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1.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.377-382, tab, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352599
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097091

ABSTRACT

La pandemia causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, originada en Wuhan, capital de la provincia de Hubei (China), se ha convertido en un desafío para la humanidad. Es un virus altamente contagioso; hasta el momento, la enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) presenta una mortalidad global alrededor del 6 %, que es mayor en pacientes con comorbilidades. La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) es una patología discapacitante, con daño tisular y alteración en la respuesta inmunológica, lo cual, asociado a los medicamentos inmuno-supresores que se utilizan frecuentemente para su tratamiento, pone al paciente en riesgo de desarrollar infecciones y complicaciones. En esta revisión consideramos la interacción del virus SARS-CoV-2 con el tracto gastrointestinal y los potenciales mecanismos por los cuales un paciente con EII podría tener un riesgo incrementado de la infección por COVID-19. Adicionalmente, y a pesar de que no hay estudios clínicos pu-blicados en pacientes con EII y COVID-19, damos recomendaciones basadas en opinión de expertos sobre el cuidado de pacientes con EII, con énfasis en su tratamiento y la realización segura de procedimientos endoscópicos, tanto para el paciente como para el personal de salud. (AU)


The pandemic caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus originating in Wuhan, capital of the province of Hubei (China), has become a challenge for humanity. It is a highly contagious virus and up to now the COVID-19 disease has an overall mortality of around 6 %, which is higher in patients with comorbidities. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disabling pathology, with tissue damage and impaired immune response, which, associated with immunosuppressive drugs that are frequently used for their treatment, put the patient at risk of developing infections and complications. In this review we consider the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 virus with the gastrointestinal tract and the potential mechanisms whereby a patient with IBD could have an increased risk of COVID-19 infection. Additionally, and despite the fact that there are no published clinical studies in patients with IBD and COVID-19, we make recommendations based on the opinion of experts on the care of patients with IBD, with an emphasis on its treatment and the safe performance of endoscopic procedures, both for the patient and the health personnel. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology
3.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(4): e1551, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152634

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil are immunosuppressive agents widely used on the postoperative period of the transplants. Aim: To evaluate the influence of the association of them on the abdominal wall healing in rats. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned in three groups of 12. On the early postoperative period, four of the control group and three of the experimental groups died. The three groups were nominated as follow: control group (GC, n=8); group I (GI, n=11, standard operation, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus); group II (GII, n=10, standard operation, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus). The standard operation consisted of right total nephrectomy and 20 min ischemia of the left kidney followed by reperfusion. Both NaCl 0.9% and the immunosuppressive agents were administered starting on the first postoperative day and continuing daily until the day of death on the 14th day. On the day of their deaths, two strips of the anterior abdominal wall were collected and submitted to breaking strength measurement and histological examination. Results: There were no significant differences in wound infection rates (p=0,175), in the breaking strength measurement and in the histological examination among the three groups. Conclusion: The combination of the immunosuppressive agents used in the study associated with renal ischemia and reperfusion does not interfere in the abdominal wall healing of rats.


RESUMO Racional: O tacrolimus e o micofenolato mofetil são imunossupressores amplamente utilizados no pós-operatório dos transplantes de órgãos. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos deles sobre a cicatrização da parede abdominal em ratos. Métodos: Foram utilizados 36 ratos Wistar, distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 12. No pós-operatório imediato, quatro do grupo controle e três do grupo experimentação morreram. Os três grupos receberam as seguintes denominações: grupo controle (GC, n=8); grupo I (GI, n=11, operação-padrão, micofenolato mofetil e tacrolimus); grupo II (GII, n=10, operação-padrão, micofenolato mofetil e tacrolimus). A operação-padrão consistiu de nefrectomia total à direita, isquemia durante 20 min seguida de reperfusão do rim esquerdo. Solução de NaCl 0,9% e micofenolato mofetil + tracolimus foram administradas a partir do 1° dia do pós-operatório e mantidas até o dia do sacrifício dos animais, no 14° dia. Na data do sacrifício, foram retirados dois fragmentos da parede abdominal para análise da resistência à ruptura e exame histológico. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa no índice de infecção de ferida operatória (p=0,175), nos valores de resistência de ruptura e nos achados histopatológicos entre os três grupos de animais. Conclusão: Os esquemas de imunossupressão empregados associados ao fenômeno da isquemia-reperfusão renal não induzem fraqueza significativa da cicatriz da parede abdominal em ratos no 14° dia de pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Tacrolimus/pharmacology , Abdominal Wall/surgery , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Kidney/blood supply , Mycophenolic Acid/pharmacology , Reperfusion , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Ischemia , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900807, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038127

