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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 269-278, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287279

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since their approval in 2011, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPis) are increasingly used to treat several advanced cancers. ICPis target certain cellular molecules that regulate immune response resulting in antitumor activity. The use of these new agents needs careful monitoring since they brought a whole new spectrum of adverse events. In this review, we aim to describe different endocrine dysfunctions induced by ICPis and to underline the importance of diagnosing and managing these adverse effects. Immune-related endocrine toxicities include thyroid dysfunction, hypophysitis and, less frequently, type 1 diabetes, primary ad renal insufficiency and hypoparathyroidism. Diagnosis of endocrine adverse events related to ICPis therapy can be challenging due to nonspecific manifestations in an oncological scenario and difficulties in the biochemical evaluation. Despite the fact that these endocrine adverse events could lead to life-threatening consequences, the availability of effective replacement treatment enables continuing therapy and together with an interdisciplinary approach will impact positively on survival.


Resumen Desde su aprobación en 2011, el uso de los inhibidores de los puntos de control inmunes (ICPis) se ha ex tendido para el tratamiento de diversas neoplasias en estadios avanzados. Los ICPis tienen como blanco ciertas moléculas de las células que regulan la respuesta inmune favoreciendo una actividad antitumoral. El uso de estos nuevos agentes requiere un monitoreo específico, ya que se han vinculado con un amplio y nuevo espectro de efectos adversos. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir las diferentes disfunciones endocrinas inducidas por los ICPis y destacar la importancia del diagnóstico y manejo oportuno de estos efectos adversos. Los efectos adversos inmunes endocrinos incluyen disfunción tiroidea, hipofisitis y con menor frecuencia, diabetes tipo 1, insuficiencia suprarrenal primaria e hipoparatiroidismo. El diagnóstico de eventos adversos endocrinos relacionados con la terapia ICPis es un desafío debido a su presentación clínica inespecífica en un escenario oncológico y a las dificultades en la evaluación bioquímica. Estos eventos adversos endocrinos podrían tener consecuencias potencialmente letales, pero la disponibilidad de un tratamiento de reemplazo eficaz permite continuar la terapia y, junto con un enfoque interdisciplinario, generar un impacto positivo en la supervivencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Hypophysitis/chemically induced , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 208-213, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287272

ABSTRACT

Resumen El manejo de las reacciones adversas inducidas por los inhibidores del punto de control inmunitario (IPCI) en cáncer, demanda un trabajo multidisciplinario. Revisamos las causas y el curso clínico de las consultas e internaciones debidas a reacciones adversas de los IPCI entre septiembre de 2015 y julio de 2019 en el Instituto Alexander Fleming. Se registraron los datos demográficos, diagnóstico oncológico, reacción adversa y su grado, requerimiento de internación, tratamiento, mortalidad y evaluación de la reexposición. Se registraron 124 reacciones adversas por IPCI en 89 pacientes. Sesenta y ocho recibían monoterapia y 21 terapia combinada. Las manifestaciones cutáneas fueron las más frecuentes, seguidas de las generales, endocrinas (con mayor frecuencia hipotiroidismo), colitis, neumonitis, neurológicas y hepatitis. Fueron graves (grado ≥ 3), 26 toxicidades en 25 pacientes. Se internaron 15, y 6 de ellos requirieron terapia intensiva. Un caso fue fatal. Recibieron glucocorticoides 34 (12 de ellos por vía intravenosa). Un paciente recibió micofenolato y uno inmuno globulina endovenosa. En 20 se discontinuó el tratamiento. Ocho se reexpusieron y uno de ellos debió suspender definitivamente. Se presenta en esta serie de casos nuestra experiencia con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las reacciones adversas de una familia de drogas cuya utilización ha crecido en los últimos años.


