Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.332
Filter
1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1197-1205, July-Aug. 2020. tab, mapas
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1131503

ABSTRACT

A leishmaniose visceral americana (LVA) é uma zoonose de transmissão vetorial na qual o cão tem papel importante na epidemiologia da doença. No Brasil, a elevada prevalência da infecção em cães está diretamente correlacionada com o aumento no risco de ocorrência de casos de LVA. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a fauna flebotomínica e verificar a soroprevalência da leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC) na localidade Pedra 90, no município de Cuiabá. Para o levantamento entomológico, armadilhas CDC foram utilizadas de agosto de 2014 a julho de 2015. Na avaliação sorológica dos cães, o teste imunocromatográfico DPP LVC foi utilizado para a triagem das amostras, enquanto o ensaio imunoenzimático (EIE) para o diagnóstico da LVC (Bio-Manguinhos) foi empregado como teste confirmatório. O trabalho vem acrescentar à fauna flebotomínica do município de Cuiabá as espécies Lu. andersoni, Lu. braziliensis, Lu. bourrouli e Lu. scaffi, não registradas em publicações anteriores. Além disso, entre as espécies de flebotomíneos com importância médica, Lu. cruzi, Lu. flaviscutellata e Lu. whitmani foram capturadas. No inquérito canino, a prevalência de LVC observada na localidade Pedra 90 foi de 1,14%, indicando que a região pode ser considerada como área de transmissão.(AU)


American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is a vector-borne zoonosis in which the dog has an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, a high prevalence of canine infection is directly correlated with an increased risk of occurrence of AVL. The aim of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine fauna and seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Pedra 90 region of Cuiabá municipality. For the entomological survey, CDC traps were used from August 2014 to July 2015. In the serological evaluation of dogs, the immunochromatographic test DPP LVC was employed for screening the samples while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Bio-Manguinhos) was used as a confirmatory assay. The previously unreported phlebotomine species Lu. andersoni, Lu. braziliensis, Lu. bourrouli, and Lu. scaffi were added to the phlebotomine fauna of Cuiabá. In addition, the medically important phlebotomine species Lu. cruzi, Lu. flaviscutellata, and Lu. whitmani were identified. The canine survey revealed the prevalence of 1.14% for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Pedra 90 region, the region being considered a transmission area.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Phlebotomus , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Immunoenzyme Techniques/veterinary , Disease Transmission, Infectious/veterinary , Urban Area , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 51-57, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089332

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Vaccines are well-established public health interventions with major impacton the prevalence of infectious diseases, but outbreaks are occurring frequently due to pri-mary and secondary failures, despite high coverage. Surveillance of efficacy and duration ofinduced immunity is a difficult task as it requires invasive blood sampling in children andteenagers. Saliva can be an acceptable alternative source of IgG to assess vaccine efficacyand toxoplasmosis incidence. We investigated IgG response for measles, mumps, rubella,and T. gondii in saliva samples of vaccinated young people. Methods: Saliva was collected from 249 public schools students from São Paulo, Brazil, aged7 to 13 years old, during an interactive exhibition on hygiene. We used S. aureus proteinA solid phase capture assay for IgG reactive to biotinylated purified proteins. Paired salivaand serum (47) were tested from young adults with serum evidence of T. gondii infectionand from negative children less than 12 month old for standardization. Reproducibility wasgreater than 98% and sensitivity and specificity of the saliva assays were greater than 95%,as well as the concordance of paired saliva and serum samples. Results: Saliva from high school students showed a prevalence of 8.5% (95% CI: 5.0-11.9%)for anti T. gondii IgG; 96.8% (94.6-99%) of anti-measles IgG; 59.1% (53-65%) of anti-rubella IgG,and 57.5% (51.3-63.6%) of anti-mumps IgG. Discussion: The prevalence of antibodies against mumps and rubella after 6-8 years of vaccination was lower than against measles among students. The findings of this study demonstrate the feasibility of saliva sampling for follow-up of vaccine immune status in teenagers. This useful approach allows for IgG detection for vaccine control or epidemio- logical studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Saliva/immunology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Reference Values , Rubella/immunology , Rubella/prevention & control , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/prevention & control , ROC Curve , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Measles/immunology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/immunology , Mumps/prevention & control
4.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(2): e382, mayo.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093566

