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1.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 290-297, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981266

ABSTRACT

Although the development of novel drugs has significantly improved the survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) over the past decades,the lack of effective therapeutic options for relapsed and refractory MM results in poor prognosis.The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has achieved considerable progress in relapsed and refractory MM.Nevertheless,this therapy still has limitations such as cytokine release syndrome,neurotoxicity,and off-target effects.Natural killer (NK) cells,as a critical component of the innate immune system,play an essential role in tumor immunosurveillance.Therefore,CAR-modified NK (CAR-NK) cells are put forward as a therapeutic option for MM.The available studies have suggested that multiple targets can be used as specific therapeutic targets for CAR-NK cell therapy and confirmed their antitumor effects in MM cell lines and animal models.This review summarizes the anti-tumor mechanisms,biological characteristics,and dysfunction of NK cells in the MM tumor microenvironment,as well as the basic and clinical research progress of CAR-NK cells in treating MM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Tumor Microenvironment
2.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 397-403, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981879

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate a convenient and quantitative solution to activation levels and functional characterization of CAR-T cells by inserting T cell activity-responsive promoter (TARP) nanoluciferase reporter gene system into a lentiviral plasmid containing the gene encoding the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Methods The recombinant plasmid was constructed by using whole gene synthesis and molecular cloning techniques. The lentivirus was packaged and was infected with human primary T lymphocytes. Flow cytometry was used to detected the positive rate of lentivirus-infected T cells. The functional characterization of CAR-T cells was identified by luciferase reporter gene system, Western blot, flow cytometry, and small animal live imaging techniques. Results The results of enzyme digestion identification and the plasmid sequencing showed that the recombinant plasmids were constructed, and flow cytometry displayed the normal preparation of CAR-T cells. This system could dynamically respond to the activation of CAR-T cells by luciferase reporter gene system. The functional assay in vitro confirmed that the system could reflect the exhaustion of CAR-T cells, and the small animal live imaging results demonstrated that the system can be used as a tracer of CAR-T cells in mice. Conclusion TARP nanoluciferase reporter gene system provides a more convenient, sensitive and quantitative method for evaluating CAR-T cells activation level, exhaustion phenotype and tracing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , T-Lymphocytes , Cell Line, Tumor , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods
3.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 279-286, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929636

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting CD52 (CD52 CAR-T) and validate the effect of CD52 CAR-T cells on CD52-positive leukemia. Methods: A second-generation CD52-targeting CAR bearing 4-1BB costimulatory domain was ligated into a lentiviral vector through molecular cloning. Lentivirus was prepared and packaged by 293 T cells with a four-plasmid system. Fluorescein was used to label cell surface antigens to evaluate the phenotype of CD52 CAR-T cells after infection. Flow cytometry and ELISA were used to evaluate the specific cytotoxicity of CD52 CAR-T cells to CD52-positive cell lines in vitro. Results: ①A pCDH-CD52scFv-CD8α-4-1BB-CD3ζ-GFP expressing plasmid was successfully constructed and used to transduce T cells expressing a novel CD52-targeting CAR. ②On day 6, CD52-positive T cells were almost killed by CD52-targeted CAR-T post lentivirus transduction [CD52 CAR-T (4.48 ± 4.99) %, vs Vector-T (56.58±19.8) %, P=0.011]. ③T cells transduced with the CAR targeting CD52 showed low levels of apoptosis and could be expanded long-term ex vivo. ④The CD52 CAR could promote T cell differentiation into central and effector memory T cells, whereas the proportion of T cells with a CD45RA(+) effector memory phenotype were reduced. ⑤CD52 CAR-T cells could specifically kill CD52-positive HuT78-19t cells but had no killing effect on CD52-negative MOLT4-19t cells. For CD52 CAR-T cells, the percentage of residual of HuT78-19t cells was (2.66±1.60) % at an the E:T ratio of 1∶1 for 24 h, while (56.66±5.74) % of MOLT4-19t cells survived (P<0.001) . ⑥The results of a degranulation experiment confirmed that HuT78-19t cells significantly activated CD52 CAR-T cells but not MOLT4-19t cells[ (57.34±11.25) % vs (13.06± 4.23) %, P<0.001]. ⑦CD52 CAR-T cells released more cytokines when co-cultured with HuT78-19t cells than that of vector-T cells [IFN-γ: (3706±226) pg/ml, P<0.001; TNF-α: (1732±560) pg/ml, P<0.01]. Conclusions: We successfully prepared CD52 CAR-T cells with anti-leukemia effects, which might provide the foundation for further immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , CD52 Antigen , Cell Line, Tumor , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Lentivirus/genetics , Leukemia , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics
4.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 322-338, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939882