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) on ventricular remodeling in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure. Methods Pressure overload-induced heart failure model (abdominal aortic coarctation) was established in 40 rats, which were divided into model and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA groups. Ten rats receiving laparotomy excepting abdominal aortic coarctation were enrolled in sham-operated group. The 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA groups were treated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg TIIA, respectively, for 8 weeks. Results Compared with model group, in 20 mg/kg TIIA group the left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular fractional shortening, left ventricular systolic pressure, ±maximum left ventricular pressure rising and dropping rate, and myocardial B-cell lymphoma-2 and cleaved cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 protein levels were increased, respectively (P<0.05), and the left ventricular end diastolic diameter, left ventricular end systolic diameter, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, heart weight index, left ventricular weight index, serum B-type brain natriuretic peptide, interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein levels and myocardial B-cell lymphoma-2 associated X protein level were decreased, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion TIIA may alleviate ventricular remodeling in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure heart by reducing inflammatory response and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ventricular Remodeling/drug effects , Abietanes/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Ventricular Pressure , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(10): e6225, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888940

ABSTRACT

Coronary allograft vasculopathy is an inflammatory-proliferative process that compromises the long-term success of heart transplantation and has no effective treatment. A lipid nanoemulsion (LDE) can carry chemotherapeutic agents in the circulation and concentrates them in the heart graft. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of methotrexate (MTX) associated to LDE. Rabbits fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet and submitted to heterotopic heart transplantation were treated with cyclosporine A (10 mg·kg-1·day-1 orally) and allocated to treatment with intravenous LDE-MTX (4 mg/kg, weekly, n=10) or with weekly intravenous saline solution (control group, n=10), beginning on the day of surgery. Animals were euthanized 6 weeks later. Compared to controls, grafts of LDE-MTX treated rabbits showed 20% reduction of coronary stenosis, with a four-fold increase in vessel lumen and 80% reduction of macrophage staining in grafts. Necrosis was attenuated by LDE-MTX. Native hearts of both LDE-MTX and Control groups were apparently normal. Gene expression of lipoprotein receptors was significantly greater in grafts compared to native hearts. In LDE-MTX group, gene expression of the pro-inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-18, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-12 was strongly diminished whereas expression of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 increased. LDE-MTX promoted improvement of the cardiac allograft vasculopathy and diminished inflammation in heart grafts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Lipids/administration & dosage , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Allografts , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Methotrexate/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/chemistry
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 127p tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-878750

