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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877517

ABSTRACT

Some countries with high coverage of diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis combined vaccines have experienced pertussis epidemics and/or local outbreaks since 1980s. This phenomenon is called "pertussis resurgence". In recent years, pertussis epidemics in several provinces of China have resurged dramatically, arousing great concern from all parties. By referring the working model of the Global Pertussis Initiative, the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association has organized and launched the China Pertussis Initiative. A group of experts in this field has analyzed data of current pertussis in China and identified problems posed by the disease. This expert consensus was completed based on the discussions of the latest national and international research progeress, epidemiological trends and immunization strategies of pertussis, with special aims to provide guidance for the surveillance, prevention and control of pertussis in China.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Consensus , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Tetanus , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 199-207, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1088910

ABSTRACT

The target cp1002_RS01850 from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was used to construct a DNA and recombinant subunit vaccine against caseous lymphadenitis. Recombinant protein rCP01850 was expressed in Escherichia coli using pAE vector, and DNA vaccine was engineered with pTARGET vector. BALB/c mice were divided in five groups containing eight animals each, inoculated with: pTARGET/cp01850 as DNA vaccine (G1); rCP01850 plus Al (OH)3 as recombinant subunit vaccine (G2); pTARGET/cp01850 and a boost with rCP01850 plus Al (OH)3 (G3); pTARGET (G4); or Al (OH)3 (G5). Mice were inoculated and blood samples were collected on days 0, 21, and 42 for the analysis of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a by ELISA. In each group, five animals were challenged with Mic-6 C. pseudotuberculosis strain, and three were used for cytokine quantification by qPCR. Although no group has been protected by vaccines against lethal challenge, G2 showed an increase in the survival rate after challenge. Significantly higher levels of IL-4, IL-12, IFN-γ, total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were also detected for G2, evidencing a mixed Th1/Th2 immunological profile. In conclusion, despite no protection level provided by different vaccinal strategies using cp1002_RS01850 from C. pseudotuberculosis, G2 developed a Th1/Th2 immune response with an increase in survival rate.(AU)


O alvo cp1002_RS01850 de Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis foi utilizado para construir uma vacina recombinante de subunidade e de DNA contra a linfadenite caseosa. A proteína recombinante rCP01850 foi expressa em Escherichia coli usando o vetor pAE, e a vacina de DNA foi construída com o vetor pTARGET. Camundongos BALB/c foram divididos em grupos de oito animais, inoculados com: pTARGET/cp01850 como vacina de DNA (G1); rCP01850 e Al (OH)3 como vacina recombinante de subunidade (G2); pTARGET/cp01850 e um boost com rCP01850 e Al (OH)3 (G3); pTARGET (G4); ou Al (OH)3 (G5). Os animais foram inoculados e amostras de sangue foram coletadas nos dias 0, 21, e 42 do experimento para a análise de IgG total, IgG1 e IgG2a por ELISA. De cada grupo, cinco animais foram desafiados com a cepa Mic-6 de C. pseudotuberculosis, e três foram usados para a quantificação de citocinas por qPCR. Apesar de nenhum grupo ter sido protegido pelas vacinas testadas contra o desafio letal, G2 apresentou taxa de sobrevida e níveis de IL-4, IL-12, IFN-γ, IgG total, IgG1 e IgG2a significativamente mais altos, evidenciando um perfil imunológico misto Th1/Th2. Conclui-se que apesar das diferentes estratégias vacinais utilizando cp1002_RS01850 de C. pseudotuberculosis não terem sido capazes de gerar proteção, G2 desenvolveu uma resposta Th1/Th2 e elevou a taxa de sobrevida.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acid Phosphatase , Immunization, Secondary/veterinary , Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis , Lymphadenitis/immunology , Recombinant Proteins , Aluminum Hydroxide
5.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(6): 666-673, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020931