ABSTRACT

El diagnóstico de fasciolosis humana, enfermedad zoonótica causada por el parásito Fasciola hepatica reúne los resultados de las técnicas: concentración por sedimentación (copa-cónica), FasciDIG en heces y FasciDIG en suero, además de los criterios clínico-epidemiológicos. FasciDIG constituye un ensayo inmunoenzimático que detecta antígenos de excreción-secreción de F. hepatica a partir de muestra de suero y heces. Permite diagnosticar la infección en cada una de las formas clínicas de la enfermedad y presenta una sensibilidad diagnóstica superior a las técnicas convencionales que detectan huevos del parásito (copa-cónica), por lo que se consideró oportuno abordar algunos conceptos relacionados con esta técnica inmunodiagnóstica y analizar su aplicabilidad para el diagnóstico oportuno y eficaz de esta parasitosis(AU)


Diagnosis of human fasciolosis, a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Fasciola hepatica, combines the results of the following techniques: conical cup, feces FasciDIG and serum FasciDIG, as well as clinical-epidemiological criteria. FasciDIG is an enzyme immunoassay that detects F. hepatica excretion / secretion antigens in serum and feces samples. It makes it possible to diagnose infection at each of the clinical stages of the disease with a higher diagnostic sensitivity than conical cup. Therefore, it was considered appropriate to address a number of concepts regarding this immunodiagnostic technique and analyze its applicability in the timely and effective diagnosis of this helminth infection(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Communication
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined changes in hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) during the four sequential phases of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic infection (EPCI) and hepatitis (EPCH), followed by HBeAg-negative chronic infection (ENCI) and hepatitis (ENCH). We compared the performance of serum HBcrAg, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBV DNA in predicting EPCH and ENCH. METHODS: We enrolled 492 consecutive patients: 49 with EPCI, 243 with EPCH, 101 with ENCI, and 99 with ENCH. HBcrAg was detected by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays. HBsAg and HBeAg were detected by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassays. HBV DNA was detected by real-time PCR. Predictive performance of HBcrAg, HBsAg, and HBV DNA was evaluated using ROC curves. RESULTS: Areas under ROC curves (AUCs) of HBcrAg, HBsAg, and HBV DNA for predicting EPCH were 0.738, 0.812, and 0.717, respectively; optimal cutoffs were ≤1.43×105 kU/mL, ≤1.89×104 IU/mL, and ≤3.97×107 IU/mL, with sensitivities and specificities of 66.3% and 77.6%, 65.0% and 93.9%, and 60.5% and 79.6%, respectively. AUCs of HBcrAg, HBsAg, and HBV DNA for predicting ENCH were 0.887, 0.581, and 0.978, respectively; optimal cutoffs were >26.8 kU/mL, >2.29×102 IU/mL, and >8.75×103 IU/mL, with sensitivities and specificities of 72.7% and 95.1%, 86.9% and 39.6%, and 89.9% and 92.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HBsAg and HBV DNA were the best predictors of EPCH and ENCH, respectively. HBcrAg is an important surrogate marker for predicting EPCH and ENCH.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , DNA , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , ROC Curve
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although Th2 immune activation is predominant in allergic diseases, neopterinlevels and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-1 activity (kynurenine:tryptophan ratio), which reflect Th1 immune activity, increase with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) stimulation. We investigated neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine levels as biomarkersof the Th1 immune system activation and changes in IDO-1 activityin children with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, as well as the relationship between these biomarkers and the total IgE level, age, and disease severity. METHODS: We divided 205 children (80 girls and 125 boys, four months to 17 years old) into four groups: controls, patients with asthma, patients with allergic rhinitis, and patients with atopic dermatitis. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected. Neopterin levels were determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Tryptophan and kynurenine levels were analyzed using HPLC. IDO-1 enzyme activity was calculated using tryptophan and kynurenine levels. IgE levels were measured. The Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Conover post-hoc method were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine levels were higher and IgE levels and IDO-1 enzyme activity were lower in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis than in controls (P < 0.05). Patients with atopic dermatitis showed higher neopterin, tryptophan, and kynurenine levels, higher IDO-1 activity, and lower IgE levels thancontrols (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The Th1/Th2 balance is disrupted in children with allergic diseases, concomitant with increased Th1-mediated immune response activation and reduced IgEproduction, which is promoted by Th2-type cytokines.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Biomarkers , Child , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immune System , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunoglobulin E , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase , Interferon-gamma , Kynurenine , Methods , Neopterin , Rhinitis, Allergic , Tryptophan
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739120

