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1.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 1-6, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Febrile illnesses in developing countries are often misdiagnosed as malaria or typhoid fever. Although arboviral infections have similar clinical symptoms, they are usually not screened because of limited resources and the fact that there are several viruses in this group. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been isolated in parts of Nigeria, but there is no documented evidence of the infection in Kogi State. This study determined seroprevalence of active and past CHIKV infection among febrile patients who tested negative for malaria and typhoid fever. Sera from 243 febrile patients were screened for CHIKV IgG and IgM using an immunochromatographic test kit. Clinical and socio-demographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire. Recent CHIKV infection was observed in 5.8% of the study participants while 25.1% had IgG antibodies demonstrating previous infection. Significant associations were observed between seropositivity and age of participants (p < 0.001), sex (p = 0.044), marital status (p = 0.002), and occupation (p < 0.001). Clinical symptoms such as fever, joint pain, and headache were significantly associated with seropositivity. This study identified recent CHIKV infection in Anyigba. Therefore, there is need for routine screening of febrile patients and molecular characterization to determine the nature of circulating strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoassay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Fever/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Nigeria/epidemiology
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2410-2414, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurred during the flu season around the world. This study aimed to analyze the impact of influenza A virus (IAV) exposure on COVID-19.@*METHODS@#Seventy COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital during January and February 2020 in Wuhan, China were included in this retrospective study. Serum tests including respiratory pathogen immunoglobulin M (IgM) and inflammation biomarkers were performed upon admission. Patients were divided into common, severe, and critical types according to disease severity. Symptoms, inflammation indices, disease severity, and fatality rate were compared between anti-IAV IgM-positive and anti-IAV IgM-negative groups. The effects of the empirical use of oseltamivir were also analyzed in both groups. For comparison between groups, t tests and the Mann-Whitney U test were used according to data distribution. The Chi-squared test was used to compare disease severity and fatality between groups.@*RESULTS@#Thirty-two (45.71%) of the 70 patients had positive anti-IAV IgM. Compared with the IAV-negative group, the positive group showed significantly higher proportions of female patients (59.38% vs. 34.21%, χ = 4.43, P = 0.035) and patients with fatigue (59.38% vs. 34.21%, χ = 4.43, P = 0.035). The levels of soluble interleukin 2 receptor (median 791.00 vs. 1075.50 IU/mL, Z = -2.70, P = 0.007) and tumor necrosis factor α (median 10.75 vs. 11.50 pg/mL, Z = -2.18, P = 0.029) were significantly lower in the IAV-positive group. Furthermore, this group tended to have a higher proportion of critical patients (31.25% vs. 15.79%, P = 0.066) and a higher fatality rate (21.88% vs. 7.89%, P = 0.169). Notably, in the IAV-positive group, patients who received oseltamivir had a significantly lower fatality rate (0 vs. 36.84%, P = 0.025) compared with those not receiving oseltamivir.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The study suggests that during the flu season, close attention should be paid to the probability of IAV exposure in COVID-19 patients. Prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to clarify whether IAV increases the fatality rate of COVID-19 and to elucidate any benefits of empirical usage of oseltamivir.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880737

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which first affected humans in China on December 31, 2019 (Shi et al., 2020). Coronaviruses generally cause mild, self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections in humans, such as the common cold, pneumonia, and gastroenteritis (To et al., 2013; Berry et al., 2015; Chan et al., 2015). According to the Report of the World Health Organization (WHO)-China Joint Mission on COVID-19 (WHO, 2020), the case fatality rate of COVID-19 increases with age, while the rate among males is higher than that among females (4.7% and 2.8%, respectively). Since an effective vaccine and specific anti-viral drugs are still under development, passive immunization using the convalescent plasma (CP) of recovered COVID-19 donors may offer a suitable therapeutic strategy for severely ill patients in the meantime. So far, several studies have shown therapeutic efficacy of CP transfusion in treating COVID-19 cases. A pilot study first reported that transfusion of CP with neutralizing antibody titers above 1:640 was well tolerated and could potentially improve clinical outcomes through neutralizing viremia in severe COVID-19 cases (Chen et al., 2020). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM are the most abundant and important antibodies in protecting the human body from viral attack (Arabi et al., 2015; Marano et al., 2016). Our study aimed to understand the aspects of plasma antibody titer levels in convalescent patients, as well as assessing the clinical characteristics of normal, severely ill, and critically ill patients, and thus provide a basis for guiding CP therapy. We also hoped to find indicators which could serve as a reference in predicting the progression of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/therapy , China , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 69, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127233