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To asses the non-inferiority between two different vaccination schedules one month after the administration of the third dose. Materials and methods: We evaluated the anti-HPV 16/18 antibody titers induced by quadrivalent HPV vaccine administered using two different schedules in girls 9 to 10-year-old girls: a traditional (0-2-6) and an alternative (0-6-50). Blood samples were collected at month 7, 21 and 51. Results: The antibody geometric mean titer ratios one month after the application of the third dose -month 51 for the alternative and month 7 for the traditional- were 1.55 for HPV16 (95%CI, 1.15-2.08) and 1.53 for HPV18 (95%CI, 1.12-2.09). The seropositive rate was above 99% in both groups. Conclusions: The application of an alternative 3-dose schedule in 9 to 10-year-old girls induces a non-inferior immune response compared to the standard one month after the last dose. Further research is needed to understand the minimal number of doses and their timing to provide the best coverage for HPV infection.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la no inferioridad entre dos diferentes esquemas de vacunación un mes después de la administración de la tercera dosis. Material y métodos: Se evaluaron los títulos de anticuerpos anti-VPH 16/18 inducidos por la vacuna contra VPH tetravalente administrada en niñas de 9 a 10 años utilizando dos esquemas diferentes: tradicional (0-2-6) y alternativo (0-6-50). Se recolectaron muestras en los meses 7, 21 y 51. Resultados: La media geométrica de títulos de anticuerpos un mes después de la aplicación de la tercera dosis -mes 51 para la alternativa y mes 7 para el tradicional- fueron 1.55 para HPV16 (95% IC 1.15-2.08) y 1.53 para HPV18 (95% IC 1.12-2.09). La tasa de seropositividad fue superior a 99% en ambos grupos. Conclusiones: la aplicación de un esquema alternativo de tres dosis (0-6-50 meses) en niñas parece inducir una respuesta inmune no inferior al esquema tradicional un mes después de la última dosis. Se necesitan más estudios para determinar las dosis mínimas e intervalos óptimos para obtener la mejor cobertura para la infección por VPH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18/administration & dosage , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Time Factors , Human papillomavirus 16/immunology , Human papillomavirus 18/immunology , Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18/immunology , Mexico , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/blood
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 94-98, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041447

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) downmodulates allergen-specific IgE levels and prevents other atopic responses in experimental models but fails to protect against respiratory allergies. Human responsiveness to BCG is variable and may interfere with protection. METHODS: Multivariate models were evaluated to test the possible effect of responsiveness (assessed by IFN-γ production) to BCG revaccination on the modulation of total and allergen-specific serum IgE levels in healthy volunteers participating in a randomized controlled trial. RESULTS: Serum total or Derp-specific IgE levels did not change regardless of the increase in IFN-γ levels. CONCLUSIONS: BCG responsiveness does not affect protection against atopy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Immunoglobulin E/blood , BCG Vaccine/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Time Factors , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Skin Tests , Down-Regulation , Hypersensitivity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pertussis is highly contagious respiratory disease. Healthcare workers (HCWs) can be an important mediator of the disease. A seroprevalence of pertussis was investigated in HCWs to determine the immune status against pertussis and to detect the unidentified pertussis. METHODS: This study was conducted for HCWs at a hospital located in Korea in 2011. After obtaining written informed consent for HCWs voluntarily participating in the study, 10 mL of blood was collected from each subject. Demographic and medical data were collected using questionnaire. Data on the underlying disease and vaccination history were reviewed again through medical records. The presence of anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) immunoglobulin G (IgG), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) was detected by quantitative analysis using a commercially available ELISA kit (EUROIMMUN, Lübeck, Germany). RESULTS: A total of 412 HCW participated in the study. Among them, 14 were excluded due to the inadequate sample amount or medical history not secured. Of the 398 HCWs analyzed, 16.6% (66/398) were men and the mean age was 33.82 ± 9.10 years (range, 21–67). The mean anti-PT IgG titer was 8.32 ± 20.40 IU/mL (range, 0.4–287.5 IU/mL). The overall seroprevalence (rate of anti-PT IgG antibody [Ab] titer > 5 IU/mL) was 33.7%. Three (0.8%) HCWs had the Ab level > 100 IU/mL indicated acute infection. There was no statistically significant difference in the seroprevalence and mean titer of anti-PT IgG Ab according to age group, type of occupation, patient-facing position, or working in the pediatric department. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of pertussis of the HCWs of a university hospital in Korea was low, and there were some unrecognized acute infections. Therefore, booster immunization of pertussis to HCWs should be actively considered.


