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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S198-S211, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281043

ABSTRACT

La pandemia ocasionada por el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud OMS) en marzo de 2020, afecta a un reducido número de pacientes pediátricos, quienes presentan, en su mayoría, compromiso respiratorio leve y evolución favorable. Sin embargo, en niños previamente sanos, comenzó a observarse un aumento de casos definidos como síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico (SIM-C) o similar a Kawasaki (Kawasaki-like) asociado a la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) (KL-C) que evolucionan al shock y requieren internación en la unidad de cuidados intensivos.Los cuadros de SIM-C y los KL-C se caracterizan por fiebre, signos de inflamación, síntomas gastrointestinales y disfunción cardiovascular; las formas graves de presentación tienen mayor incidencia de hipotensión y/o shock. En el laboratorio se observan marcadores de inflamación, hipercoagulabilidad y daño miocárdico. El tratamiento farmacológico de primera línea consiste en la administración de inmunoglobulina por vía intravenosa más ácido acetilsalicílico por vía oral.Se recomienda un abordaje multidisciplinario para un diagnóstico certero y un tratamiento temprano y eficaz para disminuir la morbimortalidad.


The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus declared by the WHO in March 11th 2020, affects a small number of pediatric patients, who mostly present mild respiratory compromise and favorable evolution.However began to be observed in previously healthy children, an increase in cases defined as "Multisystemic Inflammatory Syndrome" (MIS-C) or "Kawasaki-like" post-COVID 19 (KL-C) that evolve to shock and require hospitalization in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.MIS-C and KL-C are characterized by fever; signs of inflammation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and cardiovascular dysfunction, associated with sever forms of presentation with higher incidence of hypotension and/or shock. In the laboratory, markers of inflammation, hypercoagulability and myocardial damage are observed. First-line drug treatment consists of intravenous immunoglobulin plus oral acetylsalicylic acid.A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for an accurate diagnosis and an early and effective treatment, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Critical Care , Diagnosis, Differential , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 192-197, Junio 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222951

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La inmunoglobulina G endovenosa (IGEV) es un medicamento hemoderivado de inmunoglobulina G polivalente y policlonal. Posee un amplio espectro de indicaciones como inmunomodulador o como terapia de reemplazo. Asimismo, si bien se considera un tratamiento seguro, la incidencia de reacciones adversas reportadas en la literatura varía del 1 % al 81 %. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la utilización de IGEV y describir los acontecimientos adversos por la medicación en un hospital pediátrico de alta complejidad.Población y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de farmacoepidemiología, observacional y prospectivo. Se evaluaron pacientes que recibieron IGEV durante 7 meses, en 6 áreas de un hospital pediátrico de alta complejidad de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. La unidad de análisis fue cada infusión de IGEV, y la principal variable de estudio fue la presencia de reacciones adversas.Resultados. Se analizaron 305 infusiones en 111 pacientes. El 81,6 % de las indicaciones fueron de tipo supletorio. La dosis máxima utilizada fue 1 g/kg. En el 99,6 % de las infusiones, se indicó algún tipo de premedicación; la difenhidramina fue la droga más utilizada, aunque con diferentes posologías. Se registraron 12 reacciones adversas (el 3,9 % de las infusiones), tres de las cuales se consideraron graves: dos meningitis asépticas y una crisis comicial. Todas se resolvieron ad integrum.Conclusiones. La tasa de reacciones adversas de la IGEV en nuestro medio fue baja, con mayoría de reacciones leves e inmediatas y evolución favorable en todos los pacientes.


