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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180254, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985162

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in the drugs used for the treatment of typhoid fever. The immunomodulatory substance β-glucan can be used as an alternative therapy as it potentiates host immunity. The aims of this study are to observe the effect of Candida albicans cell wall (CCW) extract towards host immunity (TCD8+ and TCD4+ cells in spleen, intestinal sIgA) and its capacity to kill Salmonella in the intestine and liver of typhoid fever mice models. METHODS: Typhoid fever mice models were created by infecting mice with S. Typhimurium orally. Mice were divided into four groups: the Non-Infected, Infected, CCW (infected mice treated with 300 µg CCW extract/mouse once a day), and Ciprofloxacin groups (infected mice treated with 15 mg/kg BW ciprofloxacin twice a day). RESULTS: Secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations of mice in the CCW group remained unchanged. However, their TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells increased substantially compared to those in the Non-Infected group. In the Ciprofloxacin group, sIgA concentrations increased markedly compared to those in the Non-Infected and CCW groups; TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells also increased significantly compared to those in the Infected Group, but not significant compared to those in the CCW group. Colonization of S. Typhimurium in the intestine and liver decreased significantly in the CCW and Ciprofloxacin groups compared to that in the Infected group, with the lowest reduction being found in the Ciprofloxacin group. CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of S. Typhimurium colonization by CCW is associated with the increase in TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Candida albicans/chemistry , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Wall , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Liver/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 142-145, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039213

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The HIV-1 initial viral infection may present diverse clinical and laboratory course and lead to rapid, intermediate, or long-term progression. Among the group of non-progressors, the elite controllers are those who control the infection most effectively, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this paper, the TH1, TH2 and TH17 cytokines profiles are described, as well as clinical and laboratory aspects of an HIV-infected patient with undetectable viral load without antiretroviral therapy. Production of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 was detected; in contrast IL-4 was identified. Host-related factors could help explain such a level of infection control, namely the differentiated modulation of the cellular immune response and a non-polarized cytokine response of the TH1 and TH2 profiles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , HIV-1 , HIV Long-Term Survivors , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/virology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Immunity, Cellular/immunology
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(1): 123-125, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887166

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Brazil is a country with a high prevalence of infectious diseases such as leprosy and leishmaniasis. However, coinfection of these diseases is still poorly understood. We report a case of a patient who presented with lepromatous leprosy and cutaneous-mucosal leishmaniasis at the same period. After clinical, laboratory, and histopathological diagnosis, the treatment was introduced and the patient showed important clinical improvement. He was followed in our outpatient clinic. Both pathologies play an important role in the immune system. Depending on the immune response profile of the host, diseases may present themselves in different ways. In this case, the patient showed a divergent immune response for each disease. We hypothesized that this response is specific for each pathogen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Leprosy, Lepromatous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/complications , Coinfection/complications , Leprosy, Lepromatous/immunology , Leprosy, Lepromatous/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/pathology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/pathology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5625, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839261

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the roles of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in immune response to spinal tuberculosis in a New Zealand white rabbit model. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were collected and divided into four groups: experimental group (n=30, spinal tuberculosis model was established), the sham group (n=15, sham operation was performed) and the blank group (n=3). The qRT-PCR assay and western blotting were applied to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of MCP-1 and NF-κB in peripheral blood. ELISA was used to measure serum levels of MCP-1, NF-κB, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10. Flow cytometry was adopted to assess the distributions of CD4+, CD8+ lymphocytes and CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3 lymphocyte subsets. Compared with the sham and blank groups, the mRNA and protein expressions of MCP-1 and NF-κB in the experimental group were significantly increased. The experimental group had lower serum levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ and higher serum level of IL-10 than the sham and blank groups. In comparison to the sham and blank groups, CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets percentage, CD4+/CD8+ ratio and CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Tregs subsets accounting for CD4+ lymphocyte in the experimental group were lower, while percentage of CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets was higher. Our study provided evidence that higher expression of MCP-1 and NF-κB may be associated with decreased immune function of spinal tuberculosis, which can provide a new treatment direction for spinal tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Tuberculosis, Spinal/immunology , Blotting, Western , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , NF-kappa B/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(8): 1010-1016, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769838

