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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(1): 1-9, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151628

ABSTRACT

La terapia con fármacos antagonistas del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa ha sido beneficiosa en el tratamiento de varias enfermedades como las del tejido conectivo e inflamatorias del intestino, pero no está exenta de riesgos. Las principales complicaciones de estas drogas inmunosupresoras son las infecciones, y la tuberculosis pulmonar es una de las principales afecciones, que se pueden observar en los pacientes con este tipo de tratamiento.Se presentó una mujer de 31 años, atendida en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras, La Habana, Cuba, con antecedentes de colitis ulcerativa, que hace 3 meses recibe terapia con Infliximab. Acude al hospital por referir 4 días previos al ingreso, fiebre de 390 C dos veces al día, acompañándose de cefalea, pérdida del apetito y dolor en la región perineal. Se le realizó radiografía de tórax, donde se describe radiopacidad heterogénea que va desde el cuerno superior del hilio derecho hasta planos axilares, en la tomografía axial de tórax reportan consolidación en segmento anterior del lóbulo superior derecho con presencia de broncograma aéreo y en el lavado bronquial microbiológico para bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes se informó codificación 8, positivo a Mycobacterium tuberculosis. El diagnóstico preciso de tuberculosis relacionada con el uso de fármacos antagonistas del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa requiere un alto índice de sospecha y una investigación detallada. Existe un alto grado de complejidad diagnóstica, por la existencia de un amplio espectro clínico y la necesidad de excluir otras enfermedades.


Tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist drug therapy has been beneficial in the treatment of several diseases such as connective tissue and inflammatory bowel diseases, but it is not without risks. The main complications of these immunosuppressive drugs are infections, and pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the main conditions, which can be observed in patients with this type of treatment. A 31-year-old woman, treated at the Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital, Havana, Cuba, with a history of ulcerative colitis, who has been receiving Infliximab therapy for 3 months, presented. He went to the hospital for referring 4 days prior to admission, a fever of 390 C twice a day, accompanied by headache, loss of appetite and pain in the perineal region. A chest X-ray was performed, which described heterogeneous radiopacity that goes from the upper horn of the right hilum to axillary planes, in the chest axial tomography they report consolidation in the anterior segment of the right upper lobe with the presence of air bronchogram and in the bronchial lavage microbiological for acid-fast bacilli coding 8, positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis was reported. Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis related to the use of tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist drugs requires a high index of suspicion and detailed investigation. There is a high degree of diagnostic complexity, due to the existence of a wide clinical spectrum and the need to exclude other diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Infliximab/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Infections/etiology
2.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 77-81, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The use of immunosuppressive drugs after liver transplantation (LT) is associated with the development of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), in addition to other comorbidities of metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the time after use immunosuppressive drugs the patient progresses to SAH, as well as to identify its prevalence and the factors that may be correlated to it. METHODS: A retrospective and longitudinal study was conducted, based on the analysis of medical records of 72 normotensive patients, attended in the transplant unit of a university hospital, between 2016 and 2019. RESULTS: It was observed, on average, 9±6.98 months after immunosuppressive use, the patients were diagnosed with hypertension, and the prevalence of transplanted patients who evolved to SAH in this study was 59.64% (41 patients). In addition, there was a correlation between serum dosage of tacrolimus and the development of SAH (P=0.0067), which shows that tacrolimus has a significant role in the development of SAH. Finally, it was noticed that the development of post-transplantation hypertension indicates a higher risk of the patient presenting the other parameters of metabolic syndrome, as well as a higher impairment in its renal function (P=0.0061). CONCLUSION: This study shows that the patients evolved to SAH in an average of 9±6.98 months after immunosuppressive drug use. We have also found high prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (59.64%) in patients after liver transplantation, who used calcineurin inhibitors, especially when associated with the use of tacrolimus.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O uso de imunossupressores pós-transplante de fígado (TF) está associado ao desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), além de outras alterações da síndrome metabólica. OBJETIVO: Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a partir de quando tempo após o uso do imunossupressor o paciente evolui para HAS, assim como, identificar a sua prevalência e outros fatores que podem estar relacionados, como injuria renal. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo, longitudinal, baseado em análise de 72 prontuários de pacientes, atendidos na unidade de transplante de um hospital universitário, que não apresentavam hipertensão arterial prévia, entre período de 2016 a 2019. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que, em média, 9±6,98 meses após uso do imunossupressor, os pacientes foram diagnosticados com hipertensão arterial sistêmica, sendo que a prevalência de pacientes transplantados que evoluíram para HAS, neste estudo, foi de 59,64% (41 pacientes). Além disso, verificou-se uma correlação entre a dosagem sérica de tacrolimus e o desenvolvimento de HAS (P=0,0067), o que evidencia que o tacrolimus tem uma atuação significativa no desenvolvimento da hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Por fim, percebeu-se que o desenvolvimento de HAS pós-transplante indica um maior risco de paciente apresentar os outros parâmetros da síndrome metabólica, como também maior prejuízo na sua função renal (P=0,0061). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostra que os pacientes evoluíram para HAS em média 9±6,98 meses após o início do uso do imunossupressor. Verificou-se também alta prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (59,64%) em pacientes pós-transplante de fígado, que usavam inibidores de calcineurina, principalmente, quando associado ao uso de tacrolimus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Hypertension , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
3.
Clinics ; 76: e2597, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153997

