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1.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(1): e1288, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251715

ABSTRACT

El sistema inmune madura gradualmente durante la infancia y el nacimiento es un momento crucial para este proceso. El paso por el canal del parto es el primer estímulo que el sistema inmunitario percibe para comenzar así su maduración progresiva. El timo como órgano linfoide primario, es el primero en aparecer entre todos los órganos linfoides; en este órgano ocurre la ontogenia, diferenciación y maduración de los linfocitos T que migran a los órganos linfoides secundarios como linfocitos T inmunocompetentes. La producción de IgA por los linfocitos B es uno de los mecanismos esenciales de respuesta inmune de las mucosas a las que protege en su forma de IgA secretoria. En el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología, se atendieron en consulta 62 pacientes pediátricos entre uno y cinco años de edad, con antecedentes de infecciones respiratorias agudas frecuentes, con dos o más episodios en un mes, a los que se les diagnosticó por ultrasonografía una disminución del área tímica (hipoplasia). De ellos, 50 por ciento presentó además disminución de la concentración de IgA en suero. Estos resultados sugieren múltiples interrogantes. Consecuentemente, este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar la asociación hallada entre la disminución del tamaño del timo y la disminución de la concentración en suero de IgA, en un grupo de niños de uno a cinco años, con antecedentes de infecciones respiratorias frecuentes, consultados en el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología durante un año(AU)


The immune system gradually matures during childhood, and birth is a crucial moment in this process. Transit through the birth canal is the first stimulus perceived by the immune system to start its progressive maturation. The thymus, a primary lymphoid organ as it is, is the first lymphoid organ to appear. It is the site of the ontogeny, differentiation and maturation of the T-lymphocytes migrating to secondary lymphoid organs as immunocompetent T-lymphocytes. IgA production by B-lymphocytes is one of the essential immune response actions performed by mucosas, which they protect in the form of secretory IgA. A study was conducted of 62 pediatric patients aged 1-5 years attending consultation at the Institute of Hematology and Immunology who had a history of frequent acute respiratory infection, with two or more episodes in one month. These patients were ultrasonographically diagnosed with thymus size reduction (hypoplasia). Among them, 50 percent also presented a decrease in serum IgA concentration. These results pose many questions concerning the association between thymus hypoplasia and IgA reduction. The purpose of the study was therefore to present the association found between thymus size reduction and serum IgA concentration decrease in a group of children aged 1-5 years with a history of frequent respiratory infection attending the Institute of Hematology and Immunology during one year(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections , Thymus Gland , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Hematology
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180254, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985162

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in the drugs used for the treatment of typhoid fever. The immunomodulatory substance β-glucan can be used as an alternative therapy as it potentiates host immunity. The aims of this study are to observe the effect of Candida albicans cell wall (CCW) extract towards host immunity (TCD8+ and TCD4+ cells in spleen, intestinal sIgA) and its capacity to kill Salmonella in the intestine and liver of typhoid fever mice models. METHODS: Typhoid fever mice models were created by infecting mice with S. Typhimurium orally. Mice were divided into four groups: the Non-Infected, Infected, CCW (infected mice treated with 300 µg CCW extract/mouse once a day), and Ciprofloxacin groups (infected mice treated with 15 mg/kg BW ciprofloxacin twice a day). RESULTS: Secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations of mice in the CCW group remained unchanged. However, their TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells increased substantially compared to those in the Non-Infected group. In the Ciprofloxacin group, sIgA concentrations increased markedly compared to those in the Non-Infected and CCW groups; TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells also increased significantly compared to those in the Infected Group, but not significant compared to those in the CCW group. Colonization of S. Typhimurium in the intestine and liver decreased significantly in the CCW and Ciprofloxacin groups compared to that in the Infected group, with the lowest reduction being found in the Ciprofloxacin group. CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of S. Typhimurium colonization by CCW is associated with the increase in TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Candida albicans/chemistry , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Wall , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Liver/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(2): 368-377, mar./apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966647

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to determine the quality and composition of colostrum samples obtained from Simmental and Brown Swiss heifers on a Turkish dairy farm in Ödemis, zmir. The average volume of colostrum obtained from Simmental and Brown Swiss heifers at the first milking was 3.4 L and 3.8 L, respectively. Average colostrometer (Ig) and Brix values were determined as 105.1 mg/mL and 104.9 mg/mL, 29.97 % and 29.68 % of the samples (P>0.05). No significant differences were observed between colostrums' chemical compositions­including total solids, total protein, solids-not-fat, somatic cell counts (SCC), total bacterial counts (TBC), and energy values of the breeds - except for lactose concentration (P<0.05). The means of TBC were 781,000 and 634,000 CFU/mL for Simmental and Brown Swiss, respectively. The correlations between colostrometer and Brix values in Simmentals and Browns Swiss were 0.85 and 0.81, respectively (P<0.01). On the other hand, the correlations between Log10SCC and Log10TBC in both breeds were found to be 0.66 and 0.65 (P<0.05), respectively. According to the results of the present study, the fat, protein, lactose, and total solid concentrations of both Simmental and Brown Swiss (dual-purpose breeds) were higher than the values reported for Holstein dairy breeds. Although colostrum quality of both breeds was found to be good in terms of Ig concentration, their total bacterial counts were high. Bacterial counts can be reduced with adequate hygiene practices and good colostrum management.