Introduction. Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) is a blood product from polyvalent and polyclonal immunoglobulin G. It covers a broad range of indications as immunomodulator or replacement therapy. In addition, although it is considered a safe therapy, the incidence of adverse reactions reported in the bibliography ranges from 1 % to 81 %. The objective of this study was to assess IVIG use and describe related adverse events in a tertiary care children's hospital.Population and methods. This was a pharmacoepidemiological, observational, and prospective study. Patients receiving IVIG for 7 months in 6 areas of a tertiary care children's hospital in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires were assessed. The analysis unit was each IVIG infusion, and the main variable was the presence of adverse reactions.Results. A total of 305 infusions in 111 patients were analyzed. In 81.6 % of cases, the indication was for replacement. The maximum dose was 1 g/kg. In 99.6 % of infusions, some type of premedication was indicated; diphenhydramine was the most common drug, with varying dosages. A total of 12 adverse reactions (3.9 % of infusions) were recorded; 3 were severe: aseptic meningitis (2 cases) and seizures (1 case). All resolved to normal.Conclusions. The rate of IVIG adverse reactions in our setting was low; most reactions were mild and immediate and resolved favorably in all patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Immunoglobulin G/adverse effects , Pharmacovigilance , Immunoglobulin G/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Pharmacoepidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(3): 485-491, Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248884

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A doença de Kawasaki (DK) é a principal causa de cardiopatia adquirida em idade pediátrica nos países desenvolvidos. Objetivos: Identificar fatores preditores de resistência à imunoglobulina intravenosa (IGIV), calcular a eficácia dos modelos preditores japoneses e caracterizar as complicações cardíacas. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos casos de DK entre janeiro de 2006 e julho de 2018 em um hospital pediátrico português. Foram construídas curvas ROC para encontrar fatores preditores de resistência e utilizada regressão logística multivariada para elaborar o modelo preditor. O nível de significância utilizado foi de 5%. Resultados: Foram incluídos 48 pacientes com mediana de idade de 36 meses. Verificou-se resistência à IGIV em 21%. Ocorreram alterações ecocardiográficas em 46%, com envolvimento coronário em 25%. Como variáveis preditoras de resistência, a proteína C-reativa (PC-R) apresentou uma AUC ROC = 0,789, ponto de corte = 15,1 mg/dL, sensibilidade (S) = 77,8% e especificidade (E) = 78,9%. A velocidade de sedimentação (VS) apresentou uma AUC ROC = 0,781, ponto de corte = 90,5 mm/h, S = 66,7% e E = 85,7%. O modelo com as duas variáveis apresentou valor p = 0,042 e AUC ROC = 0,790. O modelo Kobayashi apresentou S = 63,6% e E = 77,3%; Egami, S = 66,7% e E = 73,1%; e Sano, S = 28,6% e E = 94,1%. Conclusão: A PC-R e a VS são variáveis independentes que mostraram tendência preditora de resistência à IGIV com pontos de corte ótimos de 15,1 mg/dL e 90,5 mm/h, respectivamente. Cerca de metade dos pacientes teve algum tipo de envolvimento cardíaco. Os modelos japoneses não têm utilidade nessa população. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(3):485-491)


Abstract Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired cardiac disease in children, in developed countries. Objectives: To identify predictive factors for resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), calculate the effectiveness of Japanese predictive models and characterize cardiac complications. Methods: Retrospective analysis of KD cases admitted in a Portuguese paediatric hospital between january 2006 and july 2018. ROC curves were used to determine predictive factors for resistance and the multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop the predictive model. A significance level of 5% was used. Results: 48 patients with a median age of 36 months were included. The IVIG resistance was 21%. Echocardiographic anomalies were noted in 46%, with coronary involvement in 25% of the sample population. As predictive variable of resistance, the C-reactive protein (CRP) presented an AUC ROC = 0.789, optimal cut-off value 15.1 mg/dL, sensitivity (Sn) 77.8% and specificity (Sp) 78.9%. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) presented an AUC ROC = 0.781, optimal cut-off value 90.5 mm/h, Sn 66.7% and Sp 85.7%. The model with the two variables showed p = 0.042 and AUC ROC = 0.790. Predictive strength of Japanese models were: Kobayashi (Sn 63.6%, Sp 77.3%), Egami (Sn 66.7%, Sp 73.1%), Sano (Sn 28.6%, Sp 94.1%). Conclusion: CRP and ESR are independent variables that were related to IVIG resistance, with optimal cut-off points of 15.1 mg/dL and 90.5 mm/h, respectively. About half of the patients had some form of cardiac involvement. The Japanese models appeared to be inadequate in our population. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(3):485-491)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Child , Heart Diseases , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug Resistance , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880163