Subject(s)
Adult , Delivery of Health Care , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Informed Consent , Korea , Male , Medical Records , Occupations , Pertussis Vaccine , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination , Whooping Cough
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 460-463, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237518

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To examine the influence of three-booster-doses hepatitis B vaccines on children with normal and high antibody response to primary vaccination.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were detected after primary vaccination and children with normal or high response to hepatitis B primary vaccination at infancy, were identified. Children who were given three booster doses were selected to form the booster group and who were given no booster dose were 1∶1 matched with the same gender and residence to form the control group. Blood samples were obtained from all the participants and tested for anti-HBs and anti-HBc, 5 years after the primary vaccination.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The positive rates of anti-HBs response to primary vaccination were 97.39% (224/230, 95% CI: 94.41%-99.04%) in the booster group and 53.91% (124/230, 95% CI: 47.24%-60.48%) in the control group (P<0.05), 5 years after the primary vaccination. Geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-HBs were 1 140.02 (887.46-1 464.46) mIU/ml in the booster group and 11.53 (8.73-15.23) mIU/ml in the control group (P<0.05). The prevalence rates of breakthrough HBV infection were 0.87% (2/230) in the booster group and 2.17%(5/230) in the control group (P>0.05). RESULTS from the multivariable analysis showed that the booster doses (OR=38.75, 95%CI: 16.23-92.54) and the level of anti-HBs after the primary vaccination (OR =3.06, 95%CI:1.51-6.17) were independently associated with the positive rates of anti-HBs, 5 years after the primary vaccination (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Programs with three booster doses to children that showing normal and high antibody response to primary vaccination could improve the persistence of anti-HBs but possibly would not be able to prevent the HBV infection.</p>


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Case-Control Studies , Child , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Infant , Prevalence , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
9.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2015; 22 (4): 507-513
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-162239

ABSTRACT

Poliomyelitis is a highly infectious disease but preventable by effective vaccines. Children under five year of age affected by this disease as a result a permanent paralysis. To uncover the trend of infant polio immunization coverage through modeling is a significant concern to formulate an adequate vaccination strategies and program after the outbreak of new cases of polio in a recent year in Pakistan. The reported data of monthly infant polio immunization coverage to National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan from January 2008 to July 2013 for the present study has been taken from Pakistan bureau of statistics with total time series entities 67. National Institute of Health, Islamabad took the record of per month number of doses administered [0-11 months] children by the registered health centre in pakistan. January 2008 - July 2013. Pakistan bureau of statistics [Statistics House]. A set of various short term time series forecasting models namely Box-Jenkins, single moving average, double moving average, single parameter exponential smoothing, brown, Holts and winter models were carried out to expose the infant polio immunization coverage trend. Among the several forecasting models ARIMA models are chosen due to lower measure of forecast errors namely root mean square error [RMSE], mean absolute error [MAE] and mean absolute percentage error [MAPE]. ARIMA [2,1,1], ARIMA [1,0,2], ARIMA [0,1,2] and ARIMA [2,1,1] models are established as an adequate models for the prediction of OPV-0, OPV-1, OPV-2 and OPV-3 respectively. With the exception of OPV-1 the infant polio immunization coverage is expected to rise in Pakistan


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , Poliovirus Vaccines , Forecasting/methods , Infant , Immunization
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269992

