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1.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 29(105): 17-26, 2021 mar. fig, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1349031

ABSTRACT

Con el propósito de ampliar el conocimiento epidemiológico sobre la circulación del SARS-CoV-2 en la ciudad de Ushuaia durante el brote ocurrido de marzo a mayo de 2020, nos planteamos realizar un estudio observacional, de corte transversal, de mayo a julio, buscando la respuesta serológica al contacto con el virus en trabajadores esenciales municipales. N=1305. Los datos fueron ingresados a una plataforma con ingreso restringido, para luego cruzar las variables obtenidas en formato Excel. La mayoría de las personas estudiadas fueron de género masculino, con una media de edad de 38,5 años. El 20% de las personas con IgG+ tuvieron nexo epidemiológico. La prevalencia fue del 2,75%. Quienes presentaron IgM+ fueron descartados por otro método, considerándose falsos positivos. La idea y realización en forma precoz del estudio fue útil para evaluar la diseminación viral asintomática en el personal municipal afectado a tareas esenciales y tomar decisiones en las primeras etapas de la pandemia. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los grupos más expuestos. Se observaron casos de transmisión asintomática intrafamiliar. Estas pruebas serológicas no tienen fines diagnósticos ni confieren un pasaporte inmunitario. Pudimos establecer la confiabilidad de la técnica utilizada, fundamentalmente en relación a la IgG. El método se optimizó. Consideramos que las políticas públicas basadas en evidencias científicas permiten tomar mejores decisiones en beneficio de la comunidad. Creemos que el presente estudio aporta al estado de comprensión en la materia. Cada reporte puede ser de utilidad para el conocimiento de la diseminación viral


With the purpose of expanding epidemiological knowledge about the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in the city of Ushuaia during the outbreak that occurred from March to May of this current, we plan to carry out an observational, cross-sectional study from May to July, seeking the serological response to contact with the virus in essential municipal workers. N = 1316. The data were entered into a platform with restricted entry, to later cross the variables obtained in Excel format. Most of the people studied were male, with a mean age of 38 years. 20% of the people with IgG + had an epidemiological link. The prevalence was 2.88%. Those who presented IgM+ were discarded by another method, being considered false positives. The early idea and implementation of the study was useful to evaluate asymptomatic viral shedding in municipal personnel affected by essential tasks and to make decisions in the early stages of the pandemic. No significant differences were found in the most exposed groups. Cases of asymptomatic interfamily transmission were observed. These serological tests do not have diagnostic purposes nor do they confer an immune passport. We were able to establish the reliability of the technique used, mainly in relation to IgG. The method was optimized. We believe that public policies based on scientific evidence allow us to make better decisions for the benefit of the community. We believe that the present study contributes to the state of understanding in the matter. Each report can be useful for understanding viral shedding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Virus Shedding/immunology , Municipal Management , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 85-88, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089325

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The antigenic potential of seven immunogenic peptides of the dengue virus was evaluated in the sera of patients with dengue confirmed by IgM/IgG serology. Antibodies IgM and IgG against dengue virus peptides were analyzed by ELISA in 31 dengue sero-positive and 20 sero-negative patients. The P5 peptide showed significant IgG immunoreactivity mostly in the sera of patients with dengue without warning signs in comparison with patients with dengue with warning signs, correlating with mild disease. This finding suggests that the low antibody response against P5 epitope could be a risk factor for higher susceptibility to dengue virus infection with warning signs, and that P5 could be a potential antigen for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Peptides/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/prevention & control , Antibody Formation , Antigens, Viral/immunology
4.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5078, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056051