ABSTRACT

O monitoramento de imunossupressores, como os inibidores de calcineurina ou de mTOR, é essencial para evitar desfechos clínicos desfavoráveis, em receptores de transplante renal. Polimorfismos em genes envolvidos na farmacocinética têm sido associados com variabilidade na resposta a imunossupressores, porém o papel de polimorfismos em genes envolvidos na farmacodinâmica é pouco conhecido. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência de polimorfismos de MTOR, PPP3CA, FKBP1A, FKBP2 e FOXP3, genes envolvidos na farmacodinâmica de imunossupressores, sobre a resposta clínica a tacrolimo e everolimo, em receptores de transplante renal. Foram incluídos 269 pacientes do ensaio clínico original (NCT01354301), realizado no Hospital do Rim e Hipertensão da UNIFESP, e randomizados em três esquemas imunossupressores: tacrolimo 0,05 mg/kg/dia com everolimo 1,5 mg/dia (TAC5/EVR); tacrolimo 0,1 mg/kg/dia com everolimo 1,5 mg/dia (TAC10/EVR); e tacrolimo 0,1 mg/kg/dia com micofenolato de sódio (TAC10/MFS). Foram coletados dados clínicos e laboratoriais, tais como o monitoramento de imunossupressores e desfechos de eficácia de segurança. Os polimorfismos nos genes MTOR (c.4731G>A, c.1437T>C, c.2997C>T); PPP3CA (c.249G>A); FKBP1A (n.259+243936T>C); FBKP2 (c.-2110G>T) e FOXP3 (c.-23+2882A>C, c.-22-902A>G) foram analisados por PCR em tempo real. As frequências alélicas dos polimorfismos estudados foram similares às da população global do projeto 1000genomes. O tratamento com everolimo e tacrolimo em maior dose (TAC10/EVR) foi associado com menor taxa de filtração glomerular estimada (TFGe) e maior creatinina sérica. Enquanto que o tratamento com tacrolimo e micofenolato de sódio (TAC10/MFS) foi associado com maior número de episódios de infecção por citomegalovirus, no 1° ano pós-transplante. Com relação aos desfechos de eficácia, os portadores do genótipo CC de MTOR c.1437T>C e FOXP3 c-23+2882A>C apresentaram maiores concentrações de creatinina sérica, no 12° mês (p<0,05). O polimorfismo FOXP3 c.-23+2882A>C foi associado com maior probabilidade de creatinina sérica aumentada (OR=1,75; IC95%=1,07-2,86; p=0,025). Os resultados da análise de regressão logística mostraram que o alelo MTOR c.4731G (genótipos AG+GG) foi associado com maior risco de rejeição aguda (OR=3,37; IC95%=1,10-10,30; p=0,033). Os portadores do alelo c.4731G apresentaram maior incidência cumulativa de episódios de rejeição, no 1° ano pós-transplante. Com relação aos desfechos de segurança, a variante FKBP2 c.-2110G>T (genótipo GG) foi associada com maior risco de leucopenia (OR=7,10; IC95%=1,81-27,87; p=0,025). O polimorfismo FKBP1A n.259+24936T>C (alelo C) foi associado com maior risco de constipação (OR=2,52; IC95%=1,13 - 5,61; p=0,024), enquanto que os polimorfismos FOXP3 c.-22-902A>G (alelo A) e c.-23+2882A>C (alelo A) foram associados, respectivamente, com maior risco de epigastralgia (OR=2,15; IC95%=1,01-4,56; p=0,047) e náuseas e/ou vômitos (OR=2,38; IC95%=1,05-5,38; p=0,038). O risco de apresentar dislipidemia foi maior nos portadores dos genótipos FKBP2 c.-21110GG (OR=1,92; IC95%=1,01-3,69; p=0,049) e FOXP3 c.-22-902GG (OR=2,06; IC95%=1,08-3,92; p=0,028). Em conclusão, os polimorfismos de genes MTOR, FKBP1A, FKBP2 e FOXP3 influenciam na função renal do enxerto e estão associados com risco de rejeição aguda e de eventos adversos, em receptores de transplante renal


The monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs, such as calcineurin and mTOR inhibitors, is essential to avoid undesirable kidney transplant outcomes. Polymorphisms in pharmacokinetics-related genes have been associated with variability in the response to immunosuppressive drugs, but the role of polymorphisms in pharmacodynamics-related genes is little known. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in MTOR, PPP3CA, FKBP1A, FKBP2 and FOXP3, genes involved in the pharmacodynamics of immunosuppressive drugs, on the clinical response to tacrolimus and everolimus in kidney transplant recipients. Two-hundred seventy-five kidney transplant recipients were included in this study, among the enrolled in the original clinical trial (NCT01354301) carried out at the Hospital do Rim e Hipertensão/UNIFESP, and randomized in three immunosuppressive treatments: tacrolimus 0.05 mg/kg/day with everolimus 1.5 mg/day (TAC5/EVR); tacrolimus 0.1 mg/kg/day with everolimus 1.5 mg/day (TAC10/EVR); and tacrolimus 0.1 mg/kg/day with sodium mycophenolate (TAC10/MFS). Clinical and laboratory data, including immunosuppressive drug monitoring, efficacy and safety outcomes, were recorded. Polymorphisms on the MTOR (c.4731G>A, c.1437T>C, c.2997C>T); PPP3CA (c.249G>A); FKBP1A (n.259+243936T>C); FBKP2 (c.-2110G>T) and FOXP3 (c.-23+2882A>C, c.-22-902A>G) genes were analyzed by real-time PCR. Allelic frequencies of the studied polymorphisms were similar to those of the global population reported by the 1000genomes project. Treatment with everolimus and high-dose tacrolimus (TAC10/EVR) was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher serum creatinine. Meanwhile treatment with tacrolimus and sodium mycophenolate (TAC10/MFS) was associated with higher number of cytomegalovirus infections, at 1-year post-transplantation. With regard to the kidney efficacy outcomes, the carriers of the CC genotype of MTOR c.1437T>C and FOXP3 c.-23+2882A>C had higher serum creatinine, at month 12 (p<0.05). The FOXP3 c.-23+2882A>C polymorphism was associated with high likelihood of increased serum creatinine (OR=1.75, 95%IC=1.07-2.86, p=0.025). The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the allele MTOR c.4731G (AG+GG genotypes) was associated with higher risk of acute rejection (OR=3.37, 95%IC=1.10-10.30, p=0.033). The carriers of the c.4731G allele showed higher cumulative incidence of acute rejection episodes at 1-year post-transplantation. With regard to kidney safety outcomes, the FKBP2 c.-2110G>T variant (GG genotype) was associated with higher risk of leucopenia (OR=7.10, 95%IC=1.81-27.87, p=0.025). The FKBP1A n.259+24936T>C (C allele) polymorphism was associated with higher risk of constipation (OR=2.52, 95%IC=1.13-5.61, p=0.024), whilst FOXP3 c.-22 902A>G (A allele) and c.-23+2882A>C (A allele) were associated, respectively, with higher risk of epigastric pain (OR=2.15, 95%IC=1.01-4.56, p=0.047) and nausea and/or vomiting (OR=2.38, 95%IC=1.05-5.38, p=0.038). The risk of developing dyslipidemia was higher in carriers of the genotypes FKBP2 c.-21110GG (OR=1.92, 95%CI=1.01-3.69, p=0.049) and FOXP3 c.-22-902GG (OR=2.06, 95%CI=1.08-3.92, p=0.028). In conclusion, the polymorphisms in the MTOR, FKBP1A, FKBP2 and FOXP3 genes influence renal graft function and are associated with risk of acute rejection and adverse events in renal transplant recipients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Everolimus , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Kidney Transplantation/classification , Pharmacogenetics/methods , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(5): 373-381, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784169

