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1.
Med. infant ; 28(1): 23-26, Marzo 2021. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1282888

ABSTRACT

Pneumocystis jirovecii es un hongo oportunista, causante de neumonía en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos. Es una infección grave con elevada tasa de mortalidad en pacientes oncohematológicos y receptores de trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas. La administración de corticosteroides es el principal factor de riesgo para adquirir esta infección. Actualmente las infecciones ocurren en aquellos pacientes que no reciben adecuada profilaxis. Las técnicas de diagnóstico molecular son las recomendadas por su elevada sensibilidad, especificidad y rapidez. La frecuencia global de P. jirovecii en pacientes inmunocomprometidos de nuestro hospital, durante el período evaluado fue de 4,8%, con una mortalidad global del 20%. Como factores de mal pronóstico se reportan la presencia de coinfecciones y la necesidad de asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Es importante la sospecha precoz en pacientes de riesgo, confirmada con un diagnóstico preciso mediante métodos moleculares para una intervención adecuada y oportuna (AU)


Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic fungus, causing pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. It is a severe infection with a high mortality rate in oncology/hematology patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The administration of corticosteroids is the main risk factor for acquiring this infection. Currently infections occur in patients who do not receive adequate prophylaxis. Molecular diagnostic techniques are recommended because of their high sensitivity, specificity, and speed. In the study period, the overall incidence of P. jirovecii in immunocompromised patients at our hospital was 4.8%, with an overall mortality rate of 20%. Factors of a poor prognosis are the presence of coinfections and the need for mechanical respiratory assistance. Early suspicion in high-risk patients is important to confirm the diagnosis through molecular studies and start adequate and early treatment (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pneumocystis Infections/diagnosis , Pneumocystis Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
2.
Infectio ; 25(1): 59-62, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154404

ABSTRACT

Resumen La neumonía en el paciente inmunocomprometido es un reto diagnóstico al cual el clínico se enfrenta cada vez con más frecuencia , al momento de hablar de infiltrados en vidrio esmerilado es menester tener siempre en cuenta la posibilidad de neumonía por Pneumocystis Jirovecii, que por mucho tiempo se pensó como una enfermedad propia del huésped inmunosuprimido con VIH, a través del tiempo se ha manifestado en pacientes con trasplantes de órgano sólido y de precursores hematopoyéticos, asociado a autoinmunidad, al uso crónico de corticoesteroides y más recientemente al uso de terapia biológicas. La descripción de esta enfermedad y sus métodos diagnósticos en huéspedes inmunosuprimidos no VIH no es del todo claro, sabemos que el tratamiento de elección en estos casos es el trimetropin-sulfametoxazol (TMP-SMX) el cual no cuenta con evidencia de alta calidad al momento de plantear una dosis ni un tiempo de duración establecidos. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de glomerulonefritis por enfermedad de cambios mínimos corticodependiente y quien desarrolló neumonía por Pneumocystis Jirovecii confirmada por histopatología quien recibió tratamiento y tuvo un desenlace positivo.


Abstract The pneumonia in the immunocompromised patient is a diagnostic challenge that the clinician faces more and more frequently, every time we talk about ground glass infiltrates it is necessary to always take into account the possibility of pneumonia due to Neumocystis Jirovecii, which for a long time was thought as a disease of the immunosuppressed host with HIV, but that across the time it has manifested itself in patients with solid organ transplants and hematopoietic precursors, associated with autoimmunity, the chronic use of corticosteroids and more recently the use of biological therapy. The description of this disease and the diagnostic methods in non-HIV immunosuppressed hosts is not entirely clear, we know that the treatment of choice in these cases is trimethropin-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), which does not have high-quality evidence at the time of a dose or a time of established duration. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with glomerulonephritis due to corticodependent minimal change disease and who suffers from pneumocystis Jirovecii pneumonia confirmed by histopathology, which received treatment and had a positive outcome


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Pneumonia , Autoimmunity , HIV , Immunocompromised Host , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Glass
4.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020233, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153182