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the performance of indirect immunofluorescence for serological diagnosis of dengue virus in a population with high prevalence of arboviruses. Methods: Two-hundred serum samples from patients with clinical suspicion of dengue fever were tested by immunoenzymatic and indirect immunofluorescence assay BIOCHIP® mosaic. Specificity, sensitivity and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Discordant samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for confirmation. Results: Of the 200 samples, 20% were positive and 80% negative for anti-dengue virus IgM antibodies in the immunoenzymatic test. Of the 40 positives, 25% were negative in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these ten discordant results, only 20% were also negative in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 160 negatives in the immunoenzymatic test, 5% were positive in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these nine discordant results, 33% were positive in the PCR. The Kappa coefficient was 0.7 (0.572-0.829). Sensitivity and specificity of indirect immunofluorescence were respectively 75% and 94%. For anti-dengue virus IgG antibodies, of the 200 samples, 15.5% were positive and 84.5% were negative in the immunoenzymatic test. Of the 31 positives, 12.9% were negative in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these four discordant results, 25% were negative in the PCR. Of the 169 negatives, 8% were positive in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these 14 discordant results, 64% were also positive in the PCR. The Kappa coefficient was 0.695 (0.563-0.83). Sensitivity and specificity of indirect immunofluorescence were 87.1% and 91.7%, respectively. Conclusion: For diagnosis of acute infection, the immunoenzymatic test is enough, and the use of additional methods is not warranted. Replacing the immunoenzymatic test by indirect immunofluorescence would compromise the sensitivity for IgM. However, indirect immunofluorescence can distinguish three arboviruses simultaneously, an advantage during concomitant epidemics.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho da imunofluorescência indireta no diagnóstico sorológico de dengue em uma população com alta prevalência de arboviroses. Métodos: Duzentas amostras de soro de pacientes com suspeita clínica de dengue foram testadas por ensaio imunoenzimático e imunofluorescência indireta mosaico BIOCHIP®. Foram calculados especificidade, sensibilidade e coeficiente Kappa. Nas amostras discordantes, realizou-se reação em cadeia da polimerase como método confirmatório. Resultados: Das 200 amostras, 20% foram positivas e 80% negativas para IgM antivírus da dengue no ensaio imunoenzimático. Das 40 positivas, 25% foram negativas na imunofluorescência indireta. Destas dez negativas, apenas 20% eram também negativas na reação em cadeia da polimerase. Das 160 negativas no ensaio imunoenzimático, 5% foram positivas na imunofluorescência indireta. Por fim, dentre as nove discordantes, 33% tiveram vírus da dengue detectado na reação em cadeia da polimerase. O coeficiente Kappa foi 0,70 (0,57-0,82). Sensibilidade e especificidade por imunofluorescência indireta foram, respectivamente, 75% e 94%. Para IgG antivírus da dengue, de 200 amostras, 15,5% foram positivas e 84,5% negativas no ensaio imunoenzimático. Das 31 positivas, 12,9% foram negativas na imunofluorescência indireta. Destas quatro discordantes, 25% apresentaram vírus da dengue não detectado na reação em cadeia da polimerase. Das 169 negativas, 8% foram positivas na imunofluorescência indireta. Destas, 64% foram positivas também na reação em cadeia da polimerase. O coeficiente Kappa foi 0,695 (0,56-0,83). Sensibilidade e a especificidade por imunofluorescência indireta foram, respectivamente, 87,1% e 91,7%. Conclusão: Ensaio imunoenzimático seria suficiente para diagnóstico sorológico de infecção aguda, não justificando a incorporação da imunofluorescência indireta. Substituir ensaio imunoenzimático pela imunofluorescência indireta poderia comprometer a sensibilidade para IgM. Contudo, a imunofluorescência indireta auxilia diferenciar três arboviroses simultaneamente, sendo vantajoso em epidemias concomitantes.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Dengue/diagnosis , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Reference Standards , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/standards , Dengue/immunology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRW4890, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056050

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To demonstrate the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage status in children younger than 5 years in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods A systematic literature review was carried out on the direct and indirect effects of pneumococcal vaccine in the carriage status, after implementation in childhood immunization programs. Studies carried out in children younger than 5 years were selected from the PubMed® and Virtual Health Library databases, and data collected after implementation of pneumococcal vaccine in Latin America and the Caribbean, between 2008 and 2018. Results From 1,396 articles identified, 738 were selected based on titles and abstracts. After duplicate removal, 31 studies were eligible for full-text reading, resulting in 6 publications for analysis. All selected publications were observational studies and indicated a decrease in the carriage and vaccine types, and an increase in the circulation of non-vaccine serotypes, such as 6A, 19A, 35B, 21 and 38. We did not identify changes in the antimicrobial resistance after vaccine implementation. Conclusion A decrease in the carriage status of vaccine types and non-vaccine types was detected. The continuous monitoring of pneumococcal vaccine effect is fundamental to demonstrate the impact of the carriage status and, consequently, of invasive pneumococcal disease, allowing better targeting approaches in countries that included pneumococcal vaccine in their immunization programs. Our study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero) under number CRD42018096719.