Abstract The management of patients with immune-related adverse events (irAEs) frequently demands a multidisciplinary approach. We reviewed the causes and clinical course of medical visits and admissions at the Instituto Alexander Fleming due to irAEs between September 2015 and July 2019. Demographic data, diagnosis, toxicity and its severity, requirement of admission, treatment, mortality, and evaluation of the re-administration of immunotherapy were collected. We found 124 irAEs in 89 patients. Sixty-eight of them received monotherapy (76.4%) and 21 (23.6%) combination of drugs. Cutaneous manifestations were the most frequent cause of irAEs, followed by general manifestations, endocrine dysfunctions (hypothyroidism the most frequent), colitis, pneumonitis, neurologic dis orders, and hepatitis. In 26 adverse events (in 25 patients), severity grade was ≥ 3. Fifteen were admitted and 6 required ICU admission. One patient died. Thirty-four received glucocorticoids, 12 of them by intravenous route. One patient received mycophenolate and one IVIG. In 20, the treatment was discontinued; 8 were re-exposed, with definitive discontinuation in one patient. In this case series we report our experience in the diagnosis and management of adverse reactions related to a family of drugs whose use has grown in recent years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 59-67, Mar. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cross talk of tumor­immune cells at the gene expression level has been an area of intense research. However, it is largely unknown at the alternative splicing level which has been found to play important roles in the tumor­immune microenvironment. RESULTS: Here, we re-exploited one transcriptomic dataset to gain insight into tumor­immune interactions from the point of AS level. Our results showed that the AS profiles of triple-negative breast cancer cells co-cultured with activated T cells were significantly changed but not Estrogen receptor positive cells. We further suggested that the alteration in AS profiles in triple-negative breast cancer cells was largely caused by activated T cells rather than paracrine factors from activated T cells. Biological pathway analyses showed that translation initiation and tRNA aminoacylation pathways were most disturbed with T cell treatment. We also established an approach largely based on the AS factor­AS events associations and identified LSM7, an alternative splicing factor, may be responsible for the major altered events. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals the notable differences of response to T cells among breast cancer types which may facilitate the development or improvement of tumor immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
T-Lymphocytes , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational , Gene Expression , Alternative Splicing , Cell Culture Techniques , Receptor Cross-Talk , Transfer RNA Aminoacylation , Transcriptome , Immunotherapy
4.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(1): 2942-2953,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156786

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La COVID 19 es una enfermedad pandémica producida por el virus SARS-CoV-2, tiene dentro de los grupos vulnerables al cáncer de pulmón por presentar una inmunodepresión adquirida por los tratamientos oncoespecíficos administrados y esto conlleva a una mayor exposición a complicaciones si se contrae esta terrible infección que azota al mundo en la actualidad. El objetivo fue exponer los riesgos y complicaciones que tienen los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón que reciben tratamientos oncoespecíficos si se infectan con el SARS-COV-2. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de los principales artículos publicados en inglés y en español por autores cubanos y extranjeros en revistas de alto impacto a nivel mundial, información reportada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la red de Infomed y el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba. Se concluyó que los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón no presentan un riesgo superior a la población general para contraer la COVID 19, sí existe cierta evidencia de que estos pacientes puedan sufrir una infección más grave si la adquieren (AU).


SUMMARY COVID-19 is a pandemic disease produced by SARS-CoV-2 virus; the group of patients with lung cancer is vulnerable to this disease because of presenting an acquired immune depression due to administered oncospecific treatments, leading to higher exposition to complications if the patient gets this terrible disease striking worldwide nowadays. The objective of this review was exposing the risk and complications affronted by patients suffering lung cancer with oncospecific treatment if they get infected by SARS-CoV-2. The authors carried out a systematic review of the main articles published in Spanish and English by Cuban and foreign authors in high impact journals around the world, information reported by the World Health Organization, INFOMED and the Ministry of Public Health of Cuba. It was concluded that patients with lung cancer are not at a higher risk of catching COVID-19 than general population; it does exist certain evidence of that these patients could suffer a more serious infection if they get the disease (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Factors , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Immune System/physiopathology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Database , Drug Therapy , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy
5.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(1): 120-131, 20210000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150526