ABSTRACT

A combination of immunosuppressants may improve outcomes due to the synergistic effect of their different action mechanisms. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the best immunosuppressive protocol after liver transplantation. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tacrolimus associated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in patients undergoing liver transplantation. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eight randomized trials were included. The proportion of patients with at least one adverse event related to the immunosuppression scheme with tacrolimus associated with MMF was 39.9%. The tacrolimus with MMF immunosuppression regimen was superior in preventing acute cellular rejection compared with that of tacrolimus alone (risk difference [RD]=-0.11; p =0.001). The tacrolimus plus MMF regimen showed no difference in the risk of adverse events compared to that of tacrolimus alone (RD=0.7; p=0.66) and cyclosporine plus MMF (RD=-0.7; p=0.37). Patients undergoing liver transplantation who received tacrolimus plus MMF had similar adverse events when compared to patients receiving other evaluated immunosuppressive regimens and had a lower risk of acute rejection than those receiving in the monodrug tacrolimus regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Immunosuppression , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the efficacy and safety of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) versus cyclophosphamide (CTX) in the treatment of children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) and nephrotic-range proteinuria.@*METHODS@#A prospective clinical trial was conducted in 68 pediatric patients who were admitted to the Department of Nephrology, Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics and who were diagnosed with HSPN and nephrotic-range proteinuria from August 2016 to November 2019. The patients were randomly divided into two groups:MMF treatment (@*RESULTS@#At months 3, 6, and 12 of treatment, there was no significant difference in the complete remission rate and the response rate between the MMF treament and CTX treatment groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#MMF and CTX have similar efficacy and safety in the treatment of HSPN children with nephrotic-range proteinuria.


Subject(s)
Child , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , Nephritis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Proteinuria/etiology , Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
5.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(3): e852, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149925

ABSTRACT

Al igual que en las enfermedades autoinmunes y reumáticas, las infecciones por virus pueden ser disparadores de mecanismos inmunopatogénicos. El SARSCoV-2 puede causar la liberación de citocinas y provocar un daño tisular grave, sobre todo pulmonar, con peligro para la vida. Se suma a ello el riesgo del uso de medicamentos inmunosupresores, empleados en los protocolos de tratamiento de las afecciones autoinmunes y también contra la infección viral de COVID-19. Hoy no contamos con conocimientos y evidencias científicas suficientemente sólidas para el enfrentamiento a la COVID-19, y cómo puede impactar entre los pacientes inmunodeprimidos por afecciones reumáticas. El Grupo Nacional de Atención y Enfrentamiento a la COVID-19 de la Sociedad Cubana de Reumatología se propuso elaborar un documento científico actualizado con las bases teórico-prácticas que permita acceder al conocimiento acerca de la infección por SARSCoV-2 y la COVID-19, y su repercusión sobre los pacientes con enfermedades autoinmunes y reumáticas para esbozar una estrategia de trabajo y ofrecer recomendaciones para los reumatólogos y pacientes cubanos. Se realizó un estudio de revisión y actualización acerca de la asociación entre las enfermedades reumáticas y autoinmunes y la COVID-19. Se emplearon las palabras clave enfermedades reumáticas, lupus eritematoso sistémico, artritis reumatoide, virus SARSCoV-2 y COVID-19. Se realizó una amplia búsqueda en MEDLINE y LILACS, y se revisaron más de 150 artículos, boletines de actualización de los sitios Web, páginas de salud de Cuba, resúmenes seleccionados por su calidad metodológica, revisiones y metaanálisis sobre el tema. A partir de la información recogida, se estableció una discusión y análisis considerando las principales experiencias internacionales, criterios de expertos, experiencias previas con otros virus en el Sistema de Salud de Cuba, con la participación de su red de científicos liderados por la Sociedad Cubana de Reumatología y su Grupo Nacional y el apoyo de la comunidad de reumatólogos(AU)


