared to developing ones (p= 0.01). Conclusions. Contrary to NLR, MPV and PCT values have been considered to be good markers in predicting prognosis in cases with FPIAP since they are quick, cost effective and easy to calculate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Proctocolitis/complications , Food Hypersensitivity/complications , Inflammation/complications , Proctocolitis/immunology , Proctocolitis/blood , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Mean Platelet Volume , Food Hypersensitivity/blood , Immune Tolerance , Inflammation/blood , Leukocyte Count , Neutrophils
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(1): 99-106, Jan. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-895535

ABSTRACT

Este artigo descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, patológicos e características morfotintoriais em quatorze casos de nocardiose em cães. Para isso foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo durante o período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2015 e selecionados os casos sugestivos de nocardiose. A identificação e caracterização do agente foi realizada através de técnicas histoquímicas especiais de Metenamina nitrato de prata de Grocott (GMS), Ziehl-Neelsen modificado, coloração de Gram do tipo Brown-Brenn modificado e Giemsa. Foram afetados predominantemente filhotes e em doze casos havia associação com o vírus da cinomose canina (VCC). Os sinais clínicos variaram de alterações respiratórias, neurológicas e cutâneas, relacionadas principalmente à infecção concomitante pelo VCC. Macroscopicamente haviam áreas multifocais a coalescentes, branco-amareladas, firmes, elevadas na superfície e que se aprofundavam ao corte, por vezes com material purulento, entremeadas por áreas avermelhadas irregulares afetando principalmente pulmões, linfonodos, fígado, rins e encéfalo. As lesões cutâneas foram observadas predominantemente nas regiões cervical e inguinal e variaram de supurativas a piogranulomatosas. No exame histopatológico a lesão era caracterizada principalmente por inflamação piogranulomatosa, porém em algumas áreas havia predomínio de inflamação necrossupurativa, e frequentemente eram observados macrófagos epitelioides, formando aglomerados de forma radiada, muitas vezes lembrando pseudorosetas. Nas técnicas histoquímicas foram observadas estruturas filamentosas, ramificadas, não septadas, medindo aproximadamente 1µm de espessura, impregnadas na coloração de prata, coradas em vermelho no Ziehl-Neelsen modificado, em azul na coloração de Gram do tipo Brown-Brenn modificado e fracamente rósea pálido no Giemsa. A nocardiose deve ser considerada em animais jovens que apresentam sinais respiratórios e neurológicos progressivos, bem como em lesões cutâneas com envolvimento do subcutâneo e linfonodos regionais. Deve ser investigado ainda um provável fator predisponente, como a infecção pelo vírus da cinomose canina e hemoparasitoses. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido através do exame histopatológico baseando-se na morfologia da bactéria e suas características histoquímicas, distinguindo principalmente de outros agentes bacterianos e fúngicos, constituindo uma importante ferramenta para o diagnóstico, quando não é possível a coleta do material para cultivo e isolamento do agente.(AU)


This paper describes the epidemiological, clinical, pathological and morphotinctorial characteristics in fourteen cases of nocardiosis in dogs. A retrospective study for the period of January 2005 to December 2015 was made and selected suggestive cases of nocardiosis. The identification and characterization of the agent was performed by special histochemical techniques Methenamine silver nitrate Grocott (GMS), modified Ziehl-Neelsen, Gram stain type modified Brown-Brenn and Giemsa. Were affected predominantly young and in twelve cases were associated with canine distemper virus (CDV). Clinical signs vary from respiratory, neurological and skin changes, mainly related to concomitant infection by CDV. Macroscopically had multifocal areas coalescing, yellowish-white, firm, elevated in surface and deepened the court, sometimes with purulent material, intermixed by irregular reddened areas affecting mainly lungs, lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, and brain. The cutaneous lesions were predominantly observed in cervical and inguinal and ranged from suppurative well as pyogranulomatous. In the histopathologic examination the injury was mainly characterized by inflammation pyogranulomatous, but in some areas there was a predominance of necrossupurativa inflammation, epithelioid macrophages and were frequently observed, forming clusters radiated form, often reminding rosettes. In the histochemical techniques were observed filamentous structures, branched, non-septate, measuring approximately 1µm thick, impregnated on silver staining, stained in red on the modified Ziehl-Neelsen, in blue on Gram stain type modified Brown-Brenn and weakly pale pink in Giemsa. The nocardiosis should be considered in young animals with progressive respiratory and neurological signs, as well as skin lesions involving the subcutaneous tissue and regional lymph nodes. It should be further investigated a possible predisposing factor, such as infection by canine distemper virus and hemoparasites. The diagnosis was established by histopathological examination based on the morphology of the bacteria and their histochemical characteristics, distinguishing mainly from other bacterial and fungal agents and is an important tool for the diagnosis, when the collection of material for cultivation and isolation of the agent is not possible.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Nocardia , Nocardia Infections/epidemiology , Nocardia Infections/pathology , Immune Tolerance , Opportunistic Infections/veterinary
17.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 322-332, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756970