ABSTRACT

T-cell based vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) generate specific responses that may limit both transmission and disease progression by controlling viral load. Broad, polyfunctional, and cytotoxic CD4+T-cell responses have been associated with control of simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV-1 replication, supporting the inclusion of CD4+ T-cell epitopes in vaccine formulations. Plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (pGM-CSF) co-administration has been shown to induce potent CD4+ T-cell responses and to promote accelerated priming and increased migration of antigen-specific CD4+ T-cells. However, no study has shown whether co-immunisation with pGM-CSF enhances the number of vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4+ T-cells. Our group has previously developed a DNA vaccine encoding conserved, multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR binding HIV-1 subtype B peptides, which elicited broad, polyfunctional and long-lived CD4+ T-cell responses. Here, we show that pGM-CSF co-immunisation improved both magnitude and quality of vaccine-induced T-cell responses, particularly by increasing proliferating CD4+ T-cells that produce simultaneously interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2. Thus, we believe that the use of pGM-CSF may be helpful for vaccine strategies focused on the activation of anti-HIV CD4+ T-cell immunity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , AIDS Vaccines/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , /immunology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/administration & dosage , HIV-1 , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , /drug effects , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Movement/immunology , Conserved Sequence/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Flow Cytometry , Genetic Vectors , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/immunology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Interferon-gamma/drug effects , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , /metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plasmids , Protein Binding/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(4): 500-506, 09/06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748873

ABSTRACT

Re-infections with Trypanosoma cruzi are an aggravating factor for Chagas disease morbidity. The Colombian strain of T. cruzi represents multiclonal populations formed by clonally propagating organisms with different tropisms and degrees of virulence. In the present study, the influence of successive inoculations with clones of the Colombian strain, exhibiting different degrees of virulence, on chronic myocarditis and the humoral and cellular immune responses (Col-C1 high virulence, Col-C8 medium virulence and Col-C5 low virulence) were demonstrated. Mice from three groups with a single infection were evaluated during the acute (14th-30th day) and chronic phases for 175 days. An immunofluorescence assay, ELISA and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) cutaneous test were also performed. Mice with a triple infection were studied on the 115th-175th days following first inoculation. The levels of IgM and IgG2a were higher in the animals with a triple infection. DTH showed a higher intensity in the inflammatory infiltrate based on the morphometric analysis during a 48 h period of the triple infection and at 24 h with a single infection. The histopathology of the heart demonstrated significant exacerbation of cardiac inflammatory lesions confirmed by the morphometric test. The humoral responses indicate a reaction to the triple infection, even with clones of the same strain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Myocarditis/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Chronic Disease , Cloning, Molecular , Chagas Disease/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Myocarditis/pathology , Parasitemia/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Virulence/immunology
7.
Rio de Janeiro; Elsevier; 8. ed; 2015. 536 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-941670
8.
9.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Dec ; 51 (6): 542-551
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156535

ABSTRACT

Leishmania parasites determine the outcome of the infection by inducing inflammatory response that suppresses macrophage’s activation. Defense against Leishmania is dependent on Th1 inflammatory response by turning off macrophages’ microbicidal property by upregulation of COX-2, as well as immunosuppressive PGE-2 production. To understand the role of L. donovani secretory serine protease (pSP) in these phenomena, pSP was inhibited by its antibody and serine protease inhibitor, aprotinin. Western blot and TAME assay demonstrated that pSP antibody and aprotinin significantly inhibited protease activity in the live Leishmania cells and reduced infection index of L. donovani-infected macrophages. Additionally, ELISA and RT-PCR analysis showed that treatment with pSP antibody or aprotinin hold back COX-2-mediated immunosuppressive PGE-2 secretion with enhancement of Th1 cytokine like IL-12 expression. This was also supported in Griess test and NBT assay, where inhibition of pSP with its inhibitors elevated ROS and NO production. Overall, our study implies the pSP is involved in down-regulation of macrophage microbicidal activity by inducing host inflammatory responses in terms of COX-2-mediated PGE-2 release with diminished reactive oxygen species generation and thus suggests its importance as a novel drug target of visceral leishmaniasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclooxygenase 2/immunology , Dinoprostone/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Leishmania donovani/enzymology , Leishmania donovani/immunology , Leishmaniasis/immunology , Leishmaniasis/pathology , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Knockout , Serine Proteases/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology
10.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Dec ; 51 (6): 531-541
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156534