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: There are sparse data on the performance of different types of drug-eluting stents (DES) in acute and real-life setting. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the safety and efficacy of first- versus second-generation DES in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods: This all-comer registry enrolled consecutive patients diagnosed with ACS and treated with percutaneous coronary intervention with the implantation of first- or second-generation DES in one-year follow-up. The primary efficacy endpoint was defined as major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, target-vessel revascularization and stroke. The primary safety outcome was definite stent thrombosis (ST) at one year. Results: From the total of 1916 patients enrolled into the registry, 1328 patients were diagnosed with ACS. Of them, 426 were treated with first- and 902 with second-generation DES. There was no significant difference in the incidence of MACCE between two types of DES at one year. The rate of acute and subacute ST was higher in first- vs. second-generation DES (1.6% vs. 0.1%, p < 0.001, and 1.2% vs. 0.2%, p = 0.025, respectively), but there was no difference regarding late ST (0.7% vs. 0.2%, respectively, p = 0.18) and gastrointestinal bleeding (2.1% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.21). In Cox regression, first-generation DES was an independent predictor for cumulative ST (HR 3.29 [1.30-8.31], p = 0.01). Conclusions: In an all-comer registry of ACS, the one-year rate of MACCE was comparable in groups treated with first- and second-generation DES. The use of first-generation DES was associated with higher rates of acute and subacute ST and was an independent predictor of cumulative ST.


Resumo Fundamento: Os dados sobre o desempenho dos diferentes tipos de stents farmacológicos (SF) no cenário agudo e da vida real são escassos. Objetivo: Comparar a segurança e a eficácia dos SF de primeira e de segunda geração em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA). Métodos: Este registro arrolou pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de SCA e tratados com intervenção coronariana percutânea e implantação de SF de primeira ou segunda geração em seguimento de 1 ano. O desfecho primário 'eficácia' foi definido como eventos cardíacos adversos maiores (ECAM), um composto de morte por todas as causas, infarto do miocárdio não fatal, revascularização de vaso-alvo e acidente vascular encefálico. O desfecho primário 'segurança' foi trombose de stent (TS) definitiva em 1 ano. Resultados: Do total de 1.916 pacientes arrolados, 1.328 foram diagnosticados com SCA. Desses, 426 foram tratados com SF de primeira geração e 902, com SF de segunda geração. Não houve diferença significativa na incidência de ECAM entre os dois tipos de SF em 1 ano. A taxa de TS aguda e subaguda foi maior com SF de primeira geração do que com os de segunda geração (1,6% vs. 0,1%, p < 0,001; e 1,2% vs. 0,2%, p = 0,025, respectivamente), mas não houve diferença para TS tardia (0,7% vs. 0,2%, respectivamente, p = 0,18) nem para sangramento gastrointestinal (2,1% vs.1,1%, p = 0,21). Na regressão de Cox, o SF de primeira geração foi preditor independente para TS cumulativa [HR 3,29 (1,30-8,31); p = 0,01]. Conclusões: No registro de SCA, a taxa de ECAM em 1 ano foi comparável nos grupos tratados com SF de primeira e de segunda geração. O uso de SF de primeira geração associou-se a maiores taxas de TS aguda e subaguda, sendo um preditor independente para TS cumulativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Poland/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Time Factors , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(1): 54-59, 01/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735707

