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1.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2017. 105 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-943108

ABSTRACT

O Plasmodium vivax infecta os reticulócitos por meio de uma via de invasão principal que envolve a interação entre a Duffy binding protein(região II, DBPII) e seu receptor nos reticulócitos, o antígeno de grupo sanguíneo Duffy receptor de quimiocinas (DARC). Contudo, uma via de invasão alternativa pode envolver uma proteína do parasito recém-descrita, denominada EBP2 (Erythrocyte Binding Protein 2). Apesar da exposição natural ao P. vivax induza uma resposta de anticorpos capaz de bloquear a interação DBPII-DARC, a maioria dos indivíduos expostos à malária não desenvolvem anticorpos inibitórios (binding inhibitory antibodies, BIAbs). Embora estudos prévios demonstraram que polimorfismos na DBPII contribuem para a baixa imunogenicidade da proteína, a influência da variabilidade genética do hospedeiro vertebrado nesta resposta tem sido pouco estudada. Neste contexto, o presente estudo investigou a contribuição dos polimorfismos genéticos do receptor DARC e do sistema HLA classe II na resposta deanticorpos contra a DBPII. Adicionalmente, caracterizamos a nova proteína EBP2 do P. vivax, incluindo avaliação das suas propriedades de ligação ao eritrócito/reticulócito e estudos de imunogenicidade. Para isso, um estudo prospectivo, do tipo coorte aberta, foi conduzido com 620 indivíduos naturalmente expostos ao P. vivax na região da Amazônia brasileira (comunidade de Rio Pardo/AM)


Este estudo incluiu cinco cortes transversais, sendo três conduzidas no primeiro ano de acompanhamento (linha-de-base, 6 e 12 meses) e dois cortes transversais, 6 e 7 anos depois. Nesta comunidade os alelos mais comuns do receptor DARC(FY*A, FY*B and FY*BES) foram genotipados por PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) em tempo-real, e as variantes do HLA II (loci DRB1, DQB1 and DQA1) genotipadas por PCR-SSO (PCR com oligonucleotídeos de sequência específica pela tecnologia Luminex). As respostas de anticorpos específicos foram avaliadas nos cortes tranversais por meio da sorologia convencional (anticorpos IgG detectados pelo ensaio de ELISA), bem como por ensaios funcionais de inibição (ensaios in vitro para detecção de BIAbs). Em conjunto, os resultados permitiram demonstrar que: (i) a variabilidade genética do receptor DARC influencia na resposta BIAbs anti-DBPII, sendo esses anticorpos inibitórios mais frequentes em indivíduos heterozigotos carreadores de um alelo chamado “não-funcional” ou silencioso de DARC (FY*BES); a habilidade dos polimorfismos de DARC em influenciar nas propriedades funcionais dos anticorpos pode ser detectada durante todo o período de acompanhamento (neste caso, 12-meses); (ii) a variabilidade genética do HLA II influenciou na aquisição e manutenção da resposta de anticorpos anti-DBPII, sendo que diferentes alelos e haplótipos influenciaram tanto na resposta detectada pela sorologia convencional (ELISA) quanto na de anticorpos funcionais (BIAbs)


Estudos de modelagem molecular das variantes HLA-DRB1 permitiram identificar diferenças estruturais, particularmente na fenda de ligação entre peptídeo-HLADRB1, que poderiam explicar os diferentes perfis de respondedores identificados. Com relação a EBP2, (iii) foi possível demonstrar que essa proteína se liga preferencialmente a reticulócitos imaturos (CD71 high) e DARC positivos; (iv) na população estudada, anticorpos anti-EBP2 foram mais frequentes que anticorpos anti-DBPII. De importância, 6 e 7 anos após o início do estudo, o perfil de resposta de anticorpos anti-EBP2 se manteve estável, mesmo com a redução dos níveis de transmissão de malária na região; no mesmo período, anticorpos anti-DBPII diminuíram significativamente. Em conclusão, os resultados aqui encontrados fornecem evidências de que a variabilidade genética do hospedeiro vertebrado deverá ser levada em consideração no desenvolvimento de vacinas baseadas na DBPII. Além disso, reforça os achados iniciais que sugerem que a EBP2 pode ser um candidato promissor para compor uma vacina contra as formas sanguíneas do P. vivax; além de ser altamente imunogênica na população estudada, a proteína apresenta características funcionais compatíveis com uma possível função na invasão de reticulócitos jovens (DARC positivos) pelo P. vivax


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Animals , Guinea Pigs , Mice , Duffy Blood-Group System/therapeutic use , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Malaria, Vivax/transmission , Plasmodium vivax/parasitology
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 31(supl.1): 89-93, dez. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-613498

ABSTRACT

A fase perinatal do desenvolvimento constitui um dos períodos de vida mais desafiadores para o sistema imunológico dos potros. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o perfil protéico sérico de parâmetros relacionados à imunidade de equinos jovens no período perinatal, verificando-se a transferência de imunidade passiva. Oito animais desmamados há um dia, formaram o Grupo 1 (G1), enquanto vinte animais desmamados há mais de trinta dias formaram o Grupo 2 (G2). A concentração sérica de proteína total foi determinada por refratometria. Para o fracionamento das proteínas, utilizou-se eletroforese em gel de acrilamida. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de medidas repetidas e ao teste Tukey (p<0,05) para comparação das médias. As concentrações de IgA apresentaram diferença (p<0,05) entre os grupos, porém os valores observados encontravam-se dentro do considerado normal para equinos adultos. Não houve diferença (p>0,05) nas concentrações de IgG. O estabelecimento adequado da imunidade celular ocorre durante a fase neonatal, nos animais que ingerem adequadamente o colostro e o leite. O presente estudo determinou diferenças no perfil protéico sérico de parâmetros relacionados à imunidade de equinos jovens no período imediato ao desmame, comparados com animais desmamados há mais de 30 dias. De acordo com os valores observados, concluiu-se que os animais, mesmo desmamados precocemente, obtiveram transferência adequada de imunidade passiva.