The outbreak of the infection by the new coronavirus SARSCoV-2, COVID-19, in December in Wuhan Province of China, has become a pandemic and health emergency given the deficiency of antiviral therapy for the acute respiratory syndrome that generates danger to life. The debut of the epidemic was in China, then the epicenter developed in Europe, northern Italy that suffered a severe blow. Worldwide, more than 10 million people are infected with the virus that has impacted on health systems until it practically collapsed, resulting in thousands of deaths. Today the epicenter of the pandemic has shifted to the Americas. Alarming figures highlight the United States of North America with some 2,737,600 infected and more than 128,471 deaths, followed by the South American giant Brazil with 1.3 million infections and 57,659 deaths. The Caribbean has a better setting. In Cuba, by the end of June, 2,340 cases of patients infected with deaths from COVID-19 were reported. We conducted a review, analysis and evaluation study of more than 150 articles from international journals, update bulletins of the WEB sites, health pages of the MINSAP of Cuba, and summaries selected for their methodological quality, and reviews, on the subject COVID-19 and autoimmune-rheumatic diseases by MEDLINE: database prepared by the National Library of Medicine of The USA contains bibliographic references and abstracts from more than 4,000 biomedical journals published in the United States and in 70 other countries, We also use Latin American and Caribbean Center for Information on Health Sciences: System, in Latin America and the Caribbean, since 1982. Our objective and results achieved have been to develop the theoretical-practical bases in an updated scientific document that allow access in an essential and summarized way to current knowledge about the infection by SACOV-2, COVID-19, and its repercussion and impact on patients suffering from rheumatic autoimmune diseases, and thus outline a coping and action strategy with recommendations for the Cuban rheumatologists in their health care work, and for patients as a guideline, given their well-founded concerns and fears given their underlying condition and the immunosuppressive drugs prescribed in an unfavorable context of a pandemic. The information is based on international experiences with the most published scientific evidence and those treasured national experiences in the face of similar situations of epidemics, faced by the vast health system and achievements of Cuban science(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. chil. reumatol ; 36(1): 10-16, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146598

ABSTRACT

Desde fines del 2019 enfrentamos el brote de una nueva infección por coronavirus llamada COVID-19, que rápidamente se transformó en una pandemia y llegó a nuestro país a principios del 2020. Esto ha traído muchas preguntas y desafíos, específicamente en nuestros pacientes con enfermedades autoinmunes, que tienen tradicionalmente mayor riesgo de contraer infecciones y de complicarse por estas. Por otra parte, en el tratamiento actual del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo causado por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 se están usando e investigando varios medicamentos inmunosupresores e inmunomoduladores del arsenal reumatológico para controlar la respuesta inmune exagerada que se produce en el huésped en el COVID-19 grave. En esta revisión analizamos la literatura existente hasta el momento sobre pacientes reumatológicos y COVID-19, medicamentos reumatológicos en investigación y en uso para el manejo de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, y resumimos ciertas recomendaciones de manejo específicas para nuestros pacientes.


Since the end of 2019 we have been facing the outbreak of a new coronavirus infection called COVID-19, which quickly turned into a pandemic arriving in Chile in early 2020. This has brought with it many questions and challenges, specifically for our patients with autoimmune diseases, which have an increased risk of infections due to their disease and the use of immunosuppresant and corticosteroid drugs. On the other hand, in the current treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, several immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory drugs in the rheumatologic arsenal are being used and investigated to control the exaggerated immune response that occurs in the host in serious COVID -19 cases. In this review we investigated the literature to date on rheumatology patients and COVID-19, rheumatology drugs under investigation and in use for the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and have summarized certain specific management recommendations for our patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Autoimmune Diseases , Biological Therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 526-533, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056617