ABSTRACT

In May 2015, we conducted a voluntary online survey on laboratory diagnostic assays for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) across clinical microbiology laboratories in Korea. Responses were obtained from 66 laboratories, including 61 hospitals and five commercial laboratories. Among them, nine laboratories reported having not conducted CDI assays. The toxin AB enzyme immunoassay (toxin AB EIA), nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), and C. difficile culture, alone or in combination with other assays, were used in 51 (89.5%), 37 (64.9%), and 37 (64.9%) of the remaining 57 laboratories, respectively, and 23 (40.4%) of the laboratories performed all three assays. Only one laboratory used the glutamate dehydrogenase assay. Nine laboratories used the toxin AB EIA as a stand-alone assay. The median (range) of examined specimens in one month for the toxin AB EIA, NAAT, and C. difficile culture was 160 (50–2,060), 70 (7–720), and 130 (9–750), respectively. These findings serve as valuable basic data regarding the current status of laboratory diagnosis of CDI in Korea, offering guidance for improved implementation.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium , Glutamate Dehydrogenase , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Korea , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a major pathogen causing enteritis worldwide in children under five years of age. In recent years, immunochromatographic assay (ICA) has been widely used as a diagnostic test for rotavirus detection. This study aimed to compare and evaluate the performance of ICA-based rotavirus rapid test kits from two manufacturers. METHODS: Residual stool samples from a total of 130 children with acute enterocolitis from November 2017 to January 2018 were used. We compared the results of the two immunochromatographic methods (SD BIOLINE Rotavirus kit and GENEDIA Rotavirus Ag Rapid Test) with those of the currently used enzyme immunoassay method. RESULTS: Positive agreement, negative agreement, and total agreement rates between the SD BIOLINE rotavirus kit and the enzyme immunoassay were 98.0%, 100%, and 99.2%, respectively. Positive agreement, negative agreement, and total agreement rates between the GENEDIA Rotavirus Ag Rapid Test and the enzyme immunoassay were 96.0%, 100%, and 98.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both rotavirus rapid test kits showed very good agreement with the conventional enzyme immunoassay. Therefore, it could be a useful test to detect rotavirus directly from stool samples in a short time.