ABSTRACT

La inestabilidad microsatelital es causada por una alteración de los sistemas de reparación de apareamiento incorrecto, que puede afectar los microsatélites dentro de todo el genoma humano, produciendo errores en su replicación. Los estudios publicados, principalmente en la literatura inglesa, han encontrado que algunos tumores, como los gástricos, pueden expresar inestabilidad microsatelital. En la siguiente revisión de tema, se presenta una descripción de los sistemas de reparación de apareamientos incorrectos y su relación con la presencia de inestabilidad microsatelital en los tumores gástricos, así como su posible utilidad clínica, como factor asociado en la respuesta al tratamiento con inmunoterapia en los pacientes con dicha patología


Microsatellite instability is caused by an alteration of the mismatch repair systems, which can affect microsatellites within the entire human genome, causing errors in their replication. Published studies, mainly in the English literature, have found that some tumors, such as gastric ones, can express microsatellite instability. In this review, a description of the mismatch repair systems and their relationship with the presence of microsatellite instability in gastric tumors is presented, as well as its possible clinical utility, as an associated factor in the response to immunotherapy treatment, in patients with gastric cancer


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms , Microsatellite Instability , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms
6.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 1-10, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880946

ABSTRACT

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer with a heterogeneous genetic profile. Chemotherapy exhibits substantial activity in a small subset of these patients. Drug resistance is inevitable. Major progress has been made in the genetic analysis of TNBC to identify novel targets and increase the precision of therapeutic intervention. Such progress has translated into major advances in treatment strategies, including modified chemotherapy approaches, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and targeted therapeutic drugs. All of these strategies have been evaluated in clinical trials. Nevertheless, patient selection remains a considerable challenge in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/genetics
7.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 33-42, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880945

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has recently led to a paradigm shift in cancer therapy, in which immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the most successful agents approved for multiple advanced malignancies. However, given the nature of the non-specific activation of effector T cells, ICIs are remarkably associated with a substantial risk of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in almost all organs or systems. Up to 90% of patients who received ICIs combination therapy experienced irAEs, of which majority were low-grade toxicity. Cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death protein-1/programmed cell death ligand 1 inhibitors usually display distinct features of irAEs. In this review, the mechanisms of action of ICIs and how they may cause irAEs are described. Some unsolved challenges, however really engrossing issues, such as the association between irAEs and cancer treatment response, tumor response to irAEs therapy, and ICIs in challenging populations, are comprehensively summarized.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Neoplasms/drug therapy
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880181

ABSTRACT

TIGIT is an inhibitory receptor containing T cell immunoglobulin and immune receptor protein tyrosine inhibitory motif domain. It shows high expression level on the surface of immune cells in tumor patients and plays an inhibitory role by binding to corresponding ligands, CD155 and CD112. Studying the mechanism of inhibitory effect of TIGIT and the way to block it shows a great significance in the immunotherapy of tumor. In this review, the structure of TIGIT molecule and its inhibitory effect on immune cells(including NK cells and T cells) were introduced, the expression level and the newest research advance of TIGIT molecule in lymphoma,multiple myeloma,leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome were reviewed and summarized briefly, so as to provide reference for the further study of TIGIT and the application of TIGIT inhibitors in hematological malignancies.


Subject(s)
Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Proteins , Immunotherapy , Killer Cells, Natural , Receptors, Immunologic
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880069

ABSTRACT

T lymphoid malignancy is a group of highly heterogeneous hematological tumors. Disease recurrence and resistance to therapy are the common causes of failed treatment. Traditional therapy is radiotherapy and chemotherapy, although it has achieved great success. However, many patients still failed to survive following the treatment. With the introduction of monoclonal antibodies, immunotherapy and cellular therapy into clinical practice, the outcome of hematologic malignancies has been significantly improved. In particular, chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) showed high efficacy in treating B-cell lymphoma and acute B lymphocytic leukemia and surpassed any previous therapeutic strategies. However, this treatment seldom succeeded in treating T cell malignancies. In this review, the history of CAR-T cells treating T cell malignancies, and the clinical trials, adverse events of previously reported were summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , T-Lymphocytes
10.
Rev. Méd. Paraná ; 79(1): 112-118, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282513