RESUMO Objetivo Demonstrar o impacto das vacinas pneumocócicas conjugadas no estado de portador de Streptococcus pneumoniae em crianças menores de 5 anos na América Latina e no Caribe. Métodos Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura sobre os efeitos diretos e indiretos da vacina pneumocócica no estado de portador em crianças menores de 5 anos, após a implantação da vacina nos calendários de imunização infantil. A partir de dados da PubMed®e da Biblioteca Virtual da Saúde, foram selecionados estudos de portador em crianças menores de 5 anos, com dados coletados após implementação da vacina de 2008 a 2018, na América Latina e no Caribe. Resultados Dos 1.396 artigos identificados, 738 foram selecionados mediante leitura de títulos e resumos. Após a extração dos duplicados, 31 foram elegíveis para leitura do texto completo, restando 6 artigos para análise. Todos os estudos selecionados eram observacionais e indicavam diminuição do portador e tipos vacinais, e aumento da circulação de sorotipos não vacinais, como 6A, 19A, 35B, 21 e 38. Não foi observada alteração na resistência antimicrobiana após a introdução da vacina. Conclusão Detectou-se redução no estado de portador, dos tipos vacinais e não vacinais. O monitoramento contínuo do efeito das vacinas pneumocócicas é fundamental, para demonstrar o impacto do estado de portador e, consequentemente, da doença pneumocócica invasiva, permitindo o melhor direcionamento nas ações em saúde para os países que incluíram a vacina no calendário de imunização. Nosso protocolo de estudo foi registrado no PROSPERO (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero) sob o número CRD42018096719.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Dengue/diagnosis , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Reference Standards , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/standards , Dengue/immunology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200225, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135239

ABSTRACT

In the near future, the overlap of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue epidemics is a concrete threat in tropical regions. Co-epidemics of COVID-19 and dengue could be an overwhelming challenge for health systems in low- and middle-income countries. In this work, we investigated potential serological cross-reactions between COVID-19 and dengue patients. Among 32 COVID-19 positive sera, no positive Dengue virus (DENV) IgG/IgM results were observed. On the other hand, one false-positive result was observed among 44 DENV-positive sera tested for COVID-19 antibodies with each of the two rapid tests used. Further data on accuracy of COVID-19 diagnostic test are urgently warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions , Dengue/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Dengue Virus/immunology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190145, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040609

ABSTRACT

Anti-α-Gal responses may exert a protective effect in falciparum malaria. However, the biological role of such antibodies is still unknown during Plasmodium vivax infections. We investigated IgG and IgM responses to α-Gal in individuals with vivax malaria. Anti-α-Gal IgG and IgM levels were higher in these patients than in controls, but no significant correlation was found between parasitaemia and anti-α-Gal response, nor between this response and ABO blood group status. This is the first study to investigate anti-α-Gal antibodies in P. vivax-infected patients; a larger survey is necessary to achieve a better understanding of host immune response during vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/blood , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/metabolism , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Middle Aged
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 179-185, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950007

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El Mycoplasma pneumoniae puede estar implicado en la exacerbación refractaria del asma, Objetivo. Establecer la prevalencia de la infección por Mycoplasma pneumoniae en pacientes con exacerbación aguda del asma. Material y método. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, transversal, observacional, caso-control, en pacientes mayores de 2 años y menores de 12. Se determinaron anticuerpos inmunoglobulina M (IgM) para M. pneumoniae por serología por técnica de ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzima (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ELISA en sus siglas en inglés), utilizando el kit NovaLisa® NovaTec. Se consideró prueba positiva a valores > 11 NTU (NovaTec unidades). El análisis estadístico fue análisis de la varianza (analysis of variance; ANOVA, por sus siglas en inglés) y chi cuadrado con un nivel de significancia de p < 0,05. Resultados. Se estudiaron 180 niños, 130 correspondieron al grupo de niños asmáticos y 50, al grupo control. La IgM específica fue positiva en 60 pacientes, que correspondió al 46,15% de niños asmáticos (p < 0,001). La gravedad de la exacerbación estuvo relacionada directamente con los niveles de IgM (p < 0,001). La tasa de hospitalización fue de 75%, asociada de forma significativa con los niveles de IgM específica (p < 0,001). Conclusión. Nuestros datos sugieren que en los niños con asma aguda, tienen alta prevalencia (46%) de infección por Mycoplasma pneumoniae y estrecha relación entre la exacerbación aguda grave del asma y la infección por Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Estos resultados podrían tener implicaciones terapéuticas orientadas hacia la utilización de antibióticos específicos contra este microorganismo atípico.