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of the cyclosporine in liver regeneration in rats submitted to an experimental model of 70% hepatectomy. METHODS: Forty male rats were randomly divided in four subgroups (C.24h, C.7d, E.24h, E.7d), according to the drug used and the day of sacrifice (24 hours and 7 days). Cyclosporine (10mg/Kg/day) was given to the study subgroup and 1 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride was to the control subgroup. Resection of left lateral lobe and median lobe performing 70% of liver mass. During the animals' death, KWON formula was applied. Counting of mitotic figures and percentage of positive nucleus with PCNA and Ki-67 were evaluated. RESULTS: In the 2nd, 4th PO and death days, E.7d lose more weight than C.7d. Regarding to the KWON formula, the C.7d regenerated more than the C.24h and the same with the E.7d. Comparing between the groups, only E7d subgroup was statistically significant compared with C.7d, showing the stimulating effect of cyclosporine in liver regeneration. Immunohistochemestry had significant results between the study subgroups. The mitotic index revealed statistical differences in the control subgroups. CONCLUSION: Cyclosporine, in spite of being an immunosuppressive drug, has a positive effect in liver regeneration, although reduce the animal's body weight. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Hepatectomy/methods , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Body Weight , Cell Count , Cell Proliferation , Disease Models, Animal , Immunohistochemistry , Mitotic Index , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1572-1581, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177067

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The degradation of the extracellular matrix has been shown to play an important role in the treatment of hepatic cirrhosis. In this study, the effect of thalidomide on the degradation of extracellular matrix was evaluated in a rat model of hepatic cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cirrhosis was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) three times weekly for 8 weeks. Then CCl4 was discontinued and thalidomide (100 mg/kg) or its vehicle was administered daily by gavage for 6 weeks. Serum hyaluronic acid, laminin, procollagen type III, and collagen type IV were examined by using a radioimmunoassay. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) protein in the liver, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) protein in cytoplasm by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, and MMP-13, TIMP-1, and TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in the liver were studied using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Liver histopathology was significantly better in rats given thalidomide than in the untreated model group. The levels of TIMP-1 and TGF-beta1 mRNA and protein expressions were decreased significantly and MMP-13 mRNA and protein in the liver were significantly elevated in the thalidomide-treated group. CONCLUSION: Thalidomide may exert its effects on the regulation of MMP-13 and TIMP-1 via inhibition of the TGF-beta1 signaling pathway, which enhances the degradation of extracellular matrix and accelerates the regression of hepatic cirrhosis in rats.


Subject(s)
Actins , Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , Collagen Type III/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/chemically induced , Male , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Thalidomide/pharmacology , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/biosynthesis , Transcription Factor RelA/biosynthesis , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/biosynthesis , Transforming Growth Factors/metabolism
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(8): 508-514, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719189

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate bladder histology in healing and biochemical analysis of rats with single kidney in ischemia/reperfusion, treated with tacrolimus. METHODS: Fifty rats randomized into five groups. Three rats died in surgery, 47 rats divided in groups: Control (non-operated, n=10), Sham (operated without drugs, n=8), T1 (operated + tacrolimus 1mg/kg, n=10), T2 (operated + tacrolimus 0.1 mg/kg, n=10), T3 (operated + tacrolimus 10mg/kg, n=9). The surgery was: laparotomy, right nephrectomy, left kidney ischemia/reperfusion, cystotomy followed by bladder suture. After that, rats were submited to gavage daily (Control and Sham with saline solution. T1, T2, T3 with tacrolimus in doses already mentioned). On the 14th day, after death induction, cystectomy was performed and bladder was histologicaly analysed. The serum urea, creatinine and tacrolimus were analysed too. RESULTS: There was difference in serum tacrolimus in T3 compared to the other groups (p<0.05). There was higher doses of creatinine in T3 group and higher urea in groups with tacrolimus. There were significant differences among all histologic variables comparing groups with and without tacrolimus (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Tacrolimus associated with ischemia/reperfusion is nephrotoxic, suppresses inflammation and seems to delay the healing bladder. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cicatrix/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Ischemia/complications , Kidney/blood supply , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Urinary Bladder/drug effects , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Cicatrix/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Nephrectomy , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Tacrolimus/pharmacology , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Wound Healing/physiology
12.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 41(3): 203-207, May-Jun/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719481