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Data were collected on 2,857 blood donors from April 14 to 27, 2020. This study reports crude prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, population weighted prevalence for the state, and prevalence adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity. Logistic regression models were used to establish the correlates of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. For the analysis, we considered collection period and site, sociodemographic characteristics, and place of residence. RESULTS The proportion of positive tests for SARS-Cov-2, without any adjustment, was 4.0% (95%CI 3.3-4.7%), and the weighted prevalence was 3.8% (95%CI 3.1-4.5%). We found lower estimates after adjusting for test sensitivity and specificity: 3.6% (95%CI 2.7-4.4%) for the non-weighted prevalence, and 3.3% (95%CI 2.6-4.1%) for the weighted prevalence. Collection period was the variable most significantly associated with crude prevalence: the later the period, the higher the prevalence. Regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the younger the blood donor, the higher the prevalence, and the lower the education level, the higher the odds of testing positive for SARS-Cov-2 antibody. We found similar results for weighted prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Our findings comply with some basic premises: the increasing trend over time, as the epidemic curve in the state is still on the rise; and the higher prevalence among both the youngest, for moving around more than older age groups, and the less educated, for encountering more difficulties in following social distancing recommendations. Despite the study limitations, we may infer that Rio de Janeiro is far from reaching the required levels of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190164, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092214

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with toxoplasmosis among pregnant women. METHODS We followed an analytical observational study. From July 2016 to June 2017, 218 pregnant women were selected. The infection was detected through serological dosage of anti-T.gondii Immunoglobulin(Ig) M and IgG antibodies. RESULTS The seroprevalence was 35.8%; the factors associated with infection were consumption of non-drinking water, residence in an urban area, and threatened abortion during the current pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women is high. The risk factors are dependent on environmental determinants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/parasitology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis
6.
Clinics ; 75: e2212, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133408

ABSTRACT

Serologic testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) promises to assist in assessing exposure to and confirming the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to provide a roadmap for reopening countries worldwide. Considering this, a proper understanding of serologic-based diagnostic testing characteristics is critical. The aim of this study was to perform a structured systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic characteristics of serological-based COVID-19 testing. Electronic searches were performed using Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Full-text observational studies that reported IgG or IgM diagnostic yield and used nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) of respiratory tract specimens, as a the reference standard in English language were included. A bivariate model was used to compute pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio (LR), diagnostic odds ratio (OR), and summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Five studies (n=1,166 individual tests) met inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy for IgG was 81% [(95% CI, 61-92);I2=95.28], 97% [(95% CI, 78-100);I2=97.80], and 93% (95% CI, 91-95), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for IgM antibodies was 80% [(95% CI, 57-92);I2=94.63], 96% [(95% CI, 81-99);I2=92.96] and 95% (95% CI, 92-96). This meta-analysis demonstrates suboptimal sensitivity and specificity of serologic-based diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2 and suggests that antibody testing alone, in its current form, is unlikely to be an adequate solution to the difficulties posed by COVID-19 and in guiding future policy decisions regarding social distancing and reopening of the economy worldwide.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(6): 433-437, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056749