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the influencing factors in children with chronicity immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and to provide basis for judging the prognosis and treatment in children with ITP.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of children with ITP admitted to The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University in the past 5 years were retrospectively analyzed and followed up for more than 1 year. According to the inclusion criteria, the eligible cases (328 cases in total) were selected and collected through medical record system retrieval, outpatient clinic and telephone follow-up. Independent influencing factors affecting the prognosis of children with ITP were obtained through single-factor and multi-factor logistic analysis, and their predictive value for the prognosis of ITP in children were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Of 328 children with ITP, 208 were newly diagnosed with ITP (64%), 54 were persistent ITP (16%), 66 were chronic ITP (20%), and the remission rate within 1 year was 79.9%. The results of univariate analysis showed that, age, pre-morbidity history of infection and vaccination, antinuclear antibodies, initial absolute lymphocyte count(ALC) and treatment options were related to the prognosis of the children (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the history of infection and vaccination before onset, initial treatment options, and ALC at the time of initial diagnosis were independent factors affecting the prognosis of children with ITP (P<0.05). The time for platelet recovery to 100×10@*CONCLUSION@#The initial treatment plan combined with IVIG can reduce the occurrence of chronicity in children with ITP, and its efficacy is better than that of the single corticosteroids group (the platelet recovery time is shorter); history of preceding infection or vaccination, ALC at the time of initial diagnosis are independent factors affecting the prognosis of children with ITP, and the combination of the two shows a better predictive value for the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Prognosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880115

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the factors affecting the chronicity of childhood primary immune thrombo-cytopenia (ITP) and compare the efficiency of different first-line treatment regimens.@*METHODS@#Children with ITP hospitalized in our hospital from September 2013 to October 2018 were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Three hundred and one children (150 males and 151 females) were included in this study, with a median age of 8 (0.17-17) years old, and 110 (36.5%), 92 (30.6%), and 99 (32.9%) cases were grouped into newly diagnosed, persistent, and chronic ITP, respectively. The median of follow-up was 41.92 (1.07-74.03) months. At the end of the follow-up (October 2019), among the 202 newly diagnosed/persistent ITP children, 79 cases (59 newly diagnosed and 20 persistent ITP) achieved remission within 1 year after initial diagnosis, with a remission rate of 39.3%; 122 cases (50 newly diagnosed and 72 persistent ITP) developed chronic disease, with a chronicity rate of 60.7%; one case underwent splenectomy. In 99 cases with chronic ITP, 5 cases underwent splenectomy. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that, the insidious onset of symptoms (OR=3.754, 95%CI: 1.882-7.488, P=0.000) increased the risk of chronicity, while the positive antibody to anti-platelet membrane glycoprotein (OR=0.446, 95%CI: 0.224-0.888, P=0.021) might reduce the risk of chronicity. And no difference was found by the analysis of subtype of anti-platelet membrane glycoprotein (P=0.305). The efficacy of the first-line treatment of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) alone or combined with steroid was better than that of steroid alone (P=0.028, 0.028), however, the efficiency was not significantly different between IVIG alone and combined with steroid (P=0.086).@*CONCLUSION@#Insidious onset of symptoms in pediatric ITP increases the risk of chronicity, while the positive titer of anti-platelet membrane glycoprotein may reduce the risk. In the first-line treatment for the newly diagnosed/persistent children. The efficacy of IVIG alone or combined with steroid is better than that of steroid alone.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Male , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Retrospective Studies , Splenectomy
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879854