ABSTRACT

Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal disease that commonly presents as cutaneous or rhinocerebral infections associated with immunocompromised states. It may exceptionally present as isolated involvement of the brain with a varied clinical presentation, which may be difficult to diagnose early, leading to increased mortality. Herein, we report the case of a 42-year-old immunocompetent female with left-sided limb weakness and a history of recurrent vomiting and headache for the last two years. Clinically, glioma was suspected, but histopathological examination revealed a few broad aseptate fungal hyphae. As no other organ was involved, the diagnosis of isolated cerebral mucormycosis was rendered. Reporting this case, we show an unusual presentation of a central nervous system mucormycosis masquerading a tumor in an immunocompetent patient. The case also highlights the importance of a careful histopathological examination to avoid missing the presence of occasional fungal hyphae. Ideally, recognition of fungal hyphae in the brain, during intraoperative consultation, can prompt brain tissue culture for definitive diagnosis and early empirical antifungal therapy, which may prove life-saving.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Central Nervous System/pathology , Immunocompromised Host , Mucormycosis/complications , Diagnosis, Differential
5.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021280, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249026

ABSTRACT

Invasive aspergillosis is an uncommon infection, which is mainly seen among immunocompromised patients. In recent years, cases of aspergillosis involving immunocompetent hosts are increasingly being reported. Herein, we report the case of a 27-year-old man with fever, productive cough, shortness of breath, and left hemiparesis. He had suffered trauma to his head 25 days prior. Imaging of the chest showed bilateral cavitary lesions in the lungs, and neuroimaging revealed a space-occupying lesion in the right frontoparietal cerebrum. He was suspected of having an abscess or metastasis. He died on day 3 of hospitalization, and an autopsy was performed. The autopsy revealed the cause of death to be invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, with brain dissemination. Invasive aspergillosis is uncommon in apparently immunocompetent individuals, and we discuss the autopsy findings in detail.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Immunocompromised Host , Neuroaspergillosis/pathology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/pathology , Autopsy , Neuroimaging
6.
Med. infant ; 27(2): 107-112, Diciembre 2020. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1148102

ABSTRACT

La injuria renal aguda (IRA) se caracteriza por un abrupto deterioro de la función renal asociado a lteraciones hidroelectrolíticas y metabólicas. La misma es frecuente en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) pediátricos y tiene un impacto significativo en la morbilidad y mortalidad. Las principales indicaciones de terapia de reemplazo renal (TRR) incluyen la corrección de los trastornos metabólicos y el manejo de la sobrecarga de fluidos. Varios modos de TRR pueden ser utilizadas en la UCI: hemodiálisis intermitente, diálisis peritoneal y las terapias de reemplazo renal continuas (TRRC). Las terapias de reemplazo renal continuas han ganado un rol preponderante en Cuidados Críticos ya que posibilitan dializar a pacientes hemodinámicamente inestables. Del total de pacientes admitidos en la UCI (n:1506) desde enero 2012 hasta diciembre 2018, requirieron TRRC el 6,7% (n: 102). La mortalidad predicha por el Score PIM3 fue de 19,53%, la mediana de edad en meses fue de 60 (RIC 25-75: 12-144), no hubo diferencias en cuanto al sexo. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron trasplantados de órganos sólidos 33%, seguidos de trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TCPH) el 26%. La mediana de los días de internación fue de 16 (RIC 25-75: 7-29) y de días de requerimiento de una TRRC 5 (RIC 25-75 3-9). La técnica dialítica más utilizada fue CVVHD, en el 87% de los pacientes. La mortalidad global fue del 75%, presentando los pacientes con TCPH mayor mortalidad con respecto a otros diagnósticos. Se debe reconocer y categorizar precozmente a los pacientes con mayor riesgo de desarrollar IRA y aplicar medidas de nefroprotección para mejorar su sobrevida (AU)