ABSTRACT

Se analizó; de forma retrospectiva la presencia de anticuerpos só;©ricos IgG e IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii en las embarazadas que concurrieron a siete hospitales del ó;rea Metropolitana de Buenos Aires durante 2006 y 2017. La prevalencia de infecció;n, medida como presencia de anticuerpos, en 2006 vs. 2017, fue: Hospital Alemán: 22 y 17% (p = 0.004), Hospital Fiorito: 44 y 33% (p < 0.001), Hospital Gandulfo: 30 y 34% (p 0.025), Hospital Grierson: 60 y 44% (p < 0.001), Hospital Rivadavia: 59 y 51% (p=0.003), Maternidad Sardá 47 y 39% (p < 0.001) y Hospital Thompson: 61 y 51% (p < 0.001). La comparació;n demostró; una disminució;n estadísticamente significativa de la seroprevalencia en seis hos pitales. Tambín disminuyeron significativamente la reactividad para IgM en 2017 respecto de 2006 y la seroprevalencia para T. gondii en el total de la població;n de embarazadas estudiadas, lo que significa un mayor nó;ºmero de mujeres susceptible de desarrollar infecció;n aguda durante el embarazo.


We analyzed the presence of IgG and IgM anti- Toxoplasma gondii, as a measure of infection, in pregnant women attending seven hospitals in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires during 2006 and 2017. T. gondii seroprevalence in 2006 vs. 2017, was: Hospital Alemán: 22 and 17% (p = 0.004), Hospital Fiorito: 44 and 33% (p < 0.001), Hospital Gandulfo: 30 and 34% (p 0.025), Hospital Grierson 60 and 44% (p < 0.001), Hospital Rivadavia: 59 and 51% (p = 0.003), Hospital Sardá: 47 and 39% (p < 0. 001), and Hospital Thompson: 61 and 51% (p < 0.001). The comparison showed a significant decrease in seroprevalence in six hospitals. We also observed a significant decrease in the reactivity for IgM in 2017 compared to 2006 and in the seroprevalence for T. gondii in the overall population of pregnant women in the study. This means that a greater number of women are susceptible to develop acute infection during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Argentina/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Time Factors , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Distribution , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 518-521, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042525

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis at a research institution in Londrina, Paraná, from December 2015 to February 2016. Blood samples from 26 symptomatic individuals were collected and the microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay was performed to detect IgM, IgG and specific IgG avidity test in the official laboratory. A total of 20 people with symptoms and serology compatible with acute toxoplasmosis (IgM positive and IgG with low avidity) were selected as cases, while 45 asymptomatic employees working in the same teams and during the same shifts were selected as controls. All the participants of the investigation answered an epidemiological questionnaire. Three samples of water and one sludge from the institution's supply cisterns, 10 soil samples, 11 plant samples, three cat fecal samples and one domestic feline cadaver were collected for analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. gondii. After analyzing the epidemiological data, the consumption of vegetables in the restaurant of the institution was the only variable associated with the occurrence of the disease. In laboratory results, all the samples showed negative results to PCR. The rapid recognition of the outbreak, early notification and investigation could have broken the chain of transmission early, thus preventing the emergence of new cases. In addition, the adoption of good food handling practices could have prevented the occurrence of the outbreak.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um surto de toxoplasmose humana em uma instituição de pesquisa em Londrina, Paraná, no período de dezembro de 2015 a fevereiro de 2016. Amostras de sangue de 26 indivíduos sintomáticos foram coletadas e o imunoensaio de quimioluminescência de micropartículas foi realizado para detectar IgM, IgG e teste de avidez de IgG específica em laboratório oficial. Um total de 20 pessoas com sintomas e sorologia compatíveis com toxoplasmose aguda (IgM positiva e IgG com baixa avidez) foi selecionado como casos, enquanto 45 funcionários assintomáticos que trabalhavam nas mesmas equipes e durante os mesmos turnos foram utilizados como controles. Todos os participantes da investigação responderam a um questionário epidemiológico. Foram coletadas três amostras de água e uma de lodo das cisternas de abastecimento da instituição, 10 de solo, 11 de vegetais, três amostras de fezes de gato e um cadáver de filhote felino doméstico para detecção de T. gondii pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Após análise dos dados epidemiológicos, o consumo de hortaliças no restaurante da instituição foi a única variável associada à ocorrência da doença. Em resultados laboratoriais, todas as amostras apresentaram resultados negativos a PCR. O rápido reconhecimento do surto, notificação e investigação prematura poderia ter quebrado a cadeia de transmissão, evitando assim o surgimento de novos casos. Além disso, a adoção de boas práticas de manipulação de alimentos poderia ter impedido a ocorrência do surto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Cats , Toxoplasma/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoassay , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Luminescence , Middle Aged
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20170313, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041543

