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1.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(3): 58-63, 20221115.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401553

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La tuberculosis representa la novena causa de muerte en todo el mundo. La infección latente puede reactivarse por situaciones que comprometan la inmunidad del huésped. La tuberculosis pulmonar es la manifestación más frecuente en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. La baciloscopia es la herramienta primaria en el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis pulmonar activa. Objetivos: Determinar la frecuencia de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva en pacientes inmunocomprometidos que acuden al Servicio de Neumología del Hospital de Clínicas durante el periodo 2018 a 2019. Materiales y métodos: Diseño observacional, descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo, muestreo no probabilístico de casos consecutivos. Se realizó la revisión de fichas clínicas de pacientes internados en la Cátedra de Neumología del Hospital de Clínicas (2018-2019), registrados en la estadística del servicio. Para el procesamiento y análisis de datos fue utilizada una planilla electrónica precodificada de Microsoft Excel. Resultados: Del total de historias clínicas de pacientes dentro de la población estudiada (n=34), en el 68% de los casos el diagnóstico se estableció mediante baciloscopia, el 65% de ellos con hallazgo tres cruces (+++). Conclusión: La frecuencia de baciloscopia positiva en inmunocomprometidos determinada fue elevada. Aunque se está disminuyendo su uso, es importante seguir practicando este estudio a todos los inmunocomprometidos con síntomas respiratorios debido a su bajo costo y practicidad.


Introduction: Tuberculosis represents the ninth leading cause of death worldwide. Latent infection can be reactivated by situations that compromise host immunity. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most frequent manifestation in immunocompromised patients. Smear microscopy is the primary tool in the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis. Objectives: To determine the frequency of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients attending the Pneumology Service of the Hospital de Clínicas during the period 2018 to 2019. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective, non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases. A review of clinical records of patients admitted to the Department of Pneumology of the Hospital de Clínicas (2018-2019), registered in the statistics department of the service, was performed. A pre-coded Microsoft Excel spreadsheet was used for data processing and analysis. Results: Of the total patient medical records within the studied population (n=34), in 68% of the cases the diagnosis was established by smear microscopy, 65% of them with finding three crosses (+++). Conclusion: The frequency of positive smear microscopy in immunocompromised patients was high. Although its use is decreasing, it is important to continue performing this study in all immunocompromised patients with respiratory symptoms due to its low cost and practicality.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Patients , Immunocompromised Host/immunology
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1360-1375, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1402290

ABSTRACT

A ocorrência das infecções do trato urinário (ITU) causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida estão aumentando consideravelmente nas últimas décadas, sendo a Candida albicans a mais comumente diagnosticada como causadora deste tipo de infecções. Contudo, outras espécies, como exemplo da Candida tropicalis, estão emergindo como preocupantes causadores da doença. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os aspectos relacionados com as ITU causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida. Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados PubMed, buscando artigos sobre a epidemiologia, patogenia e tratamento das ITU causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida. As espécies de Candida são os fungos patogênicos oportunistas mais relevantes causadores de infecções nosocomiais e podem causar infecção no trato urinário, tanto inferior (ureteres, bexiga e uretra) quanto superior (rins), principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Existem alguns fatores predisponentes, como gênero feminino, idade avançada, diabetes mellitus, hospitalização prolongada, imunossupressão, gravidez, hipertensão, neutropenia, cálculos renais, infecções nosocomiais, terapia antibiótica e procedimentos, como a cateterização, que atuam como facilitadores das ITU por Candida spp. A doença pode ocorrer de forma assintomática, porém, pode evoluir para casos mais graves com comprometimento sistêmico em situações de candidemia que pode causar a morte do paciente, principalmente se tratando de indivíduos imunocomprometidos. Sendo assim, devido ao risco existente, a doença não pode ser negligenciada e um diagnóstico preciso e um tratamento adequado devem ser estabelecidos.


The occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by yeasts of the genus Candida has increased considerably in recent decades, with Candida albicans being the most commonly diagnosed as causing this type of infections. However, other species, such as Candida tropicalis, are emerging as worrisome causes of the disease. In this sense, the objective of the present paper is to review the aspects related to the UTI caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. A search was carried out in the PubMed database, searching for articles on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of UTI caused by yeasts of the genus Candida. Candida species are the most relevant opportunistic pathogenic fungi that cause nosocomial infections and can cause both lower (ureters, bladder and urethra) and upper (kidneys) urinary tract infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There are some predisposing factors, such as female gender, advanced age, diabetes mellitus, prolonged hospitalization, immunosuppression, pregnancy, hypertension, neutropenia, kidney stones, nosocomial infections, antibiotic therapy and procedures, such as catheterization, that act as facilitators of UTI by Candida spp. The disease can occur asymptomatically, however, it can progress to more severe cases with systemic involvement in situations of candidemia that can cause the death of the patient, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, due to the existing risk, the disease cannot be neglected and an accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment must be established.


La aparición de infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) causadas por levaduras del género Candida ha aumentado considerablemente en las últimas décadas. Candida albicans es la infección por levaduras más comúnmente diagnosticada. Sin embargo, otras especies, como la Candida tropicalis, están surgiendo como causa preocupante de la enfermedad. En este sentido, el objetivo del presente trabajo es revisar los aspectos relacionados con la ITU causada por levaduras del género Candida. Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos PubMed, buscando artículos sobre la epidemiología, la patogénesis y el tratamiento de la ITU causada por levaduras del género Candida. Las especies de Candida son los hongos patógenos oportunistas más relevantes que causan infecciones nosocomiales y pueden provocar infecciones del tracto urinario inferior (uréteres, vejiga y uretra) y superior (riñones), especialmente en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Existen algunos factores predisponentes, como el sexo femenino, la edad avanzada, la diabetes mellitus, la hospitalización prolongada, la inmunosupresión, el embarazo, la hipertensión, la neutropenia, los cálculos renales, las infecciones nosocomiales, la terapia con antibióticos y los procedimientos como el cateterismo, que actúan como facilitadores de la ITU por Candida spp. La enfermedad puede presentarse de forma asintomática, pero puede evolucionar a casos más graves con afectación sistémica en situaciones de candidemia que pueden causar la muerte del paciente, especialmente en individuos inmunodeprimidos. Por lo tanto, debido al riesgo existente, no se puede descuidar la enfermedad y se debe establecer un diagnóstico preciso y un tratamiento adecuado.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Candida tropicalis/pathogenicity , Pyelonephritis/complications , Urinary Tract/injuries , Cross Infection/complications , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Biofilms , Cystitis/complications , Candidemia/complications , Hospitalization
4.
Med. infant ; 29(2): 112-118, Junio 2022. Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1381834

ABSTRACT

La bacteriemia representa una importante causa de morbimortalidad en pacientes oncológicos. Durante el episodio de neutropenia inducida por quimioterapia, un 15%­25% de los pacientes tendrá bacteriemia. Objetivo: identificar factores de riesgo asociados con bacteriemia en pacientes oncológicos pediátricos con neutropenia y fiebre. Material y métodos: estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con enfermedades hematooncológicas y neutropenia febril, internados en un hospital pediátrico de alta complejidad entre julio de 2018 y mayo de 2019. Se excluyeron receptores de trasplante de médula ósea. Se compararon las características clínicas según se documentara bacteriemia (B) o no. Resultados: Se incluyeron 160 pacientes (p). Eran varones 93 (58%). La mediana de edad fue 81,5 meses (RIC 36-127,5). La enfermedad de base (EB) más frecuente fue: leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) 88 (55%). Se identificaron 20 (12,5%) pacientes con bacteriemia (B). En el análisis univariado hubo asociación entre B y LMA (p=0,003) y la internación en UCI (p=0,0001). En el modelo multivariado, ajustado por el resto de las variables, se identificaron la LMA (OR 8,24, IC95% 2,5-26,4; p<0,001) y la tiflitis (OR 5,86, IC95% 1,2-27,3; p=0,02) como factores relacionados con bacteriemia. Los principales microorganismos identificados fueron: estreptococos del grupo viridans 6 (30%), Escherichia coli 4 (20%) y estafilococos coagulasa negativos 3 (15%). Quince (75%) fueron bacteriemias secundarias a un foco clínico. El foco más frecuente fue el mucocutáneo (n=7, 35%). En esta cohorte de niños con cáncer y neutropenia febril, los factores asociados con bacteriemia fueron: la LMA, la tiflitis y la internación en UCI (AU)


Bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in oncology patients. During an episode of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, 15%-25% of patients will develop bacteremia. Objective: to identify risk factors associated with bacteremia in pediatric oncology patients with neutropenia and fever. Material and methods: prospective cohort study. Patients with hematology-oncology diseases and febrile neutropenia, admitted to a tertiary-care pediatric hospital between July 2018 and May 2019 were included. Bone marrow transplant recipients were excluded. Clinical characteristics were compared according to whether or not bacteremia was recorded. Results: 160 patients were included of whom 93 (58%) were male. Median age was 81.5 months (IQR 36-127.5). The most common underlying disease was acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in 88 patients (55%). Twenty (12.5%) patients with bacteremia were identified. In univariate analysis, an association was found between bacteremia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (p=0.003) and ICU admission (p=0.0001). In the multivariate model, adjusted for the remaining variables, AML (OR 8.24; 95%CI 2.5-26.4; p<0.001) and typhlitis (OR 5.86; 95%CI 1.2-27.3; p=0.02) were identified as factors related to bacteremia. The main microorganisms identified were viridans group streptococci in 6 (30%), Escherichia coli in 4 (20%), and coagulase negative staphylococci in 3 (15%). In 15 cases (75%), bacteremia was secondary to a clinical focus. The most frequent focus was mucocutaneous (n=7, 35%). In this cohort of children with cancer and febrile neutropenia, the factors associated with bacteremia were AML, typhlitis, and ICU admission (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Immunocompromised Host
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 210-213, abr. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388343

ABSTRACT

Resumen Rothia mucilaginosa es una bacteria propia de la microbiota del tracto respiratorio superior, que se asocia en forma infrecuente a infecciones en pacientes inmunocomprometidos y con enfermedades pulmonares crónicas, principalmente neumonía y bacteriemia. Su tratamiento generalmente, se basa en el uso de antibacterianos β lactámicos. Se describe el caso de un paciente sometido a un trasplante renal con uso de fármacos inmunosupresores, que cursó con una infección diseminada por Cryptococcus neoformans. Tras el inicio de la terapia antifúngica, presentó un cuadro febril, con aparición de nuevos infiltrados radiológicos e insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, demostrándose en el estudio con lavado broncoalveolar, un cultivo positivo para R. mucilaginosa, descartándose otras etiologías. Evolucionó en forma favorable tras el uso de meropenem, con buena respuesta clínica y resolución de los infiltrados radiológicos.


Abstract Rothia mucilaginosa is a bacterium derived from the upper respiratory tract microbiota, which is rarely associated with infections in immunocompromised patients suffering chronic lung diseases, mainly pneumonia and bacteremia. Its treatment is generally based on the use of β-lactams. The case study of a kidney transplant patient using immunosuppressive drugs, who developed a disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans infection, is described. After starting antifungal therapy, he presented with fever, appearance of new radiological infiltrates and acute respiratory failure, demonstrating a positive culture for R. mucilaginosa in a study with bronchoalveolar lavage, ruling out other etiologies. He evolved favorably after the use of meropenem, with good clinical response and resolution of radiological infiltrates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Micrococcaceae , Immunocompromised Host
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 132-137, abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388350

ABSTRACT

Resumen La toxoplasmosis es una de las parasitosis con mayor prevalencia en el mundo. Se asocia a morbimortalidad perinatal y en población inmunocomprometida. Actualmente se cuenta con varias pruebas diagnósticas, tanto serológicas como moleculares, que pueden ayudar a confirmar el diagnóstico y diferenciar una infección reciente de una pasada. Proponemos algunas recomendaciones para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la toxoplasmosis en distintos escenarios clínicos basados en la evidencia actualmente disponible.