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Identificar e analisar as imunoterapias mais atuais e seus mecanismos de ação no câncer de pulmão não pequenas células (CPNPC). MÉTODOS: Revisão integrativa de literatura, norteada pela questão: "quais imunoterapias estão disponíveis atualmente e quais são seus objetivos no tratamento do CPNPC?". A base de dados utilizada foi PubMed. Os descritores utilizados foram "cancer lung", "non small cell", "immunotherapy" e seus respectivos em português, empregando o booleano "and". Elegendo apenas revisões sistemáticas e meta-análises 78 artigos foram encontrados. Ao final, 18 publicações foram selecionadas seguindo os critérios de elegibilidade. RESULTADOS: Na imunoterapia, dois inibidores de checkpoints apresentam resultados promissores: proteína de morte celular programada 1 (PD-1) e o ligante de morte celular programada 1 (PD-L1). Enquanto os imunomoduladores nivolumabe e pembrolizumabe bloqueiam PD-1 e aumentam o combate às células cancerígenas, atezolizumabe e durvalumabe amplificam a resposta imunológica ao bloquear PD-L1. CONCLUSÃO: Atualmente os inibidores de checkpoints imunológicos são uma realidade no tratamento oncológico, com relevância ímpar no CPNPC


OBJECTIVE: Identify and analyze the most current immunotherapies and their mechanisms of action in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Integrative literature review, guided by the question: "which immunotherapies are available and currently what are your goals in the treatment of CPNPC?". The database used was PubMed. The descriptors used were "cancer lung", "non-small-cell", "immunotherapy" and their respective in portuguese, using the boolean "and". By choosing only systematic reviews and meta-analyzes, 78 articles were found. At the end, 18 publications were selected according to the eligibility criteria. RESULTS: In immunotherapy, two checkpoint inhibitors show promising results: programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). While Nivolumabe and Pembrolizumab immunomodulators block PD-1 and increase the fight against cancer cells, Atezolizumab and Durvalumab amplify the immune response by blocking PD-L1. CONCLUSION: Currently, immunological checkpoint inhibitors are a reality in cancer treatment, with unparalleled relevance in CPNPC


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms , Meta-Analysis , Systematic Review
11.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(2): e-061014, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223914

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer de mama é o mais comumente diagnosticado em mulheres e uma das principais causas de morte por câncer em mulheres em todo o mundo. Apesar, ou talvez por causa, de sua natureza agressiva e da falta de tratamentos direcionados atuais, pesquisas clínicas e laboratoriais significativas estão fornecendo opções de tratamento diferenciadas. Historicamente, a quimioterapia tem sido a única opção viável de tratamento sistêmico para doenças precoces e avançadas. No entanto, ensaios clínicos publicados recentemente mostraram que a imunoterapia tem um papel importante no paradigma de tratamento dessa condição devastadora. Objetivo: Demonstrar o estado da arte da imunoterapia no tratamento do câncer de mama triplo-negativo. Método: Revisão integrativa de literatura, entre janeiro/2020 a março/2020, a partir das bases de dados PubMed, SciELO, InternationalClinical Trials Registry Platform e LILACS, por meio dos descritores "Imunoterapia", "Neoplasias da mama" e "Neoplasias de mama triplo negativas" e seus respectivos correspondentes em inglês. Resultados: Foram encontrados 465 artigos; destes, 457 foram excluídos após aplicação dos critérios metodológicos. Assim, restaram oito artigos que atendiam aos critérios de inclusão, demonstrando os principais agentes terapêuticos utilizados, mecanismos de ação e combinações terapêuticas. Encontraram-se 25 ensaios clínicos em andamento na plataforma de registro de ensaios clínicos InternationalClinical Trials Registry Platform. Conclusão: Embora a imunoterapia seja algo recente, seus resultados com agentes inibidores da PARP, PD-1 e PD-L1 demonstraram resultados satisfatórios. Novos ensaios com subgrupos estratificados de acordo com biomarcadores tumorais específicos são necessários, a fim de avaliar se algum subgrupo tem maior benefício ao tratamento.