Acute renal injury (IRA) is characterized by sudden deterioration of kidney function associated with hydroelectrolytic and metabolic disturbances. IRA is common in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) and has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. The main indications for renal replacement therapy (RRT) include correction of the metabolic disorders and management of fluid overload. Different types of RRT may be used in the ICU: intermittent hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT). Continuous renal replacement therapies have gained a major role in critical care as they allow for dialysis in hemodynamically unstable patients. Of all patients admitted to the ICU (n:1506) between January 2012 and December 2018, 6.7% required CRRT (n: 102). Predicted mortality rate according to the PIM3 score was 19.53%. Median age was 60 months (IQR 25-75: 12-144). No differences in sex were observed. The most common diagnoses were solid organ transplantation in 33%, followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 26%. Median length of hospital stay was 16 days (IQR 25-75: 7-29) and median days on CTTT was 5 (IQR 25-75 3-9). The most common dialysis technique was CVVHD, used in 87% of the patients. Overall mortality rate was 75%, with a higher mortality in HSCT patients compared to others. Patients at a higher risk of developing IRA should be timely recognized and categorized and nephroprotective measures should be started early to improve survival (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Immunocompromised Host , Critical Illness , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Infectio ; 24(3): 143-148, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114857

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Candida spp. Es la principal causa de fungemia, cuya incidencia ha aumentado en los últimos años. Existen datos locales insuficientes sobre este tipo de infecciones. Materiales y métodos: Este fue un estudio observacional retrospectivo de 44 pacientes diagnosticados con candidiasis invasiva hospitalizados en la Fundación Valle del Lili, el cual es un centro de cuarto nivel afiliado a la Universidad Icesi en el Suroccidente Colombiano, entre los años 2012 a 2017. Resultados: Se identificaron 44 pacientes con candidiasis invasiva, 27 de ellos mujeres (61%). La mediana de edad fue de 56 años (36 - 70). Más del 50% tenían una enfermedad crónica subyacente, uso de antibióticos (84%), catéter venoso central (80%), ventilación mecánica (68%) y nutrición enteral (66%) El 80% requirió manejo en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) donde debutaron con sepsis (68%) y falla respiratoria (61%). En el 90% de los casos se aisló alguna especie de Candida spp. A partir de hemocultivo y sólo al 22% se le realizó prueba de sensibilidad. El tratamiento de elección fue con fluconazol (80%), asociado a caspofungina (70%). La tasa de mortalidad fue del 49%, con una mediana de 33 (22-49,5) días desde el ingreso hasta el fallecimiento. C. albicans fue el principal microorganismo aislado. La resistencia a azoles en especies no albicans existe en nuestro medio. Conclusión: La candidiasis se presenta como candidemia asociada a infección bacteriana concomitante, que cobra mayor importancia en el contexto del paciente inmunosuprimido asociado a elevadas tasas de mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Candida spp. is the main cause of fungemia, whose incidence has increased in recent years. There are insufficient local data about this pathology. Materials and methods: This was an observational, retrospective chart review of 44 patients diagnosed with invasive candida who were hospitalized at Fundación Valle del Lili, which is a fourth level center affiliated to Icesi university between 2012 and 2017. Results: We identified 44 patients with invasive candidiasis, 27 of them women (61%). The median age was 56 years (36 - 70). More than 50% had an underlying chronic disease, use of antibiotics (84%), central venous catheter (80%), mechanical ventilation (68%) and enteral nutrition (66%). 80% required management in an intensive care unit. Sepsis (68%) and respiratory failure (61%) were the most common clinical presentation. Almost 90% of the cases, had positive blood cultures, but only 22% presented susceptibility tests. The treatment was mainly fluconazole (80%), associated with caspofungin (70%). The mortality rate was 49%, median of 33 (22-49.5) days from admission to death. Candida albicans was the main isolated organism. Azole resistance in non-albicans species was observed. Conclusion: Candidiasis presents as bacterial infection associated candidemia, which becomes more important in the context of the immunosuppressed patient with high mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Infections , Immunocompromised Host , Fungemia , Candidiasis, Invasive , Candida , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Colombia , Sepsis , Caspofungin , Infections , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): e418-e420, agosto 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118597