Abstract Toxoplasmosis is one of the most prevalent parasitosis in the world. It is associated with perinatal morbidity and in immunocompromised population. Currently, there are several diagnostic tests, both serological and molecular, that can help confirm the diagnosis and differentiate a recent infection of a pass. We propose some recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis in different clinical scenarios based on the currently available evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antibodies, Protozoan , Immunocompromised Host
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(1): 59-69, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388333

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enterocolitis neutropénica (ECN) es una enfermedad heterogénea de foco digestivo, pero afectación sistémica, que corresponde a una condición clínica grave que amenaza la vida de pacientes inmunocomprometidos, particularmente oncológicos pediátricos. De patogenia aún poco definida y aunque de causa multifactorial, la ECN se asocia a los efectos citotóxicos de la quimioterapia empleada y se caracteriza por la triada clásica que incluye fiebre, neutropenia y dolor abdominal, donde la principal injuria se localiza en la mucosa intestinal, provocando su alteración como barrera y facilitando la invasión bacteriana intramural. La ECN constituye un reto diagnóstico para el equipo tratante, que requiere ser oportuno y contar con apoyo de un óptimo laboratorio general e imagenológico, para iniciar un completo manejo multidisciplinario en unidades y centros de alta complejidad. Se presenta una revisión actualizada del tema incorporando aspectos epidemiológicos, factores de riesgo, elementos de apoyo diagnóstico, consideraciones terapéuticas y medidas de prevención a fin de aportar en el conocimiento de esta patología, y reducir morbimortalidad en estos pacientes.


Abstract Neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) is a heterogeneous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with systemic response, that corresponds to a severe and life-threatening clinical condition in immunocompromised patients, especially in childhood cancer. The pathologic features are poorly understood, although its multifactorial cause of NEC is well established and it is associated with the cytotoxic effects of the chemotherapy agents used and recognized by the classic triad of fever, neutropenia, and abdominal pain, secondary to gastrointestinal injuries that alters mucosal permeability and helps intramural bacterial invasion. NEC is truly a clinical challenge that requires an early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach including basic laboratory and imagological tests in high complexity centers. We present a current review, adding epidemiological aspects, risks factors, diagnostic support elements, therapeutic considerations, and preventive measures in order to provide knowledge of this disease and help to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Enterocolitis, Neutropenic/diagnosis , Enterocolitis, Neutropenic/etiology , Enterocolitis, Neutropenic/drug therapy , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/complications , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host , Enterocolitis/complications , Enterocolitis/diagnosis , Enterocolitis/drug therapy
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(2): e370205, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374067

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To explore the potential immunomodulatory effects of total extract and different polar parts from Blaps rynchopetera Fairmaire. Methods: Phagocytic activity was evaluated by neutral red assay, and the effect of the immune function was investigated by normal and immunocompromised mice models. Results: In vitro, total extract, as well as chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions could individually enhance the phagocytic ability of mouse peritoneal macrophages; in addition, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions had an increasing tendency when combined stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vivo, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) could enhance the immune organ index, increase the serum hemolysin level and peripheral blood immune cells of immunocompromised mice, while for normal mice, the effect was inconspicuous. Conclusions: Blaps rynchopetera extracts had noteworthy immunomodulatory effect, especially for individuals with immune disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Coleoptera/chemistry , Immunocompromised Host , Immunologic Factors/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Macrophages
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(4): 568-573, ago. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388274

ABSTRACT

Resumen Presentamos el caso clínico de una infección fúngica invasora con una conjuntivitis necrosante, escleritis y panuveitis unilateral por Scedosporium apiospermum en una mujer de 78 años con artritis reumatoidea con neutropenia secundaria a fármacos. El diagnóstico etiológico fue confirmado por cultivo micológico de secreción ocular con apoyo de MALDI-TOF-TOF e histopatología. El tratamiento incluyó aseos quirúrgicos asociado a terapia tópica y sistémica con voriconazol y corticoesteroides, con una evolución favorable a los dos meses de tratamiento. Una recaída obligó a un segundo curso terapéutico por 12 meses adicionales con mejoría y erradicación del agente. La conjuntivitis fúngica por S. apiospermum es un evento infrecuente asociado a pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Su tratamiento involucra desbridamientos quirúrgicos y terapia antifúngica prolongada.