Introduction: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and is one of the leading causes of death from cancer in women worldwide. Despite, or perhaps because of its aggressive nature and current lack of targeted treatments, significant basic research and clinical trials are being conducted to provide new treatment options. Historically, chemotherapy has been the only viable systemic treatment option for early and advanced diseases. However, recently published clinical trials have shown that immunotherapy plays an important role in the treatment paradigm of this devastating clinical condition. Objective: To demonstrate the state-of-the-art results of immunotherapy in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. Method:An integrative literature review was carried out between January/2020 and March/2020, in PubMed, SciELO, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and LILACS databases, using the keywords "Immunotherapy", "Breast Cancer", and "Triple Negative Breast Cancer" and its respective correspondents in Portuguese. Results: 465 articles were found; of those, 457 were excluded after applying the methodological criteria. Thus, 8 articles that met the inclusion criteria, showing the main therapeutic agents used, mechanisms of action and therapeutic combinations, remained. 25 clinical trials were found in progress on the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Conclusion: Although immunotherapy is somewhat recent, its results with PARP, PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors have shown satisfactory results. New trials with subgroups stratified according to specific tumor biomarkers are needed in order to assess if some subgroups have greater benefit to treatment.


Introducción: El cáncer de mama es el más comúnmente diagnosticado en las mujeres y es una de las principales causas de muerte por cáncer en mujeres de todo el mundo. A pesar de, o quizás debido a su naturaleza agresiva y la falta de tratamientos dirigidos actuales, investigaciones clínicas y de laboratorio significativas están proporcionando opciones de tratamiento diferenciadas. Históricamente, la quimioterapia ha sido la única opción viable para el tratamiento sistémico de enfermedades tempranas y avanzadas. Sin embargo, los ensayos clínicos publicados recientemente han demostrado que la inmunoterapia desempeña un papel importante en el paradigma del tratamiento de esta condición devastadora. Objetivo: Demostrar el estado del arte de la inmunoterapia en el cáncer de mama triple negativo. Método: Revisión integradora entre enero/2020 y marzo/2020, utilizando las bases de datos PubMed, SciELO, InternationalClinical Trials Registry Platform y LILACS, empleando las palabras clave "Inmunoterapia", "Cáncer de mama" y "Cáncer de mama triple negativo" y los respectivos términos en inglés. Resultados: Se encontraron 465 artículos; de estos, 457 fueron excluidos después de aplicar los criterios metodológicos. Así, quedaron 8 artículos que cumplían los criterios, que mostraban los principales agentes terapéuticos utilizados, mecanismos de acción y combinaciones terapéuticas. Se encontraron 25 ensayos clínicos en progreso en la plataforma InternationalClinical Trials Registry Platform. Conclusión: Aunque la inmunoterapia es algo reciente, sus resultados con inhibidores de PARP, PD-1 y PD-L1 han mostrado resultados satisfactorios. Se necesitan nuevos ensayos con subgrupos estratificados según biomarcadores tumorales específicos para evaluar si algún subgrupo tiene un mayor beneficio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Immunotherapy , Biomarkers
13.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 92 p. ilust, tabelas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1223738

ABSTRACT

Mutações somáticas não sinônimas podem iniciar a tumorigênese e, também, uma resposta citotóxica antitumoral. Com o desenvolvimento das tecnologias de sequenciamento, tornou-se possível identificar as mutações em todos os genes humanos e, consequentemente, as variantes que induzem uma resposta imune (neoantígenos), representando uma oportunidade para pacientes que possam se beneficiar de imunoterapias, mas também um desafio com a necessidade de várias camadas de informações e a integração computacional de vários tipos de dados. Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido o pipeline de identificação de neoantígeno neo2P, o qual realiza a integração completa de todos os passos necessários para a detecção e neoantígenos e apresentou uma eficiência computacional superior de até seis vezes em comparação com outro método. Além disso, foi proposto um score para priorizaração das mutações somáticas a partir da distribuição dos níveis da expressão gênica de 9.679 pacientes de 32 projetos do TCGA, o qual apresentou um poder de discriminação (AUC) próximo ou superior a 0.7 na maioria das coortes avaliadas. O neo2P foi aplicado em um conjunto de dados de pacientes com melanoma e foram identificados aspectos adicionais da relação de neoantígenos e aspectos imunes, como a expressão de alguns genes marcadores que podem estar relacionados com a resposta ao tratamento. Adicionalmente, a carga de neoantígenos detectados pelo neo2P estratificou, de maneira significativa, pacientes respondedores (R) e não respondedores (NR) quando comparado com o marcador TMB