ABSTRACT

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been widely used in chemotherapy for hematological malignancies, targeted therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; however, there are still no available guidelines or consensus statements on the application of IVIG in pediatric hematological/neoplastic diseases at present in China and overseas. This consensus is developed based on the research advances in the application of IVIG in pediatric hematological/neoplastic diseases across the world and provides detailed recommendations for the clinical application of IVIG in pediatric hematological/neoplastic diseases and the prevention and treatment of related adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Consensus , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(3): e783, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144491

ABSTRACT

Sin duda alguna la COVID-19 ha suscitado la atención de la población mundial durante el año 2020. La rápida propagación de la enfermedad, así como el número de contagios, complicaciones y muertes, constituyen los principales elementos distintivos de la enfermedad. El proceso inflamatorio, dado por una elevada producción de citocinas proinflamatorias constituye la base de las complicaciones respiratorias. El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer las opciones terapéuticas disponibles para tratar el síndrome de liberación de citoquinas. En este sentido, es importante destacar que fármacos biológicos como el tocilizumab, anakinra y el roxulitinib, así como los glucocorticoides, inmunoglobulinas intravenosas y algunos inmunosupresores como la ciclosporina A, constituyen opciones terapéuticas, con opciones teóricas para combatir el proceso inflamatorio en pacientes graves y que han mostrado resultados alentadores en el transcurso de la crisis sanitaria mundial por la COVID-19.Se concluye que existen opciones terapéuticas para enfrentar la tormenta de citocinas proinflamatorias que caracterizan este síndrome, observado en pacientes graves y críticos con esta enfermedad. Constituye ahora el reto para los científicos y profesionales de la salud, identificar el momento oportuno para las indicaciones terapéuticas y el algoritmo de utilización, en dependencia de las características del cuadro clínico y las condiciones de salud del paciente(AU)


Without doubt, COVID-19 has attracted the attention of the world population during the year 2020. The rapid spread of the disease, as well as the number of infections, complications and deaths, constitute the main distinctive elements of the disease. The inflammatory process, given by a high production of proinflammatory cytokines, forms the basis of respiratory complications. The objective of this work is to publicize the therapeutic options available to treat cytokine release syndrome. In this sense, it is important to highlight that biological drugs such as tocilizumab, anakinra and roxulitinib, as well as glucocorticoids, intravenous immunoglobulins and some immunosuppressants such as cyclosporin A, are therapeutic options, with theoretical options to combat the inflammatory process in seriously ill patients and which have shown encouraging results in the course of the global health crisis caused by COVID-19. It is concluded that there are therapeutic options to face the storm of proinflammatory cytokines that characterize this syndrome, observed in critically ill patients with this disease. It is now a challenge for scientists and health professionals to identify the right time for therapeutic indications and the algorithm of use, depending on the characteristics of the clinical picture and the patient's health conditions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Status , Global Health , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome
12.
Ciudad de México; CENETEC; 19 jun. 2020.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-1104209

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: Debido a la contingencia por COVID-19 provocada por el nuevo coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, en la actualidad hay una intensa investigación de alternativas terapéuticas que sean seguras y eficaces. (Hay registrados 2208 protocolos de estudios en ClinicalTrials.gov1). Con el propósito de conocer el panorama terapéutico actual contra COVID-19, se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva de las alternativas que han demostrado cierta eficacia en esta infección, concluyendo que los estudios que se han realizado tienen limitaciones metodológicas. Se trata de estudios no controlados, con alta probabilidad de sesgos que comprometen la validez interna y externa, consideran evidencia indirecta o la experiencia de expertos ante esa emergencia sanitaria, por lo que toda recomendación derivada de estos documentos debe de tomarse con extrema cautela. El uso de esas alternativas debe considerar los riesgos y los beneficios en casos individuales, en una decisión compartida entre médicos, pacientes y familiares ya que la mayoría de la evidencia se considera de baja o muy baja calidad. A la fecha no existe tratamiento específico en contra de este virus. BÚSQUEDA REALIZADA: Inmunoglobulinas intravenosas: Las inmunoglobulinas intravenosas (IgIV) es un grupo de IgG obtenido de donantes sanos, expuestos a enfermedades infecciosas endémicas, vacunas y microorganismos ubicuos que participan en la producción de anticuerpos IgG contra diferentes microorganismos y sus productos. El uso de inmunoglobulina intravenosa se ha