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To access the antibody persistence 24-month after revaccination with 3-dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among non-response adults.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 24 237 healthy adults who had no histories of hepatitis B infection and hepatitis B vaccination, resided in the local area for more than six months and were aged 18-49 years were selected from 79 villages of Zhangqiu county, Shandong province, China in 2009. Blood samples were obtained and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were detected using ELISA method. A total of 11 590 persons who were negative for all of these indicators were divided into four groups by cluster sampling methods. Each group was vaccinated with one of the following four types of HepB at 0-, 1-, 6-months schedule: 20 µg HepB derived in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (HepB-SC), 20 µg HepB derived in Chinese hamster ovary cell (HepB-CHO), 10 µg HepB-SC and 10 µg HepB derived in Hansenula Polymorpha (HepB-HP). Blood samples were collected one month after the third dose of primary immunization and tested for anti-HBs using chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). The non-responders were revaccinated with three doses of HepB at 0-, 1-, 6-months schedule and the type of HepB was the same as which was used for primary immunization. Blood samples were collected one month (T1) and two years (T24) after revaccination and anti-HBs, antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface angtigen (HBsAg) (if anti-HBs < 10 mU/ml) were detected by CMIA. χ(2) test was used to compared age, gender and body mass index (BMI) between different groups and the anti-HBs positive rate at T1 and T24; analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-HBs between difference groups. The risk factors associated with positive rate of anti-HBs and GMC of anti-HBs were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis and multifactor linear regression model analysis respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 900 non-responders were identified and 71.7% (645/900) of them completed three-dose revaccination and blood collection after revaccination. 467 (72.4%) non-responsive adults were followed up at T24. The anti-HBs positive rate decreased from 85.65% (95% CI: 82.14%-88.71%) at T1 to 60.60% (95% CI: 56.01%-65.06%) at T24 and the corresponding GMC decreased from 175.62 (95% CI: 139.03-221.84) mU/ml to 21.43 (95% CI: 17.62-26.06) mU/ml. Multivariate analysis showed that positive rate of anti-HBs at T24 was associated with gender, HepB type for revaccination and anti-HBs level at T1, but only anti-HBs level at T1 was associated with the anti-HBs titer at T24. No subject showed HBsAg seroconversion and anti-HBc conversion rate was 3.64% (17/467) at T24.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Anti-HBs titer decreases rapidly two years after HepB revaccination among non-responsive adults, but more than half non-responderd still kept anti-HBs above protective level. The immunity durability after revaccination was associated with gender, HepB type for revaccination and anti-HBs titer one month after revaccination.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Body Mass Index , CHO Cells , China , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Classification , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pichia , Risk Factors , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Seroconversion , Vaccination , Young Adult
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancers are recommended to receive revaccinations after chemotherapy, although the universally recommended vaccination schedule for such children has not been established. We evaluated immune response following post-chemotherapy vaccinations in childhood cancer survivors.METHODS: The study included 59 patients who survived at least 5 years after completion of chemotherapy without evidence of recurrence. The patients received hepatitis-B virus (HBV) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines 1 year after finishing chemotherapy according to our institutional protocol. Immune response to HBV and MMR vaccines was measured and seropositivity and factors hindering immune response to HBV and MMR vaccines were analyzed.RESULTS: The seropositivity for HBV was 88%; with a higher rate in patients with non-hematologic malignancies (100%, 18/18) than those with hematologic malignancies (78.3%, 18/23) (P=0.05) and reciprocally associated with the duration of chemotherapy (P=0.0043). The seropositivity for MMR viruses was 61%, 37% and 83% respectively, showing significantly lower response to mumps and was not different between hematologic malignancy group and non-hematologic malignancy group. Unlike HBV, the duration of chemotherapy did not affect seropositivity for MMR viruses. Ten children who failed to be immune to any of the MMR viruses received booster vaccination which resulted in seropositivity of 60% (3/5), 56% (4/9), 100% (2/2) respectively.CONCLUSION: Longer duration of chemotherapy and underlying hematologic malignancies were adversely associated with achieving immune response to HBV vaccine, but not to MMR vaccine. Our results also underline the need for booster vaccinations in non-responders to vaccinations post-chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Child , Drug Therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Measles , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Mumps , Recurrence , Rubella , Survivors , Vaccination , Vaccines
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancers are recommended to receive revaccinations after chemotherapy, although the universally recommended vaccination schedule for such children has not been established. We evaluated immune response following post-chemotherapy vaccinations in childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: The study included 59 patients who survived at least 5 years after completion of chemotherapy without evidence of recurrence. The patients received hepatitis-B virus (HBV) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines 1 year after finishing chemotherapy according to our institutional protocol. Immune response to HBV and MMR vaccines was measured and seropositivity and factors hindering immune response to HBV and MMR vaccines were analyzed. RESULTS: The seropositivity for HBV was 88%; with a higher rate in patients with non-hematologic malignancies (100%, 18/18) than those with hematologic malignancies (78.3%, 18/23) (P=0.05) and reciprocally associated with the duration of chemotherapy (P=0.0043). The seropositivity for MMR viruses was 61%, 37% and 83% respectively, showing significantly lower response to mumps and was not different between hematologic malignancy group and non-hematologic malignancy group. Unlike HBV, the duration of chemotherapy did not affect seropositivity for MMR viruses. Ten children who failed to be immune to any of the MMR viruses received booster vaccination which resulted in seropositivity of 60% (3/5), 56% (4/9), 100% (2/2) respectively. CONCLUSION: Longer duration of chemotherapy and underlying hematologic malignancies were adversely associated with achieving immune response to HBV vaccine, but not to MMR vaccine. Our results also underline the need for booster vaccinations in non-responders to vaccinations post-chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Child , Drug Therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Measles , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Mumps , Recurrence , Rubella , Survivors , Vaccination , Vaccines
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70182