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are pathogens associated with congenital anomalies. METHODS: Serum was collected from 79 reproductive-age women and tested for IgM and IgG antibodies to T. gondii and CMV. RESULTS: Seropositivity for T. gondii was detected in 24.1% of women and CMV in 96.2%. High seropositivity for CMV was found for all ages. The highest seropositivity for T. gondii was observed among older participants. CONCLUSIONS: T. gondii remains an important pathogen owing to low seropositivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Toxoplasma/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Kosovo/epidemiology
10.
Clinics ; 74: e631, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes dry eye and mouth. No laboratory parameters to monitor the activation of this disease have been identified. Therefore, any possible relationships between salivary and blood myxovirus resistance 1 (MX1) and pSjS must be prospectively studied. METHODS: Thirty female patients with pSjS, 30 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without secondary Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) and 28 healthy control women were enrolled in this investigation. Analyses of MX1 by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, SS-A (Ro) and SS-B (La) tests by the strip immunoblot method, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) tests by immunofluorescence and the measurement of serum rheumatoid factor (RF), C3, C4, immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were performed. RESULTS: The serum level of MX1 in patients without Raynaud phenomenon was higher than in those with Raynaud phenomenon (p:0.029, p<0.05, statistically significant). There was a statistically significant positive association between hemoglobin levels and MX1 serum levels. No statistically significant association was found among the other parameters. Low MX1 levels were shown to be associated with both a low disease activity score based on the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) and hydroxychloroquine use in all patients. CONCLUSION: MX1 levels have a considerable impact on the assessment of the disease activity in SjS. We believe that more-comprehensive studies should be performed on patients with pSjS who do not use hydroxychloroquine to prove this relationship and that MX1 levels should be used as a routine marker for the assessment of pSjS disease activity. Further studies are needed to create awareness of the role that MX1 has in the diagnosis of pSjS, which may help to uncover novel pathways for new therapeutic modalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Sjogren's Syndrome/metabolism , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/immunology , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/analysis , Sjogren's Syndrome/diagnosis , Sjogren's Syndrome/immunology , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190145, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040609

ABSTRACT

Anti-α-Gal responses may exert a protective effect in falciparum malaria. However, the biological role of such antibodies is still unknown during Plasmodium vivax infections. We investigated IgG and IgM responses to α-Gal in individuals with vivax malaria. Anti-α-Gal IgG and IgM levels were higher in these patients than in controls, but no significant correlation was found between parasitaemia and anti-α-Gal response, nor between this response and ABO blood group status. This is the first study to investigate anti-α-Gal antibodies in P. vivax-infected patients; a larger survey is necessary to achieve a better understanding of host immune response during vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/blood , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/metabolism , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190302, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041520

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We analyzed the seroprevalence/risk factors of HEV in Croatian liver transplant recipients. METHODS Two hundred forty-two serum samples were tested for HEV immunoglobuline IgG/IgM and HEV RNA. Sociodemographic data and risk factors were collected using a questionnaire. RESULTS HEV IgG seroprevalence rate was 24.4%. Positive/equivocal HEV IgM were found in two patients. HEV RNA was not detected. Logistic regression showed that older age, female gender, rural area/farm, water well, and septic tank were associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS This study revealed a high exposure rate to HEV in Croatian liver recipients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis Antibodies/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hepatitis E/immunology , Croatia/epidemiology , Middle Aged
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190250, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057247