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Children with nephrotic syndrome are at increased risk of infections because of disease status itself and use of various immunosuppressive agents. In majority, infections trigger relapses requiring hospitalization with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the incidence, spectrum, and risk factors for major infections in hospitalized children with nephrotic syndrome. Methods: All consecutive hospitalized children between 1-12 years of age with nephrotic syndrome were enrolled in the study. Children with acute nephritis, secondary nephrotic syndrome as well as those admitted for diagnostic renal biopsy and intravenous cyclophosphamide or rituximab infusion were excluded. Results: A total of 148 children with 162 admissions were enrolled. Incidence of major infections in hospitalized children with nephrotic syndrome was 43.8%. Peritonitis was the commonest infection (24%), followed by pneumonia (18%), urinary tract infection (15%), and cellulitis (14%), contributing with two thirds of major infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 9) was the predominant organism isolated in children with peritonitis and pneumonia. On logistic regression analysis, serum albumin < 1.5gm/dL was the only independent risk factor for all infections (OR 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-6; p = 0.01), especially for peritonitis (OR 29; 95% CI, 3-270; p = 0.003). There were four deaths (2.5%) in our study, all due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. Conclusions: Infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children with nephrotic syndrome. As Pneumococcus was the most prevalent cause of infection in those children, attention should be paid to the pneumococcal immunization in children with nephrotic syndrome.


RESUMO Introdução: Crianças com síndrome nefrótica apresentam maior risco de infecções devido ao próprio status da doença e ao uso de vários agentes imunossupressores. Em grande parte, as infecções desencadeiam recidivas que exigem hospitalização, com risco aumentado de morbidade e mortalidade. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a incidência, o espectro e os fatores de risco para infecções graves em crianças hospitalizadas com síndrome nefrótica. Métodos: Todas as crianças hospitalizadas consecutivamente entre 1 e 12 anos de idade com síndrome nefrótica foram incluídas no estudo. Crianças com nefrite aguda, síndrome nefrótica secundária, bem como aquelas admitidas para biópsia renal diagnóstica e infusão intravenosa de ciclofosfamida ou rituximabe foram excluídas. Resultados: Foram cadastradas 148 crianças com 162 internações. A incidência de infecções graves em crianças hospitalizadas com síndrome nefrótica foi de 43,8%. A peritonite foi a infecção mais comum (24%), seguida por pneumonia (18%), infecção do trato urinário (15%) e celulite (14%), contribuindo com dois terços das principais infecções. Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 9) foi o organismo predominantemente isolado em crianças com peritonite e pneumonia. Na análise de regressão logística, a albumina sérica < 1,5gm / dL foi o único fator de risco independente para todas as infecções (OR 2,6; 95% CI, 1,2-6; p = 0,01), especialmente para peritonite (OR 29; IC95% 3 -270, p = 0,003). Houve quatro mortes (2,5%) em nosso estudo, todas devido a sepse e falência de múltiplos órgãos. Conclusões: A infecção continua sendo uma importante causa de morbimortalidade em crianças com síndrome nefrótica. Como o Pneumococo foi a causa mais prevalente de infecção nessas crianças, deve-se atentar para a imunização pneumocócica em crianças com síndrome nefrótica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infections/mortality , Infections/epidemiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Peritonitis/blood , Cellulitis/complications , Cellulitis/microbiology , Cellulitis/epidemiology , Incidence , Albumins/analysis , Hospitalization/trends , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , India/epidemiology , Infections/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(4): e2019112, Oct.-Dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024207

ABSTRACT

Renal transplant patients are treated with immunosuppressive drugs that decrease the effectiveness of the immune system, making them more prone to developing cancer. Skin and lip carcinomas are common malignancies encountered after transplantation, whereas oral carcinomas are rare. We report the case of a 51-year-old female Caucasian patient, with no history of smoking, who presented white lesions on the tongue and an ulcerated lesion on the lower lip beginning 4 months prior. Diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma for both lesions was made following incisional biopsies. Interestingly, the patient reported a renal transplantation 23 years prior, and was maintained on a combination of cyclosporine, mycophenolate sodium and prednisone. The patient also presented a history of several basal and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Both lesions were surgically excised. No sign of recurrence or new lesions in the oral cavity have been observed; however, new skin lesions are frequently diagnosed. This case report highlights that oral cancers may occur in transplant patients in the absence of classical risk factors. Thus, clinicians must be aware of the importance of thorough oral examination in transplant patients in routine follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Mouth Neoplasms/etiology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/prevention & control , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(4): 530-534, Apr. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003055

ABSTRACT

The Guidelines Project, an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field in order to standardize producers to assist the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided through this project must be assessed and criticized by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical status of each patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Dermatologic Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Psoriasis/pathology , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Cyclosporine/administration & dosage , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Acitretin/administration & dosage , Acitretin/adverse effects , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Clinical Decision-Making , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180386, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990436