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Thymosin/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Health Evaluation
13.
Brasília; s.n; 23 abr. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097412

ABSTRACT

Essa é uma produção do Departamento de Ciência e Tecnologia (Decit) da Secretaria de Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e Insumos Estratégicos em Saúde (SCTIE) do Ministério da Saúde (Decit/SCTIE/MS), que tem como missão promover a ciência e tecnologia e o uso de evidências científicas para a tomada de decisão do SUS, tendo como principal atribuição o incentivo ao desenvolvimento de pesquisas em saúde no Brasil, de modo a direcionar os investimentos realizados em pesquisa pelo Governo Federal às necessidades de saúde pública. Informar sobre as principais evidências científicas descritas na literatura internacional sobre tratamento farmacológico para a COVID-19. Além de resumir cada estudo identificado, o informe apresenta também uma avaliação da qualidade metodológica e a quantidade de artigos publicados, de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, entre outros). Foram encontrados 14 artigos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Disease Progression , Drug Combinations , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5606, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142871

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Case report of a patient with an immunodeficiency who demands regular replacement of intravenous immunoglobulin. She presented an episode of transfusion-related acute lung injury shortly after using an immunoglobulin product different than the one she usually received. The patient evolved with respiratory changes (hypoxia, dyspnea, change in pulmonary auscultation) minutes after the end of the infusion, and received non-invasive respiratory support. She was discharged after 36 hours with good outcome. The patient achieved full recovery, showing no further reactions in subsequent immunoglobulin infusions (no longer receiving the product that was used when she had the episode of transfusion-related acute lung injury). Although rare, this reaction is potentially serious and has no specific treatment other than supportive therapy. The literature is scarce regarding the risk of recurrence. The decision on whether to proceed with immunoglobulin therapy after this adverse effect should be analyzed individually, assessing the possible risks and benefits for the patient.


RESUMO Relato de caso de paciente com imunodeficiência que necessitava de reposição regular de imunoglobulina endovenosa. Ela apresentou um episódio de lesão pulmonar aguda relacionada à transfusão após uso de produto de imunoglobulina diferente daquele que recebia habitualmente. Evoluiu com alterações respiratórias (hipóxia, dispneia e alteração de ausculta pulmonar) minutos após o fim da infusão, necessitando de suporte respiratório não invasivo. A paciente recebeu alta hospitalar após 36 horas, com boa evolução. Obteve recuperação total dos sintomas, sem mais reações nas infusões subsequentes de imunoglobulina (sendo optado por não mais prescrever o produto que foi usado quando ocorreu o episódio de lesão pulmonar aguda relacionada à transfusão). Apesar de rara, essa reação é potencialmente grave, não possui tratamento específico além de terapia de suporte, e há pouca informação na literatura sobre o risco de recorrência. A decisão sobre o seguimento da terapia com imunoglobulina após esse efeito adverso deve ser analisada individualmente, avaliando os possíveis riscos e benefícios para o paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Lung Diseases , Infusions, Intravenous , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , Middle Aged
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781695

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the changes in the serum levels of Chemerin and Omentin-1 in children with Kawasaki disease (KD) in the acute stage after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment and related clinical significance.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 children who were diagnosed with KD from January 2015 to April 2019 were enrolled as subjects. Forty healthy children and 40 children with acute infectious diseases were enrolled as the healthy control group and the infection control group respectively. According to the sensitivity to IVIG treatment, the children with KD were divided into an IVIG sensitive group with 51 children and a non-IVIG sensitive group with 9 children. According to the presence or absence of coronary artery lesion, the children with KD were divided into a CAL group with 13 children and a non-CAL group with 47 children. ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of Omentin-1 and Chemerin before and after the treatment.@*RESULTS@#The children with KD had significantly higher serum levels of Chemerin and Omentin-1 than the healthy control and infection control groups before treatment (P0.05). Before treatment, the non-IVIG sensitive group had a significantly higher serum level of Chemerin than the IVIG sensitive group (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#High serum levels of Chemerin and Omentin-1 may play an important role in the development and progression of KD. Chemerin may be involved in the development of CAL in children with KD. The serum level of Chemerin may be used as a new index for predicting the sensitivity to IVIG treatment.