ABSTRACT

In visceral leishmaniasis, a fragmentary IL-12 driven type 1 immune response along with the expansion of IL-10 producing T-cells correlates with parasite burden and pathogenesis. Successful immunotherapy involves both suppression of IL-10 production and enhancement of IL-12 and nitric oxide (NO) production. As custodians of the innate immunity, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The TLR-signaling cascade initiated following innate recognition of microbes shapes the adaptive immune response. Whereas numerous studies have correlated parasite control to the adaptive response in Leishmania infection, growing body of evidence suggests that the activation of the innate immune response also plays a pivotal role in disease pathogenicity. In this study, using a TLR4 agonist, a Leishmania donovani (LD) derived 29 kDa β 1,4 galactose terminal glycoprotein (GP29), we demonstrated that the TLR adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response protein-88 (MyD88) was essential for optimal immunity following LD infection. Treatment of LD-infected cells with GP29 stimulated the production of IL-12 and NO while suppressing IL-10 production. Treatment of LD-infected cells with GP29 also induced the degradation of IKB and the nuclear translocation of NF-kB, as well as rapid phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p54/56 JNK. Knockdown of TLR4 or MYD88 using siRNA showed reduced inflammatory response to GP29 in LD-infected cells. Biochemical inhibition of p38 MAPK, JNK or NF-kB, but not p42/44 ERK, reduced GP29-induced IL-12 and NO production in LD-infected cells. These results suggested a potential role for the TLR4-MyD88–IL-12 pathway to induce adaptive immune responses to LD infection that culminated in an effective control of intracellular parasite replication.


Subject(s)
Animals , Down-Regulation/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Leishmania donovani/enzymology , Leishmania donovani/immunology , Leishmaniasis/immunology , Leishmaniasis/pathology , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Knockout , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(5): 404-410, oct. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734409

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante que afecta el sistema nervioso central y que es considerada una de las principales causas de discapacidad en jóvenes adultos. Las causas de la esclerosis múltiple son aún desconocidas, aunque se cree que una combinación de factores genéticos y ambientales resulta en una respuesta autoinmune que promueve la degeneración neuronal/axonal. En esta revisión se analiza la asociación entre la respuesta inmune y la neurodegeneración en la esclerosis múltiple.


Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system and considered one of the leading causes of disability in young adults. The precise cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown, although the current evidence points towards a combination of genetic and environmental factors leading to an autoimmune response that promotes neuronal degeneration. In this review, we will describe the association between the immune response and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Nerve Degeneration/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Myelin Sheath/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Neuroglia/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(5): 355-360, 02/05/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709436

ABSTRACT

Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is an inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa characterized by painful, well-circumscribed, single or multiple round or ovoid ulcerations. The exact etiologic factor(s) of these ulcerations are not yet understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate inflammatory processes and free radical metabolism of 25 patients with RAUs compared to 25 healthy controls. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, and IL-12 were determined by ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), total antioxidant status (TAS), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were measured spectroscopically in serum. The levels of MDA, GSH, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-12, MPO, and TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were higher, and the levels of NO, IL-10, and TAS were lower in patients with RAU than in controls. Statistical analysis showed that GSH, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-10, and OSI differed significantly in patients with RAU compared to controls. These parameters have important roles in oxidant/antioxidant defense.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Glutathione/blood , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Malondialdehyde/blood , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Stomatitis, Aphthous/immunology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Free Radicals/metabolism , /blood , /blood , /blood , Nitric Oxide/blood , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Peroxidase/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 80(2): 152-155, Mar-Apr/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709518