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hepatitis B infection is a global health issue. When considering patients with rheumatic diseases, this is no different. By using immunosuppressant drugs, such as DMARDs and biologics, viral reactivation is possible, leading to serious consequences on the patient. We report 3 cases of association between ankylosing spondylitis and hepatitis B with the use of immunosuppressant drugs. Case 1 was a patient with previous HBV infection using DMARD. Cases 2 and 3 were patients chronically infected by HBV during immunosuppressant therapy. The management of HBV infection during immunosuppressant therapy is challenging and needs multidisciplinary support.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Virus Activation/drug effects , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Hepatitis B/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Endemic Diseases , Immunosuppressive Agents
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(6): 440-442, Dec. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976143

ABSTRACT

La condición de inmunosuprimido aumenta el riesgo de cáncer en trasplantados renales, en comparación a la población general. La mejor supervivencia de esta población en los últimos años ha convertido a las neoplasias y a la enfermedad cardiovascular en las principales causas de morbi-mortalidad. Presentamos el caso de un paciente trasplantado renal que desarrolló cuatro años después del trasplante una forma inusual de tumor mesenquimatoso, el angiomixoma agresivo, que requirió resección quirúrgica amplia.


The condition of immunosuppressed increases the risk of cancer in kidney transplant patients, as compared to the general population. The best survival of inmunosupressed patients in recent years has turned both neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases into the main causes of morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a renal transplanted patient who developed an unusual form of mesenchymal tumor such as the aggressive angiomyxoma, four years after the implant and requiring wide surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunocompetence , Mesenchymoma/etiology , Myxoma/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Risk Factors , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Mesenchymoma/surgery , Mesenchymoma/pathology , Abdominal Neoplasms/surgery , Abdominal Neoplasms/etiology , Abdominal Neoplasms/pathology , Myxoma/surgery , Myxoma/pathology
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 749-752, dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973690

ABSTRACT

La miocardiopatía hipertrófica en el recién nacido es una entidad poco frecuente y de etiología heterogénea. Se han descrito formas transitorias en hijos de madres con diabetes gestacional y en recién nacidos pretérminos expuestos a corticoides tanto prenatal como posnatalmente. Se presenta un caso de un recién nacido pretérmino, hijo de madre trasplantada renal al que se le detectó una miocardiopatía hipertrófica y que había estado expuesto prenatalmente a corticoides y tacrolimus que recibía la madre como tratamiento inmunosupresor. Ambos fármacos cruzan la barrera placentaria y, al llegar al feto, podrían haber favorecido su desarrollo. La miocardiopatía hipertrófica puede ser un efecto secundario poco común del tratamiento con tacrolimus en adultos y niños, y es reversible al retirarlo. En nuestro conocimiento, es el primer caso publicado de miocardiopatía hipertrófica transitoria tras la exposición fetal tanto a corticoides como a tacrolimus en un hijo de madre trasplantada renal.


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the newborn is a rare entity with heterogeneous etiology. Transient forms have been described in children of mothers with gestational diabetes and in preterm infants exposed both to prenatal and postnatal corticosteroids. We report a case of a preterm infant son of a mother who received renal transplant in whom hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was detected. He had been prenatally exposed to corticosteroids and tacrolimus that received the mother as immunosuppressive therapy. Both drugs cross the placental barrier and, on reaching the fetus, could have favored its development. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be an uncommon side effect of treatment with tacrolimus in adults and children and it is reversible upon withdrawal. To our knowledge, it is the first published case of transient hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after fetal exposure to both corticosteroids and tacrolimus in the son of a renal transplanted mother.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/chemically induced , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Placenta/metabolism , Infant, Premature , Pregnancy , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/pharmacokinetics , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/pharmacokinetics , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacokinetics , Mothers
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(6): 597-601, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983809