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is an asymptomatic disease that can lead to systemic disease in the fetus of pregnant women with primary infection. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis, associated factors, and correlation between the serology of pregnant women and their pets, in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 196 pregnant women and their cats or dogs (n=89). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and serum samples from the pregnant women were tested to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, and avidity tests were performed for IgM-positive samples. The serum collected from pets were tested for IgG antibodies, and IgM antibodies in cats. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify infection-associated factors. RESULTS: IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 67.9% (133/196) and 1.5% (3/196) samples, respectively, for women with an avidity of over 60%. Age ≥ 25 and the presence of cats in the vicinity were found to be associated with infection, while the level of education and previous orientation toward prevention of toxoplasmosis were protective factors in pregnant women. IgG antibodies were detected in 46.1% (41/89) of the animals, and cats were found to be negative for IgM. For the animals, age ≥ 1 year was a factor associated with infection. There was no correlation between serology of the pregnant women and the animals (p=0.15). CONCLUSIONS: An elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis was detected in the region. Therefore, the adoption of preventive measures by public healthcare bodies is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Cats , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/etiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/etiology
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180465, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041598

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We evaluated the anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody prevalence and HEV-RNA in archived serum samples of non-A-C hepatitis, or suspected cases of HEV infection from the Eastern Brazilian Amazon from 1993 to 2014. METHODS Serum samples (n = 318) were tested using ELISA and immunoblotting, and screened for HEV-RNA by RT-qPCR. RESULTS Anti-HEV IgM and IgG were detected in 3.4% (11/318) and 5.9% (19/318) of the samples, respectively. All samples were HEV-RNA negative. CONCLUSIONS HEV was detected at a low prevalence. Broader serological and molecular evaluation of HEV infection in the Amazon region should be carried out.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoblotting , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 803-807, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041495

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION The prevalence, public health impact, and epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) are poorly understood in Brazil. METHODS Serum samples from 535 individuals from three rural Afro-descendant communities located in eastern Brazilian Amazon were collected in October 2015 and tested for presence of anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies. Serologically positive samples were also tested for HEV-RNA. RESULTS Two cases were confirmed for anti-HEV IgM (0.3 %) and two cases for anti-HEV IgG (0.3 %). No sample was positive for HEV-RNA. CONCLUSIONS Results indicated low prevalence of HEV infection in Afro-descendant rural communities from the eastern Brazilian Amazon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , RNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , African Continental Ancestry Group , Rural Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Middle Aged
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 781-787, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977106

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection varies markedly among different populations, especially depending on factors related to socioeconomic development and eating habits. Cássia dos Coqueiros is a small city in Brazil with rural characteristics and increased risk factors traditionally associated with T. gondii infection. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 970 inhabitants aged 18 years or more, selected from patients of the local health unit and home visits in urban and rural areas. Each participant completed a survey with questions regarding demographic, socioeconomic, and risk factors for toxoplasmosis. Blood samples from participants were tested for presence of IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. RESULTS: The prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies was 62.3% and 2.5%, respectively. Variables that proved to be independent predictors of infection were age, low levels of education, and previous diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of toxoplasmosis serological markers in this adult population highlights the need to promote preventive practices, especially those directed toward women of childbearing age, in this part of Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Toxoplasma/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Rural Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Luminescent Measurements , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 591-595, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957467