Subject(s)
Adipokines , Chemokines , Child , Coronary Artery Disease , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
16.
S. Afr. j. obstet. gynaecol ; 26(1): 4-7, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1270788

ABSTRACT

Background. Maternal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may delay the onset and severity of fetal anaemia in Rhesus D (RhD)- sensitised pregnancies, thereby minimising the need for intrauterine transfusion and its associated complications. Objective. To compare the pregnancy outcomes of RhD-sensitised women who received antenatal IVIG with those who did not receive antenatal IVIG. Methods. This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of RhD-sensitised women who attended the Wits Fetal Medicine Centre (Johannesburg) from 1 January 2008 to 31 May 2018. Criteria for maternal IVIG administration were: (i) previous adverse pregnancy outcome (early neonatal death, intrauterine fetal death or miscarriage related to RhD sensitisation), (ii) women with high antibody titre levels (≥1:64) in the absence of fetal anaemia; and (iii) rising antibody titre levels. Maternal antibody titre levels, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were compared in women who received IVIG v. those who did not receive IVIG. Results. Of the 42 RhD-sensitised women, 14 received IVIG. A greater proportion of women experienced a decrease in antibody titres in the IVIG v. no-IVIG group (43% v. 11%, respectively; p=0.04). Nine of the 10 women in the IVIG group with a previous adverse pregnancy outcome had a successful pregnancy outcome following IVIG treatment. Conclusion. Maternal IVIG may provide a successful pregnancy outcome in RhD-sensitised women with previous adverse pregnancy outcomes related to Rh disease, or women with raised or increasing maternal antibody titre levels who present in the first or early second trimester


Subject(s)
Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Pregnancy , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , South Africa
17.
Clinics ; 75: e2209, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133484

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 471 samples collected from 371 patients (age<18 years) suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The study group comprised 66/371 (18%) laboratory-confirmed pediatric COVID-19 patients: 61 (92.5%) patients tested positive on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2, and 5 (7.5%) patients tested positive on serological tests. MIS-C was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control. RESULTS: MIS-C was diagnosed in 6/66 (9%) patients. The frequencies of diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain (67% vs. 22%, p=0.034); pediatric SARS (67% vs. 13%, p=0.008); hypoxemia (83% vs. 23%, p=0.006); and arterial hypotension (50% vs. 3%, p=0.004) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C than in those without MIS-C. The frequencies of C-reactive protein levels >50 mg/L (83% vs. 25%, p=0.008) and D-dimer levels >1000 ng/mL (100% vs. 40%, p=0.007) and the median D-dimer, troponin T, and ferritin levels (p<0.05) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. The frequencies of pediatric intensive care unit admission (100% vs. 60%, p=0.003), mechanical ventilation (83% vs. 7%, p<0.001), vasoactive agent use (83% vs. 3%, p<0.001), shock (83% vs. 5%, p<0.001), cardiac abnormalities (100% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and death (67% vs. 3%, p<0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p<0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p<0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of MIS-C was significantly associated with gastrointestinal manifestations [odds ratio (OR)=10.98; 95%CI (95% confidence interval)=1.20-100.86; p=0.034] and hypoxemia [OR=16.85; 95%CI=1.34-211.80; p=0.029]. Further univariate analysis showed a positive association between MIS-C and death [OR=58.00; 95%CI=6.39-526.79; p<0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with MIS-C had a severe clinical spectrum with a high mortality rate. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal involvement and hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Vomiting/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828672