O presente estudo foi realizado para determinar a qualidade e a composição das amostras de colostro obtidas de novilhas Simental e Pardo Suíço em uma fazenda leiteira turca em Ödemis, zmir. O volume médio de colostro obtido das novilhas Simental e Pardo Suíço na primeira ordenha foi de 3,4 L e 3,8 L, respectivamente. Os valores médios do colostrômetro (Ig) e de Brix foram determinados como sendo 105,1 mg/mL e 104,9 mg/mL, 29,97% e 29,68% das amostras (P > 0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as composições químicas do colostro, incluindo sólidos totais, proteína total, sólidos não gordurosos, contagens de células somáticas (SCC), contagens bacterianas totais (TBC) e valores energéticos das raças - exceto para a concentração de lactose (P < 0,05). As médias para as TBC foram de 781.000 e 634.000 CFU/mL para Simental e Pardo Suíço, respectivamente. As correlações entre os valores do colostrômetro e de Brix em Simental e Pardo Suíço foram de 0,85 e 0,81, respectivamente (P < 0,01). Por outro lado, as correlações entre Log10SCC e Log10TBC em ambas as raças foram de 0,66 e 0,65 (P < 0,05), respectivamente. De acordo com os resultados do presente estudo, as concentrações de gordura, proteína, lactose e sólidos totais das raças Simental e Pardo Suíço (raças de dupla aptidão) foram maiores do que os valores relatados para raças leiteiras de Holstein. Embora a qualidade do colostro de ambas as raças tenha sido boa em termos de concentração de Ig, sua contagem total de bactérias foi alta. As contagens bacterianas podem ser reduzidas com práticas de higiene adequadas e boa gestão do colostro.


Subject(s)
Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Colostrum , Livestock , Placenta , Animal Nutrition Sciences
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758797

ABSTRACT

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Salmonella Pullorum have significant damaging effects on the poultry industry, but no previous vaccine can protect poultry effectively. In this study, a recombinant-attenuated S. Pullorum strain secreting the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, C79-13ΔcrpΔasd (pYA-HN), was constructed by using the suicide plasmid pREasd-mediated bacteria homologous recombination method to form a new bivalent vaccine candidate against Newcastle disease (ND) and S. Pullorum disease (PD). The effect of this vaccine candidate was compared with those of the NDV LaSota and C79-13ΔcrpΔasd (pYA) strains. The serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers, serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, secretory IgA, and stimulation index in lymphocyte proliferation were increased significantly more (p 0.05). Moreover, the novel strain provides 60% and 80% protective efficacy against the NDV virulent strain F48E9 and the S. Pullorum virulent strain C79-13. In summary, in this study, a recombinant-attenuated S. Pullorum strain secreting NDV HN protein was constructed. The generation of the S. Pullorum C79-13ΔcrpΔasd (pYA-HN) strain provides a foundation for the development of an effective living-vector double vaccine against ND and PD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Bacteria , Chickens , Hemagglutination , HN Protein , Homologous Recombination , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Lymphocytes , Methods , Newcastle disease virus , Newcastle Disease , Plasmids , Poultry , Salmonella , Suicide , Vaccines
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 93(6): 568-575, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894078

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Intimins are protein adhesins of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli capable of inducing attachment and effacement lesions in enterocytes. Anti-intimin antibodies are important for the protection from enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli infections because these antibodies inhibit bacterial adhesion and impair the initial step of the pathogenesis. We studied the transfer of maternal anti-intimin antibodies from healthy Brazilian mothers to their newborns through the placenta and colostrum. Methods: Serum immunoglobulin G and secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies against conserved and variable regions of intimins α, β, and γ were analyzed using an enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay in the blood and colostrum from 45 healthy women as well as cord blood serum samples from their newborns. Results: The concentrations of antibodies reactive with α intimin were significantly lower than those of anti-γ and anti-conserved intimin antibodies in the colostrum samples. IgG serum antibodies reactive with all the subtypes of intimins were transferred to the newborns, but the concentrations of anti-conserved intimin serum antibodies were significantly higher in mothers and newborns than concentrations of antibodies against variable regions. The patterns of IgG transfer from mothers to newborns were similar for all anti-intimin antibodies. These values are similar to the percentage transference of total IgG. Conclusions: Anti-intimin antibodies are transferred from mothers to newborns through the placenta, and reinforce the protection provided by breastfeeding against diarrheagenic E. coli infections.


Resumo Objetivo: As intiminas são adesinas proteicas de Escherichia coli enteropatogênicas (EPEC) e enterro-hemorrágicas (EHEC) capazes de induzir as lesões attaching and effacing nos enterócitos. Anticorpos anti-intiminas são importantes para a proteção contra infecções por EPEC e EHEC porque esses anticorpos inibem a adesão bacteriana e impedem o passo inicial do mecanismo patogênico dessas bactérias. Nós estudamos a transferência de anticorpos maternos anti-intiminas de mães brasileiras saudáveis para os seus recém-nascidos através da placenta e do colostro. Métodos: Anticorpos séricos da classe IgG e secretórios da classe IgA (SIgA) reativos com as porções conservada (cons) e variáveis das intiminas α (vα), β (vβ) e γ (vγ) foram analisados pelo teste de ELISA no sangue e no colostro de 45 parturientes saudáveis e no sangue de cordão umbilical dos seus respectivos recém-nascidos. Resultados: As concentrações de anticorpos reativos com intimina vα foram significativamente mais baixas que as dos anticorpos anti-vγ e anti-cons nas amostras de colostro. Anticorpos IgG séricos reativos com todas as intiminas foram transferidos para os recém-nascidos, mas as concentrações de anti-cons foram significativamente mais altas tanto nas mães como nos recém-nascidos do que os anticorpos reativos com as regiões variáveis das intiminas. O padrão de transferência de IgG das mães para os recém-nascidos foi muito semelhante para todos os anticorpos anti-intiminas. Os valores de porcentagem de transferência foram semelhantes à transferência de IgG total. Conclusões: Anticorpos anti-intimina são transferidos das mães para os recém-nascidos pela placenta e corroboram a proteção contra infecções por Escherichia coli diarreiogênicas (DEC) conferida pelo aleitamento materno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Autoantibodies/analysis , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Colostrum/immunology , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Adhesins, Bacterial/analysis , Adhesins, Bacterial/immunology , Escherichia coli Proteins/analysis , Escherichia coli Proteins/immunology
6.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(3): 256-261, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891403

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe e compare the specificity of IgA antibodies against bacteria extract of Klebsiella pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Salmonella enteritidis . Methods Colostrum samples were aseptically collected in the first 12 hours after C-section delivery. The specificity of IgA against bacteria extracts was analyzed by the Western blot. Results The findings showed proteins of high molecular weight frequently detectable in the samples. S. aureus was the most frequently found bacterium in the samples (p<0.05). Approximately 93.8, 56.3, 62.5 and 60.4% of samples presented IgA reactive to S. aureus , K. pneumoniae , S. enteritidis, and E. coli, respectively. Roughly 40% of samples showed no IgA reactive to K. pneumoniae, S. enteritidis and E. coli . Conclusion Clinical evidence of the importance of breastfeeding for the immune protection of neonates was consistent with the observed immunological findings, since most samples showed IgA reactive against the species tested. The application and development of immunotherapies during pregnancy, focused on frequently detected antigens, could be an important tool to enhance the presence of IgA in colostrum.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever e comparar a especificidade de anticorpos IgA de amostras de colostro contra extratos bacterianos de Klebsiella pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli e Salmonella enteritidis . Métodos As amostras de colostro foram coletadas assepticamente nas primeiras 12 horas após o nascimento por cesariana. A especificidade de IgA contra extratos de bactérias foi analisada por Western blot. Resultados Os achados mostraram proteínas de alto peso molecular frequentemente detectáveis nas amostras. S. aureus foi a bactéria mais encontrada nas amostras (p<0,05). Cerca de 93,8, 56,3, 62,5 e 60,4% das amostras apresentaram IgA reativa a S. aureus , K. pneumoniae , S. enteritidis e E. coli , respectivamente. Aproximadamente 40% das amostras não apresentaram IgA reativa contra K. pneumoniae , S. enteritidis e E. coli. Conclusão A evidência clínica da importância da amamentação para proteção imunológica ao recém-nascido foi consistente com os achados imunológicos observados, uma vez que a maioria das amostras mostrou IgA reativa contra as espécies testadas. A aplicação e o desenvolvimento de imunoterapias durante a gestação, focada nos antígenos frequentemente detectados, poderiam ser importantes instrumentos para aumentar a presença de IgA no colostro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Salmonella enteritidis/immunology , Staphylococcus aureus/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Colostrum/immunology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/immunology , Antibodies, Bacterial/analysis , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/immunology , Blotting, Western , Sensitivity and Specificity , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology
7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(4): 320-323, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842557

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on salivary immunoglobulin and sialic acid levels in children with dental fluorosis and healthy teeth who live in places with high fluoride concentration in drinking water. Method: Fifty-one (51) healthy children between 6 and 12 years old with no caries were randomly selected from primary schools enrolled in the dental-care program operated by the Department of Pediatric Dentistry. The children were divided into two groups: group I comprised 26 children with dental fluorosis [Thylstrup-Fejerskov Dental Fluorosis Index (TFI) = 4] who lived in Isparta (2.7-2.8 ppm), and group II consisted of 25 children without dental fluorosis who were born in low-fluoride areas and had lived in Isparta for only the previous two years. Stimulated and unstimulated saliva were collected and analyzed for fluoride, salivary immunoglobulins and sialic acid levels. Results: Sialic acid level was correlated negatively with age. Levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and secretory immunoglobulin G (sIgG) were higher in children with dental fluorosis compared with those in group II, although these differences were not significant. Conclusion: Increased sIgA and sIgG levels may arrest the progression of caries in subjects with dental fluorosis. Given the risks of dental fluorosis, further studies of the effects of different fluoride levels in drinking water on salivary composition of children with mixed dentition are needed to confirm the results of our study and to provide data for comparison.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Saliva/drug effects , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/drug effects , Immunoglobulin G/drug effects , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/analysis , Fluorides/pharmacology , Fluorosis, Dental/physiopathology , Reference Values , Saliva/chemistry , Drinking Water/chemistry , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Case-Control Studies , Sex Factors , Fluoridation/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fluorides/chemistry , Fluorosis, Dental/etiology
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(1): 27-32, feb. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844441

ABSTRACT

Background: Aim: To compare the concentration of secretory immunoglobulin-A (sIgA) in young adults with average or excellent aerobic capacity before and after a cardiopulmonary graded exercise test. Methods: Participants were nine apparently healthy physically active males (Mean age = 21.3 ± 2.1 yr.), randomly allocated in two groups based on their VO2max: a) average aerobic capacity (AEC, n = 5) or b) excellent aerobic capacity (EAC, n = 4). Participants performed the Bruce protocol to determine their aerobic capacity. The sIgA was measured before the test, immediately after the test and 60-, 120-, 240-, and 1440-min after the test. Results: Mixed factorial 2 x 6 ANOVA indicated no significant interactions between groups and measurements (p = 0.956), and main effect groups on sIgA (AEC = 85.4 ± 19.3 μg/mL vs. EAC = 79.2 ± 21.5 μg/mL, p = 0.836). Tukey's post hoc analysis revealed significant differences measurement obtained immediately after the test and between the initial measurement (p = 0.020), 60-min (p = 0.030), 240-min (p = 0.016), and 1440-min (p = 0.028) following the test. Conclusion: There is no change in sIgA kinetics depending on the aerobic capacity of the participants following an aerobic capacity cardiopulmonary graded exercise test.


Introducción. Objetivo: Comparar la cinética en la concentración de inmunoglobulina A salival (IgAs) en adultos jóvenes con capacidad aeróbica promedio (n: 5) o excelente (n: 4) antes y después de una prueba de esfuerzo. Método: 9 adultos jóvenes (edad 21,3 ± 2,1), divididos de acuerdo su VO2máx, realizaron una prueba de esfuerzo mediante el protocolo de Bruce. La concentración de IgAs fue determinada mediante el Salimetrics IgA Kit®, evaluando inicial, inmediatamente finalizada la prueba, +60, +120, +240, +1.440 min. Resultados: La prueba ANOVA 2x6 mixta indicó que no existieron interacciones significativas entre grupos y mediciones (p = 0,956). Tampoco se encontró una diferencia significativa en la media de IgAs en los grupos (Promedio = 85,4 ± 19.3 μg/mL vs Excelente=79,2 ± 21.5 μg/mL, p = 0,836). Independientemente de las mediciones, el análisis post hoc de Tukey indicó que las diferencias se encontraron en la medición obtenida inmediatamente después de la prueba y entre la medición inicial (p: 0,020), la medición obtenida 60 min (p: 0,030), 240 min (p: 0,016) y 1.440 min (p = 0,028) posteriores a la prueba. Conclusión: Los datos encontrados sugieren que no hay un cambio en la concentración de IgAs a través del tiempo en función de la capacidad aeróbica de los participantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Physical Endurance/physiology , Saliva/chemistry , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/metabolism , Kinetics , Random Allocation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise Test
9.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e39, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839507

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study compared IgA specificity against oral streptococci in colostrum and saliva samples. Sixty-two mother-and-child pairs were included; samples of colostrum (C) and saliva (MS) were collected from the mothers and saliva samples were collected from babies (BS). The specificity of IgA against Streptococcus mutans and S. mitis were analyzed by western blot. Only 30% of babies’ samples presented IgA reactivity to S. mutans, while 74 and 80% of MS and C, respectively, presented this response. IgA reactivity to S. mutans virulence antigens (Ag I/II, Gtf and GbpB) in positive samples showed differences between samples for Gtf and especially for GbpB (p < 0.05), but responses to Ag I/II were similar (p > 0.05). The positive response of Gtf-reactive IgA was different between C (90%) and MS (58%) samples (p < 0.05), but did not differ from BS (p > 0.05). GbpB was the least detected, with 48 and 26% of C and MS, and only 5% of BS samples presenting reactivity (p > 0.05). Eight percent of MS and C samples presented identical bands to SM in the same time-point. In conclusion, the differences of IgA response found between C and MS can be due to the different ways of stimulation, proliferation and transportation of IgA in those secretions. The colostrum has high levels of IgA against S. mutans virulence antigens, which could affect the installation and accumulation process of S. mutans, mainly by supplying anti-GbpB IgA to the neonate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Saliva/immunology , Streptococcus mutans/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/immunology , Colostrum/immunology , Streptococcus mitis/immunology , Saliva/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Virulence , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glycoproteins/analysis , Glycoproteins/immunology , Blotting, Western , Analysis of Variance , Colostrum/microbiology , Glucosyltransferases/analysis , Glucosyltransferases/immunology , Mothers , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/analysis , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109783

ABSTRACT

Goose parvovirus (GPV) continues to be a threat to goose farms and has significant economic effects on the production of geese. Current commercially available vaccines only rarely prevent GPV infection. In our study, Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum NC8 was selected as a vector to express the VP2 gene of GPV, and recombinant L. plantarum pSIP409-VP2/NC8 was successfully constructed. The molecular weight of the expressed recombinant protein was approximately 70 kDa. Mice were immunized with a 2 × 109 colony-forming unit/200 µL dose of the recombinant L. plantarum strain, and the ratios and numbers of CD11c⁺, CD3⁺CD4⁺, CD3⁺CD8⁺, and interferon gamma- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-expressing spleen lymphocytes in the pSIP409-VP2/NC8 group were higher than those in the control groups. In addition, we assessed the capacity of L. plantarum SIP409-VP2/NC8 to induce secretory IgA production. We conclude that administered pSIP409-VP2/NC8 leads to relatively extensive cellular responses. This study provides information on GPV infection and offers a clear framework of options available for GPV control strategies.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Animals , Geese , Immunization , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Interferons , Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus , Lymphocytes , Mice , Molecular Weight , Parvovirus , Spleen , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccines
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-54239

ABSTRACT

Selecting an appropriate antigen with optimal immunogenicity and physicochemical properties is a pivotal factor to develop a protein based subunit vaccine. Despite rapid progress in modern molecular cloning and recombinant protein technology, there remains a huge challenge for purifying and using protein antigens rich in hydrophobic domains, such as membrane associated proteins. To overcome current limitations using hydrophobic proteins as vaccine antigens, we adopted in silico analyses which included bioinformatic prediction and sequence-based protein 3D structure modeling, to develop a novel periodontitis subunit vaccine against the outer membrane protein FomA of Fusobacterium nucleatum. To generate an optimal antigen candidate, we predicted hydrophilicity and B cell epitope parameter by querying to web-based databases, and designed a truncated FomA (tFomA) candidate with better solubility and preserved B cell epitopes. The truncated recombinant protein was engineered to expose epitopes on the surface through simulating amino acid sequence-based 3D folding in aqueous environment. The recombinant tFomA was further expressed and purified, and its immunological properties were evaluated. In the mice intranasal vaccination study, tFomA significantly induced antigen-specific IgG and sIgA responses in both systemic and oral-mucosal compartments, respectively. Our results testify that intelligent in silico designing of antigens provide amenable vaccine epitopes from hard-to-manufacture hydrophobic domain rich microbial antigens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cloning, Molecular , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Epitopes , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Fusobacterium , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Membrane Proteins , Mice , Periodontitis , Solubility , Vaccination
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91213

ABSTRACT

To construct a novel vaccine candidate against bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), FanC, the major subunit of K99 fimbriae adhesion, was inserted into secretion plasmid pYA3560 containing a β-lactamase secretion system. This was then transformed into Δasd Δcrp Salmonella (S.) Typhimurium and designated as JOL950. Secretion of recombinant fanC fimbrial antigens was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Groups of mice were inoculated with single or double doses of JOL950. Another group was used as a negative control. Compared to control mice, all immunized mice had significantly higher levels (p < 0.05) of serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G, and secretory IgA against FanC. The IgG2a and IgG1 titer assays revealed that immunization highly induced IgG2a compared to that of IgG1, indicating that T helper-1- related cell-mediated immune responses may be elicited by JOL950. The results show that both systemic and mucosal immunities against selected fimbrial antigens of bovine ETEC expressed by a live attenuated S. Typhimurium strain are prominently produced in mice immunized with JOL950 via an oral route.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli , Immunization , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Mice , Plasmids , Salmonella
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(7): 910-916, jul. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-794005

ABSTRACT

The gastrointestinal tract hosts around 10(14) bacterial microorganisms, in a constantly growing density from the stomach to the distal colon. This microbiota is composed by more than 500 species of bacteria, which are quickly acquired after birth, fairly stable during the host’s life, and essential for human homeostasis. These bacteria have important functions, such as stimulating the immune system, protecting the host from invading bacteria and viruses, and improving digestion, especially of complex carbohydrates. Also, the gut microbiota interacts directly with the immune system. However, the interaction of the intestinal epithelium and its microbiota with the immune system has yet to be fully understood. Secretory immunoglobulin A, produced by the plasma cells in Peyer’s patches and in the lamina propria, maintains non-invasive commensal bacteria and neutralize invasive pathogens. Dendritic cells migrate from the lamina propria of the secondary lymphoid organs to regulate gut immunity. They also have a key role maintaining luminal IgA and inducing the growth of regulatory T cells. Dendritic cells supervise the gut microenvironment too, keeping an immunological equilibrium and tolerance. The importance of the gut microbiota in regulating the immune system lies mostly in the homeostasis-or positive equilibrium. Thus, many diseases are a consequence of poor interactions or a loss of this equilibrium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Probiotics , Homeostasis/immunology
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(2): 107-113, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779906

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Young swimmers are particularly susceptible to the onset of oral diseases. Objective To evaluate the oral health status in young competitive and non-competitive swimmers, involving an assessment of salivary cariogenic bacteria and secretory IgA (S-IgA) concentration. Material and Methods Before training sessions (T1), 54 competitive and 69 non-competitive swimmers had the following parameters assessed: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), Plaque Index (PlI), and Gingival Index (GI). At T1 and after training sessions (T2), stimulated saliva was collected and microbiological and immunological analyses were performed. Results Competitive swimmers trained 2.02±0.09 hours 5 times a week, while non-competitive swimmers trained 2.03±0.18 hours a week. A total of 14.7% of competitive swimmers suffered dental trauma related to sports. Only 11.76% of the competitive swimmers took a daily dose of fluoride, against 32.65% of non-competitive swimmers (p=0.029). Neither group followed an established diet or presented statistically significant differences in terms of nutritional supplement drink and chocolate intake. There were statistically significant differences in terms of oral hygiene. No significant difference in clinical indexes (DMFT, PlI, and GI) was present. S. mutans was harbored by 18.6% of competitive and the 32.2% of non-competitive swimmers. S. sobrinus was detected in 22.03% of competitive and 91.6% of non-competitive swimmers (p<0.05). S. sanguinis was found only in the saliva of competitive swimmers. The average S-IgA of competitive swimmers decreased significantly at T2 (p<0.05). The pool water had a daily average pH of 7.22. Conclusions Microbial markers, immune status and sporting characteristics are important for establishing guidelines for management of training load in order to minimize physical stress and the risk of oral infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Athletes , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Oral Health , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/microbiology , Swimming/physiology , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Dental Health Surveys , DNA, Bacterial , Health Status , Italy/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207493

ABSTRACT

In the present study, quids from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to ELISA tests for 2 protozoan parasites, Toxoplasma gondii (n=45) and Trypanosoma cruzi (n=43). The people who occupied CMC, the Loma San Gabriel, lived throughout much of present-day Durango and Zacatecas in Mexico. The known pathoecology of these people puts them into at-risk categories for the transmission of T. gondii and T. cruzi. Human antibodies created in response to these 2 parasites can be detected in modern saliva using ELISA kits intended for use with human serum. For these reasons, quids were reconstituted and subjected to ELISA testing. All test wells yielded negative results. These results could be a factor of improper methods because there is no precedence for this work in the existing literature. The results could equally be a simple matter of parasite absence among those people who occupied CMC. A final consideration is the taphonomy of human antibodies and whether or not ELISA is a sufficient method for recovering antibodies from archaeological contexts. An additional ELISA test targeting secretory IgA (sIgA) was conducted to further examine the failure to detect parasite-induced antibodies from quids. Herein, the methods used for quid preparation and ELISA procedures are described so that they can be further developed by future researchers. The results are discussed in light of the potential future of quid analysis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Loma , Methods , Mexico , Parasites , Saliva , Toxoplasma , Trypanosoma cruzi
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285252