Abstract We report a case of invasive fungal infection with necrotizing conjunctivitis, scleritis and unilateral panuveitis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in a 78-year-old woman that developed neutropenia by drugs indicated for rheumatoid arthritis. The etiological diagnosis was confirmed by mycological culture of an ocular secretion with the support of MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis and histopathological findings. The treatment involved surgical debridements together with topical solution and systemic therapy with voriconazole and steroids with a favorable evolution after 2 months of treatment. A relapse required a second therapeutic course for an additional 12 months with improvement and eradication of the agent. Fungal conjunctivitis due to S. apiospermum is a rare event associated with immunosuppressed patients. Its treatment involves surgical debridements and prolonged antifungal therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(4): 488-494, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388282

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La neutropenia febril en niños con patología oncohematològica requiere un tratamiento empírico precoz y adecuado. Esta revisión sistemática se realizó para evaluar si piperacilina/tazobactam (PTZ) monoterapia es más efectiva y segura que los comparadores, en niños con episodios de neutropenia febril de causa oncológica. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Embase, MEDLINE utilizando los términos de búsqueda (('febrile neutropenia' OR hemato oncology OR haemato oncology OR 'immunocompromised host' OR 'immunocompromised patient' OR 'chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia') AND (piperacillin OR tazobactam OR 'piperacillin plus tazobactam' OR 'piperacillin/tazobactam' OR 'piperacillin-tazobactam' OR tazocin OR 'piperacillin-tazobactam drug combination')). El criterio de valoración de eficacia fue la incidencia de fracaso terapéutico. El punto final de seguridad fue la ausencia de cualquier efecto adverso (EA). RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 1.388 estudios, de los cuales se incluyeron 11 que cumplían los criterios de elegibilidad. Los estudios presentaron notable homogeneidad ( I 2 0%) y no se detectó sesgo de publicación (p 0,36). El riesgo de fracaso terapéutico de PTZ no fue mayor que en los comparadores (RR global: 0,94; IC95% 0,83 a 1,07) como tampoco lo fue, la incidencia de EA. CONCLUSIONES: El riesgo de fracaso terapéutico no fue superior para la PTZ como monoterapia frente a los comparadores


BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia in children with onco-hematological diseases is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and requires early and adequate empirical treatment. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate if piperacillin/ tazobactan (PTZ) monotherapy leads to a lower incidence of therapeutic failures than comparators. METHODS: A literature search was carried out in Embase, and MEDLINE databases using the search terms ('febrile neutropenia' OR hemato oncology OR haemato oncology OR 'immunocompromised host' OR 'immunocompromised patient' OR 'chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia') AND (piperacillin OR tazobactam OR 'piperacillin plus tazobactam' OR 'piperacillin/tazobactam' OR 'piperacillin-tazobactam' OR tazocin OR 'piperacillin-tazobactam drug combination')), Efficacy endpoint was treatment failure rate. The safety end-point was absence of any adverse effects (AE). RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. No heterogeneity was detected ( I 2 0%). The risk of failure was not superior for piperacillin/tazobactan to comparators (Global RR: 0.94; IC95% 0.83 a 1.07). Rates of adverse events were similar among studies. No publication bias was detected (p 0.36). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that treating episodes of febrile neutropenia in oncology pediatric patients, the risk of failure for PTZ was not superior to comparators. Adverse events were similar to the comparators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Piperacillin/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host , Penicillanic Acid/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Neutropenia/chemically induced
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 482-484, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285084

ABSTRACT

Abstract The species of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex show different epidemiological patterns in the infection of immunosuppressed or immunocompetent individuals, and a common tropism peculiarity for the central nervous system. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis is a rare clinical entity, with manifestations that are initially restricted to the skin through fungal inoculation, and the absence of systemic disease. The authors report in the present study the case of a 61-year-old immunocompetent man, with a rapidly evolving mucoid tumor on abrasions in contact with bird droppings on the forearm. The early identification of the polymorphic skin manifestations and treatment are crucial for the favorable prognosis of the infection, which can be life-threatening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Skin , Immunocompromised Host , Early Diagnosis , Middle Aged
16.
Med. infant ; 28(2): 75-80, Julio - Diciembre 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1355087