Subject(s)
Child , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Enteritis , Enterocolitis , Humans , Chromatography, Affinity , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Methods , Rotavirus
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: MUC5AC is one of the major secretory mucin genes in the human airway epithelium. MUC5AC expression is increased by a variety of inflammatory mediators. Protopanaxadiol (PPD), one of the major active metabolites in ginseng, is known to have anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant properties. However, the effects of PPD on mucin secretion of airway epithelial cells still have not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of PPD on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MUC5AC expression in human airway epithelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In the mucin-producing human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells, the effect of PPD on MUC5AC expression was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay after treated with LPS. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, and apocynin as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor were used to compare the inhibitory effect of PPD on LPS-induced ROS production in human NCI-H292 cells. RESULTS: LPS significantly increased MUC5AC mRNA expression and protein production. LPS also increased ROS production. PPD inhibited LPS-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression and protein production as well as ROS production. In addition, NAC and apocynin inhibited LPS-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression and protein production. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that PPD inhibits LPS-induced MUC5AC expression via ROS in human airway epithelial cells and the inhibitory effect of PPD was similar to that of NAC and apocynin. These findings indicate that PPD may be a therapeutic agent for control of mucus secretion and oxidative stress in human airway epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Methods , Mucins , Mucus , NADP , Oxidative Stress , Oxidoreductases , Panax , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Messenger
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to be associated with inflammatory airway diseases, and three major transmembrane receptors: double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase, inositol requiring enzyme 1, and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) play important roles in ER stress-related proinflammatory signaling. However, the effects of ER stress and these three major signaling pathways on the regulation of the production of airway mucins in human nasal airway epithelial cells have not been elucidated. METHODS: In primary human nasal epithelial cells, the effect of tunicamycin (an ER stress inducer) and 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA, ER stress inhibitor) on the expression of MUC5AC and MUC5B was investigated by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoblot analysis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection was used to identify the mechanisms involved. RESULTS: Tunicamycin increased the expressions of MUC5AC and MUC5B and the mRNA expressions of ER stress-related signaling molecules, including spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and ATF6. In addition, 4-PBA attenuated the tunicamycin-induced expressions of MUC5AC and MUC5B and the mRNA expressions of ER stress-related signaling molecules. Furthermore, siRNA knockdowns of XBP-1, CHOP, and ATF6 blocked the tunicamycin-induced mRNA expressions and glycoprotein productions of MUC5AC and MUC5B. CONCLUSION.: These results demonstrate that ER stress plays an important role in the regulation of MUC5AC and MUC5B via the activations of XBP-1, CHOP, and ATF6 in human nasal airway epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 6 , Carrier Proteins , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Epithelial Cells , Glycoproteins , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Inositol , Mucins , Phosphotransferases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Transcription Factor CHOP , Transcription Factors , Transfection , Tunicamycin
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased expression of MDR1 gene is one of the major mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Two alternative promoters, upstream and downstream, are responsible for transcription of MDR1 gene in the human. However, the molecular mechanism regarding the transactivation of MDR1 upstream promoter (USP) has not been determined. METHODS: Dual-luciferase reporter gene assays were used to assess the effect of Nkx-2.5 on MDR1 USP activity using reporter plasmids for human MDR1 USP and its mutants. MDR1 mRNA level was examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The direct binding of Nkx-2.5 to the USP of MDR1 was evaluated by promoter enzyme immunoassays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Phenotype , Plasmids , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Transcriptional Activation
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(3): 166-170, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974214

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Vaccination against the hepatitis A virus (HAV) administered in two doses has been used effectively in universal child immunization programs in several countries. A single-dose vaccination was adopted in some low-income countries in an attempt to reduce costs without losing effectiveness. In 2014, single-dose universal vaccination was introduced in Brazil for children aged two years. Since such strategy is still not universally accepted, its efficacy should be compared to the two-dose strategy. To assess the humoral response after the single-dose HAV vaccination schedule, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Primavera do Leste, in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, including 265 children vaccinated through the National Immunization Program. Blood was collected by using a digital puncture and further applied to filter paper cards. Anti-HAV was detected in 218 out of 265 dried blood spots (DBS). Blood venous samples were collected from 34 out of 47 children who were not anti-HAV positive in DBS samples. Eighteen of them tested positive for anti-HAV, giving a final score of 93.6% (236/252) of seropositivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a high rate of anti-HAV positivity in the short term after single-dose hepatitis A vaccination in the population investigated. Moreover, the DBS was shown to be a reliable tool for detecting anti-HAV antibodies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Mass Vaccination/methods , Hepatitis A Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis A Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Program Evaluation , Logistic Models , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Retrospective Studies , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunization Schedule , Hepatitis A Virus, Human/immunology , Hepatitis A Vaccines/immunology , Dried Blood Spot Testing , Hepatitis A/epidemiology
14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 346-349, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722311

ABSTRACT

In 2015, rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing was implemented in all 25 public health centers in Seoul. During March and December 2015, 20,987 rapid HIV tests were performed, of which 116 (0.5%) were positive. Compared to those of the period before application of the rapid HIV test in place of conventional enzyme immunoassay method, the number of HIV tests performed and the number of positive results increased by sevenfold and twofold, respectively. In conclusion, expansion of the provision of rapid HIV tests in public health centers increased the number of voluntary HIV tests.