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of sirolimus on liver regeneration triggered by resection of 70% of the liver of adult rats. METHODS: we used 40 Wistar rats randomly divided into two groups (study and control), each group was divided into two equal subgroups according to the day of death (24 hours and seven days). Sirolimus was administered at a dose of 1mg/kg in the study group and the control group was given 1 ml of saline. The solutions were administered daily since three days before hepatectomy till the rats death to removal of the regenerated liver, conducted in 24 hours or 7 days after hepatectomy. Liver regeneration was measured by the KWON formula, by thenumber of mitotic figures (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and by the immunohistochemical markers PCNA and Ki-67. RESULTS: there was a statistically significant difference between the 24h and the 7d groups. When comparing the study and control groups in the same period, there was a statistically significant variation only for Ki-67, in which there were increased numbers of hepatocytes in cell multiplication in the 7d study group compared with the 7d control group (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: there was no negative influence of sirolimus in liver regeneration and there was a positive partial effect at immunohistochemistry with Ki-67. .


OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do sirolimo sobre a regeneração hepática desencadeada pela ressecção de 70% do fígado de ratos adultos. MÉTODOS: utilizaram-se 40 ratos Wistar que foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos (estudo e controle), cada grupo foi subdividido em dois subgrupos iguais conforme o dia da morte (24 horas e sete dias). O sirolimo foi administrado na dose de 1mg/kg/dia no grupo de estudo e no grupo controle foi administrado 1ml de solução salina. As soluções foram administradas diariamente, desde três dias precedentes à hepatectomia até a morte dos ratos, para a retirada do fígado regenerado, realizada em 24h ou 7d após a hepatectomia. A análise da regeneração hepática foi mensurada pela fórmula de KWON, número de figuras de mitose pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina e pelos marcadores imunoistoquímicos PCNA e Ki-67. RESULTADOS: demonstrou-se variação estatisticamente significativa quando comparado os grupos 24h com os grupos 7d através dos métodos de análise. Ao comparar os grupos de estudo e controle no mesmo período demonstrou-se variação estatisticamente significativa apenas pelo Ki-67 no qual foi verificado aumento do número de hepatócitos em multiplicação celular no grupo de estudo de 7d quando comparado com o grupo controle de 7d (p=0,04). . CONCLUSÃO: não demonstramos influência negativa do sirolimo na regeneração hepática e houve efeito parcial positivo pela análise imunoistoquímica utilizando Ki-67. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Hepatectomy , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
13.
Clinics ; 69(supl.1): 8-16, 1/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699026

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppressive therapy in pediatrics continues to evolve. Over the past decade, newer immunosuppressive agents have been introduced into adult and pediatric transplant patients with the goal of improving patient and allograft survival. Unfortunately, large-scale randomized clinical trials are not commonly performed in children. The purpose of this review is to discuss the newer immunosuppressive agents available for induction therapy, maintenance immunosuppression, and the treatment of rejection.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Organ Transplantation , Immunosuppression/methods , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(6): 691-698, set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685486

ABSTRACT

Acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi results in intense myocarditis, which progresses to a chronic, asymptomatic indeterminate form. The evolution toward this chronic cardiac form occurs in approximately 30% of all cases of T. cruzi infection. Suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) has been proposed as a potential explanation of the indeterminate form. We investigated the effect of cyclophosphamide (CYCL) treatment on the regulatory mechanism of DTH and the participation of heart interstitial dendritic cells (IDCs) in this process using BALB/c mice chronically infected with T. cruzi. One group was treated with CYCL (20 mg/kg body weight) for one month. A DTH skin test was performed by intradermal injection of T. cruzi antigen (3 mg/mL) in the hind-footpad and measured the skin thickness after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. The skin test revealed increased thickness in antigen-injected footpads, which was more evident in the mice treated with CYCL than in those mice that did not receive treatment. The thickened regions were characterised by perivascular infiltrates and areas of necrosis. Intense lesions of the myocardium were present in three/16 cases and included large areas of necrosis. Morphometric evaluation of lymphocytes showed a predominance of TCD8 cells. Heart IDCs were immunolabelled with specific antibodies (CD11b and CD11c) and T. cruzi antigens were detected using a specific anti-T. cruzi antibody. Identification of T. cruzi antigens, sequestered in these cells using specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies was done, showing a significant increase in the number of these cells in treated mice. These results indicate that IDCs participate in the regulatory mechanisms of DTH response to T. cruzi infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/drug therapy , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Chronic Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/immunology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Parasitemia/immunology , Skin Tests
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(7): 580-588, ago. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-682394