ABSTRACT

We investigated the prevalence of pertussis in Korean adolescents and adults with persistent cough. Study population was adolescents (aged 11-20 yr) and adults (> or = 21 yr old) who showed persistent cough of 1-8 weeks' duration. Pertussis was diagnosed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. A total of 310 subjects participated in this study, and 76 cases (24.5%) met the criteria for laboratory-confirmed pertussis. The majority of the pertussis cases (66/76) were confirmed by serology, while 3 cases (1.0%) were diagnosed with culture, and 10 cases (3.2%) were detected with PCR. Of the 76 subjects diagnosed with pertussis, 20/86 cases were adolescents and 56/224 cases were adults. Neither adolescents nor adults received adolescent-adult booster against pertussis within the previous 5 yr. Pertussis can be a primary cause of persistent cough in Korean adolescents and adults.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Bordetella pertussis/immunology , Child , Cough/epidemiology , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Rev. salud pública ; 16(5): 646-657, set.-oct. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-743927

ABSTRACT

Objetivo La obtención de niveles de cobertura bajos frente a la vacunación contra el virus del papiloma humano, ha planteado la necesidad de analizar las causas que están afectando a la toma de decisiones sobre la administración de la vacuna, a partir de las manifestaciones de aquellas directamente implicadas, las adolescentes. Métodos Por tanto, se ha planteado la realización de una evaluación mediante la utilización de la metodología de grupos focales. Se han realizado un grupo piloto y cuatro grupos focales en el Instituto Tirant lo Blanc de Gandía con adolescentes pertenecientes a distintas poblaciones del departamento, incluyendo en los mismos adolescentes vacunadas, no vacunadas y con vacunación incorrecta. Resultados Las su experiencia, conocimientos y opiniones respecto a la vacunación frente al VPH que pueden resumirse en la existencia de ideas erróneas y una carencia importante de conocimientos. Conclusión Es necesario un cambio de dirección basado en el desarrollo de campañas educativas, que sirvan para poder obrar con responsabilidad y poder al mismo tiempo tomar decisiones adecuadas.


Objective The low immunization coverage levels for the human papilloma virus vaccine has led to a need to analyze the causes that affect the decision to vaccinate, as expressed by those directly involved in making this decision -teenage girls. Methodology Therefore, we proposed an assessment with a focus group methodology. An evaluation with a pilot group and four focal groups was carried out in Tirant lo Blanc of Gandia secondary school. The girls that made up the groups belonged to different populations within the health department, including vaccinated, non-vaccinated, and incorrectly vaccinated teenage girls. Results The girls talked about their experiences, knowledge and opinions with respect to HPV vaccination, which could be summarized as showing a large knowledge gap and the existence of erroneous ideas. Conclusion A change in direction, involving the development of educational campaigns that empowers girls and their families to make suitable decisions, is necessary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Psychology, Adolescent , Vaccination/psychology , Attitude to Health , Culture , Focus Groups , Health Education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Promotion , Immunization, Secondary/psychology , Immunization, Secondary , Motivation , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pilot Projects , Sexual Behavior , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819718