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of children with adenovirus pneumonia and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the mediacal data of 7 children with adenovirus pneumonia and HLH from March to September, 2019.@*RESULTS@#The age of these children ranged from 11 months to 5 years, and among these children, 5 were aged <2 years and 5 were boys. None of these children had underlying diseases. All children were hospitalized due to persistent high fever and cough, and the peak temperature of fever was 39°C to 41°C. With disease progression, 7 children developed hepatomegaly and 6 developed splenomegaly. Routine blood test results showed reductions in two or three lineages of blood cells, with increases in serum ferritin (SF), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Phagocytosis of blood cells was observed in 6 children. Radiological examination of lungs showed pneumonia changes. All 7 children were diagnosed with human adenovirus type 7 infection based on pathogenic metagenome detection. No abnormality was found by HLH gene detection and the children were diagnosed with secondary HLH. All children received intravenous immunoglobulin. Among these children, 4 received dexamethasone and etoposide chemotherapy, 3 received dexamethasone alone, and 4 received plasma exchange. Of the 7 children, 2 died and 5 were recovered. Compared with those who survived, the children who died had significantly greater reductions in the three lineages of blood cells and significantly greater increases in serum levels of CRP, PCT, SF, and LDH.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The children with adenovirus pneumonia and HLH have main clinical features of persistent high fever, progressive reductions in two or three lineages of peripheral blood cells, and involvement of other organ systems, including hepatosplenomegaly. Significant increases in serum levels of CRP, PCT, SF, and LDH may suggest a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Child, Preschool , Etoposide , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Infant , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Male , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828910

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical and immunological characteristics, treatment and prognosis of common variable immune deficiency (CVID) in adult patients.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 13 adult patients hospitalized in our hospital for CVID diagnosed according to the criteria in International Consensus Document (2016), and analyzed their clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, imaging findings, pathological examinations and treatments.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of onset was 24.46±16.82 years in these patients, who had a mean age of 32.54±14.86 years at diagnosis with a median diagnostic delay of 5 years (IQR: 2-15 years). The main manifestation of the patients was repeated infections, including repeated respiratory tract infection (10 cases; 76.9%) and repeated diarrhea (3 cases; 23.1%). Three (23.1%) of the patients had autoimmune disease and 10 (76.9%) had chronic pulmonary disease. IgG, IgA and IgM were decreased in all the patients. The proportion of CD4+T cells decreased in 10 patients (76.9%), CD8+T cells increased in 11 patients (84.6%), and CD4/ CD8 decreased in 10 patients (76.9%). Complement C3 decreased in 58.3% (7/12) and C4 decreased in 33.3% (4/12) of the patients. Twelve patients (92.3%) were treated with intravenous infusion of gamma globulin with symptomatic treatments. One patient died due to massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and the other patients showed improve ments after the treatments and were discharged.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The clinical manifestations of CVID are diverse, and recurrent respiratory tract infection is the most common manifestation. Decreased IgG often accompanied by lowered IgA and IgM levels is a common finding in laboratory tests. The treatment of CVID currently relies on gamma globulin with symptomatic treatments for the complications.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases , Child , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Delayed Diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
20.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 34(2): 30-40, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371248

ABSTRACT

Myasthenia gravis is an acquired autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction characterized by fluctuating weakness and fatigability of skeletal muscles. The diagnosis can be established by clinical and serologic testing, with predominance of autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor, and Muscle-specific kinase antibodies. We report two cases of Myasthenia gravis, the first one is a 31 year old patient with a debut of the disease, mainly with bulbar symptoms, and the second one is a 29 year old patient diagnosed with generalized Miasthenia Gravis also mainly with bulbar symptoms with worsening of symptomatology. In this report treatments alternatives and management approaches are discused


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Myasthenia Gravis/immunology , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Pyridostigmine Bromide/therapeutic use , Thymectomy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Myasthenia Gravis/surgery , Myasthenia Gravis/classification
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