Subject(s)
HIV , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Korea , Methods , Public Health , Seoul
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715065

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Clusterin (CLU) is known as apolipoprotein J, and has three isoforms with different biological functions. CLU is associated with various diseases such as Alzheimer disease, atherosclerosis, and some malignancies. Recent studies report an association of CLU with inflammation and immune response in inflammatory airway diseases. However, the effect of CLU on mucin secretion of airway epithelial cells has not yet been understood. Therefore, the effect and brief signaling pathway of CLU on MUC5AC (as a major secreted mucin) expression were investigated in human airway epithelial cells. METHODS: In the tissues of nasal polyp and normal inferior turbinate, the presence of MUC5AC and CLU was investigated using immunohistochemical stain and Western blot analysis. In mucin-producing human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells and primary cultures of normal nasal epithelial cells, the effect and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway of CLU on MUC5AC expression were investigated using immunohistochemical stain, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme immunoassay, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: In the nasal polyps, MUC5AC and CLU were abundantly present in the epithelium on immunohistochemical stain, and nuclear CLU (nCLU) was strongly detected on Western blot analysis. In human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells or the primary cultures of normal nasal epithelial cells, recombinant nCLU increased MUC5AC expression, and significantly activated phosphorylation of NF-κB. And BAY 11-7085 (a specific NF-κB inhibitor) and knockdown of NF-κB by NF-κB siRNA (small interfering RNA) significantly attenuated recombinant nCLU-induced MUC5AC expression. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that nCLU induces MUC5AC expression via the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human airway epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Atherosclerosis , B-Lymphocytes , Bays , Blotting, Western , Clusterin , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Inflammation , Mucins , Nasal Polyps , NF-kappa B , Phosphorylation , Protein Isoforms , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Small Interfering , Turbinates
16.
Intestinal Research ; : 267-272, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been reported to be a cause of flare-ups in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We evaluated the prevalence and clinical outcomes of CDI in patients with UC hospitalized for flare-ups. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter study including 7 academic teaching hospitals in Korea. All consecutive patients with UC admitted for disease flare-up were enrolled. We detected the presence of CDI by using enzyme immunoassay, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for toxin genes, and sigmoidoscopy. RESULTS: Eighty-one consecutive patients with UC were enrolled from January 2014 to December 2015. Among 81 patients, 8 (9.9%) were diagnosed with CDI. Most of the cases were identified by RT-PCR. Enzyme immunoassay was positive in 3 of 8 patients, and only 1 had typical endoscopic findings of pseudomembranous colitis. There were no differences in demographic data, length of hospital stay, or colectomy rate between patients with and without CDI. CONCLUSIONS: CDI was not a rare cause of flare-up in patients with UC in Korea. However, CDI did not appear to affect the course of UC flare-up in Korean patients. RT-PCR was sensitive in detecting CDI and can be considered a diagnostic tool in patients with UC flare-up.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Clostridium , Colectomy , Colitis, Ulcerative , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Korea , Length of Stay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sigmoidoscopy , Ulcer
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The representative mucin genes in the human airway are MUC5AC and MUC5B, which are regulated by several inflammatory and anti-inflammatory substances. Triptolide (TPL), udenafil, betulinic acid, changkil saponin, and glucosteroid are some of the many anti-inflammatory substances that exist. TPL is a diterpenoid compound from the thunder god vine, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of immune inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, nephritis and asthma. However, the effects of TPL on mucin expression of human airway epithelial cells have yet to be reported. Hence, this study investigated the effect of TPL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MUC5AC and MUC5B expression in human airway epithelial cells. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: The NCI-H292 cells and the primary cultures of human nasal epithelial cells were used to investigate the effects of TPL on LPS-induced MUC5AC and MUC5B expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme immunoassay, and Western blot. RESULTS: TPL significantly decreased the LPS-induced MUC5AC and MUC5B mRNA expression and protein production. TPL also significantly decreased the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that TPL down regulates MUC5AC and MUC5B expression via inhibition of NF-kB activation in human airway epithelial cells. This study may provide important information about the biological role of triptolide on mucus-secretion in airway inflammatory diseases and the development of novel therapeutic agents for controlling such diseases.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Asthma , Blotting, Western , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Mucins , Nephritis , NF-kappa B , Phosphorylation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Saponins
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(3): 787-792, maio-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-911354