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether there is an association between diameter of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scars and effect of purified protein derivative (PPD) reaction and to determine whether vitamin A (VA) combined vitamin D (VD) supplementation influences the immune response to BCG revaccinated in Chinese infants.@*METHODS@#A cross-section and 3-month community-randomised trial was conducted. A total of 5 629 infants at 3, 6 and 12 months of age in Junan County of China were examined for BCG scar formation. Then, 597 revaccinated infants were randomly assigned to supplementation (n=307) and control (n=290) groups. The supplementation group were daily assigned to 1 500 IU VA and 500 IU VD for 3 months. Then all infants were subjected to skin test with PPD.@*RESULTS@#The diameter of BCG scars was positively correlated with diameter of skin indurations of PPD (r=0.17, P<0.05) in the 5 629 infants. The rate of positive response to PPD was higher in the supplementation group than in the control group (96.1% versus 89.7%, P<0.05, prevalence ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.12). The prevalence ratio of PPD response for the supplementation group compared with that for the control group was 1.07 (95% CI 1.01-1.13) for the males and 1.08 (95% CI 1.00-1.17) for the females. For the supplementation group, the males got larger tuberculin induration than the females [(0.73±0.21) cm versus (0.67±0.20) cm, P<0.05) after intervention.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The diameter of BCG scars was effectively correlated with PPD response, which indicates BCG scar formation may be an useful tool to evaluate the effect of tuberculosis prevention. VA combined VD supplementation may play an immuno-regulatory role in BCG revaccination. This may contribute to the prevention of childhood tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , BCG Vaccine , Allergy and Immunology , China , Cicatrix , Pathology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Methods , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Tuberculin , Allergy and Immunology , Tuberculosis , Allergy and Immunology , Vitamin A , Vitamin D
16.
Mali méd. (En ligne) ; 29(3): 40-48, 2014.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1265677

ABSTRACT

But : Notre etude avait pour objectif d'etudier les facteurs associes a la faible couverture en Vaccin Anti Tetanique deuxieme dose (VAT2+) chez les femmes enceintes dans la Zone Sanitaire de Zogbodomey Zakpota Bohicon au Benin. Materiels et Methodes: Une etude transversale; descriptive et analytique a ete menee en juin juillet 2013 et apporte sur les meres d'enfants de 0 11 mois. La methode de couverture vaccinale en grappes de l'OMS a ete utilisee. Les donnees ont ete analysees avec Epi Info 7 et Stata 11. La regression logistique a ete utilisee pour determiner les facteurs associes a la VAT2+. Resultats: La couverture en VAT2 + des 210 meres enquetees etait de 61;7 IC95 =[61;4 62;0]. Les facteurs associes a la couverture en VAT2+ etaient : le nombre de CPN; le recours a un centre de sante prive; la connaissance et l'explication du calendrier vaccinal; l'utilisation des medias; le statut matrimonial; la profession; le temps d'attente; la residence; la peur des reactions secondaires; la permanence des services de vaccination; le niveau d'instruction; la distance; le soutien de la famille. Conclusion : Les mesures visant a ameliorer la couverture en VAT2+ doivent davantage mettre l'accent sur ces facteurs pour esperer eliminer le tetanos maternel et neonatal


Subject(s)
Catchment Area, Health , Drug Overdose , Immunization, Secondary
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-302541