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppressive regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 play a vital role in the maintenance of tolerance of the immune-system to self and innocuous non-self. Most Treg that are critical for the maintenance of tolerance to self, develop as an independent T-cell lineage from common T cell precursors in the thymus. In this organ, their differentiation requires signals from the T cell receptor for antigen, from co-stimulatory molecules, as well as from cytokine-receptors. Here we focus on the cytokines implicated in thymic development of Treg, with a particular emphasis on the roles of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15. The more recently appreciated involvement of TGF-β in thymic Treg development is also briefly discussed. Finally, we discuss how cytokine-dependence of Treg development allows for temporal, quantitative, and potentially qualitative modulation of this process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Genetics , Cytokines , Allergy and Immunology , Forkhead Transcription Factors , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Immune Tolerance , Genetics , Interleukin-15 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-2 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Allergy and Immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689630

ABSTRACT

Preterm infants are a special group, and related severe neurological, respiratory, and digestive disorders have high disability/fatality rates. Allogeneic cell transplantation may be an effective method for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. At present, animal studies have been conducted for allogeneic cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The main difficulty of this technique is graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR), and successful induction of immune tolerance needs to be achieved in order to solve this problem. This article reviews the research advances in immune tolerance of allogeneic cell transplantation in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Transplantation , Cytokines , Physiology , Graft vs Host Reaction , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Allergy and Immunology , Transplantation, Homologous
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714203

ABSTRACT

Over the past several decades, hemophilia treatment in Korea has progressed dramatically. It has become possible to prevent hemophilia complications by maintenance treatment as well as on-demand treatment with the help of the National Health Insurance program. Treatment and prevention of hemorrhage, prevention of joint complications, treatment and prevention of infectious complications have greatly improved the quality of life and life expectancy of hemophilia patients. However, the development of inhibitor is the most serious and challenging complication of clotting factor replacement therapy, although immune tolerance regimens and bypassing agents have shown some efficacy in countering this complication. The development of novel methods of therapy, including the use of extended half-life factors and gene therapy, will further improve the outcome of hemophilia patients. Administering the right drug to the right patients with the right dose at the right time will be necessary for treating the patient. Achievement of optimal therapeutic goals will require continued cooperation between patients and medical staff.


Subject(s)
Factor VIII , Genetic Therapy , Half-Life , Hemophilia A , Hemorrhage , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Joints , Korea , Life Expectancy , Medical Staff , National Health Programs , Quality of Life
20.
Immune Network ; : e35-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717670

ABSTRACT

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses by sensing a variety of small synthetic and natural chemicals, which act as its ligands. AhR, which is expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), regulates the differentiation of DCs. However, effects of AhR on the differentiation of DCs are variable due to the heterogeneity of DCs in cell surface marker expression, anatomical location, and functional responses. The plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), one of DC subsets, not only induce innate as well as adaptive immune responses by secreting type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce IL-10 producing regulatory T cell or anergy or deletion of antigen-specific T cells. We showed here that AhR ligands indoxyl 3-sulfate (I3S) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C) inhibited the development of pDCs derived from bone marrow (BM) precursors induced by FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L). I3S and I3C downregulated the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and E2-2 (Tcf4). In mice orally treated with I3S and I3C, oral tolerance to dinitrofluorobenzene was impaired and the proportion of CD11c⁺B220⁺ cells in mesenteric lymph nodes was reduced. These data demonstrate that AhR negatively regulates the development of pDCs from BM precursors induced by Flt3L, probably via repressing the expression of STAT3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone Marrow , Cell Differentiation , Cytokines , Dendritic Cells , Dinitrofluorobenzene , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 , Immune Tolerance , Interferon Type I , Interleukin-10 , Ligands , Lymph Nodes , Mice , Population Characteristics , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon , STAT3 Transcription Factor , T-Lymphocytes , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1
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