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones causadas por Leclercia adecarboxylata (L. adecarboxylata) son raramente reportadas en la literatura. Se trata de una enterobacteria anaerobia Gram-negativa que presenta distribución universal y, si bien suele ser parte de infecciones polimicrobianas, existen reportes crecientes de infecciones únicamente por este germen en pacientes inmunocomprometidos.Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 8 años con leucemia linfoblástica aguda, que presentó una colonización de catéter por L. adecarboxylata, en el que se realizó tratamiento sin extracción del dispositivo, con evolución favorable


Infections caused by Leclercia adecarboxylata are rarely reported. It is an anaerobic Gram-negative enterobacteria with universal distribution, and although it is mostly found in polymicrobial infections, monomicrobial infections caused by this bacteria, especially in immunocompromised hosts, have been recently reported.We present the case of an 8-year-old patient, with acute lymphoid leukemia, that suffered a catheter colonization by L. adecarboxylata. He received antibiotic treatment without removal of the device with complete resolution of infectio


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Enterobacteriaceae , Catheter-Related Infections , Leukemia, Lymphoid , Immunocompromised Host
9.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 304-316, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223757

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes inmunosuprimidos presentan un riesgo mayor de infecciones, debido a sus disfunciones inmunes, producto de la actividad de su enfermedad y la terapia inmunosupresora. El uso de vacunas disminuye este riesgo, otorgando protección directa e indirecta, a través de la vacunación del paciente y sus contactos. Las vacunas inactivadas han demostrado un perfil de seguridad adecuado en estos pacientes, por lo que no están contraindicadas, aunque su respuesta inmune puede ser inadecuada. Las vacunas vivas atenuadas, formalmente contraindicadas, poseen una información creciente que permite evaluar su riesgo/beneficio de manera individual. Por este motivo es necesario procurar mantener el calendario de vacunas actualizado y complementado, evitando el retraso en esquemas de vacunación y poniéndolo al día lo antes posible, con estrategias basadas en el individuo. Para llevar a cabo esto, se debe conocer y considerar los intervalos entre las vacunas, los esquemas acelerados, la solicitud de vacunas especiales, las aprobaciones vigentes y, finalmente, sus contraindicaciones.


Immunecompromised patients are at higher risk of infections due to their immune dysfunction caused by ongoing disease processes and immunosuppressive therapy. Patient vaccination or vaccination of the people in contact with patients diminishes their risk of infection. Although the immune response of immunocompromised patients might be impaired, the use of inactivated vaccines is safe and it is not contraindicated in these patients. Formerly, live attenuated vaccines were contraindicated in immunecompromised patients, but recently more data supports their use when evaluating case by case the risks and benefits of their application. Thus, it is important to keep and up-to-date, taylor-based and enhanced vaccination schedule in these cases. For this, specialists need to be informed about the availability of regular and special vaccines, their current approvals, vaccine administration protocols under specific situations and vaccine contraindications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Immunosuppression , Immunocompromised Host , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Immunization Schedule , Vaccines, Live, Unattenuated/administration & dosage
10.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(2): e435, abr.-jun. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138997

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las aspergilosis comprenden un amplio y heterogéneo grupo de enfermedades oportunistas causadas por hongos del género Aspergillus, considerados como una causa inusual de infección. Es la causa más frecuente de muerte por neumonía infecciosa e infección diseminada o respiratoria oportunista, en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Objetivos: Describir las características clínicas de un caso inusual de aspergilosis pulmonar. Caso clínico: Paciente de 56 años de edad con antecedentes personales de hepatopatía alcohólica, ingresado por episodios de expectoración con sangre y tos seca. Se realizaron estudios de laboratorio, imagenológicos y anatomopatológicos que condujeron al diagnóstico de micetoma por Aspergillus fumigatus, lo cual posibilitó indicar el tratamiento adecuado y realizar el seguimiento clínico. Conclusiones: La infección por Aspergillus fumigatus debe ser considerada por el médico de cabecera, debido a que su reporte constituye una herramienta para que pueda establecer una terapéutica temprana y adecuada, dada sus implicaciones pronósticas, su morbilidad y mortalidad en pacientes inmunodeprimidos(AU)