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: This study aims to verify the new-onset diabetes after kidney transplant (NODAT) incidence in recipients within 1 year after kidney transplantation from a single center in Southern Brazil and to assess the associated conditions. Subjects and methods: A retrospective study of 258 post-renal transplant patients was performed. Demographic (gender, age, ethnic background) and clinical (origin of graft, associated infections, body mass index (BMI) at transplant time and 6 and 12 months after, causes of renal failure, and comorbidities) data were analyzed. All patients were on tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone treatment. Patients with and without NODAT were compared. Results: A NODAT incidence of 31.2% was noted 1 year post transplantation. In the univariate analysis, patients with NODAT were older (p = 0.001), mostly had African-American ethnic background (p = 0.02), and had renal failure secondary to high blood pressure (HBP) (p = 0.001). The group of patients with NODAT also had more incidence of post-transplant HBP (p = 0.01), heart failure (p = 0.02), and dyslipidemia (p = 0.001). Logistic regression showed that African-American ethnic background, post-transplant HBP, and dyslipidemia were independently associated with NODAT. Conclusion: This study shows a NODAT incidence that is greater in patients with African-American ethnic background and that is associated with HBP and dyslipidemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/etiology , Hypertension/etiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(2): 65-70, abr. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954951

ABSTRACT

La azatioprina es una tiopurina que presenta rango terapéutico estrecho y marcada toxicidad hematológica y hepática. La tiopurina S-metiltransferasa es una enzima que metaboliza ese grupo de drogas. Mutaciones en el gen que codifica dicha enzima aumentan el riesgo de presentar eventos adversos, por lo que su estudio farmacogenético permite contar con información para el diseño de la estrategia terapéutica. Sin embargo, su utilidad en el medio local no está completamente establecida. Fueron incluidos 45 sujetos (13 hombres) con indicación de azatioprina. Se determinó la presencia de las mutaciones *2, *3A, *3B y *3C de TMPT por PCR-RFLP y se analizó la relación entre el genotipo y la incidencia de eventos adversos relacionados al fármaco. Nueve portaban al menos un alelo no funcional, uno de ellos con genotipo *3A/*3A. Se detectó toxicidad en 3 de los 18 que iniciaron tratamiento con azatioprina: 2 pacientes con genotipo normal presentaron eventos adversos leves, y el único evento adverso de gravedad (aplasia medular) ocurrió en el sujeto con genotipo homocigota mutado. El único que presentó genotipo homocigota mutado desarrolló el más grave de los eventos adversos registrados, a pesar de estar en tratamiento con dosis bajas de azatioprina. Por este motivo, la determinación del genotipo de la tiopurina metiltransferasa pareciera ser de utilidad, pero no reemplaza la necesidad de seguimiento clínico y bioquímico en pacientes en tratamiento con tiopurinas.


Azathioprine is a thiopurine which has a narrow therapeutic index and marked hematological and hepatic toxicity. Thiopurine s-methyltransferase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of thiopurines. Mutations in the gene that encodes the enzyme may augment the risk of adverse events. For that reason, pharmacogenetic determinations prior to the initiation of therapy can provide useful information for the future therapeutic strategy. Nevertheless, its utility in the local environment is not completely established. Forty-five subjects (13 men) who had been prescribed azathioprine were included. The presence of *2, *3A, *3B and *3C mutations were determined by PCR-RFLP, and the relationship between genotype and incidence of adverse events related to the drug was analyzed. Nine carried at least one non-functional allele, one of them with *3A/*3A genotype. Among the eighteen patients who initiated treatment with azathioprine, toxicity was detected in 3 cases: 2 mild events were observed in patients with normal genotype, and the only serious event (bone marrow suppression) occurred in the individual with homozygous mutant genotype. The only homozygous mutant patient developed the most severe of the registered events, in spite of being under treatment with low doses of azathioprine. This is the reason why enzymatic determination could be of utility, even though it does not replace clinical and biochemical follow-up in patients under thiopurine treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Methyltransferases/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Homozygote
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(1): 50-53, feb. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894549

ABSTRACT

El metotrexato es un antimetabolito análogo al ácido fólico que inhibe competitivamente la enzima dihidrofolato reductasa y timidilato sintetasa, indispensables para la síntesis de ADN y ARN. Se utiliza ampliamente en dermatología y sus efectos adversos en la piel y mucosas son variados, incluyendo reacciones leves y graves. Las erosiones y úlceras cutáneas como manifestación de citotoxicidad por metotrexato son infrecuentes y representarían un signo cutáneo temprano de pancitopenia por toxicidad medular secundaria a dicha droga. En la mayoría de los casos existen enfermedades cutáneas previas a la ulceración, principalmente psoriasis. En ausencia de dermatitis subyacente, la presencia de ulceraciones es excepcional. Se presentan ocho casos de pacientes con signos cutáneos de intoxicación por metotrexato, con y sin dermatosis previas. En la mayoría hubo asociación de mucositis y compromiso medular. Se recomiendan pautas de tratamiento.