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A rinite alérgica (RA) é uma doença não infecciosa da mucosa nasal mediada por IgE após o contato com alérgenos. Objetivo: Investigar as células Th17 periféricas e CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + células T reguladoras (Treg) e a expressão sérica de citocinas em pacientes com RA. Métodos: De março a maio de 2012, foi coletado o sangue periférico de 14 pacientes com RA (grupo RA) e seis indivíduos saudáveis (grupo controle). A detecção das células Th17 e células Treg foi realizada através da citometria de fluxo e os níveis séricos de IL -17 e TGF- β1. Foram medidos por ELISA. Resultados: A percentagem de células Th17 no grupo RA foi bem maior do que no grupo controle (p < 0,01). A proporção de células Treg no grupo RA também foi drasticamente menor quando comparada ao grupo controle (p < 0,01). No grupo RA, o nível sérico de IL-17 foi significativamente maior do que no grupo controle (p < 0,01). Conclusão: O desequilíbrio de células Th17/Treg periféricas desempenha um papel importante na patogênese da RA. .


Introduction: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an IgE-mediated non-infectious disease of the nasal mucosa following contact with allergens. Objective: To investigate the peripheral Th17 cells and CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells and the expression of cytokines in the serum of AR patients. Methods: The peripheral blood of 14 patients with AR (AR group) and six healthy subjects (control group) was collected from March to May of 2012. Flow cytometry was performed to detect the Th17 cells and Treg cells, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the serum levels of IL-17 and TGF-β1. Results: The proportion of Th17 cells in the AR group was markedly higher than that in the control group (p < 0.01). The proportion of Treg cells in the AR group was also dramatically reduced when compared with the control group (p < 0.01). In the AR group, serum IL-17 levels were markedly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.01). In the AR group, serum TGF-β1 levels were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The imbalance of peripheral Th17/Treg cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AR. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , /immunology , Case-Control Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , /blood , /immunology , Rhinitis, Allergic , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/blood , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/immunology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(1): 29-37, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703641

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterised by the destruction of articular cartilage and bone damage. The chronic treatment of RA patients causes a higher susceptibility to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB); one-third of the world’s population is latently infected (LTBI) with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The tuberculin skin test is used to identify individuals LTBI, but many studies have shown that this test is not suitable for RA patients. The goal of this work was to test the specific cellular immune responses to the Mtb malate synthase (GlcB) and heat shock protein X (HspX) antigens of RA patients and to correlate those responses with LTBI status. The T-helper (Th)1, Th17 and Treg-specific immune responses to the GlcB and HspX Mtb antigens were analysed in RA patients candidates for tumour necrosis factor-α blocker treatment. Our results demonstrated that LTBI RA patients had Th1-specific immune responses to GlcB and HspX. Patients were followed up over two years and 14.3% developed active TB. After the development of active TB, RA patients had increased numbers of Th17 and Treg cells, similar to TB patients. These results demonstrate that a GlcB and HspX antigen assay can be used as a diagnostic test to identify LTBI RA patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Malate Synthase/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Analysis of Variance , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , /blood , Longitudinal Studies , Latent Tuberculosis/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , /immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(1): 65-70, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703041