ABSTRACT

A brucelose na espécie ovina tem recebido destaque, uma vez que se trata de uma enfermidade que acomete o sistema reprodutivo dos animais, provocando sério comprometimento no setor produtivo. Dessa forma, objetivou-se a avaliação de três métodos para o diagnóstico da brucelose ovina: o ensaio imunoenzimático indireto (ELISAi), a técnica imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA) e a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Para tanto, utilizaram-se 211 amostras de sangue de ovinos oriundos de propriedades de nove municípios da microrregião homogênea de Teresina, Piauí. As 211 amostras de sangue foram submetidas aos testes sorológicos e à PCR, visando detectar anticorpos anti-B. ovis e DNA de Brucella ovis, respectivamente. Foram obtidos resultados positivos nos testes sorológicos, sendo 36 (17,06%) positivos no teste IDGA e sete (3,31%) positivos no teste ELISAi, contudo não houve resultados positivos na técnica de PCR. Dos métodos de diagnóstico utilizados neste estudo, o teste IDGA foi o que apresentou melhor desempenho na detecção de animais reagentes, quando comparado ao teste ELISAi e à PCR em amostras de sangue, e o percentual de animais soropositivos sugere uma ampla distribuição de ovinos infectados por Brucella ovis na região em estudo, o que pode causar prejuízos aos produtores.(AU)


Brucellosis in sheep has received a major focus, since it is a disease that affects the reproductive system of animals, causing serious impairment in the productive sector. Thus, three methods for the diagnosis of ovine brucellosis were evaluated as goal, the indirect Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISAi) test, the Immunodiffusion Agar Gel (AGID) technique and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Therefore, we used 211 sheep blood samples from properties of nine municipalities of the homogeneous micro-region of Teresina, Piaui. The 211 blood samples were subjected to serologic testing and PCR to detect anti-B. ovis antibodies, and Brucella ovis DNA, respectively. Positive results in serological tests were obtained, 36 (17%) positive in the AGID test and seven (3.3%) positive to the ELISAi test, however, there were no positive results in the PCR technique. Of the diagnostic methods used in this study, the AGID test was the one that presented the best performance in the detection of reactive animals, when compared to ELISAi and PCR in blood samples and, the percentage of seropositive animals suggests a wide distribution of Brucella ovis infected sheep in the study region and could cause loss to producers.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Brucellosis, Bovine/diagnosis , Immunodiffusion/statistics & numerical data , Immunoenzyme Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Serology
19.
HU rev ; 44(3): 325-331, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048091

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Diversos fatores podem interferir no desenvolvimento da hanseníase, entre eles fatores genéticos, convívio com o caso de hanseníase e classificação operacional do caso. Testes sorológicos que avaliam a reatividade de anticorpos IgM e IgG frente a antígenos específicos para o Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) podem atuar como auxiliares na vigilância dos contatos e/ou população de risco. Objetivo: Analisar o comportamento dos testes sorológicos anti-PGL-1 sintético (NDO-HSA), anti-LID-1 e anti-NDO-LID em área não endêmica de hanseníase e sua relação com características do caso de hanseníase. Material e métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, do tipo analítico, realizado com 35 contatos domiciliares (CD) dos casos de hanseníase. A coleta de dados ocorreu no período de agosto/2016 a fevereiro/2017 por meio de visitas domiciliares. A reatividade de anticorpos IgM e IgG frente aos antígenos Natural disaccharide linked to human serum albumin via octyl (NDO-HSA), Leprosy IDRI diagnostic 1 (LID-1) e Natural disaccharideoctyl - Leprosy IDRI Diagnostic 1(NDO-LID) foi avaliada por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA). Os dados foram exportados e analisados no software StatisticalPackage for the Social Sciences (SPSS®) 24 for Windows. Resultados: Foi observada maior proporção de positividade aos testes em CD de casos multibacilares (MB), que residiam com o caso de hanseníase na época do diagnóstico e que tinham parentesco consanguíneo com o caso. Esses casos de hanseníase MB também apresentaram soropositividade frente aos antígenos testados. O valor do índice ELISA foi maior no grupo de CD de casos MB. Houve concordância moderada e significativa (K= 0,53; p< 0,0001) entre os testes anti-NDO-HSA e anti-NDO-LID, mas não foi detectada diferença entre os testes anti-NDO-HSA e anti-LID-1 (K= -0,05; p= 0,678). A correlação foi positiva entre os três antígenos, porém, entre LID-1 e NDO-HSA, não houve significância estatística (p<0,186). Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem que testes sorológicos em conjunto com as características avaliadas nos contatos domiciliares em área não endêmica de hanseníase,podem atuar como auxiliares na detecção de indivíduos infectados pelo M. leprae, contribuindo para vigilância dos contatos domiciliares