ABSTRACT

Immune-based therapies have experienced a pronounced breakthrough in the past decades as they acquired multiple US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals for various indications. To date, six chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapies have been permitted for the treatment of certain patients with relapsed/refractory hematologic malignancies. However, several clinical trials of solid tumor CAR-T therapies were prematurely terminated, or they reported life-threatening treatment-related damages to healthy tissues. The simultaneous expression of target antigens by healthy organs and tumor cells is partly responsible for such toxicities. Alongside targeting tumor-specific antigens, targeting the aberrantly glycosylated glycoforms of tumor-associated antigens can also minimize the off-tumor effects of CAR-T therapies. Tn, T, and sialyl-Tn antigens have been reported to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis, and their expression results from the dysregulation of a series of glycosyltransferases and the endoplasmic reticulum protein chaperone, Cosmc. Moreover, these glycoforms have been associated with various types of cancers, including prostate, breast, colon, gastric, and lung cancers. Here, we discuss how underglycosylated antigens emerge and then detail the latest advances in the development of CAR-T-based immunotherapies that target some of such antigens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Antigens, Neoplasm/chemistry , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Glycosylation , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/metabolism , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , T-Lymphocytes , United States
7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(supl.1): 23-24, Oct. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829560

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure intermediate and high-risk acute myeloid leukemia. Even with the development of strategies to reduce HSCT toxicity, this is still a complex treatment with high morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of the graft versus leukemia effect of HSCT has prepared the way for the development of Adoptive Immunotherapy or in vitro expansion of activated lymphocytes without alloreactivity, with subsequent intravenous infusion. The infusion of genetically modified T lymphocytes and haploidentical natural killer cells has been tested as an alternative to HSCT with very interesting results worldwide and in Brazil, as we not only have the technology of in vitro expansion of clinical grade lymphocytes available, but also do it according to the Good Manufacturing Practices that have been determined internationally.


RESUMO O transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas (TCTH) alogênico é curativo para leucemia mielóide aguda de risco intermediário e alto. Mesmo com o desenvolvimento de estratégias para minorar a toxicidade do TCTH, este ainda é um tratamento complexo com elevada morbi-mortalidade. O conhecimento sobre o efeito enxerto contra leukemia do TCTH pavimentou o caminho para o desenvolvimento da Imunoterapia Adotiva ou expansão in vitro de linfócitos ativados, sem alo-reatividade, com posterior infusão endovenosa. A infusão de Linfócitos T geneticamente modificados e de células Natural Killer haploidenticas tem sido testada como alternativa ao TCTH com resultados bastante interessantes no mundo e no Brazil já que não apenas dominamos a tecnologia de expansão in vitro de linfócitos em grau clínico, como o fazemos segundo as Boas Práticas de Manufatura determinadas internacionalmente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Brazil , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/trends , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Graft vs Leukemia Effect
8.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 407-419, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27762

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cells (DCs) play a role in natural killer (NK) cell activation, while NK cells are also able to activate and mature DCs. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of DCs and NK cells induce the maturation and activation of these cells when engaged with their cognate ligand. We investigated to generate potent DCs by maturation with NK cells in the presence of TLR agonist in vitro and tested the efficacy of these DC vaccinations in mouse colon cancer model. The optimal ratios of DCs versus NK cells were 1:1 to 1:2. Immature DCs were mature with NK cells in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, which is TLR4 agonist, and further addition of IL-2 induced phenotypically and functionally mature bone marrow-derived DCs. These potent DCs exhibited not only high expression of several costimulatory molecules and high production of IL-12p40 and IL-12p70, but also high allogeneic T cells stimulatory capacity, and the induction of the high activities to generate tumor-specific CTLs. Consistently, vaccination with these DCs efficiently inhibited CT-26 tumor growth in mouse colon cancer model when compared to other vaccination strategies. Interestingly, combination therapy of these DC-based vaccines and with low-dose cyclophosphamide showed dramatic inhibition effects of tumor growth. These results suggest that the DCs maturated with NK cells in the presence of TLR agonist are potent inducer of antitumor immune responses in mouse model and may provide a new source of DC-based vaccines for the development of immunotherapy against colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Carcinoma/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Colonic Neoplasms/immunology , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Toll-Like Receptor 4/agonists , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists
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