ABSTRACT

Sublethal ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a powerful inducer of ischemic brain tolerance. However, its underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. In this study, we chose four different IPC paradigms, namely 5 min (5 min duration), 5×5 min (5 min duration, 2 episodes, 15-min interval), 5×5×5 min (5 min duration, 3 episodes, 15-min intervals), and 15 min (15 min duration), and demonstrated that three episodes of 5 min IPC activated autophagy to the greatest extent 24 h after IPC, as evidenced by Beclin expression and LC3-I/II conversion. Autophagic activation was mediated by the tuberous sclerosis type 1 (TSC1)-mTor signal pathway as IPC increased TSC1 but decreased mTor phosphorylation. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed that IPC protected against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Critically, 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, abolished the neuroprotection of IPC and, by contrast, rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, potentiated it. Cleaved caspase-3 expression, neurological scores, and infarct volume in different groups further confirmed the protection of IPC against I/R injury. Taken together, our data indicate that autophagy activation might underlie the protection of IPC against ischemic injury by inhibiting apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Apoptosis/physiology , Autophagy/physiology , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Nerve Degeneration/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/pharmacology , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , /metabolism , Cerebrum/injuries , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Time Factors , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a promising treatment for severe cases of paraquat (PQ) poisoning. We investigated the effective dose of CP for mitigating PQ-induced lung injury. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into five groups: control, PQ (35 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection), and PQ + CP (1.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg). The dimensions of lung lesions were determined using X-ray microtomography (micro-CT), and histological changes and cytokine levels were recorded. RESULTS: The micro-CT results showed that 15 mg/kg CP was more effective than 1.5 mg/kg CP for treating PQ-induced lung injury. At a dose of 1.5 mg/kg, CP alleviated the histological evidence of inflammation and altered superoxide dismutase activity. Using 15 mg/kg CP reduced the elevated catalase activity and serum transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 level. CONCLUSIONS: A CP dose of > 15 mg/kg is effective for reducing the severity of PQ-induced lung injury as determined by histological and micro-CT tissue examination, possibly by modulating antioxidant enzyme and TGF-beta1 levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catalase/metabolism , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Male , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Paraquat , Pulmonary Edema/chemically induced , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Severity of Illness Index , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , X-Ray Microtomography
18.
Biol. Res ; 46(2): 183-188, 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683996

ABSTRACT

The effects of Dangguibuxue Tang (DBT) on growth performance and immunity response in immunosuppressed broiler chicks were investigated in this study. 240 one-d-old broiler chicks (DaHeng S01) were randomly divided into 4 groups, 2.0% DBT-treatment (A), 0.5% DBT-treatment (B), cyclophosphamide-control (C), and control group (D). From 4 d to 7 d of age, chicks in group A, B and C were given cyclophosphamide (CY) at a dosage of 100mg/kg body weight (BW) daily by intraperitoneal injection to induce immunosuppression. Chicks in group D were given an equal volume of physiological saline daily by intraperitoneal injection and considered normal chicks. Groups A and B were supplemented with 2.0% or 0.5% of DBT in the drinking water from 8 d to 42 d of age. Groups C and D did not receive any additional medication. The results revealed that chicks from group B had lower feed:gain rate (FGR), lower total mortality, higher immunity organ indexes, higher levels of Newcastle disease (ND) antibody and infectious bursal disease (IBD) antibody, higher interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 levels, and greater lymphocyte proliferative responses to concanavalin A (ConA) during the experiment than those from group C. However, no significant difference in the immunity status in the two levels of DBT-treatment was observed. These results indicate that supplementation of 0.5% of DBT can improve both cellular immunity and humoral immunity in immunosuppressed broiler chicks.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Birnaviridae Infections/veterinary , Chickens , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Infectious bursal disease virus/immunology , Newcastle Disease/immunology , Angelica sinensis , Astragalus Plant , Birnaviridae Infections/immunology , Chickens/growth & development , Chickens/immunology , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology , Immunosuppression/methods , Immunosuppression/veterinary , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , /blood , /blood , Random Allocation
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 98(4): 290-299, abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-639415