Methotrexate is an antimetabolite analog to folic acid that competitively inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthetase, essential for the synthesis of DNA and RNA. It is widely used in dermatology and its adverse effects on the skin and mucous membranes are varied, including mild and severe reactions. The appearance of erosions and skin ulcers as a manifestation of methotrexate cytotoxicity are quite infrequent. These would represent an early cutaneous sign of pancytopenia due to marrow toxicity secondary to this drug. In most of the cases there are cutaneous diseases prior to ulceration, mainly psoriasis. In the absence of underlying dermatitis, the presence of ulcerations is very rare. We present eight cases of patients with cutaneous signs of methotrexate poisoning, with and without previous dermatoses. Most of them associated mucositis and bone marrow involvement. Treatment guidelines are recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Skin Ulcer/chemically induced , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Skin Ulcer/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Drug Eruptions/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential
17.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(2): 69-74, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116918

ABSTRACT

The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is constantly changing due to the arrival of new therapeutic agents. Combined therapy (biological associated with immunosuppressive therapy) has proven to be effective, reducing immunogenicity (antibody formation), optimizing the pharmacokinetics of biological therapy with anti-TNF. This therapeutic strategy has associated risks (neoplasia and intercurrent infections) that are not only explained by the use of drugs but also by the increase of cases in older ages. It is essential for the medical team to be familiar with the optimization and personalization of the therapy to achieve clear therapeutic objectives with the lowest possible risks.


El manejo de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) está en constante cambio, debido a la llegada de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. La terapia combinada (terapia biológica asociada a inmunosupresores) ha demostrado ser efectiva al disminuir la inmunogenicidad (formación de anticuerpos) permitiendo la optimización farmacocinética. Esta estrategia terapéutica tiene riesgos asociados (neoplasias e infecciones intercurrentes) que no sólo se explican por el uso de fármacos sino también por el aumento de casos en edades más avanzadas. Es fundamental que el equipo tratante este familiarizado con la optimización y personalización de la terapia para así lograr objetivos terapéuticos claros con los menores riesgos posibles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Biological Therapy/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(6): 596-604, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899469

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent widely used for the treatment of malignant neoplasia and which can be used in the treatment of multiple rheumatic diseases. Medication administration errors may lead to its reduced efficacy or increased drug toxicity. Many errors occur in the administration of injectable drugs. The present study aimed at structuring a routine for cyclophosphamide use, as well as creating a document with pharmacotherapeutic guidelines for the patient. The routine is schematized in three phases: pre-chemotherapy, administration of cyclophosphamide, and post-chemotherapy, taking into account the drugs to be administered before and after cyclophosphamide in order to prevent adverse effects, including nausea and hemorrhagic cystitis. Adverse reactions can alter laboratory tests; thus, this routine included clinical management for changes in white blood cells, platelets, neutrophils, and sodium, including cyclophosphamide dose adjustment in the case of kidney disease. Cyclophosphamide is responsible for other rare - but serious - side effects, for instance, hepatotoxicity, severe hyponatremia and heart failure. Other adverse reactions include hair loss, amenorrhea and menopause. In this routine, we also entered guidelines to post-chemotherapy patients. The compatibility of injectable drugs with the vehicle used has been described, as well as stability and infusion times. The routine aimed at the rational use of cyclophosphamide, with prevention of adverse events and relapse episodes, factors that may burden the health care system.