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To assess the 24-month efficacy after booster vaccination with 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine among low-response adults in Zhangqiu county of Shandong province.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 24 237 adults aged 18-49 years old, never received HepB vaccination, without HBV infection history, and had been living at 3 towns of Zhangqiu county in Shandong province for more than half a year in september, 2009, were collected blood samples of 3-5 ml. A total of 11 590 adults who were negative for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) , antibody to HBsAg (Anti-HBs) and antibody to HBV core antigen (Anti-HBc), were divided into four groups randomly and were vaccinated following the schedule of 0-1-6 with 20 µg hepatitis B vaccine made by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid techniques in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HepB-SC), 20 µg hepatitis B vaccine made by Chinese hamster ovary cell (HepB-CHO), 10 µg HepB-SC and 10 µg hepatitis B vaccine made by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid techniques in Hansenula Polymorpha (HepB-HP), respectively. The adults who were low-response to the primary hepatitis B vaccination (10 mU/ml ≤ anti-HBs<100 mU/ml) were divided into four groups by cluster random sampling. These groups were revaccinated with 3-dose of above-mentioned four kinds of HepB respectively. Blood samples were drawn from 1 month (T1) and 24 month (T24) after the 3 dose revaccination, respectively. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc was detected by Chemiluminescence Microparticle Imunoassay (CMIA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Out of the 8 592 adults who have accepted the primary vaccination of hepatitis B and been collected the blood samples, 1 306 subjects showed low-response. A total of 718 low-response subjects were collected blood samples after T1 and T24 following 3 doses of booster vaccination. The proportion of the four groups was 32.3% (232/718), 25.8% (185/718) , 19.3% (139/718) , 22.6% (162/718) , respectively. The average proportion of anti-HBs ≥ 100 mIU/ml were decreased from 77.58% after T1 to 35.63% after T24 (χ² = 256.87, P < 0.01). The proportion of anti-HBs ≥ 100 mIU/ml in T24 were 38.8% (90/177), 39.5% (73/185), 25.2% (35/139) and 35.8% (58/162) in four groups, respectively. The proportion of anti-HBs>100 mIU/ml in T24 was significantly different among groups (χ² = 8.81, P = 0.032). The average geometric mean concentration (GMC) was significantly reduced from 443.53 mIU/ml after T1 to 48.98 mIU/ml after T24 (F = 439.41, P < 0.01). The GMC was 60.26 (45.71-77.62), 1.29 (38.90-69.18) , 35.48 (25.70-48.98) and 46.77 (33.88-6.07) mIU/ml in four groups, respectively (F = 1.97, P = 0.117) . Compared with vaccinated 20 µg HepB-SC, the proportion of anti-HBs ≥ 100 mIU/ml and GMC was 0.56 (0.35-0.91) and -0.20 (-0.39--0.02) times. The positive of HBsAg was not found and the positive rate of anti-HBc was 2.6% (18/692) in T24.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Protective antibody following booster vaccination with three doses of hepatitis B vaccines among low-response adults after 2 years fade faster. Antibody level of anti-HBs in T24 was corrected with the booster vaccine type and age. 20 µgHepB-SC seemed better than 10 µg HepB-SC.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Pichia , Vaccination
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1091-1094, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261556

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the antibody response between adults with hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antibody (anti-HBc) single positivity and healthy adults after primary immunization and revaccination of hepatitis B vaccine(HepB).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Adults aged from 18 to 49 who were both negative for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), but positive for anti-HBc and narrated no history of HepB immunization by themselves, were selected as single anti-HBc positive group ('anti-HBc alone'). Adults who were negative for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc, with age differences within 2 years, and same gender under the 1 : 1 matching program, were selected to form the control group. Both groups were vaccinated on 0-1-6 schedule with the same HepB. Those who were non-response to HepB at primary immunization were revaccination on 0-1-6 schedule. Response rates and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) between the two groups were compared.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In total, the number of anticipants were 228 pairs. Rates on non-response, low-response, normal-response and high-response after the primary immunization were 8.77% , 11.84%, 31.14% and 48.25% in the control group respectively. The corresponding rates were 8.33%, 30.70%, 35.96% and 25.00% in the 'anti-HBc alone'. The rate of low-response in the control group was lower than that in the 'anti-HBc alone' (χ(2) = 22.28, P < 0.01), while the rate of high-response was higher than that in the control group (χ(2) = 24.43, P < 0.01). GMC of anti-HBs in the control group (534.07 mIU/ml) was higher than that in the 'anti-HBc alone' (183.99 mIU/ml) (u = 4.42, P < 0.01). The anti-HBs conversion rates were 82.35% and 41.18% in the control group and in the 'anti-HBc alone' respectively after the first-dose revaccination, but increased to 90.00% and 82.35% after the third-dose revaccination. The anti-HBs conversion rates in the control group were higher than that in the 'anti-HBc alone' after the first-dose revaccination (P < 0.05), while there was no difference seen between the two groups after the third-dose revaccination (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Immune response in the anti-HBc positive adults after primary immunization was weaker than that in common adults. However, immune response induced by HepB was enough to prevent them from infecting HBV. The rates of response showed an obvious increase after revaccination, hence the same HepB immunization strategy could be used.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Hepatitis B , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Blood , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355768