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To analyze the immunogenicity of virus-like particles (VLP) of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) isolated in East China and the adjuvant potential of interleukin-12 (IL-12). Methods: The variant HPV16 L1VLP expressed in sf9 insect cells were purified with cesium chloride gradient centrifugation. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with VLP (L1N), VLP with Freund's adjuvant (L1A) or VLP with IL-12 recombinant plasmid (L1P). HPV16 VLP specific IgG and IFN-γ level in the serum were detected by ELISA, and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ in spleen cells was detected with flow cytometry. Results: The titers of serum IgG antibodies in vaccinated groups were higher than in negative control and the serum antibodies mainly recognized conformation-dependent HPV16 VLP epitopes. Splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets increased after vaccination in every experimental group, and CD8+ increased obviously in L1P group. The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ decreased in L1P group and increased in the other two groups, compared to control group. Vaccination induced specific secretion of IFN-γ in the serum of vaccinated group (p < 0.05), especially in the L1P group. Conclusions: VLP of HPV16 variant strain isolated in East China could induce humoral immunity and cellular immunity in mice, and IL-12 recombinant plasmid can enhance cellular immunity. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , /immunology , /blood , /genetics , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , /immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Molecular Sequence Data , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology
16.
Hansen. int ; 39(2): 70-74, 2014. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-831071

ABSTRACT

A reação reversa maculosa consiste no aparecimento abrupto de máculas hipocrômicas, ocorrendo em pacientes hansenianos dimorfos que completaram o tratamento com poliquimioterapia para hanseníase multibacilar. Em geral, surgem entre 6 a 12 meses da alta, com baciloscopia negativa e boa resposta a corticoterapia sistêmica. Ressaltamos a dificuldade em diferenciar recidiva de um episódio reacional, já que não existem critérios clínicos bem estabelecidos que possibilitem este diagnóstico, além de existirem poucos relatos em literatura. Relatamos um caso clínico com diagnóstico de reação reversa macular após período variável de alta do tratamento de hanseniase dimorfa-dimorfa. Foi feita investigação por meio de anamnese rigorosa, exame dermatológico, exame histopatológico da lesão e baciloscopia, excluindo-se os critérios de recidiva, além de analisados dados anteriores do prontuário.O paciente foi submetido a corticoterapia sistêmica,apresentando melhora das lesões. Conclui-seque a reação reversa maculosa deve ser lembrada nos diagnósticos diferenciais com hanseníase recidivada e episódios reacionais clássicos, evitando retratamentos desnecessários.


Macular reversal reaction is the abrupt onset of hypochromic lesions, occurring in borderline leprosy patients who completed treatment with multidrugtherapy for multibacillary leprosy. In general, these reactions appear 6 to 12 months after medical discharge, showing negative skin smear and good response to systemic corticosteroid therapy. We emphasize the difficulty in differentiating relapse cases from leprosy reactions, as there are no well-established clinical criteria that allow this diagnosis, and moreover there are few reports about it in the literature. We report a borderline leprosy case diagnosed with macular reversal reaction after variable period of discharge from treatment. Detailed anamnesis, dermatological and histopathological examination and bacilloscopy, analysis of previous medical records, excluding the relapse criteria, were used for the investigation. The patient was submitted to systemic corticosteroid therapy, with improvement of the lesions. It is concluded that macular reversal reaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of relapsed leprosy and classic reactional episodes, avoiding unnecessary retreatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leprosy, Multibacillary/complications , Leprosy, Multibacillary/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Leprosy, Multibacillary , Remission Induction , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination
17.
Prensa méd. argent ; 99(2): 94-98, abr. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-699423

ABSTRACT

Data concerning the usefulness of delayed-type hypersensitivity skin tests with recall antigens are exposed. This easy technique has enormous value in the follow-up of the LT dependent immune competence frequently involved in several chronic diseses. We studied 464 patients with ages between 22 and 79 years old. Those 210 healthy controls revealed at least 4,24 ± 1,15 positive skin tests with 1409 ± 287 LTCD4+ cells meanwhile 135 HIV patients showed 2,02 ± 0,80 positive tests with 392 ± 83 LTCD4+ cells and 99 older subjects revealed 2,38 ± 1,15 with 720 ±154 LTCD4+ cells. Statistical differences between the groups were recorded.