Introduction. Mycoplasma pneumoniae may be involved in refractory asthma exacerbation. Objective. To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in patients with acute asthma exacerbation. Material and method. A prospective, crosssectional, observational, case-control study was carried out in patients older than 2 years old and younger than 12. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were serologically determined for M. pneumoniae, using the NovaLisa® NovaTec kit for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Test results ≥ 11 NTU (NovaTec units) were regarded as positive. The statistical analysis was performed by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the χ² test, with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results. One hundred and eighty children were studied, of which 130 had asthma and 50 comprised the control group. Specific IgM was positive for 60 patients, that is 46.15% of the asthmatic children (p < 0.001). The severity of the exacerbation was directly related to IgM levels (p < 0.001). Hospitalization rate was 75%, and it was significantly associated to specific IgM levels (p < 0.001). Conclusion. Our data suggest that children with acute asthma show a high prevalence (46%) of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and that there is a close relation between severe acute asthma exacerbation and the presence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. These findings might result in therapeutic implications centered in the use of specific antibiotics to fight this atypical organism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/complications , Asthma/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Case-Control Studies , Acute Disease , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(12): 4001-4012, Dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890236

ABSTRACT

Abstract A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed to estimate the accuracy of IgM ELISA for Leptospirosis diagnosis. A search of Medline, Lilacs, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Grey literature (Google Scholar and British Library) was conducted. The medical subject headings (MeSHs) and the words "leptospirosis", "human leptospirosis" and "IgM ELISA" were used. Fifty-two studies were analyzed, which included 10,775 samples. The pooled sensitivity of all the studies was 86% (CI 95%, 85%-87%) and specificity was 90% (CI 95%, 89%-91%). In studies of the acute phase, the sensitivity and specificity were 84% (CI 95%, 82%-85%) and 91% (CI 95%, 90%-91%), respectively. In conclusion, IgM ELISA is sensitive for use as an initial screen for leptospiral infections.


Resumo O objetivo desta revisão sistemática e meta-análise foi avaliar a acurácia do ELISA IgM para o diagnóstico precoce da leptospirose em humanos. A busca foi realizada nas seguintes bases de dados: Medline, PubMed, LILACS, Embase e Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials e Grey literature (Google Scholar and British Library). As palavras-chaves usadas foram: "leptospirosis", "human leptospirosis" e "IgM ELI-SA". Foram analisados 52 estudos, que incluíram 10.775 amostras. A sensibilidade e especificidade combinada de todos os estudos foram 86% (CI 95%, 85%-87%) e 90% (CI 95%, 89%-91%), respectivamente. Nos estudos de fase aguda, a sensibilidade e especificidade foram, respectivamente, 84% (CI 95%, 82%-85%) e 91% (CI 95%, 90%-91%). Conclui-se que o ELISA IgM é um teste sensível para rastreamento inicial da leptospirose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Leptospirosis/immunology
10.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(2): 285-288, abr. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844613

ABSTRACT

La infección por virus chikungunya es una enfermedad transmitida por vectores, que en los años 2005-2006 se describió la transmisión vertical, con una tasa de infección en el recién nacido hasta del 49% en madres con presencia de viremia durante el parto. Puede presentar manifestaciones clínicas graves en los neonatos y potenciales secuelas en el neurodesarrollo. OBJETIVO: Presentar un caso de infección por virus chikungunya vertical y revisión de la literatura disponible. CASO CLÍNICO: Recién nacido de sexo femenino que inició con fiebre y exantema durante la primera semana de vida, posteriormente con elevación de transaminasas y trombocitopenia, con el antecedente de un cuadro clínico en la madre de síntomas compatibles con infección por chikungunya el día del parto. Se documentaron anticuerpos tipo IgM específicos para chikungunya que establecieron el diagnóstico. CONCLUSIONES: Dada la alta tasa de transmisibilidad perinatal de la infección por virus chikungunya, este diagnóstico debe considerarse en todo recién nacido hijo de madre con síntomas sugestivos de la infección en el período cercano al parto.