Introduction: Aspergillosis comprises a wide and heterogeneous group of opportunistic diseases caused by fungi of the Aspergillus genus, considered as an unusual cause of infection. It is the most frequent cause of death from infectious pneumonia and disseminated or opportunistic respiratory infection in immunocompromised patients. Objectives: Describe the clinical characteristics of an unusual case of pulmonary aspergillosis. Case report: 56-year-old patient with a personal history of alcoholic liver disease, admitted due to episodes of expectoration with blood and dry cough. Laboratory, imaging, and pathological studies were conducted that led to the diagnosis of mytoma by Aspergillus fumigatus, which made it possible to indicate the appropriate treatment and perform clinical follow-up. Conclusions: Aspergillus fumigatus infection should be considered by the attending physician, because his report constitutes a tool for him to establish an early and adequate therapy, given its prognostic implications and for its morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonia , Aspergillus , Immunocompromised Host , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Mycetoma
11.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 108(1): 1-5, ene.-abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096146

ABSTRACT

En medicina, los pacientes de riesgo son aquellos que, al momento de la consulta, presentan antecedentes y/o pa- decimientos que implican una mayor probabilidad de sufrir complicaciones, como personas inmunodeprimidas o con en- fermedades crónicas, ya sean cardíacas, pulmonares, renales, hepáticas, sanguíneas o metabólicas (por ejemplo, diabetes). Estos pacientes se encuentran en riesgo en el caso de prác- ticas que puedan exacerbar o provocar reacciones adversas a raíz de su padecimiento. En la actualidad, el grupo poblacional vulnerable ha au- mentado a partir de nuevos tratamientos médicos que han per- mitido mejorar padecimientos sistémicos severos y prolongar la esperanza de vida. Ante pacientes "de riesgo" o "en riesgo", el odontólogo debe estar alerta y actualizado, a fin de evitar provocar alteraciones sistémicas y de reaccionar pronta y eficazmente, en caso de ser necesario, ante las urgencias médicas que se presenten (AU)


In medicine, risk patients are those who at the consulta- tion have a history and/or conditions that could cause a great- er possibility of a complication; such as immunosuppressed, chronic heart, pulmonary, kidney, liver, blood or metabolic diseases (for example, diabetes).These patients are at risk during procedures that could in- crease or cause inadequate reactions due to their conditions. Currently, the vulnerable population group has increased since newest medical treatments have emerged; allowing se- vere systemic ailments to improve and prolong life expectancy. With risk or at-risk patients, the dentist must be alert and up-to-date to avoid systemic alterations and react promptly and efficiently if necessary in any medical emergency that might take place (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Dental Care for Chronically Ill , Emergencies , Clinical Protocols , Chronic Disease , Immunocompromised Host , Heart Diseases
12.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 25-28, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102210

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la zigomicosis es una infección fúngica poco frecuente, con alta tasa de mortalidad y de mal pronóstico. Afecta principalmente a pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La asociación con el síndrome hemofagocítico es extremadamente inusual, más aún en pacientes inmunocompetentes, con pocos ejemplos registrados en la literatura. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino inmunocompetente de 40 años con diagnóstico de mucormicosis y síndrome hemofagocítico que evoluciona desfavorablemente, con fallo multiorgánico, a pesar de los esfuerzos médicos. Conclusión: la asociación de mucormicosis con síndrome hemofagocítico en un paciente inmunocompetente es extremadamente rara; existen pocos casos informados en Latinoamérica. Debemos tener presente esta asociación, ya que requiere un tratamiento agresivo y soporte vital avanzado. (AU)