The perinatal phase of foal development is one of the most challenger period for the immune system. The present study has analyzed serum protein profile, considering variables related to immunity in foals at the perinatal phase, verifying passive immunity transfer. The group 1 (G1) contained eight foals evaluated one day after weaning, and group 2 (G2) included twenty foals at more than thirty days after weaning. Total protein concentration was determined by means of refractometry. The concentration of serum proteins was determined through sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test (P<0.05). IgA concentration showed difference (P<0.05) between the two studied groups, however data were within adult healthy horses normal values. IgG didn't show statistical difference (P>0.05). The cellular immunity establishment occurs in the neonatal phase, in foals that suckled colostrum and milk properly. The present study showed differences in serum protein profile, considering variables related to immunity, in foals immediately after weaning comparing to foals at more than 30 days after weaning. According to the observed values, we conclude that foals, even early weaned, showed proper passive immunity tranfer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Horses/growth & development , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunization, Passive/veterinary , Weaning , Colostrum/immunology , Plasma/immunology
3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 173-180, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136371

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The third variable (V3) loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein has been intensively studied for AIDS vaccine development. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is widely used to immunize against tuberculosis and has many advantages as a vaccine vehicle, such as low toxicity, adjuvant potential, low cost, and long-lasting immune-inducing capacity. This work was initiated to investigate the immunogenicity of recombinant BCG (rBCG-mV3) designed to express trimeric HIV-1 V3 loop (mV3) in rBCG-mV3-immunized animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HIV-1 V3-concatamer was cloned into pMV261, a BCG-expression vector, and then rBCG-mV3 was constructed by introducing the recombinant plasmid (pMV-V3). The recombinant BCG was examined with regard to its expression of V3-concatamer and the genetic stability in vivo and in vitro. The immune responses induced by recombinant BCG were tested in immunized mice and guinea pigs. RESULTS: The rBCG-mV3 expressed detectable amounts of V3-concatamer when induced by single heat-shock. The recombinant BCG was genetically stable and maintained the introduced mV3 gene for several weeks. V3-specific antibodies were clearly detected 6 weeks after inoculation. The antibody titer rapidly increased after immunization up to 10 weeks, and then maintained for over 4 weeks. IgG2a was prevalent in the V3-specific antiserum. The recombinant BCG was also effective in inducing delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in the immunized guinea pigs. rBCG-immunized mice retained substantial amounts of V3-specific T cells in the spleen, even 5 months after the first immunization. CONCLUSION: Recombinant BCG-mV3 is very efficient in inducing humoral and long-lasting cell-mediated immunity against HIV-1 V3 in the immunized animals.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/genetics , Animals , BCG Vaccine/genetics , Female , Guinea Pigs , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 173-180, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136370

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The third variable (V3) loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein has been intensively studied for AIDS vaccine development. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is widely used to immunize against tuberculosis and has many advantages as a vaccine vehicle, such as low toxicity, adjuvant potential, low cost, and long-lasting immune-inducing capacity. This work was initiated to investigate the immunogenicity of recombinant BCG (rBCG-mV3) designed to express trimeric HIV-1 V3 loop (mV3) in rBCG-mV3-immunized animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HIV-1 V3-concatamer was cloned into pMV261, a BCG-expression vector, and then rBCG-mV3 was constructed by introducing the recombinant plasmid (pMV-V3). The recombinant BCG was examined with regard to its expression of V3-concatamer and the genetic stability in vivo and in vitro. The immune responses induced by recombinant BCG were tested in immunized mice and guinea pigs. RESULTS: The rBCG-mV3 expressed detectable amounts of V3-concatamer when induced by single heat-shock. The recombinant BCG was genetically stable and maintained the introduced mV3 gene for several weeks. V3-specific antibodies were clearly detected 6 weeks after inoculation. The antibody titer rapidly increased after immunization up to 10 weeks, and then maintained for over 4 weeks. IgG2a was prevalent in the V3-specific antiserum. The recombinant BCG was also effective in inducing delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in the immunized guinea pigs. rBCG-immunized mice retained substantial amounts of V3-specific T cells in the spleen, even 5 months after the first immunization. CONCLUSION: Recombinant BCG-mV3 is very efficient in inducing humoral and long-lasting cell-mediated immunity against HIV-1 V3 in the immunized animals.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/genetics , Animals , BCG Vaccine/genetics , Female , Guinea Pigs , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(12): 1215-1224, Dec. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-568996

ABSTRACT

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial dysmorphisms, broad thumbs and toes, mental and growth deficiency, and recurrent respiratory infections. RTS has been associated with CREBBP gene mutations, but EP300 gene mutations have recently been reported in 6 individuals. In the present study, the humoral immune response in 16 RTS patients with recurrent respiratory infections of possible bacterial etiology was evaluated. No significant differences between patients and 16 healthy controls were detected to explain the high susceptibility to respiratory infections: normal or elevated serum immunoglobulin levels, normal salivary IgA levels, and a good antibody response to both polysaccharide and protein antigens were observed. However, most patients presented high serum IgM levels, a high number of total B cell and B subsets, and also high percentiles of apoptosis, suggesting that they could present B dysregulation. The CREBBP/p300 family gene is extremely important for B-cell regulation, and RTS may represent an interesting human model for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in B-cell development.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulins/analysis , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Case-Control Studies , CREB-Binding Protein/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Recurrence
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