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a boost dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) among children aged 18 months who had been administered with primary doses of IPV.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Form 2011 to 2012, a total of 97 children were enrolled in the present study who were vaccinated with IPV at 2, 3, 4 months of age and boosted with the same vaccine at 18 months of age. Anti-poliovirus neutralizing antibody titers in serum were measured before and after booster vaccination, geometric mean titers (GMT) and seroprotection rate were calculated. Adverse events occurring within 30 days after booster vaccination were observed, including pain, redness/swelling and induration at the injection site, fever, vomit, abnormal crying, drowsiness, loss of appetite, irritability, and all other physical discomfort and related medications were also recorded. A descriptive analysis was performed for the safety assessment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Immunogenicity was assessed in 84 subjects. The pre-booster seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibody against poliovirus type 1, 2, 3 before booster were all 100% (84/84) and the corresponding GMT (95% CI) was 1: 148.5 (116.49-189.29) , 1: 237.68 (178.39-316.67) and 1: 231.87 (181.27-296.58) , respectively. The seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibody against the three types of poliovirus after booster were all 100% (84/84) and the corresponding GMT (95% CI) was 1: 1612.14 (1470.57-1767.34) , 1: 1854.92 (1715.83-2005.29) and 1: 1625.50 (1452.12-1819.58) , respectively. The pre-booster titer of neutralizing antibody against poliovirus type 1, 2, 3 mainly ranged 1: 128-1: 512, which accounted for 65% (55/84) , 55% (46/84) , 74% (62/84) in each type. After the booster immunization, titers of neutralizing antibody against type 1, 2, 3 were increased as subjects with titer ≥ 1: 1024 accounted for 94% (78/84) , 95% (80/84) , 92% (77/84) , respectively.Safety was evaluated in 96 subjects, of which 16 subjects reported adverse events with the rate of 17%. The observed local events were mainly tenderness 3% (3/96) , redness/swelling and induration were not reported. The systemic adverse events included loss of appetite (8%, 8/96) , irritability (8%, 8/96) , fever (7%, 7/96) , abnormal crying (6%, 6/96) , drowsiness (6%, 6/96) and vomit (1%, 1/96) . All reported adverse events were mild or moderate. All of the local events occurred in the day of vaccination and lasted for 1-2 days, while systemic events almost developed within 2 days after vaccination and last less than 3 days.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>IPV booster dose has good immunogenicity and safety profile, which provides effective protection against poliovirus.</p>


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Blood , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , China , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Infant , Male , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated , Allergy and Immunology , Therapeutic Uses
20.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 649-651
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142631

ABSTRACT

Diphtheria is a communicable disease of global significance, and its outbreaks have to be reported to the world community under the International Health Regulations [IHR]. A pilot seroepidemiological survey was conducted to assess immunity status of diphtheria among healthy individuals of Rawalpindi/Islamabad [Pakistan], who had been administered at least one dose of the vaccine against the disease, as part of childhood vaccination. The study group comprised of 128 healthy subjects, grouped according to the decade representing their age. Antidiphtheria IgG levels were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay [ELISA] method. The studied sample showed 100% prevalence of diphtheria antitoxin, confirming prior vaccination; however 49.2% exhibited only minimal protection against diphtheria. Full protection was observed in a significantly higher [p=0.013] percentage of males [54.45%] as compared to female subjects [33.33%]. Maximum level of serum antibodies were seen in 1-10 year age group [0.195+0.031 IU/mL], which was significantly higher than that recorded in the age group of 11-20 [p=0.024] and above 30 years [p=0.0064]. The present results emphasize the need for periodical booster immunization in adolescents and adults, after primary childhood immunization


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/isolation & purification , Age Distribution , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diphtheria Antitoxin/blood , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pilot Projects , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination/methods
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