Somatic non-synonymous mutations can initiate tumorigenesis and, conversely, anti-tumor cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses. With the development of next-generation sequencing, it has become feasible to detect mutation-derived neoantigens within exome and thereby predict potential neoantigens, which represents an opportunity to patients that may be treated with immunotherapies, but also a challenge due to multiple layers of information and a computational integration of several types of data. In this work, it was developed a neoantigen identification pipeline called neo2P, which integrates all the necessary steps involved for neoantigen detection and presented a six-times superior computational efficiency compared to another method. In addition, a score was proposed to prioritize somatic mutations based on the distribution of gene expression levels in 9,679 patients from 32 TCGA projects, which showed a stratification ability (AUC) close to or greater than 0.7 in most evaluated cohorts.neo2P was applied to a dataset of patients with melanoma and additional aspects of the relationship between neoantigens and immune aspects were identified, such as the expression of some marker genes that may be related to the treatment response. Additionally, the neoantigen load detected by neo2P significantly stratified responders (R) and non-responders (NR) patients when compared to the TMB marker


Subject(s)
Prognosis , Gene Expression , Computational Biology , Immunotherapy , Melanoma
14.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31209, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292752

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O tratamento da leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) atualmente baseia-se em quimioterapia e/ou transplante de células tronco hematopoiéticas; entretanto, uma nova terapia vem se tornando promissora: a imunoterapia com células T modificadas geneticamente que expressam um receptor de antígeno quimérico (CAR-T) visando antígenos específicos presente em blastos de LLA, gerando resultados promissores em crianças e adultos com doença recidivada e refratária (r/r). Objetivo: Discorrer sobre a LLA e descrever a imunoterapia com CAR-T, como inovação terapêutica no tratamento da LLA de linhagem B. Método: Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica por meio de publicações indexadas nas bases de dados Scielo e Pubmed, utilizando os descritores: leucemia linfoblástica aguda de células B; células CAR-T; receptores de antígeno quimérico, recidivados/refratários; imunoterapia. Resultados: As altas taxas de remissão completa (42% até 100%) e parcial (28,5%) da LLA (r/r) tratadas com CAR-T, possibilitam um aumento considerável da sobrevida geral comparado a outros tratamentos convencionais. Efeitos desfavoráveis, tais como síndrome da liberação de citocinas (CRS) (0 até 90%) e neurotoxicidade (NT) (0 até 29%) podem ser vistos, sendo manejáveis, não prejudicando o desfecho do tratamento. Conclusão: A LLA é uma doença grave, de difícil tratamento e prognóstico reservado. A imunoterapia vêm se mostrando promissora à essa enfermidade, principalmente em casos de doença r/r se mostrado uma ferramenta poderosa que permite o foco específico de células malignas por meio de engenharia de células T


Introduction: The treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is currently based on chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; however, a new therapy is becoming promising: immunotherapy with genetically modified T cells that express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) targeting specific antigens present on ALL blasts, reaching promising results in children and adults with relapsed and refractory disease (r/r). Objective: To discuss ALL and describe immunotherapy with CAR-T as a therapeutic innovation in the treatment of B-lineage ALL. Method: A literature review was carried out through publications indexed in the Scielo and Pubmed databases, using the following descriptors: B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; CAR-T cells; chimeric antigen receptors, relapsed/refractory; immunotherapy. Results: The high rates of complete (42% to 100%) and partial remission (28.5%) of ALL (r/r) treated with CAR-T allows a considerable increase in overall survival compared to other conventional treatments. Unfavorable effects such as cytokine release syndrome (CRS) (0 to 90%) and neurotoxicity (NT) (0 to 29%) can be seen, being manageable, not impairing the treatment outcome. Conclusion: ALL is a serious disease, with a difficult treatment and poor prognosis. Immunotherapy has shown benefits for this disease, especially in cases of r/r ALL, showing itself to be a powerful tool that allows the specific focus of malignant cells through T cell engineering.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Leukemia/therapy , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Immunotherapy , Neprilysin , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Cytokine Release Syndrome
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878707