Introduction: Several factors may interfere in the development of leprosy, including genetic factors, conviviality with leprosy patients and operational classification of the case. Serological tests performed to evaluate the reactivity of IgM and IgG antibodies response against Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) specific antigens may be used as auxiliary tools for transmission surveillance and/or population at risk. Objective: To analyze the performance of anti-PGL-1 (NDO-HSA), anti-LID-1 and anti-NDO-LID serological tests in non-endemic area of leprosy and the relationship with characteristics of the leprosy case. Material and methods: This is a cross-sectional analytical study of 35 household contacts (HC) of leprosy cases. Data collection was carried out from August 2016 to February 2017 with home visits. The reactivity of IgM and IgG antibodies to Natural disaccharide linked to human serum albumin via octyl (NDO-HSA), Leprosy IDRI diagnostic 1 (LID-1) and Natural disaccharide octyl - Leprosy IDRI Diagnostic 1 (NDO-LID) was evaluated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were exported and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS®) 24 for Windows. Results: A higher proportion of positivity was observed in the HC tests of multibacillary (MB) leprosy cases who lived in the same dwelling with a leprosy case at the time of diagnosis and had a degree of kinship with the case. These multibacillary leprosy cases also showed seropositivity to the antigens tests. ELISA test index value was higher in the HC group of MB leprosy cases. There was moderate agreement (K = 0.53, p <0.0001) between anti-NDO-HSA and anti-NDO-LID tests, but no difference was found between anti-NDO-HSA and anti-LID -1 (K = -0.05, p = 0.678). Three antigens were positively correlated, but there was no statistical significance (p <0.186) between LID-1 and NDO-HSA. Conclusion: The results suggest that serological tests in combination with the characteristics assessed during household contacts in a non-endemic area may represent efficient auxiliary tools for the detection of M. leprae-infected individuals, providing a contribution to the surveillance of household contacts


Subject(s)
Serologic Tests , Leprosy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Leprosy, Multibacillary , Leprosy/prevention & control
20.
Intestinal Research ; : 554-562, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Noninvasive objective monitoring is advantageous for optimizing treatment strategies in patients inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal calprotectin (FCP) is superior to traditional biomarkers in terms of assessing the activity in patients with IBD. However, there are the differences among several FCP assays in the dynamics of FCP. In this prospective multicenter trial, we investigated the usefulness of FCP measurements in adult Japanese patients with IBD by reliable enzyme immunoassay using a monoclonal antibody. METHODS: We assessed the relationship between FCP levels and disease or endoscopic activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC, n=64) or Crohn’s disease (CD, n=46) compared with healthy controls (HCs, n=64). RESULTS: FCP levels in UC patients strongly correlated with the Disease Activity Index (rs =0.676, P < 0.0001) and Mayo endoscopic subscore (MES; rs =0.677, P < 0.0001). FCP levels were significantly higher even in patients with inactive UC or CD compared with HCs (P=0.0068, P < 0.0001). The optimal cutoff value between MES 1 and 2 exhibited higher sensitivity (94.1%). FCP levels were significantly higher in active UC patients than in inactive patients (P < 0.001), except those with proctitis. The Crohn’s Disease Activity Index tended to correlate with the FCP level (rs =0.283, P=0.0565). CONCLUSIONS: Our testing method using a monoclonal antibody for FCP was well-validated and differentiated IBD patients from HCs. FCP may be a useful biomarker for objective assessment of disease activity in adult Japanese IBD patients, especially those with UC.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Biomarkers , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Proctitis , Prospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL