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1.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 285-292, set. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130603

ABSTRACT

Los posibles efectos adversos que se producen en transfusiones incompatibles ABO son un riesgo latente en el uso de concentrados de plaquetas grupo O, por lo que la titulación de hemolisinas anti-A/B constituye una de las estrategias para su prevención. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de títulos de hemolisinas de isotipos IgG e IgM anti-A/B en donantes de sangre. Se trató de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y aleatorio simple con un tamaño muestral de 308 muestras. Se aplicó la metodología en tubo, gel salino y anti-inmunoglobulina IgG y, mediante soluciones seriadas, se evidenció el título. Adicionalmente, se realizó una encuesta sobre los posibles factores de riesgo para el aumento de estos títulos. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva mediante el uso del software informático SPSS versión 22.0 y la relación entre variables independientes a través del análisis estadístico de Chi-cuadrado y, para establecer la concordancia de las lecturas visuales de las tarjetas de gel, se aplicó el índice kappa. Se determinó la existencia de hemolisinas de isotipo IgG e IgM anti-A/B de títulos superiores a 1/64. Existió una relación estadísticamente significativa entre embarazos y títulos de IgG anti-A/B >1/128 y el aumento de hemolisinas de isotipo IgM y la ingesta de probióticos. Los resultados demostraron la necesidad de implementar la titulación de hemolisinas previo a la transfusión de concentrados plaquetarios no isogrupo, por lo que se recomienda una investigación de riesgo-beneficio y el seguimiento de pacientes con transfusiones de concentrados plaquetarios incompatibles ABO.


The possible adverse effects that occur in incompatible ABO transfusions are a latent risk in the use of group O platelet concentrates, so the titration of anti-A/B hemolysins is one of the strategies for its prevention. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of hemolysins titers IgG and IgM anti-A/B isotypes in blood donours. It was a simple randomized descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample size of 308 samples. The methodology was applied in tube, saline gel and anti-IgG anti-immunoglobulin and by means of serial solutions the title was verified. Additionally, a survey was conducted on the possible risk factors for the increase in securities. Descriptive statistics were used through the application of the SPSS version 22.0 software and the relationship between independent variables through the Chi-square statistical analysis and the kappa index was applied to match the visual readings of the gel cards. The existence of IgG and IgM anti-A/B isotype hemolysins of titers greater than 1/64 was determined. There was a statistically significant relationship between pregnancies and anti-A/B IgG titres>1/128; and the increase in IgM isotype hemolysins and probiotic intake. The results demonstrate the need to implement hemolysin titration prior to transfusion of non-isogroup platelet concentrates, so a risk-benefit investigation and follow-up of patients with transfusions of ABO incompatible platelet concentrates is recommended.


Os possíveis efeitos adversos que ocorrem em transfusões incompatíveis ABO são um risco latente no uso de concentrados de plaquetas do grupo O, portanto a titulação de hemolisinas anti-A/B é uma das estratégias para sua prevenção. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a frequência de títulos de hemolisinas de isotipos IgG e IgM anti-A/B em doadores de sangue. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo transversal aleatório simples, com tamanho de amostra de 308 amostras. A metodologia foi aplicada em tubo, gel salino e anti-imunoglobulina IgG e utilizando soluções em série, o título foi verificado. Além disso, foi realizada uma pesquisa sobre os possíveis fatores de risco para o aumento destes títulos. A estatística descritiva foi utilizada através da aplicação do software informático SPSS versão 22.0 e a relação entre variáveis independentes por meio da análise estatística do qui-quadrado e, para estabelecer a concordância com as leituras visuais dos cartões de gel, o índice kappa foi aplicado. Foi determinada a existência de hemolisinas de isotipo IgG e IgM anti-A/B de títulos maiores que 1/64. Existiu uma relação estatisticamente significante entre gestações e títulos de IgG anti-A/B>1/128; e o aumento de hemolisinas do isotipo IgM e a ingestão de probióticos. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de implementar a titulação da hemolisina antes da transfusão de concentrados de plaquetas não isogrupo, por isso, recomenda-se uma investigação de risco-benefício e acompanhamento de pacientes com transfusões de concentrados de plaquetas incompatíveis com ABO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Platelets , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Software , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulins , Risk Factors , Probiotics , Hemolysin Proteins , Volunteers , Blood , Blood Donors , Risk , Statistical Analysis , Morbidity , Titrimetry , Aftercare , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Disease Prevention
2.
Clinics ; 74: e631, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes dry eye and mouth. No laboratory parameters to monitor the activation of this disease have been identified. Therefore, any possible relationships between salivary and blood myxovirus resistance 1 (MX1) and pSjS must be prospectively studied. METHODS: Thirty female patients with pSjS, 30 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without secondary Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) and 28 healthy control women were enrolled in this investigation. Analyses of MX1 by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, SS-A (Ro) and SS-B (La) tests by the strip immunoblot method, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) tests by immunofluorescence and the measurement of serum rheumatoid factor (RF), C3, C4, immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were performed. RESULTS: The serum level of MX1 in patients without Raynaud phenomenon was higher than in those with Raynaud phenomenon (p:0.029, p<0.05, statistically significant). There was a statistically significant positive association between hemoglobin levels and MX1 serum levels. No statistically significant association was found among the other parameters. Low MX1 levels were shown to be associated with both a low disease activity score based on the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) and hydroxychloroquine use in all patients. CONCLUSION: MX1 levels have a considerable impact on the assessment of the disease activity in SjS. We believe that more-comprehensive studies should be performed on patients with pSjS who do not use hydroxychloroquine to prove this relationship and that MX1 levels should be used as a routine marker for the assessment of pSjS disease activity. Further studies are needed to create awareness of the role that MX1 has in the diagnosis of pSjS, which may help to uncover novel pathways for new therapeutic modalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Sjogren's Syndrome/metabolism , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/immunology , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/analysis , Sjogren's Syndrome/diagnosis , Sjogren's Syndrome/immunology , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 36-40, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899775

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción El diagnóstico de toxoplasmosis congénita (TC) en el recién nacido es muy importante porque debe recibir tratamiento siempre, sintomático o no, para evitar o aminorar las secuelas de la enfermedad. Objetivo Evaluación comparativa de los métodos disponibles en la institución para el diagnóstico de TC. Materiales y Métodos Se evaluaron métodos diagnósticos en 67 niños cuyas madres cursaron toxoplasmosis aguda durante el embarazo. Se utilizó la técnica de Sabin Feldman para IgG al nacimiento y durante el seguimiento serológico hasta el año de vida. Para determinar IgM, IgA e IgE se utilizó la técnica immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA). El diagnóstico directo se realizó por reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC), aislamiento y caracterización molecular del parásito. Resultados La sensibilidad (S) de ISAGA IgM fue 87%, ISAGA IgA 91% y la especificidad (E) fue 100% para ambas; cuando se realizaron en conjunto, la S aumentó a 98%. La detección de IgE contribuyó al diagnóstico cuando se la detectó sólo en la sangre del neonato y no en sangre materna. Se aisló el parásito en cuatro casos de TC, uno fue genotipo II y los otros tres, genotipos "atípicos". La S del aislamiento fue 80% y la E 100%. Conclusión Los métodos serológicos utilizados mostraron una buena eficacia diagnóstica. Un caso fue detectado sólo por el aislamiento y la caracterización molecular tiene gran valor epidemiológico.


Background. Congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis in the newborn is a very important issue due to the need for early treatment to prevent future sequels. Aim To compare available methods at the institution for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Material and Methods In this study we have evaluated the different diagnostic tests used in 67 congenital exposed newborns, including serological tests, PCR, parasite isolation and molecular characterization. Results The ISAGA IgM and IgA tests showed sensitivity (Se) of 87 and 91%, respectively, and specificity (Sp) of 100%. When ISAGA IgM and IgA were performed simultaneously, the Se increased to 98% and the Sp was 100%. The presence of IgE contributed to the diagnosis when it was detected in the child's serum but not in maternal blood. In four congenital infected children the parasite was isolated and genotyped: one was genotype II and the other three were "atypical" genotypes. No parasite was isolated in children without congenital toxoplasmosis. Discussion Overall, serological tests showed a good diagnostic performance although in one case they were all negative and isolation was the only tool to identify the infection. We conclude that it is essential to use all diagnostic tests in every single exposed child, including if possible, molecular characterization due to its epidemiological implication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Serologic Tests/methods , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/pathogenicity , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/parasitology , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/parasitology , Genotyping Techniques
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(4): 311-314, ago. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734391

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de hiper IgE también denominado síndrome de Job, es una inmunodeficiencia primaria poco frecuente, cuyo modo de herencia puede ser autosómico recesivo o dominante. Se caracteriza por altos niveles de IgE, eosinofilia, abscesos cutáneos, eccema, candidiasis mucocutánea crónica e infecciones pulmonares recidivantes que contribuyen al desarrollo de neumatoceles y bronquiectasias. El germen más frecuentemente aislado es el Staphylococcus aureus. En la actualidad, ante la mayor supervivencia de los pacientes se han comunicado infecciones oportunistas y linfomas. Existen escasas publicaciones de pacientes con enfermedad por Mycobacterium tuberculosis asociada a síndrome de hiper IgE, por lo que consideramos relevante comunicar el caso de un paciente con antecedentes de una tuberculosis pulmonar, que presentó una tuberculosis miliar con grave compromiso respiratorio, con buena respuesta al tratamiento estándar con drogas de primera línea.


The hyper Immunoglobulin E syndrome, also known as Job´s syndrome, is a rare primary immunodeficiency, its mechanisms of inheritance maybe recessive or dominant autosomal. It is characterized by high levels of IgE, eosinophilia, skin abscesses, eczema, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and recurrent pulmonary infections all of which contribute to the development of pneumatoceles and bronchiectasis. The most frequently isolated bacteria is Staphylococcus aureus. Currently, despite the highest survival of patients, lymphomas and other opportunistic infections have been reported. There are few reports of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection associated with hyper IgE syndrome. Therefore it is relevant that we report a case history of a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis, presenting miliary tuberculosis and severe respiratory compromise, who responded positively to standard anti-tuberculous treatment with first line drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Job Syndrome/complications , Tuberculosis, Miliary/complications , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , /genetics , Tuberculosis, Miliary/drug therapy
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(supl.1): 124-131, Dec. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659750

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of leprosy continues to be based on clinical symptoms and early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing disability and transmission. Sensitive and specific laboratory tests are not available for diagnosing leprosy. Despite the limited applicability of anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) serology for diagnosis, it has been suggested as an additional tool to classify leprosy patients (LPs) for treatment purposes. Two formats of rapid tests to detect anti-PGL-I antibodies [ML immunochromatography assay (ICA) and ML Flow] were compared in different groups, multibacillary patients, paucibacillary patients, household contacts and healthy controls in Brazil and Nepal. High ML Flow intra-test concordance was observed and low to moderate agreement between the results of ML ICA and ML Flow tests on the serum of LPs was observed. LPs were "seroclassified" according to the results of these tests and the seroclassification was compared to other currently used classification systems: the World Health Organization operational classification, the bacilloscopic index and the Ridley-Jopling classification. When analysing the usefulness of these tests in the operational classification of PB and MB leprosy for treatment and follow-up purposes, the ML Flow test was the best point-of-care test for subjects in Nepal and despite the need for sample dilution, the ML ICA test yielded better performance among Brazilian subjects. Our results identified possible ways to improve the performance of both tests.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antigens, Bacterial/blood , Glycolipids/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Leprosy/diagnosis , Mycobacterium leprae/immunology , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Immunoassay/methods , Chromatography, Affinity/methods , Leprosy/immunology , Nepal , Predictive Value of Tests , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Clinics ; 67(11): 1275-1280, Nov. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the IgE serum levels in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients and to evaluate possible associations with clinical and laboratory features, disease activity and tissue damage. METHODS: The IgE serum concentrations in 69 consecutive juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients were determined by nephelometry. IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations were measured by immunoturbidimetry. All patients were negative for intestinal parasites. Statistical analysis methods included the Mann-Whitney, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, as well as the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Increased IgE concentrations above 100 IU/mL were observed in 31/69 (45%) juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients. The mean IgE concentration was 442.0 ± 163.4 IU/ml (range 3.5-9936.0 IU/ml). Fifteen of the 69 patients had atopic disease, nine patients had severe sepsis and 56 patients presented with nephritis. The mean IgE level in 54 juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients without atopic manifestations was 271.6 ± 699.5 IU/ml, and only nine of the 31 (29%) patients with high IgE levels had atopic disease. The IgE levels did not statistically differ with respect to the presence of atopic disease, severe sepsis, nephritis, disease activity, or tissue damage. Interestingly, IgE concentrations were inversely correlated with C4 levels (r = -0.25, p = 0.03) and with the SLICC/ACR-DI score (r = -0.34, p = 0.005). The IgE concentration was also found to be directly correlated with IgA levels (r = 0.52, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated for the first time that juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients have increased IgE serum levels. This increase in IgE levels was not related to allergic or parasitic diseases. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that high IgE levels can be considered a marker of immune dysregulation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Hypersensitivity/blood , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood , Parasitic Diseases/blood , Age Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Nephelometry and Turbidimetry , Parasitic Diseases/immunology , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(1): 55-59, Jan.-Feb. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614909

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of pregnant women and children treated at a reference outpatient clinic for congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS: Pregnant women potentially exposed to Toxoplasma gondii were observed. Diagnoses were made using serologic tests compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Children presenting with: Toxoplasma-specific antibodies (IgM or IgA or ascending IgG titers higher than maternal titers in the first 3 months of life) coupled with toxoplasmosis symptoms; intracranial calcifications (by transfontanelar ultrasound or cephalic segment tomography); or retinochoroiditis (by fundoscopy examination) in the first 8 months of life were also included in the study. RESULTS: Fifty-eight mother-child pairs were observed (mean age of the mothers was 22.1 years). Most patients lived in urban areas (86.2 percent) and had attended less than 8 years of school (51.7 percent). Diagnosis was made after birth in 19 (32.8 percent) children. Thirty-four (58.6 percent) women received some type of treatment during pregnancy. Most (72.4 percent) of the children did not present with clinical alterations at birth. The main findings were ophthalmological: 20 (34.5 percent) children with retinochoroiditis, 17 (29.3 percent) with strabismus, and 7 (12.1 percent) with nystagmus. Of the children with retinochoroiditis, 9 presented with subnormal vision. Ten (32.3 percent) out of 31 children presented with intracranial calcifications by cephalic segment congenital toxoplasmosis, and 9 (42.9 percent) children presented with delayed psychomotor development. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight a critical situation. Protocols for follow-up of pregnant women and their children must be created to improve medical care and minimize sequelae.


INTRODUÇÃO: Descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico de gestantes e crianças atendidas em um centro de referência para toxoplasmose congênita. MÉTODOS: Gestantes potencialmente expostas ao Toxoplasma gondii foram estudadas. Os diagnósticos foram feitos através de testes sorológicos compatíveis com toxoplasmose aguda. Crianças que apresentaram anticorpos específicos (IgM e IgA ou títulos ascendentes de IgG, superiores aos títulos maternos nos primeiros três meses de vida), juntamente com os sintomas da toxoplasmose, calcificações intracranianas (ultrassom transfontanela ou tomografia do segmento cefálico), ou retinocoroidite (fundoscopia) nos primeiros oito meses de vida, também foram estudadas. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 58 pares mãe-filho (a média de idade das mães foi de 22,1 anos). A maioria (86,2 por cento) das mães residia em áreas urbanas e tinham até 8 anos de escolaridade (51,7 por cento). O diagnóstico foi feito após o nascimento para 19 (32,8 por cento) crianças; 34 (58,6 por cento) mulheres receberam algum tipo de tratamento durante a gravidez. A maioria (72,4 por cento) das crianças não apresentou alterações clínicas ao nascimento. Os principais achados foram oftalmológicos: 20 (34,5 por cento) crianças com retinocoroidite, 17 (29,3 por cento) com estrabismo e 7 (12,1 por cento) com nistagmo. Das crianças com retinocoroidite, 9 apresentaram visão subnormal. Calcificações intracranianas estiveram presentes em 10 (32,3 por cento) das 31 crianças que realizaram toxoplasmose congênita de segmento cefálico e 9 (42,9 por cento) crianças apresentaram atraso do desenvolvimento psicomotor. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram uma situação crítica. Protocolos para acompanhamento de gestantes e seus filhos devem ser criados para melhorar o atendimento médico e minimizar sequelas.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Educational Status , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/drug therapy , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/complications , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/drug therapy , Toxoplasmosis/drug therapy
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65164

ABSTRACT

The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Brucella (B.) abortus have been extensively studied, but their immunogenicity and protective ability against B. abortus infection are still unclear. In the present study, B. abortus Omp28, a group 3 antigen, was amplified by PCR and cloned into a maltose fusion protein expression system. Recombinant Omp28 (rOmp28) was expressed in Escherichia coli and was then purified. Immunogenicity of rOmp28 was confirmed by Western blot analysis with Brucella-positive mouse serum. Furthermore, humoral- or cell-mediated immune responses measured by the production of IgG1 or IgG2a in rOmp28-immunized mice and the ability of rOmp28 immunization to protect against B. abortus infection were evaluated in a mouse model. In the immunogenicity analysis, the mean titers of IgG1 and IgG2a produced by rOmp28-immunized mice were 20-fold higher than those of PBS-treated mice throughout the entire experimental period. Furthermore, spleen proliferation and bacterial burden in the spleen of rOmp28-immunized mice were approximately 1.5-fold lower than those of PBS-treated mice when challenged with virulent B. abortus. These findings suggest that rOmp28 from B. abortus is a good candidate for manufacturing an effective subunit vaccine against B. abortus infection in animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Blotting, Western/veterinary , Brucella Vaccine/immunology , Brucella abortus/immunology , Brucellosis, Bovine/immunology , Cattle , Cloning, Molecular , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Female , Immunization/veterinary , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Models, Animal , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
9.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 52(4): 225-227, July-Aug. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-557413

ABSTRACT

We report a primary response to Toxoplasma gondii following a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with multiple myeloma. The primary response to T. gondii was supported by IgM, IgG and IgA seroconversion. The patient was promptly treated and there were no complications related to toxoplasmosis in the subsequent months.


Esse relato de caso descreve uma resposta primária ao Toxoplasma gondii após transplante de células progenitoras hematopoiéticas em paciente com mieloma múltiplo. A resposta primária para o T. gondii foi evidenciada pela soroconversão observada na resposta de anticorpos IgM, IgG e IgA. O paciente foi prontamente tratado e complicações relacionadas à toxoplasmose não foram observadas nos meses subseqüentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Multiple Myeloma/surgery , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(3): 293-298, May 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-547299

ABSTRACT

Changes in immune system functions are one of the most important consequences of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Studies have reported a higher prevalence of disease mediated by immunological hypersensitivity mechanisms in HIV-positive patients. This study aims to observe how immunological changes in HIV-infected children interfere in atopy determinants. Fifty-seven HIV-positive children were studied between June 2004-August 2005 to evaluate the possible modifications in atopy diagnosis from prick test environmental allergen reactivity. Patients were subjected to two evaluations: on both occasions, atopic and non-atopic groups were correlated with immunological (CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte concentrations and serum levels of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE) and viral parameters (HIV viral load). The percent atopy was 20.05 in the first and 29.82 in the second evaluation and atopy was diagnosed in patients without immunosuppression or with moderate immunosuppression. Six patients changed from a negative to a positive atopy profile. One patient with a decreased CD4+ T lymphocyte concentration failed to demonstrate prick test positivity between evaluations. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables associated with atopy diagnosis included a personal history of allergic diseases as well as elevated IgE for age and elevated IgE levels. Atopy development in HIV-infected children seems to be modulated by genetic and environmental factors as well as immunological condition.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , HIV Infections/immunology , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Biomarkers/blood , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/blood , Hypersensitivity, Immediate/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Skin Tests , Viral Load
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 14(1): 35-40, Jan.-Feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-545005

ABSTRACT

Dot-ELISA using the outer membrane complex antigens of Neisseria meningitidis as a target was standardized for rapid detection of meningococcal-specific antibodies in human serum. We investigated the level of meningococcal-specific IgG, IgA, and IgM in serum using dot-ELISA with outer membrane antigens prepared from Neisseria meningitidis serotype B:4.19:P1.15,3,7,9 (a strain isolated from a Brazilian epidemic). The dot-ELISA is based on the same principles as the standard ELISA and is useful for detection of anti-N. meningitidis B antibodies in serum of patients with meningococcal infections. For the assay, outer membrane complexes (OMCs) were absorbed by nitrocellulose membrane and blocked with a 5 percent skim milk solution. Serum samples were drawn upon hospital admission and during convalescence from patients with meningococcal septicemia, and single samples were drawn from uninfected controls. We retrospectively examined a total of 57 serum samples: 35 from patients infected with N. meningitidis B, 12 from patients infected with Haemophilus influenzae b, and 10 from health individuals. When performed at room temperature, dot-ELISA took approximately four hours to perform, and the optimum antigen concentration was 0.42 µg per dot. The specificity of IgG, IgM, and IgA demonstrates that dot-ELISA using OMCs from N. meningitidis B as a target is suitable for serologic verification of clinically suspected meningococcal disease in patients and for titer determination of antibodies produced during different phases of natural infection. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dot-ELISA was comparable to that of standard ELISA. Overall, dot-ELISA is simple to perform, rapid, and low cost. Further validation of the test as a screening tool is required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Meningitis, Meningococcal/diagnosis , Neisseria meningitidis/immunology , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Meningitis, Meningococcal/microbiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 69(5): 502-506, sep.-oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633671

ABSTRACT

La técnica de elección para el screening de anticuerpos antinucleares (ANA) es la inmunofluorescencia indirecta que utiliza como sustrato una línea de células epiteliales de carcinoma de laringe humano (IFI-HEp2), y como antisuero, anti-IgG o anti-Ig totales. Los ANA-IgG son los más importantes para el diagnóstico y monitoreo de las enfermedades del tejido conectivo (ETC), mientras los ANA-IgM son de menor relevancia clínica en estos pacientes. Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los ANA-IgA ya que estos Ac han sido menos investigados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la prevalencia de los diferentes isotipos de inmunoglobulinas de anticuerpos antinucleares en los pacientes con ETC y evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar conjugados monovalentes o polivalentes. Se procesaron 100 sueros de pacientes con diversas ETC empleando IFI-HEp2, en los cuales se detectó 38% de ANA-IgA (títulos ≥ 1:80) y 12% de ANA-IgM (títulos ≤ 1:160). En 29 casos se detectó IgA en ausencia de IgM, en 3 casos IgM en ausencia de IgA. En todos los casos los ANA-IgG estuvieron presentes. En 6 sueros se observó un cambio de imagen con conjugado anti-IgA y en 3 con conjugado anti-IgM. Debido a la alta prevalencia de ANA-IgA detectada por IFI-HEp2, se destaca la conveniencia de utilizar conjugado anti-Ig totales en lugar de anti-IgG, mientras se desconozca la relevancia de los ANA-IgA en el diagnóstico, pronóstico y seguimiento de las enfermedades reumáticas sistémicas.


The indirect immunofluorescence with epitelial cell line from human laryngeal carcinoma as substrate (IIF-HEp2) and anti-IgG or anti-total Ig as antisera, is the technique currently used for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. The most important antibodies for the diagnosis and follow-up of connective tissue diseases (CTD) are the IgG-ANA, while the IgM-ANA have no clinical relevance. However the IgA-ANA have not been thoroughly investigated so far. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of different ANA isotypes of Ig antibodies in CTD patients and to evaluate the convenience of the use of monovalent or polyvalent conjugate. We examined the sera of 100 patients with different CTD by IIF-HEp2 and detected a prevalence of 38% IgA-ANA (titles ≥ 1:80) and 12% IgM-ANA (titles ≤ 1:160). In twenty nine cases we detected IgA-ANA in absence of IgM-ANA, and in 3 cases IgM-ANA in absence of IgA-ANA. In all the cases IgG-ANA were present. In 6 sera a change in the immunofluorescence pattern was observed while using anti-IgA conjugate, whereas in 3 the change was observed with the use of anti-IgM conjugate. Because of the high prevalence of ANA-IgA detected by IIF-HEp2, we emphasize the convenience of employing anti-total Ig in spite of anti-IgG conjugated until the role of ANA-IgA is dilucidated in CTD patients, in order to establish its relevance in the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of systemic rheumatic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Connective Tissue Diseases/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Connective Tissue Diseases/diagnosis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Retrospective Studies
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(4): 381-385, July-Aug. 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-527177

ABSTRACT

Lagochilascaris minor is the etiological agent of lagochilascariosis, a disease that affects the neck region and causes exudative abscesses, with eggs, adult parasites and L3/L4 larvae in the purulent exudates. Mice are now considered to be intermediate hosts for the parasite. To determine the pattern of infection in B1 cell-deficient mice, experimental lagochilascariosis was studied in BALB/c and X-chromosome-linked immunodeficient (xid) mice. BALB.xid-infected mice showed lower numbers of larvae. Third-stage larvae, fourth-stage larvae and adult parasites were found in both strains. BALB/c mice produced IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE against the crude extract and secreted/excreted antigens of the parasite. On the other hand, BALB.xid mice did not produce IgM and produced lower levels of IgG and IgA, and similar quantities of IgE.


Lagochilascaris minor é o agente etiológico da lagochilascariose, uma doença que afeta a região de pescoço provocando abscessos exudativos contendo ovos, parasitas adultos e larvas L3/L4 nos exudates purulentos. Atualmente, camundongos são considerados hospedeiros intermediários do parasita. Para determinar o padrão de infecção em camundongos deficientes de células B1, a lagochilascariose experimental foi estudada em camundongos BALB/c e em camundongos com imunodeficiência ligada ao cromossomo X (xid). Camundongos BALB.xid infectados mostraram menor número de larvas. Larvas L3, L4 e parasitas adultos foram encontrados em ambas as linhagens. Camundongos BALB/c produziram IgM, IgG, IgA e IgE contra o extrato bruto e antígenos secretados/excretados do parasita; por outro lado, camundongos BALB.xid não produziram IgM, produziram baixos níveis de IgG e IgA, e quantidades semelhantes de IgE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Ascaridida Infections/immunology , Ascaridoidea/immunology , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Ascaridida Infections/parasitology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred mdx , Time Factors
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 41(4): 325-329, jul.-ago. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-494483

ABSTRACT

In this study, we evaluated the profile of anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis immunoglobulin isotypes in serum from patients with the acute and chronic forms of paracoccidioidomycosis, using the whole Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen and the antigen treated with sodium metaperiodate. All the immunoglobulin isotypes present in the serum from patients with the acute and chronic forms of paracoccidioidomycosis presented higher reactivity towards the whole antigen than to the antigen treated with metaperiodate (P < 0.05). The reactivity of IgG and IgM to the antigen treated with metaperiodate was greater in serum from patients with the acute form of the disease (P < 0.05), while IgA was more reactive in serum from patients with the chronic form (P < 0.05). There was greater reactivity of IgG1 and IgG2 to the whole antigen and the antigen treated with metaperiodate in the serum from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis than there was in serum from patients with other parasitic infections (P < 0.05). Furthermore, IgG1 from patients with the acute form recognized the 19kDa, 27kDa and 31kDa antigens in the western blot test. Thus, the results suggest that modifications to the epitopes of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigens may help to improve the immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis.


Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o perfil de isotipos de imunoglobulinas anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em soros de pacientes com formas crônica e aguda de paracoccidiodomicoses usando antígeno total e tratado com meta-periodato. Todos os tipos de imunoglobulinas presentes nos soros de pacientes com formas aguda e crônica apresentaram alta reatividade ao antígeno total quando comparado ao tratado com meta-periodato (P < 0,05). Houve maior reatividade de IgG e IgM anti-antígeno tratado com meta-periodato em soros de pacientes com forma aguda da doença (P < 0,05), enquanto IgA foi mais reativa em soros da forma crônica (P < 0,05). Houve maior reatividade de IgG1 e IgG2 com antígeno total e tratado com meta-periodato em soros de pacientes comparados aos com outras parasitoses (P < 0,05). Além disso, IgG1 de pacientes com a forma aguda reconhecem antígenos de 19kDa, 27kDa e 31kDa por western blot. Assim, os resultados sugerem que alterações nos epitopos de antígenos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis podem auxiliar no aprimoramento do imunodiagnóstico da paracoccidioidomicose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Fungal/immunology , Antigens, Fungal/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Paracoccidioides/immunology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/immunology , Acute Disease , Antibodies, Fungal/blood , Antibodies, Fungal/drug effects , Antigen-Antibody Reactions/drug effects , Antigen-Antibody Reactions/immunology , Antigens, Fungal/blood , Antigens, Fungal/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Epitopes/drug effects , Epitopes/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/drug effects , Mitogens/therapeutic use , Paracoccidioides/drug effects , Paracoccidioidomycosis/blood , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Periodic Acid/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 74(3): 331-336, maio-jun. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-487047

ABSTRACT

A estomatite aftóide recorrente é doença caracterizada por aparecimento periódico de aftas na mucosa oral, cuja etiologia e fisiopatologia não estão bem explicadas. Estudos recentes com imunofluorescência direta mostram resultados controversos. Alguns revelam que o distúrbio básico está relacionado à imunidade humoral, enquanto outros apontam alterações da imunidade celular. Formas atípicas de estomatite aftóide podem fazer diagnóstico diferencial com doenças vésico-bolhosas como pênfigo vulgar. OBJETIVO: Verificar a presença de imunecomplexos na mucosa de pacientes com estomatite aftóide e utilidade do método no diagnóstico diferencial com dermatopatias bolhosas. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: 23 pacientes portadores de estomatite aftóide, de modo prospectivo, foram incluídos no estudo. Todos foram submetidos à biópsia de mucosa sob anestesia local para retirada de dois fragmentos. Um deles foi enviado para exame histológico e, outro, para ser realizada a imunofluorescência direta. RESULTADOS: As 23 amostras no exame histológico revelaram processo inflamatório inespecífico ulcerado. As amostras enviadas para imunofluorescência resultaram negativas e apenas uma revelou presença de complemento em membrana basal. CONCLUSÃO: Baseado em nossos resultados, concluímos que pacientes portadores de EAR não apresentam depósitos de imunecomplexos na mucosa da cavidade bucal e a imunofluorescência é útil no diagnóstico diferencial entre a doença e dermatopatias bolhosas.


Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a disease characterized by the periodic appearance of aphthous lesions on the oral mucosa, of which etiology and physiopathology are not well explained. Recent studies with direct immunofluorescence show controversial results. Some reveal that the basic disorder is associated with humoral immunity, while others point to changes in cellular immunity. Atypical forms of aphthous stomatitis may have its differential diagnosis carried out with vesicobullous diseases, such as pemphigus vulgaris. AIM: Check the presence of immunocomplexes in the mucosa of patients with aphthous stomatitis and the usefulness of the differential diagnosis method with bullous skin diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 23 patients with aphthous stomatitis were prospectively included in the study. There were all submitted to mucosa biopsy under local anesthesia for the removal of two fragments. One of these was sent to histology and, the other to direct immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The 23 samples from the histology exam revealed an ulcerated inflammatory process. The samples referred to immunofluorescence resulted negative and only one showed the presence of complement in the basal membrane. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we conclude that the patients with RAS do not show deposits of immunocomplexes in their oral cavity mucosa and immunofluorescence is useful in the differential diagnosis between this disease and bullous skin diseases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/diagnosis , Stomatitis, Aphthous/diagnosis , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential , Epidemiologic Methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct , Mouth Mucosa/immunology , Recurrence , Stomatitis, Aphthous/immunology
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 12(1): 38-43, Feb. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-484416

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to identify maternal and fetal characteristics as prognostic markers of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This is a descriptive study of 13 cases of congenital CMV infection referred to Institute de Puericulture et Perinatologie de Paris (IPP) from January 2005 to October 2006. Amniotic fluid puncture was performed to research CMV polimerase chain reaction (PCR). Cordocentesis and cord blood samples at delivery were also analyzed to determinate fetal platelets count, GGT, ASAT, ALAT, CMV-DNA and IgM antibody. Variables of symptomatic and asymptomatic infants were then compared. Data were analyzed by SPSS - 15.0. Mean gestational age of amniocentesis was 24.6 weeks and there was no difference of mean viral load in amniotic fluid considering infant features. Mean gestational age of cordocentesis was 26.1 weeks. There were no statistical differences of fetal viral load, IgM, platelets, GGT, ASAT and ALAT analyzed at cordocentesis samples, but at delivery, mean values of IgM and ASAT of fetal blood were increased in symptomatic ones (p= 0.03 for both parameters). When considering groups with normal and abnormal parameters, ASAT of cordon samples was also increased in symptomatic infants (p= 0.02). Sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of fetal ultrasound anomalies to detect symptomatic infants were, respectively, 80 percent, 62.5 percent, 57.1 percent and 83.3 percent. Thus, identification of markers of CMV symptomatic infants should be aimed. Prenatal diagnosis, identification and follow up of congenital CMV infected infants are important to consider treatment for symptomatic infants, trying to avoid or reducing some possible sequels.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cytomegalovirus Infections/congenital , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Transaminases/blood , Amniocentesis , Biomarkers/blood , Cordocentesis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/blood , Platelet Count , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 923-930, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34312

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A possible involvement of autoimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma has been proposed. Recently, alpha-enolase protein was identified as a major autoantigen recognized by circulating IgG autoantibodies in patients with severe asthma. To evaluate a possible pathogenetic significance of these autoantibodies in severe asthma, isotype (IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE) and IgG subclass (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) distributions of autoantibodies to recombinant human alpha-enolase protein were analyzed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined serum samples from 10 patients with severe asthma and 7 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, and 5 healthy controls by immunoblot analysis. Severe asthma was defined as patients having at least 1 severe asthmatic exacerbation requiring an emergency department visit or admission in the last year despite continuous typical therapies. RESULTS: IgG1 was the predominant IgG subclass antibody response to alpha-enolase protein in patients with severe asthma. IgG1 autoantibody to alpha-enolase protein was detected in 7 of 10 patients with severe asthma (70%), 1 of 7 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma (14.3%), and none of 5 healthy controls (0%) (chi-square test; p < 0.05). IgA, IgM, and IgE autoantibodies to alpha-enolase protein could not be detected in patients with severe asthma. CONCLUSION: IgG1 subclass was the predominant type of autoantibody response to alpha-enolase protein in patients with severe asthma, suggests a possibility of IgG1 autoantibody- mediated complement activation in the pathogenesis of severe asthma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Asthma/enzymology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantigens , Case-Control Studies , Complement Activation , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Young Adult
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(12): 1581-1586, Dec. 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-439688

ABSTRACT

Most contacts with food protein and microbiota antigens occur at the level of the gut mucosa. In animal models where this natural stimulation is absent, such as germ-free and antigen-free mice, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and systemic immunological activities are underdeveloped. We have shown that food proteins play a critical role in the full development of the immune system. C57BL/6 mice weaned to a diet in which intact proteins are replaced by equivalent amounts of amino acids (Aa diet) have a poorly developed GALT as well as low levels of serum immunoglobulins (total Ig, IgG, and IgA, but not IgM). In the present study, we evaluated whether the introduction of a protein-containing diet in 10 adult Aa-fed C57BL/6 mice could restore their immunoglobulin levels and whether this recovery was dependent on the amount of dietary protein. After the introduction of a casein-containing diet, Aa-fed mice presented a fast recovery (after 7 days) of secretory IgA (from 0.33 to 0.75 mg/mL, while in casein-fed mice this value was 0.81 mg/mL) and serum immunoglobulin levels (from 5.39 to 10.25 mg/mL of total Ig). Five percent dietary casein was enough to promote the restoration of secretory IgA and serum immunoglobulin levels to a normal range after 30 days feeding casein diet (as in casein-fed mice - 15 percent by weight of diet). These data suggest that the defect detected in the immunoglobulin levels was a reversible result of the absence of food proteins as an antigenic stimulus. They also indicate that the deleterious consequences of malnutrition at an early age for some immune functions may be restored by therapeutic intervention later in life.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Dietary Supplements , Dietary Proteins/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/biosynthesis , Caseins/administration & dosage , Diet, Protein-Restricted , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Time Factors
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 38(2): 137-141, mar.-abr. 2005. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-396328

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho avaliou o perfil de anticorpos em amostras de soro de 37 pacientes com diagnóstico clínico confirmado ou compatível com leishmaniose tegumentar americana atendidos no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, MG. Os perfis das classes de imunoglobulinas e subclasses de IgG foram analisados pelo teste ELISA indireto, utilizando-se antígeno solúvel de Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. A avidez dos anticorpos foi determinada pelo tratamento com uréia a 6 M, após incubação dos soros com o antígeno. Observou-se que 97 por cento, 94,6 por cento, 57,5 e 21,5 por cento das amostras testadas apresentaram anticorpos anti-Leishmania das classes IgE, IgG, IgA e IgM, respectivamente e, os perfis das subclasses de IgG demonstraram, IgG1>IgG3>IgG2>IgG4. Os anticorpos IgE anti-Leishmania de alta avidez corresponderam a 44,4 por cento. Por outro lado, IgG e IgA anti-Leishmania foram em sua maioria (62,8 e 47,8 por cento, respectivamente), de média avidez. A variação do perfil de isotipos, bem como a avidez das imunoglobulinas refletiu a complexidade da resposta imune humoral contra a leishmaniose tegumentar americana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulins/blood , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/blood , Antibody Affinity , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/classification , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology
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