Chikungunya virus infection is a disease transmitted by vectors, in which vertical transmission was described in years 2005-2006. An infection rate up to 49% in neonates born from mothers with active viremia during labor has been observed. Perinatal infection could results in serious complications and potential cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To describe a newborn with Chikungunya virus infection secundary to vertical transmission. CLINICAL CASE: A female newborn is analyzed. She presented with fever and exanthema during her first week of life, elevation of transaminases and thrombocytopenia. Her mother had had symptoms compatible with chikungunya virus infection on the day of the delivery. Specific IgM antibodies against chikungunya were documented and the diagnosis was confirmed. CONCLUSION: Given the high perinatal transmissibility rate of chikungunya virus, this diagnosis should be considered in every newborn child of a mother with suggestive symptoms of chikungunya in the days surrounding delivery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Delivery, Obstetric , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(5): 567-571, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-798124

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Brazilian spotted fever is an infectious disease with a high mortality rate if not treated early. Differential diagnosis is difficult, as the first clinical signs are non-specific and can be confused with other diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate evidence of infection with Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri in negative sera samples, collected in 2014, from patients with suspected leptospirosis, dengue fever, and meningococcal disease in Atibaia and Bragança Paulista municipalities of the State of São Paulo. METHODS The samples stored at the Institute Adolfo Lutz in Campinas were tested using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with IgG and IgM against R. rickettsii and R. parkeri. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was performed for the sera samples of patients who died (n = 3), those with initial suspicion of meningococcal disease (n = 6), and those with positive IFA results. RESULTS Of 258 samples from Bragança Paulista, 4 (1.6%) were positive, with IgG titers of 1:64 and 1:128 against R. rickettsii and R. parkeri, respectively. Of 155 samples from Atibaia, 2 (1.3%) were positive, with IgG titers of 1:64 and 1:128 against R. rickettsii and R. parkeri, respectively. No sample showed positive PCR results. CONCLUSIONS This serological investigation suggests there is evidence of exposure to Rickettsia spp. in residents of areas that have environmental conditions favorable to the spread of bacteria, in which Brazilian spotted fever incidence was not previously confirmed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Rickettsia/immunology , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Rickettsia/classification , Rickettsia Infections/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 914-920, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764594

ABSTRACT

Leprosy inflammatory episodes [type 1 (T1R) and type 2 (T2R) reactions] represent the major cause of irreversible nerve damage. Leprosy serology is known to be influenced by the patient’s bacterial index (BI) with higher positivity in multibacillary patients (MB) and specific multidrug therapy (MDT) reduces antibody production. This study evaluated by ELISA antibody responses to leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute diagnostic-1 (LID-1) fusion protein and phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) in 100 paired serum samples of 50 MB patients collected in the presence/absence of reactions and in nonreactional patients before/after MDT. Patients who presented T2R had a median BI of 3+, while MB patients with T1R and nonreactional patients had median BI of 2.5+ (p > 0.05). Anti-LID-1 and anti-PGL-I antibodies declined in patients diagnosed during T1R (p < 0.05). Anti-LID-1 levels waned in MB with T2R at diagnosis and nonreactional MB patients (p < 0.05). Higher anti-LID-1 levels were seen in patients with T2R at diagnosis (vs. patients with T1R at diagnosis, p = 0.008; vs. nonreactional patients, p = 0.020) and in patients with T2R during MDT (vs. nonreactional MB, p = 0.020). In MB patients, high and persistent anti-LID-1 antibody levels might be a useful tool for clinicians to predict which patients are more susceptible to develop leprosy T2R.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Glycolipids/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Leprosy, Multibacillary/diagnosis , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Mycobacterium leprae/immunology
13.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 106-111, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747144

ABSTRACT

Introduction The Young Doctor Project (YDP) uses Telehealth and Interactive Teleducation instruments to promote the integration of different areas of health and to build knowledge. This methodology can also foster public awareness on various issues related to health. In this context, the objective of this study was to emphasize cleft lip and palate (CLP), which is one of the most common birth defects in Brazil. Objective The study aimed to apply a model of education regarding CLP, based on the dynamics of the YDP, and to evaluate the participants' knowledge acquired after participating in the YDP. Methods The participants were 41 students, 13 to 15 years of age and at the eight- and ninth-grade levels in a private elementary school in Bauru (Brazil). To analyze the performance of the participants, a questionnaire was administered before and after the completion of the training program. The training program was structured in three steps using: (1) interactive teleducation classes, (2) a cybertutor, and (3) practical activities. Results There was a statistically significant difference between the pre- and postparticipation questionnaire results. The improved performance of participants is evidenced by the increase in the rate of correct answers on all issues. Conclusion The YDP on CLP was applied in the school setting following the three steps recommended by the project, and, after the implementation of the training program, there was a significant increase in participants' knowledge of CLP. The YDP on CLP proved an effective tool in promoting health education. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid/immunology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology
14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 79(1): 28-34, jan.-fev. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-667972