Resumo A ciclofosfamida (CFM) é um agente alquilante vastamente usado para o tratamento de neoplasias malignas e pode ser usado no tratamento de diversas doenças reumatológicas. O erro de administração de medicamentos pode levar à diminuição da eficácia ou ao aumento da toxicidade medicamentosa. Diversos erros ocorrem na administração de medicamentos injetáveis. O trabalho objetivou a estruturação de uma rotina do uso de ciclofosfamida, bem como a criação de um documento de orientações farmacoterapêuticas para o paciente. A rotina foi esquematizada em três fases, a pré-quimioterapia (pré-QT), a administração da ciclofosfamida e a pós-quimioterapia (pós-QT), que levaram em consideração os medicamentos que devem ser administrados antes e depois da ciclofosfamida para prevenção aos efeitos adversos, incluindo náusea e cistite hemorrágica. As reações adversas podem alterar os exames laboratoriais e a rotina incluiu manejo clínico para alteração clínica dos leucócitos, das plaquetas, dos neutrófilos e do sódio incluindo o ajuste de dose de ciclofosfamida em caso de insuficiência renal. A ciclofosfamida é responsável por outras reações adversas raras, mas sérias, como hepatotoxicidade, hiponatremia severa e falência cardíaca. Outras reações adversas incluem perda de cabelo, amenorreia e menopausa. A rotina foi composta também por orientações ao paciente pós-QT. A compatibilidade dos medicamentos injetáveis com o veículo foi descrita, bem como o tempo de estabilidade e o tempo de infusão. A rotina visou ao uso racional da ciclofosfamida e prevenir os efeitos adversos e os episódios de recidiva, os quais podem onerar o sistema de saúde.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Medication Errors/prevention & control , Drug Administration Schedule , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Administration, Intravenous , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Medication Errors/statistics & numerical data
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(10): 1342-1348, oct. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902449

ABSTRACT

Primary colorectal lymphoma is a rare form of presentation of gastrointestinal tract lymphomas. Inflammatory bowel disease and its treatment are risk factors for its development. We report a 47-year-old male patient with Ulcerative Colitis of two years of evolution, treated initially with azathioprine and later on with infliximab. Due to a relapse in symptoms after the second dose of infliximab, a new coloncoscopy was performed showing a rectal ulcerative lesion, corresponding to a large cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. The patient was successfully treated with RCHOP chemotherapy (Rituximab cyclophosphamide doxorubicin vincristine prednisone). He is currently in disease remission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/etiology , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/etiology , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Vincristine/administration & dosage , Biopsy , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin/administration & dosage , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/diagnostic imaging , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Rituximab/administration & dosage , Infliximab/adverse effects , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
20.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 9(4): 1145-1153, out.-dez. 2017.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-908510

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a utilização de imunossupressores pelas pessoas com transplante renal. Métodos: Utilizou-se abordagem qualitativa do tipo descritivo, realizada com 20 pessoas transplantadas renais, no período de maio a julho de 2013. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevista semiestruturada e utilizou-se a análise temática. Resultados: Participaram dez homens e dez mulheres, com idade entre 30 e 66 anos, a maioria da raça branca, católica, casada, com Ensino Fundamental incompleto e aposentada. Foram identificadas três categorias: rotina do uso das medicações imunossupressoras; presença dos efeitos colaterais das medicações imunossupressoras; e dispensação das medicações imunossupressoras. Conclusão: O estudo apresenta singularidades da experiência de pessoas dependentes de um tratamento medicamentoso contínuo; portanto, fornece subsídios teóricos que poderão qualificar as práticas de atenção direcionadas a quem vivencia a dependência destes medicamentos.


Objective: To analyze the use of immunosuppressants for people with renal transplant. Methods: It was used qualitative approach descriptive, conducted with 20 people renal transplanted, in the period from May to July 2013. The data collection was through semi-structured interview and used the thematic analysis. Results: Participated ten men and ten women, aged between 30 and 66 years, mostly of the white race, Catholic, married, with incomplete primary education and retired. Three categories were identified: routine use of immunosuppressants; presence of side effects of immunosuppressants; and dispensing of immunosuppressants. Conclusion: The study presents singularities of dependents experience an ongoing drug treatment therefore provides theoretical subsidies that may qualify the care practices aimed at people living in the dependence of these drugs.


Objetivo: Analizar la utilización de inmunosupresores por las personas con trasplante renal. Métodos: Utilizó abordaje cualitativa del tipo descriptivo, realizado con 20 personas trasplantadas renales, en el período de mayo a julio de 2013. La recolección de datos ocurrió a través de entrevista semiestructurada y utilizó el análisis temático. Resultados: Participaron diez hombres y diez mujeres, con edades entre 30 y 66 años, la mayoría de la raza blanca, católica, casada, con educación fundamental incompleto y jubilada. Fueran identificadas tres categorías: rutina de lo uso de las medicaciones inmunosupresoras; presencia de los efectos secundarios de las medicaciones inmunosupresoras; y dispensación de las medicaciones inmunosupresoras. Conclusión: El estudio presenta singularidades de la experiencia de personas dependientes de un tratamiento medicamentoso continuado, por lo tanto, fornece subsidios teóricos que pueden calificar las prácticas de atención direccionadas a quien vivencia la dependencia de estos medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation , Brazil , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/surgery
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