Introduction: zygomycosis is a rare fungal infection that carries with high mortality rates. This poor prognosis, rapidly progressive infection mainly affects immunocompromised patients. The association with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is extremely unusual, even more in immunocompetent patients, with few cases reported. Case: we present the case of an immunocompetent male patient who was diagnosed with zygomycosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Despite medical efforts he developed multiorganic failure. Conclusion: the association of mucormycosis with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in an immunocompetent patient is exceptional with few cases reported in Latin America. We must always suspect this association considering they require aggressive treatment and advanced life support. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Zygomycosis/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Pancytopenia/blood , Psychomotor Agitation , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Norepinephrine/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Exophthalmos/diagnostic imaging , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Colistin/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/administration & dosage , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use , Zygomycosis/etiology , Zygomycosis/mortality , Zygomycosis/epidemiology , Delirium , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/mortality , Fever , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Immunocompetence/immunology , Jaundice , Mucormycosis/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.2): 4225-4230, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133185

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is credible evidence that the 1984-Bhopal-methyl isocyanate (MIC)-gas-exposed long-term survivors and their offspring born post-exposure are susceptible to infectious/communicable and non-communicable diseases. Bhopal's COVID-19 fatality rate suggests that the MIC-gas tragedy survivors are at higher risk, owing to a weakened immune system and co-morbidities. This situation emboldened us to ponder over what we know, what we don't, and what we should know about their susceptibility to COVID-19. This article aims at answering these three questions that emerge in the minds of public health officials concerning prevention strategies against COVID-19 and health promotion in the Bhopal MIC-affected population (BMAP). Our views and opinions presented in this article will draw attention to prevent and reduce the consequences of COVID-19 in BMAP. From the perspective of COVID-19 prophylaxis, the high-risk individuals from BMAP with co-morbidities need to be identified through a door-to-door visit to the severely gas-affected regions and advised to maintain good respiratory hygiene, regular intake of immune-boosting diet, and follow healthy lifestyle practices.


Resumo Há evidências plausíveis de que os sobreviventes a longo prazo da exposição a gás de 1984 e isocianato de metila (CIM), em Bhopal, e seus filhos nascidos após esse fato estão suscetíveis a doenças infecciosas/transmissíveis e não transmissíveis. A taxa de fatalidade COVID-19 de Bhopal sugere que os sobreviventes da tragédia do gás MIC estão em maior risco, devido a um sistema imunológico enfraquecido e comorbidades. Essa situação nos encorajou a refletir sobre o que sabemos, o que não sabemos e o que devemos saber sobre a suscetibilidade deles ao COVID-19. Este artigo objetiva responder a essas três perguntas que surgem na mente dos funcionários de saúde pública sobre estratégias de prevenção contra o COVID-19 e promoção da saúde na população afetada pelo Bhopal MIC (BMAP). Nossas visões e opiniões apresentadas neste artigo chamam a atenção para prevenir e reduzir as consequências do COVID-19 no BMAP. Da perspectiva da profilaxia com COVID-19, os indivíduos de alto risco do BMAP com condições comórbidas precisam ser identificados por meio de uma visita de porta em porta nas regiões severamente afetadas por gases e aconselhados a manter uma boa higiene respiratória, ingestão regular de dieta que estimule o sistema imunológico e seguir práticas de estilo de vida saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Survivors , Isocyanates/toxicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Susceptibility , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Self Care , Communicable Disease Control , Immunocompromised Host , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Disasters , Betacoronavirus , India/epidemiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880734

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Within a matter of months, this highly contagious novel virus has led to a global outbreak and is still spreading rapidly across continents. In patients with COVID-19, underlying chronic diseases and comorbidities are associated with dismal treatment outcomes. Owing to their immunosuppressive status, patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) are at an increased risk of infection and have a worse prognosis than patients without HMs. Accordingly, intensive attention should be paid to this cohort. In this review, we summarize and analyze specific clinical manifestations for patients with coexisting COVID-19 and HMs. Furthermore, we briefly describe customized management strategies and interventions for this susceptible cohort. This review is intended to guide clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Management , Hematologic Neoplasms/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Risk Factors
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200430, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135256