ABSTRACT

As tonsilas palatinas e faríngea são órgãos linfoides imunologicamente reativos, que manifestam anticorpos específicos e atividade de células B e T em resposta a uma variedade de antígenos, desempenhando funções de imunidade humoral e celular. Os possíveis efeitos imunológicos da adenotonsilectomia ainda permanecem controversos. OBJETIVO: O propósito desse estudo foi investigar o impacto da tonsilectomia na imunidade celular e humoral em crianças a curto e longo prazo. MÉTODO: Desenho do estudo: longitudinal prospectivo. Foram incluídas 29 crianças com indicação de adenotonsilectomia por hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana. IgA, IgM e IgG séricas e contagem de linfócitos foram analisados em 3 períodos: antes, 1 a 2 meses (curto prazo) e 12 a 14 meses (longo prazo) após o procedimento cirúrgico. RESULTADOS: Houve aumento estatisticamente significante de linfócitos TCD4+ a curto prazo após adenotonsilectomia. Os valores de IgA e IgG apresentaram diminuição significante a longo prazo, mas permaneceram dentro dos parâmetros de normalidade para a faixa etária. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que a adenotonsilectomia, tanto a curto como a longo prazo, não apresenta repercussão negativa sobre a imunidade celular e humoral das crianças submetidas a este procedimento.


Palatine and pharyngeal tonsils are immune reactive lymphoid organs that manifest specific antibodies and B/T-cell activity to respond to a variety of antigens. They perform humoral and cellular immune functions. The possible effects of adenotonsillectomy upon the immune system remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: To study the short and long-term impacts of tonsillectomy upon the cellular and humoral immunity of children. METHOD: This longitudinal prospective study included 29 children referred to adenotonsillectomy for adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Serum IgA, IgM, and IgG and lymphocyte counts were analyzed at three points in time: before surgery, 1-2 months after surgery (short term), and 12-14 months after surgery (long term). RESULTS: TCD4+ cell counts were significantly increased shortly after surgery. IgA and IgG values were significantly reduced in the long run, but were within normal ranges for this age group. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that adenotonsillectomy does not pose negative short or long term impacts upon the cellular and humoral immunity of children submitted to the procedure.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Adenoids/surgery , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Tonsillectomy , Adenoids/immunology , Adenoids/pathology , Biomarkers/blood , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertrophy/surgery , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Prospective Studies , Time Factors
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(supl.1): 95-103, Dec. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659747

ABSTRACT

Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements are three-dimensional structures that form when anionic phospholipids with an intermediate structure of the tubular hexagonal phase II are present in a bilayer of lipids. Antibodies that recognise these arrangements have been described in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and/or systemic lupus erythematosus and in those with preeclampsia; these antibodies have also been documented in an experimental murine model of lupus, in which they are associated with immunopathology. Here, we demonstrate the presence of antibodies against non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements containing mycolic acids in the sera of lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients, but not those of healthy volunteers. The presence of antibodies that recognise these non-bilayer lipid arrangements may contribute to the hypergammaglobulinaemia observed in LL patients. We also found IgM and IgG anti-cardiolipin antibodies in 77% of the patients. This positive correlation between the anti-mycolic-non-bilayer arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies suggests that both types of antibodies are produced by a common mechanism, as was demonstrated in the experimental murine model of lupus, in which there was a correlation between the anti-non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Antibodies to non-bilayer lipid arrangements may represent a previously unrecognised pathogenic mechanism in LL and the detection of these antibodies may be a tool for the early diagnosis of LL patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antigens, Bacterial/blood , Autoantibodies/blood , Glycolipids/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Leprosy, Lepromatous/diagnosis , Lipid Bilayers/immunology , Mycolic Acids/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Leprosy, Lepromatous/immunology , Lipid Bilayers/blood , Mycolic Acids/immunology
16.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 77(3): 308-314, May-June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595765

ABSTRACT

Vestibular folds (VF) protect upper airways, but contain fewer immune cells in AIDS patients, which affects the structure of lymphoid follicles (LF). OBJECTIVE: To characterize fibrosis and immunoglobulin production in vestibular fold lymphoid tissues of AIDS patients with or with no infection and malnutrition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 71 adult vestibular fold autopsy specimens. The morphological analysis was done using the picrosirius staining method. Immunohistochemical methods consisted of anti-IgA, anti IgG, and anti IgM antibodies. RESULTS: Fibrosis was less intense in AIDS patients compared to subjects without AIDS; the same applied to patients with infection or malnutrition. IgA and IgG titers were higher in AIDS patients; IgM titers were higher in cases with infection. CONCLUSION: This study helps understand variations in lymphoid follicle components of AIDS patients; it also shows the influence of architectural changes and the effect of associated respiratory infection and malnutrition on lymphoid follicle function.