ABSTRACT

The levels of Streptococcus (S.) mutans infections in saliva were evaluated and a comparison for specific antibody levels among children with different levels of S. mutans infection was made. The promising epitopic regions of antigen AgI/II (PAc) and glucosyltransferase (GTF) for potential vaccine targets related to S. mutans adherence were screened. A total of 94 children aged 3-4 years were randomly selected, including 53 caries-negative and 41 caries-positive children. The values of S. mutans and those of salivary total secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), anti-PAc and anti-Glucan binding domain (anti-GLU) were compared to determine the correlation among them. It was found the level of s-IgA against specific antigens did not increase with increasing severity of S. mutans infection, and the complete amino acid sequence of PAc and GTFB was analyzed using the DNAStar Protean system for developing specific anti-caries vaccines related to S. mutans adherence. A significantly positive correlation between the amount of S. mutans and children decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was observed. No significant difference was detected in specific sIgA against PAc or GLU between any two groups. No significant correlation was found between such specific sIgA and caries index. A total of 16 peptides from PAc as well as 13 peptides from GTFB were chosen for further investigation. S. mutans colonization contributed to early children caries as an important etiological factor. The level of sIgA against specific antigens did not increase with increasing severity of S. mutans infection in children. The epitopes of PAc and GTF have been screened to develop the peptide-based or protein-based anti-caries vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bacterial , Antigens, Bacterial , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Bacterial Proteins , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Case-Control Studies , Child, Preschool , Dental Caries , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Epitopes , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Female , Glucosyltransferases , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Male , Peptides , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Saliva , Chemistry , Microbiology , Severity of Illness Index , Streptococcal Vaccines , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Streptococcus mutans , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Virulence , Vaccines, Subunit , Virulence Factors , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176938

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG) ghost vaccine candidate was recently constructed. In this study, we evaluated various prime-boost vaccination strategies using the candidate strain to optimize immunity and protection efficacy against fowl typhoid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chickens were divided into five groups designated as group A (non-immunized control), group B (orally primed and boosted), group C (primed orally and boosted intramuscularly), group D (primed and boosted intramuscularly), and group E (primed intramuscularly and boosted orally). The chickens were primed with the SG ghost at 7 days of age and were subsequently boosted at the fifth week of age. Post-immunization, the plasma IgG and intestinal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels, and the SG antigen-specific lymphocyte stimulation were monitored at weekly interval and the birds were subsequently challenged with a virulent SG strain at the third week post-second immunization. RESULTS: Chickens in group D showed an optimized protection with significantly increased plasma IgG, sIgA, and lymphocyte stimulation response compared to all groups. The presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and monocyte/macrophage (M/M) in the spleen, and splenic expression of cytokines such as interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the immunized chickens were investigated. The prime immunization induced significantly higher splenic M/M population and mRNA levels of IFN-γ whereas the booster showed increases of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell population and IL-6 cytokine in mRNA levels. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the prime immunization with the SG ghost vaccine induced Th1 type immune response and the booster elicited both Th1- and Th2-related immune responses.


Subject(s)
Birds , Chickens , Cytokines , Immunization , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Interferons , Interleukin-6 , Lymphocyte Activation , Plasma , RNA, Messenger , Salmonella enterica , Salmonella , Serogroup , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes , Typhoid Fever , Vaccination
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-94482

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether maternal antibodies (mAbs) elicited by dams immunized with recombinant vaccine candidates against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can passively confer protective immunity to chicks. In the present study, pBP244 plasmids carrying selected antigens of APEC were transformed into Salmonella Typhimurium JOL912, which was used as a vaccine candidate against APEC. The hens were immunized with the vaccine candidates using prime or booster doses. The levels of IgG and sIgA specific to the selected antigens increased significantly following prime immunization. To evaluate the persistence of passively transferred mAbs, the levels of IgY and IgA were determined in egg yolks and whites, respectively. The eggs from the immunized group showed consistently increased levels of IgY and IgA until week 16 post-laying (PL) and week 8 PL, respectively, relative to the control group. The presence of mAbs was observed in chicks that hatched from the hens, and titers of plasma IgY were consistently raised in those from the immunized hens by day 14 post-hatching. Further, chicks from the immunized hens were protected from challenge with a virulent APEC strain, whereas those from non-immunized hens showed acute mortality.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Egg Yolk , Eggs , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Immunization , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Mortality , Ovum , Plasma , Plasmids , Salmonella typhimurium , Salmonella
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49795

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common and increasing disease in which Dermatophagoides (D.) farinae is one of the most common causative allergens. The aims of this study were to confirm the presence of locally produced antibodies to D. farinae in nasal secretions between nasal provocation test (NPT)-positive and -negative groups of AR patients, to evaluate their relationships with the levels of inflammatory mediators, and to determine adaptive and innate immune responses in nasal mucosa. METHODS: Sixty AR patients sensitive to house dust mites confirmed by skin prick test or serum specific IgE to D. farinae underwent NPT for D. farinae. Nasal packs were placed in both nasal cavities of the patients for 5 minutes to obtain nasal secretions after NPT. The levels of total IgE, specific IgE to D. farinae, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and tryptase in nasal secretions were detected by using ImmunoCAP. The levels of specific IgE, IgA, and secretory IgA antibodies to D. farinae in nasal secretions were measured by using ELISA. The levels of IL-8, VEGF, IL-25, and IL-33 were also measured by using ELISA. RESULTS: High levels of total IgE, specific IgE, specific IgA, and secretory IgA to D. farinae, as well as inflammatory mediators, such as ECP, IL-8, VEGF and tryptase, were detected in nasal secretions, although the differences were not statistically significant between the NPT-positive and NPT-negative groups. Levels of all immunoglobulins measured in this study significantly correlated with ECP, IL-8, and VEGF (P0.05). IL-33 and IL-25 were also detected, and IL-25 level significantly correlated with IL-8 (r=0.625, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirmed the presence of locally produced specific antibodies, including D. farinae-specific IgE and IgA, in nasal secretions collected from D. farinae-sensitive AR patients in both the NPT-positive and NPT-negative groups, and close correlations were noted between antibodies and nasal inflammatory mediators, including such as ECP, IL-8 and VEGF, indicating that locally produced antibodies may be involved in the nasal inflammation of AR.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Antibodies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophil Cationic Protein , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-8 , Nasal Cavity , Nasal Mucosa , Nasal Provocation Tests , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis , Skin , Tryptases , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
20.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(5): 478-484, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766167

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare the biochemical and immunological profiles of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with healthy children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 21 therapy-naïve patients with AML were compared with a group of 24 healthy individuals. The following data were analyzed: serum proteins, leucocytes and subgroups, erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelets, cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures under spontaneous and BCG- or PHA-stimulated conditions, immunoglobulin A, and erythrocytic glutathione. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, considering as significant p-values < 0.05. RESULTS: Serum albumin levels were higher (p < 0.0001) in the control group, as well as all the parameters related to red blood cells (p < 0.0001). For leucocytes and subgroups, no statistical difference was found between the AML and the control groups. For cytokines, the concentrations were significantly higher under spontaneous and BCG-stimulated conditions for TNF-a, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-? in the control group. Under PHA-stimulated conditions, the concentration was higher (p = 0.002) only for IL-6. No difference was found between the two groups for the other cytokines and for IgA in the saliva. Erythrocytic glutathione was higher (p < 0.0001) in AML patients. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to characterize the biochemical and immunological profile of pediatric patients with AML, as well as highlight some significant differences in these parameters when comparing with healthy children and adolescents.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Comparar o perfil bioquímico e imunológico de pacientes pediátricos portadores de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) em relação a um grupo de crianças e adolescentes saudáveis. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, em que foram avaliados 21 pacientes com LMA virgens de terapia e 24 indivíduos saudáveis. Foram analisados: proteínas séricas, leucócitos e subgrupos, eritrócitos, hematócrito, hemoglobina e plaquetas, citocinas em cultura de células mononucleares do sangue periférico sob condição espontânea e estimulada por BCG ou PHA, imunoglobulina A e glutationa eritrocitária. Análise estatística foi feita com o software SPSS considerando p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Albumina sérica foi superior (p < 0,0001) no grupo de controle, bem como todos os parâmetros relacionados com os glóbulos vermelhos (p < 0,0001). Para os leucócitos e subgrupos não houve diferença estatística entre os pacientes com LMA e o grupo controle. As concentrações foram significativamente mais elevadas sob condições espontânea e estimulada por BCG para as citocinas TNF-a, IL-6, IL-10 e IFN-? no grupo controle. Sob condição estimulada com PHA a concentração foi superior (p = 0,002) apenas para a IL-6. Não houve diferença estatística para as demais citocinas e para IgA salivar entre os dois grupos. Glutationa eritrocitária foi superior (p < 0,0001) nos pacientes LMA. CONCLUSÕES: Diante do exposto, foi possível caracterizar o perfil bioquímico e imunológico de pacientes pediátricos com LMA, bem como evidenciar diferenças significativas em alguns desses parâmetros ao se compararem os indivíduos doentes e o grupo de crianças e adolescentes saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Young Adult , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/immunology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Glutathione/blood , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Leukocytes/metabolism , Prealbumin/analysis , Saliva/immunology , Serum Albumin/analysis
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