ABSTRACT

Drug addiction is a major worldwide medical and social problem.Cocaine,nicotine,methamphetamine,heroin and other psychoactive substances,with small molecular weight,can easily cross the blood-brain barrier and eventually lead to addiction and other serious neuropsychological damage.There is no effective cure for addiction currently.The drug-antibody complex formed on the basis of active or passive immunotherapy could not cross the blood-brain barrier,which reduces the concentration of the free active drug and prevents its distribution in the brain,thereby weakening the drug addiction-related reward effects.It provides a promising way for the treatment of drug addiction.This article reviews the progress of immunotherapy against psychoactive substances such as cocaine,nicotine,methamphetamine and heroin in the past 50 years from the aspects of active immunity,passive immunity,drug metabolism-related enzymes,adjuvants and so on.The goal is to provide some ideas for the development of agents for the treatment of psychoactive substance addiction.


Subject(s)
Cocaine , Humans , Immunotherapy , Methamphetamine , Nicotine , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 513-529, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878579

ABSTRACT

Bispecific antibody (BsAb) has two different antigen-binding sites, divided into the "IgG-like" format and the "non-IgG-like" format. Different formats have different characteristics and applications. BsAb has higher sensitivity and specificity than conventional antibodies, with special functions such as recruitment of immune cells and blocking of dual signaling pathways, playing an important role in immune-diagnosis and therapy. With the deterioration of the global environment and the irregular living habits of people, the incidence of tumor is becoming higher and higher. Tumor becomes the most serious fatal disease threatening human health after cardiovascular disease. There are 12 million estimated new tumor cases each year worldwide. The major clinical treatments of tumor are surgical resection, chemoradiotherapy, target therapy. Tumor immunotherapy is a novel approach for tumor treatment in recent years, and activates human immune system to control and kill tumor cells. Although the traditional monoclonal antibodies have already acquired some therapeutic effects in tumor targeted therapy and immunotherapy, they induce drug resistance resulted from the heterogeneity and plasticity of tumors. Binding to two target antigens at the same time, BsAb has been used in the clinical treatment of tumors and obtained promising outcomes. This review elaborates the research progress and applications of bispecific antibody in clinical tumor therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/therapy
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1267-1275, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878175

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has opened a new era in cancer treatment. Drugs represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors have led to important breakthroughs in the treatment of various solid tumors, greatly improving the survival rate of cancer patients. Many types of immunotherapeutic drugs have become widely available; however, their efficacy is variable, and relatively few patients with advanced cancer experience life-altering durable survival, reflecting the complex and highly regulated nature of the immune system. The research field of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) still faces many challenges in pursuing the broader social goal of "curing cancer." Increasing attention has been paid to strengthening the understanding of the molecular or cellular drivers of resistance to immunotherapy, actively exploring more effective therapeutic targets, and developing combination therapy strategies. Here, we review the key challenges that have emerged in the era of CIT and the possible solutions or development directions to overcome these difficulties, providing relevant references for basic research and the development of modified clinical treatment regimens.