Pregas vestibulares (PV) são responsáveis pela proteção das vias aéreas superiores e, nos indivíduos com AIDS, apresenta diminuição das células imunes, o que influencia na estrutura dos folículos linfoides (FL). OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a fibrose e a produção de imunoglobulinas nos FL das PV nos indivíduos com AIDS, com e sem infecções e subnutrição associadas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo transversal em 71 PV de adultos autopsiados. Para a análise morfológica foi usada a coloração picro-sirius. A imuno-histoquímica foi realizada com os anticorpos: anti-IgA, anti-IgG, anti-IgM. RESULTADOS: Nos pacientes com AIDS, a quantidade de fibrose foi menor quando comparados com aqueles que não possuíam AIDS, o mesmo sendo encontrado nos pacientes com infecções ou subnutrição. As quantidades de IgA e IgG foram maiores nos indivíduos com AIDS, e os valores de IgM foram maiores nos casos com infecção. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo contribui para o melhor conhecimento da variação dos constituintes dos FL das PV nos indivíduos com AIDS, bem como da influência de modificações arquiteturais, e da associação de outras entidades, como infecções respiratórias e a subnutrição, sobre a função destes FL.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/pathology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibrosis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphoid Tissue/immunology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Salvador; s.n; 2011. 94 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-710722

ABSTRACT

A confirmação da leptospirose utilizando o Teste de Aglutinação Microscópica (MAT) requer amostras da fase aguda e convalescente para identificar soroconversão ou aumento de quatro vezes nos títulos. A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) recomenda que a coleta da amostra convalescente seja realizada ≥14 dias após a coleta da amostra aguda. No entanto, a dificuldade na coleta de amostras convalescentes impede a confirmação dos casos e é uma das principais causas para sub-notificação da leptospirose. Este estudo investigou a viabilidade da coleta de uma amostra de soro aguda tardia de casos internados com leptospirose e avaliou se a análise sorológica desta amostra pode melhorar a eficiência do protocolo de confirmação diagnóstica de leptospirose. De 2003 a 2009, uma vigilância hospitalar ativa em Salvador-Brasil, identificou prospectivamente pacientes hospitalizados com suspeita clínica da leptospirose. Três amostras de sangue foram coletadas para cada caso: uma amostra aguda precoce, uma amostra aguda tardia e uma amostra convalescente, coletadas respectivamente nas primeiras 24 horas após hospitalização, e 4 e ≥14 dias depois da coleta da primeira amostra. Os pacientes identificados tiveram o diagnóstico de leptospirose confirmado por soroconversão, aumento de quatro vezes de títulos, ou título único ≥1:800 no MAT. O desempenho diagnóstico do MAT e do ELISA IgM na avaliação combinada das amostras aguda precoce e aguda tardia foi comparado ao desempenho da avaliação das amostras aguda precoce e convalescente que segue a recomendação de testagem da OMS. Nós confirmamos 643 (68%) dos 938 casos suspeitos. A coleta de amostra convalescente foi possível para 63% dos pacientes confirmados, e 55% dos pacientes suspeitos. Em contraste, a amostra da fase aguda tardia foi coletada para 77% e 66% dos pacientes confirmados e suspeitos, respectivamente. Para os 302 casos confirmados que tiveram as três amostras de soro coletadas, a sensibilidade do MAT e do IgM-ELISA na análise das amostras aguda precoce e tardia foi de 97% (IC95%, 94-99%) e 96% (93-98%), respectivamente, em comparação aos resultados da análise das amostras aguda precoce e convalescente. Em contraste, considerando apenas as amostras agudas destes 302 pacientes, a sensibilidade do MAT e do IgM-ELISA foi de 44% (38-50%) e 75% (69-79%), respectivamente. Amostra aguda tardia e convalescente foi obtida dos casos suspeitos de leptospirose que evoluíram para óbito de 32% e 6%, respectivamente. Os resultados indicam que a coleta e o teste sorológico da amostra aguda tardia de pacientes hospitalizados por leptospirose é viável e melhora a eficiência dos atuais protocolos de confirmação laboratorial de casos de leptospirose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/pathology
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 27(6): 499-504, dic. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-572912