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies have been shown to persist for up to 500 days in certain patients. To evaluate the usefulness of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity assessment in the diagnosis of WNV infection, we analyzed 54 WNV IgM- and/or IgG-positive serum samples from 39 patients with neuroinvasive disease and 15 asymptomatic cases tested during a seroprevalence investigation. METHODS Serological tests (WNV IgM/IgG antibody detection, IgG avidity) were performed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS WNV IgM antibodies were detected in 47 (87%) samples. Acute/recent WNV infection was confirmed based on low/borderline avidity index (AI) in 44 IgM-positive samples (93.6%). In three IgM-positive samples (6.4%), high IgG AIs were detected, thus indicating persisting IgM antibodies from previous infections. All IgM-negative samples showed high AIs. Patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease tested within 30 days showed low AIs. In six patients tested 34-50 days after disease onset, AI was borderline (42%-60%), suggesting earlier WNV IgG maturation. Samples with the highest IgM values were associated with the lowest AIs (Spearman's rho coefficient -0.767, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that IgG avidity differentiates current/recent WNV infection from persistent IgM seropositivity from the previous WNV transmission season both in patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease and in asymptomatic persons. A strong negative correlation between IgM antibody levels and AI indicates that in cases with very high IgM levels, determination of IgG avidity may not be necessary. As many patients showed rapid avidity maturation, low IgG avidity is indicative of WNV infection within the previous month.


Subject(s)
Humans , West Nile Fever/diagnosis , West Nile virus/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Seasons , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Viral/blood
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 503-507, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041474

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Socioeconomic disparities in the community make some groups more vulnerable to dengue infection. METHODS: Fourteen dengue cases (IgM positive) served as index cases for the positive geographic cluster investigations. RESULTS: Of 292 individuals, the overall dengue seroprevalence was 22.9% (IgM positive 4.8%; IgG positive 18.1%). The highest (45%) seroprevalence was reported in the most socioeconomically vulnerable lower class, followed by the middle class (39%). Orthogonal comparisons showed that socioeconomic factors play a significant role in the prevalence of dengue. CONCLUSIONS: An integrated approach is required to control the menace through vector control strategies and improvement of socioeconomic conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Pakistan/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 99-104, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041441

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Corticosteroids and/or thalidomides have been associated with thromboembolism events (TBE) in multibacillary (MB) leprosy. This report aimed to determine genetic and laboratory profiles associated with leprosy and TBE. METHODS Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), coagulation-related exams, prothrombin and Leiden's factor V mutations, and ß2-glycoprotein-I (ß2GPI) Val247Leu polymorphism were assessed. RESULTS Six out of seven patients with leprosy were treated with prednisone and/or thalidomide during TBE and presented at least one positive aPL. All patients presented ß2GPI polymorphism, and one showed prothrombin mutation. CONCLUSIONS Corticosteroid or thalidomide adverse effects and aPL and ß2GPI polymorphisms may cause TBE in patients with MB leprosy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Aged , Thalidomide/administration & dosage , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/genetics , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/blood , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Leprosy, Multibacillary/immunology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Thalidomide/adverse effects , Factor V/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Prothrombin/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/drug effects , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/genetics , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , beta 2-Glycoprotein I/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Leprosy, Multibacillary/genetics , Leprosy, Multibacillary/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Mutation
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(1): 57-62, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897044

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of the epidemiological profile and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection among postpartum women is a relevant issue, because this protozoan can be vertically transmitted to the developing fetus, which can cause severe and debilitating disease. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in postpartum women in Goiânia, GO, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 229 postpartum women, among whom 204 were chronically infected (IgG+/IgM-), and 25 were seronegative (IgG-/IgM-; control group). All the patients were asked to complete a form to provide sociodemographic, clinical, dietary, and cultural information. The data were analyzed to compare seropositivity and risk factors based on the odds ratio (OR) thereof. RESULTS: The sociodemographic characteristics associated with the risk for toxoplasmosis were: education ≤ 8 years [OR: 2.521, confidence interval (CI): 1.01-6.301, p=0.049], and age ≥ 30 years (OR: 4.090; CI: 1.180-14.112, p=0.023). Clinical and behavioral characteristics related to eating raw and undercooked meat, were not found to be risk factors associated with a positive test for toxoplasmosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings concur with the results of other studies conducted in Brazil and abroad, where variables such as low levels of schooling, and advanced age (≥ 30 years) are major risk factors for pregnant women to become infected with T. gondii.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/epidemiology , Postpartum Period , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Case-Control Studies , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis
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