Subject(s)
Female , Control Groups , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Skin Tests
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(2): 128-134, Mar-Apr/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674650

ABSTRACT

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar, a disseminated infection of the lymphoreticular system of the body, is marked by severe defect in immune system of the host. Successful cure of VL depends on the immune status of the host in combination with the effects of the antileishmanial drugs. The rationale approach towards eradication of this disease would be to potentiate the immune functioning of the host in addition to parasite killing. This review deals with different aspects of adaptive and innate immune responses and explores their role in protection or pathogenesis of VL. IL-10 has emerged as the principal cytokine responsible for disease pathogenesis, although evidences regarding its source during active VL remain inconclusive. On the other hand, IFNγ, under the influence of IL-12, is mostly correlated with healing of the disease. Chemokines are important in mounting cell-mediated immune response as they can prevent parasite invasion in association with cytokines. Different types of T cells like CD4, CD8 and NK T cells also contribute to the immunology of this disease. In spite of conflicting reports, the role of regulatory T cells in VL pathogenesis is important. Recently discovered Th17 subset and its different members have been reported to perform diverse functions in the course of VL and leishmaniasis as a whole. Innate immune responses, depending on the cell types, are essential in early parasite detection and subsequent development of an efficient NK cell response. Immunotherapy targeting IL-10 could be looked upon as an interesting option for the treatment of VL.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Cytokines/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Disease Progression , Immunity, Innate/immunology
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(2): 212-219, abr. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670398

ABSTRACT

Astrocytes play a vital role in neuronal protection, homeostasis, vascular interchange and the local immune response. Some viruses and parasites can cross the blood-brain barrier and infect glia. Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, can seriously compromise the central nervous system, mainly in immune-suppressed individuals, but also during the acute phase of the infection. In this report, the infective capacity of T. cruzi in a human astrocyte tumour-derived cell line was studied. Astrocytes exposed to trypomastigotes (1:10 ratio) produced intracellular amastigotes and new trypomastigotes emerged by day 4 post-infection (p.i.). At day 6 p.i., 93% of the cells were infected. Using flow cytometry, changes were observed in both the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules and the chemokine secretion pattern of astrocytes exposed to the parasite. Blocking the low-density lipoprotein receptor on astrocytes did not reduce parasite intracellular infection. Thus, T. cruzi can infect astrocytes and modulate the immune response during central nervous system infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Astrocytes/parasitology , Astrocytoma/parasitology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Astrocytoma/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Major Histocompatibility Complex/immunology , Time Factors
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140271

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The immune responses to different antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv vary from patient to patient with tuberculosis (TB). Therefore, significant difference might be documented between the H37Rv with long histories of passages and recent clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. In the present study, immune response of TB patients and healthy controls against 39 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates was correlated with laboratory strain H37Rv. Methods: The antibody response was studied coating whole cell extracts and culture filtrate proteins of M. tuberculosis isolates and laboratory strain H37Rv by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Lymphoproliferation was studied by incorporation of tritiated thymidine and cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) by using commercially available kits. Results: Sero-reactivity to whole cell extract (WCE) of 11 clinical isolates was higher with pooled serum and individual's serum from tuberculosis patients showed significant reactivity (P<0.05) to ten of these isolates using ELISA. Of the WCE of 39 clinical isolates, 10 were found to be potent inducer of lymphoproliferation as well as cytokine secretion (P<0.05) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from PPD+ healthy controls. Six culture filtrate proteins (CFPs) from these selected clinical isolates were also better inducers of antibody and T-cell response. Interpretation & conclusion: Overall, our results revealed that the clinical isolates belonging to prevalent genotypes; CAS1_Del (ST-26), East African-Indian (ST-11) and Beijing family (ST-1) induced better antibody and T cell responses compared to H37Rv laboratory strain. Further studies need to be done to purify and identify the dominant protein (s) using whole cell extract and culture filtrates from these immunologically relevant clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, which will be worthwhile to find out pathogenic factors, potential diagnostic markers and protective molecules for tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Antibody Formation/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Filtration , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology
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