ABSTRACT

Despite the medical advances and interventions to improve the quality of life of those in intensive care, people with cancer or severely immunocompromised or other susceptible hosts, invasive fungal diseases (IFD) remain severe and underappreciated causes of illness and death worldwide. Therefore, IFD continue to be a public health threat and a major hindrance to the success of otherwise life-saving treatments and procedures. Globally, hundreds of thousands of people are affected every year with Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jirovecii, endemic dimorphic fungi and Mucormycetes, the most common fungal species causing invasive diseases in humans. These infections result in morbidity and mortality rates that are unacceptable and represent a considerable socioeconomic burden. Raising the general awareness of the significance and impact of IFD in human health, in both the hospital and the community, is hence critical to understand the scale of the problem and to raise interest to help fighting these devastating diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Quality of Life , Immunocompromised Host , Cost of Illness , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , Invasive Fungal Infections/mortality , Intensive Care Units
16.
Clinics ; 75: e1498, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of intraocular fluid analysis as a diagnostic aid for uveitis. METHODS: Twenty-eight samples (27 patients including 3 HIV-infected patients) with active (n=24) or non-active (n=4) uveitis were submitted to aqueous (AH; n=12) or vitreous humor (VH) analysis (n=16). All samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Toxoplasma gondii. RESULTS: The positivity of the PCR in AH was 41.7% (5/12), with 50% (2/4) in immunocompetent and 67% (2/3) in HIV+ patients. The positivity of the PCR in VH was 31.2% (5/16), with 13% (1/8) in immunocompetent and 50% (4/8) in immunosuppressed HIV negative patients. The analysis was a determinant in the diagnostic definition in 58% of HA and 50% of VH. CONCLUSION: Even in posterior uveitis, initial AH analysis may be helpful. A careful formulation of possible clinical diagnosis seems to increase the chance of intraocular sample analysis being meaningful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aqueous Humor/microbiology , Aqueous Humor/parasitology , Aqueous Humor/virology , Uveitis/diagnosis , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/parasitology , Toxoplasma , Uveitis/microbiology , Uveitis/parasitology , Uveitis/virology , Vitreous Body/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , HIV-1 , Immunocompromised Host , Simplexvirus/genetics , Simplexvirus/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 3, Human/immunology , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Immunocompetence
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190284, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057285

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberculosis is one of the most common infections worldwide with particularly high incidence rates in countries with unfavorable socioeconomic conditions and among persons with impaired immune systems. While most patients with this disease will present with pulmonary tuberculosis, immunocompromised individuals also commonly present with extrapulmonary manifestations. We report the case of a 28-year-old male patient with end-stage renal disease who presented with long-standing systemic symptoms and genitourinary manifestations, who was diagnosed with urogenital tuberculosis both by clinical and microbiologic criteria. Clinicians should always suspect tuberculosis in patients with chronic symptoms, especially in those with immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/complications , Tuberculosis, Urogenital/drug therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e048, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132664

ABSTRACT

Abstract In less than four months, an unprecedented pandemic changed the world scenario, closing institutions and commerce, paralyzing sports championships, blocking frontiers, and putting almost all populations in a house quarantine regimen. Immunocompromised patients are within the high-risk group to severe outcomes from COVID-19. However, there is no clear evidence of the association between impaired immune host status and complications from SARS-CoV-2 infection so far. The virus is transmitted by inhalation or direct contact with infected secretions, and therefore the dental office is a highly susceptible environment for such transmission. Here, we review the literature and discuss immunological COVID-19 related issues. We also make suggestions for immunocompromised patients' support in this new emerging context of clinical dental practice. Until comprehensive findings are published, individuals with impaired immunity should be considered as high-risk. Cross infection control procedures for the clinical care of immunocompromised patients should follow the same guidelines that are being proposed for immunocompetent ones. However, during the active outbreak, people under immunosuppressive conditions should not receive elective procedures, even if they do not have symptoms or exposure history to COVID-19, and in case of emergence, care must be done in a separate airborne room. In the pos-pandemic phase, the dental care general recommendations should be the same for all subjects. Changes in the current guidelines have been proposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection control in order to provide the best and safe dental practice. However, they still need to be validated by future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Dental Care/standards , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dental Offices , Air Microbiology/standards , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
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