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Não há consenso sobre o impacto do implante de stent sobre a função endotelial no longo prazo. Há relatos de disfunção endotelial aumentada com stent com sirolimus quando comparado com o stent metálico convencional (BMS). OBJETIVO: Este estudo visa a avaliar o impacto do BMS e o efeito do sirolimus por via oral sobre a função endotelial. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos: BMS + altas doses de sirolimus oral (dose inicial de 15 mg, seguida de 6 mg/dia durante quatro semanas); BMS + baixa dose de sirolimus (6 mg, seguida de 2 mg por dia durante quatro semanas) e BMS sem sirolimus. Mudanças na vasoconstrição ou vasodilatação, em um segmento de 15 milímetros começando pelo extremo distal do stent em resposta a acetilcolina e nitroglicerina, foram avaliadas por angiografia quantitativa. RESULTADOS: Os grupos apresentaram características angiográficas semelhantes. A variação percentual de diâmetro em resposta a acetilcolina foi semelhante em todos os grupos, nos dois momentos (p = 0,469). Quatro horas após o implante de stent, o segmento alvo apresentou uma disfunção endotelial que se manteve após oito meses em todos os grupos. Em todos os grupos, a vasomotricidade independente de endotélio em resposta a nitroglicerina foi semelhante, às quatro horas e aos oito meses, com diâmetro do segmento alvo aumentado após a infusão de nitroglicerina (p = 0,001). CONCLUSÃO: A disfunção endotelial esteve igualmente presente no segmento distal de 15 milímetros do segmento tratado, às 4 horas e aos 8 meses após implante do stent. O sirolimus administrado por via oral durante quatro semanas para evitar a reestenose não afetou o estado de vasomotricidade endotélio dependente e independente.


BACKGROUND: There is no consensus regarding the impact of stenting on long-term endothelial function. There have been reports of increased endothelial dysfunction with sirolimus-eluting stents as compared to bare metal stenting (BMS). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the impact of BMS and the effect of oral sirolimus on endothelial function. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomized into three groups: BMS + high-dose oral sirolimus (initial dose of 15 mg, followed by 6 mg/day for four weeks); BMS + low-dose sirolimus (6 mg followed by 2 mg daily for four weeks); and BMS without sirolimus. Changes in vasoconstriction or vasodilation in a 15 mm segment starting at the distal stent end in response to acetylcholine and nitroglycerin were assessed by quantitative angiography. RESULTS: The groups had similar angiographic characteristics. The percent variation in diameter in response to acetylcholine was similar in all groups at the two time points (p = 0.469). Four hours after stenting, the target segment presented an endothelial dysfunction that was maintained after eight months in all groups. In all groups, endothelium-independent vasomotion in response to nitroglycerin was similar at four hours and eight months, with increased target segment diameter after nitroglycerin infusion (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The endothelial dysfunction was similarly present at the 15 mm segment distal to the treated segment, at 4 hours and 8 months after stenting. Sirolimus administered orally during 4 weeks to prevent restenosis did not affect the status of endothelium-dependent and independent vasomotion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Stents/adverse effects , Vasomotor System/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Analysis of Variance , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Acetylcholine/therapeutic use , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Nitroglycerin/pharmacology , Nitroglycerin/therapeutic use , Sirolimus/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilation/physiology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Vasomotor System/physiopathology
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 72(2): 158-170, abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639670

ABSTRACT

Los glucocorticoides o corticosteroides son fármacos antiinflamatorios, antialérgicos e inmunosupresores derivados del cortisol o hidrocortisona, hormona producida por la corteza adrenal. Su uso terapéutico fuera de la endocrinología data de la observación hecha por el reumatólogo Philip Hench quien, suponiendo que los pacientes con artritis reumatoidea tenían un déficit adrenal, inyectó en algunos cortisona, molécula de reciente producción industrial. El resultado obtenido fue tan contundente que se toma como ejemplo de la medicina traslacional. En la actualidad, los glucocorticoides figuran entre las drogas más usadas y, paralelamente, más temidas. Así, el objetivo de esta revisión es señalar los aspectos destacados de su farmacología para su uso racional en la práctica clínica.


Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant and anti-allergic drugs derived from hydrocortisone. Their widespread use was originated from Hench's observations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These drugs are examples of translational medicine and they can be envisaged as one of the most prescribed and feared drugs. The objective of this review is to highlight their pharmacological properties and thus, allow a more suitable prescription.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Translational Medical Research , Anti-Allergic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/chemistry , Glucocorticoids/pharmacokinetics , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology
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