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Toxoplasmosis (T) is a major chronic parasitic infection in immunocompromised patients and pregnant women. It is important to discriminate between acute phase (AT) and chronic phase (CT). Diagnosis is serological in immunocompetent patients (concentration of IgG and IgM). Objective: To evaluate the utility of an IgG avidity test (A-IgG) to identify the acute and chronic stage. Avidity is the strength of affinity between a specific immunoglobulin and the protein antigenic epitope of the infecting agent, an affinity that increases over time. Patients and Methods: We used a qualitative kit that measures the avidity of IgG, discriminating the two phases. In 35 patients with clinical diagnosis of AT and/or CT, IgG, IgM and IgG A (VIDAS®) were performed. Results: Patients with AT were positive for IgM and IgG, but presented weak avidity. In the 21 cases with CT, 52 percent (n: 11) were IgM positive and 100 percent (n: 21) had positive IgG with strong avidity. Discussion: The results confirm that the test of A-IgG may be useful in the diagnosis of AT, and has 100 percent concordance with reference test (qualitative IgM + quantitative IgG). The result is available within 24 hrs, and may be useful in diagnosis of AT in pregnant women.


Introducción: Toxoplasmosis (T) es una infección parasitaria crónica importante en pacientes inmunocompro-metidos y mujeres embarazadas. Es relevante discriminar entre fase aguda (TA) y fase crónica (TC). Su diagnóstico es serológico en inmunocompetentes (detección de IgG e IgM). Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad del test de avidez IgG (A-IgG) para identificar la fase aguda y o crónica. Avidez es la fuerza de afinidad entre una inmunoglobulina específica y el epítope de la proteína antigénica del agente infectante, afinidad que aumenta con el tiempo. Pacientes y Métodos: Se usó un test cualitativo que mide la avidez de IgG, discriminando las dos fases. A 35 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de TA y o TC, se les realizó IgG, IgM e A-IgG en Equipo VIDAS®. Resultados: Los pacientes con TA fueron positivos para IgM e IgG y presentaron avidez débil. Los 21 casos con TC 52 por ciento (n: 11) tuvieron IgM positivo y 100 por ciento (n: 21) tuvo IgG positiva con avidez fuerte. Discusión: Los resultados confirman que el test de A-IgG puede ser de gran utilidad en el diagnóstico de TA, concordancia: 100 por ciento con test de referencia (IgM cualitativa + IgG cuantitativa). El resultado está disponible en menos de 24 hrs, pudiendo ser útil en el diagnóstico de TA en mujeres embarazadas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Chronic Disease , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/immunology
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(4): 374-379, July 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-554800

ABSTRACT

Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms and potato apyrase share conserved epitopes. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, elevated levels of IgM, IgG2a and IgG1 antibody reactivity against potato apyrase were observed in S. mansoni-infected BALB/c mice during the acute phase of infection, while only IgM and IgG1 antibody reactivity levels maintained elevated during the chronic phase of infection. Antibody reactivity against potato apyrase was monitored over an 11-month period in chronically-infected mice treated with oxamniquine. Eleven months later, the level of seropositive IgM decreased significantly (~30 percent) compared to the level found in untreated, infected mice. The level of seropositive IgG1 decreased significantly four months after treatment (MAT) (61 percent) and remained at this level even after 11 months. The IgG2a reactivity against potato apyrase, although unchanged during chronic phase to 11 MAT, appeared elevated again in re-infected mice suggesting a response similar to that found during the acute phase. BALB/c mouse polyclonal anti-potato apyrase IgG reacted with soluble egg antigens probably due to the recognition of parasite ATP diphosphohydrolase. This study, for the first time, showed that the IgG2a antibody from S. mansoni-infected BALB mice cross-reacts with potato apyrase and the level of IgG2a in infected mice differentiates disease phases. The results also suggest that different conserved-epitopes contribute to the immune response in schistosomiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Antibodies, Helminth/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Apyrase/immunology , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/immunology , Solanum tuberosum/enzymology , Acute Disease , Anthelmintics , Chronic Disease , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Oxamniquine , Schistosomiasis mansoni
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