Subject(s)
Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/therapy
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 383-394, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877503

ABSTRACT

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a pleura-derived malignant tumor, with a gradually increasing incidence in recent years based on domestic and foreign epidemiologic data. Most patients with MPM are diagnosed at an advanced stage due to its insidiousness and aggressiveness. The therapeutic strategies of MPM mainly include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, the immunotherapy has altered the treatment pattern and further improved the survival of these patients. In order to timely present the domestic and foreign progress in the diagnosis and treatment of MPM, and to further improve the level of standardized diagnosis and treatment in MPM in China, this guideline was formulated on the basis of existing clinical research evidence combined with experts' opinions. The guideline covers the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, treatment and follow-up of MPM.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Mesothelioma/therapy , Mesothelioma, Malignant , Pleural Neoplasms/therapy
19.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 39-59, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877497

ABSTRACT

Primary lung cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death in China, with an estimated 787 thousands incident cases and 631 thousands deaths in 2015. Due to its aggressive behavior and the absence of effective early screening methods, most patients with lung cancer in China are in stage Ⅳ when diagnosed. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone of stage Ⅳ lung cancer, but its efficacy is unsatisfactory. In recent years, with the rapid development of molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy, the treatment concept has continuously changed and survival for patients has also been greatly improved. In order to update the progress in the treatment of stage Ⅳ lung cancer worldwide timely, and further improve the level of standardized diagnosis and treatment of stage Ⅳ lung cancer in China, Chinese Association for Clinical Oncologists and Medical Oncology Branch of Chinese International Exchange and Promotion Association for Medical and Healthcare organized experts to formulate "Clinical Practice Guideline for Stage Ⅳ Primary Lung Cancer in China(2021 version)" .


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Medical Oncology , Molecular Targeted Therapy
20.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(4): 412-420, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143169

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, with about 15% of these tumours related with microsatellite instability, which confers distinct characteristics to these tumours, both clinicopathological and in the response to treatments. In fact, the poor response to chemotherapy in these tumours has led to the investigation for new treatments, with immunotherapy being the most successful one to date. The focus of this review is to assess the response of microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer to PD-1 blockade, and the mechanisms behind that response. Methods: A PubMed research was conducted, resulting in the inclusion of 47 articles in this review. Results: Microsatellite instability results in a high neoantigen load, leading to a highly active immune microenvironment of the tumour, mainly due to T-cells. To counteract this, there is an upregulation of PD-1, acting as a "brake" for immune cells, facilitating tumour growth and metastasis. This upregulation makes these tumours great candidates for treatment with PD-1 blockade, as seen in many clinical trials, where the overall responses and progression free survival rates were higher than those observed in microsatellite stable tumours. Conclusion: With the importance of colorectal cancer with microsatellite instability new treatments are necessary. Therefore, PD-1 blockade is a promising treatment for colorectal cancer with microsatellite instability, with improvement in survival rates and a better prognosis for these patients.


RESUMO Introdução: O câncer colorretal é o terceiro mais comum em todo o mundo, com cerca de 15% desses tumores relacionados com instabilidade dos microssatélites, o que confere características distintas a esses tumores, tanto clínico patológicas quanto na resposta aos tratamentos. De fato, a fraca resposta à quimioterapia nesses tumores levou à investigação de novos tratamentos, sendo a imunoterapia a mais bem sucedida até o momento. O foco desta revisão é avaliar a resposta do câncer colorretal com microssatélites instáveis ao bloqueio do PD-1 e os mecanismos por trás dessa resposta. Métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados PubMed, resultando na inclusão de 47 artigos nesta revisão. Resultados: A instabilidade de microssatélites resulta em uma alta carga de neoantígenos, levando a um microambiente imunológico altamente ativo do tumor, principalmente devido às células T. Para neutralizar isso, há uma maior expressão do PD-1, atuando como um "freio" para as células imunes, facilitando o crescimento do tumor e suas metástases. Essa expressão faz desses tumores grandes candidatos ao tratamento com bloqueio PD-1, como demonstrado em vários ensaios clínicos, onde as respostas globais e as taxas de sobrevivência livres de progressão foram maiores do que as observadas em tumores com microssatélites estáveis. Conclusão: Com a importância do câncer colorretal com instabilidade de microssatélites, novos tratamentos são necessários. Portanto, o bloqueio do PD-1 é um tratamento promissor para o câncer colorretal com instabilidade de microssatélites, com melhora nas taxas de sobrevivência e melhor prognóstico para esses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Microsatellite Instability
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