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones por SARS-CoV-2 representan un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En los niños se reporta menor incidencia y cuadros clínicos más leves. Se realizó el presente estudio con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas y evolutivas de los niños con diagnóstico de infección por SARS CoV-2 en el Hospital Juan P. Garrahan. Material y métodos: estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado por PCR de COVID-19 desde 20.4.20 hasta el 3.07.21 y con seguimiento en el hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan. Resultados: n: 1644. Eran varones 836 (51%). La mediana de edad fue 75 meses (RIC 22- 143). Tenían alguna enfermedad de base previa al diagnóstico de COVID-19: 884 pacientes (53,7%), la más frecuente fue la enfermedad oncohematológica. Estaban asintomáticos 423 pacientes (25,7%). De los pacientes sintomáticos, 1071 (65,1%) presentaron cuadro leve, 5 (0,3%) moderado, 69 (4,2%) grave y 76 (4,6%) crítico. La fiebre fue el hallazgo más frecuente n: 782; (47,5%). Se internaron 900 pacientes (54,7%), 33 en UCI (2%). Fallecieron 7 pacientes (0,4%), todos ellos con comorbilidades graves. Conclusiones: En este estudio de cohorte de niños con infección por SARS-CoV-2 confirmada, predominaron los pacientes con enfermedad de base y las formas leves de COVID-19. El ingreso a UCI fue menor al 2%. Fallecieron 7 pacientes (0.4%) todos ellos con comorbilidades y coinfecciones (AU)


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 infections represent a worldwide public health problem. A lower incidence and milder clinical pictures are reported in children. The aim of this study was to describe clinical and outcome characteristics of children diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection at Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. All patients with a PCR-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 seen between 20.4.20 and 3.07.21 and followed-up at Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan were included. Results: n: 1644; 836 males (51%) were male. Median age was 75 months (IQR, 22-143). Overall, 884 patients (53.7%) had an underlying disease prior to COVID-19 diagnosis, most frequently hematologic/ oncologic disease. 423 patients (25.7%) were asymptomatic. Of the symptomatic patients, 1071 (65.1%) had mild, 5 (0.3%) moderate, 69 (4.2%) severe, and 76 (4.6%) critical disease. Fever was the most frequent finding (n: 782; 47.5%). A total of 900 patients (54.7%) were admitted, 33 of whom to the ICU (2%). Seven patients (0.4%) died, all with severe comorbidities. Conclusions: In this cohort study of children with confirmed SARSCoV-2 infection, patients with underlying disease and mild forms of COVID-19 predominated. ICU admission occurred in less than 2%. Seven patients (0.4%) died, all of them with comorbidities and coinfections. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Comorbidity , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Argentina/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Immunocompromised Host , Pandemics
20.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(2): 166-173, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388146

ABSTRACT

Resumen La terapia de la tuberculosis con el esquema primario recomendado por la OMS no logra la curación de todos los casos a nivel mundial, pero en general alcanza un éxito de curación de al menos el 85% de los casos en el año 2018. El mismo año en Chile la eficiencia del tratamiento es solo de 76%, principalmente por la alta proporción de muertes y pérdida de seguimiento durante la terapia. Datos preliminares muestran que la cohorte ingresada en 2019 tuvo un éxito de tratamiento cercano a 74%. En Chile los fracasos de tratamiento son infrecuentes, debido principalmente a la vigilancia nacional de la susceptibilidad a fármacos. Para reducir la letalidad es necesario reforzar las estrategias para el diagnóstico precoz de la tuberculosis, mediante nuevos algoritmos que incorporen la biología molecular y la radiología en casos sospechosos de esta enfermedad, fomentar el adecuado manejo de las comorbilidades, establecer una adecuada red de apoyo social y disponer de centros de hospitalización cuando se requieren. Además, se debe fortalecer la adherencia a la terapia de los pacientes con estrategias de incentivo y facilitación de la asistencia.


Tuberculosis therapy with the primary regimen recommended by the World Health Organization does not cure all cases globally, but it reached success in at least 85% of cases in the year 2018. The same year in Chile, treatment efficiency is achieved in only 76%, mainly due to the high proportion of deaths and loss of follow-up during therapy. Preliminary data show that in the 2019 cohort the success was achieved only in about 74% of new cases. Treatment failures in Chile are rare due to national surveillance of drug susceptibility. To reduce fatality, it is necessary to reinforce the strategies for early diagnosis of tuberculosis through new algorithms. Such strategies should include molecular biology and radiology in suspected TB cases, to promote proper management of comorbidities, establish an adequate social support network and have centers available for prolonged hospitalization when needed. In addition, patient's adherence to therapy should be strengthened with strategies that encourage and facilitate attendance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Patient Dropouts , Tuberculosis/mortality , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Biological Availability , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Global Health , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Immunocompromised Host , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Lost to Follow-Up , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
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