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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1687-1697, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528806

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In response to the threat posed by new variants of SARS-CoV-2 and the urgent need for effective treatments in the absence of vaccines, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid and cost-effective hyperimmune serum (HS) derived from sheep and assess its efficacy. The utilization of a halal-certified, easily maintained in certain geographic regions, easy-to-handle animal such as sheep could provide a viable alternative to the expensive option of horses. Sheep were immunized with a whole inactivated SARS-CoV- 2 antigen to produce HS, which was evaluated for neutralizing potency using the PRNT50 assay. K18-hACE2 transgenic mice (n=35) were divided into three groups: control, SARS-CoV-2 exposure through inhalation, and SARS-CoV-2 exposed mice treated with HS. HS efficacy was assessed through serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, qRT-PCR analysis, histopathological examination of lungs and hearts, and transmission electron microscopy. Purified HS exhibited significant neutralizing activity (1/24,576). The SARS-CoV-2+HS group showed lower levels of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-6 (P<0.01) and relatively lower levels of MCP-1 compared to the SARS-CoV-2 group. HS prevented death, reduced viral RNA levels in the lungs and hearts, protected against severe interstitial pneumonia, preserved lung tissue integrity, and prevented myocyte damage, while the SARS-CoV-2 group exhibited viral presence in the lungs. This study successfully developed a sheep-derived HS against the entire SARS-CoV-2 virus, resulting in a significant reduction in infection severity, inflammation, and systemic cytokine production. The findings hold promise for treating severe COVID-19 cases, including emerging viral variants, and immunocompromised patients.


En respuesta a la amenaza que suponen las nuevas variantes del SARS-CoV-2 y la urgente necesidad de tratamientos eficaces en ausencia de vacunas, el objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar un suero hiperinmune (HS) rápido y rentable derivado de ovejas. y evaluar su eficacia. La utilización de un animal con certificación halal, de fácil mantenimiento en determinadas regiones geográficas y de fácil manejo, como las ovejas, podría proporcionar una alternativa viable a la costosa opción de los caballos. Las ovejas fueron inmunizadas con un antígeno de SARS-CoV-2 completamente inactivado para producir HS, cuya potencia neutralizante se evaluó mediante el ensayo PRNT50. Los ratones transgénicos K18-hACE2 (n = 35) se dividieron en tres grupos: control, exposición al SARS-CoV-2 mediante inhalación y ratones expuestos al SARS-CoV-2 tratados con HS. La eficacia de HS se evaluó mediante niveles de citoquinas proinflamatorias en suero, análisis qRT-PCR, examen histopatológico de pulmones y corazones y microscopía electrónica de transmisión. El HS purificado exhibió una actividad neutralizante significativa (1/24,576). El grupo SARS-CoV-2+HS mostró niveles más bajos de TNF-α, IL-10 e IL-6 (P<0,01) y niveles relativamente más bajos de MCP-1 en comparación con el grupo SARS-CoV-2. HS evitó la muerte, redujo los niveles de ARN viral en los pulmones y el corazón, protegió contra la neumonía intersticial grave, preservó la integridad del tejido pulmonar y evitó el daño de los miocitos, mientras que el grupo SARS-CoV-2 exhibió presencia viral en los pulmones. Este estudio desarrolló con éxito un HS derivado de ovejas contra todo el virus SARS-CoV-2, lo que resultó en una reducción significativa de la gravedad de la infección, la inflamación y la producción sistémica de citocinas. Los hallazgos son prometedores para el tratamiento de casos graves de COVID- 19, incluidas las variantes virales emergentes y los pacientes inmunocomprometidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immune Sera/administration & dosage , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/ultrastructure , Sheep , Vaccines, Inactivated , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart/drug effects , Horses , Immunotherapy/methods , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Myocardium/ultrastructure
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 692-700, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010076

ABSTRACT

With the development of medical technology, tumor vaccines as a novel precise immunotherapy approach have gradually received attention in clinical applications. Against the backdrop of the global corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, vaccine technology has further advanced. Depending on the types of antigens, tumor vaccines can be divided into whole-cell vaccines, peptide vaccines, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines, recombinant virus vaccines, etc. Although some tumor vaccines have been marketed and achieved certain therapeutic effects, the results of tumor vaccines in clinical trials have been unsatisfactory in the past period. With the maturation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and the continuous development of bioinformatics, dynamic monitoring of the entire process of tumor subpopulation development has become a reality, which has laid a solid foundation for personalized, neoantigen-centered therapeutic tumor vaccines. This article reviews the recent developments of tumor vaccines of different types, starts with lung cancer and summarizes the achievements of tumor vaccines in clinical applications, and provides an outlook for the future development of antigen-centered tumor vaccines.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Antigens, Neoplasm , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/genetics , Computational Biology , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1403-1424, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981146

ABSTRACT

Malignant tumors are diseases that seriously threaten human health and social development. Traditional tumor therapies such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy cannot fully meet the needs of clinical treatment, and emerging immunotherapy has become a research hotspot in the field of tumor treatment. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been approved as a tumor immunotherapy method for the treatment of various tumors, such as lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer and colorectal cancer, etc. However, during the clinical use of ICIs, only a small number of patients experienced durable responses, which also led to drug resistance and adverse reactions. Therefore, the identification and development of predictive biomarkers is crucial to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ICIs. The predictive biomarkers of tumor ICIs mainly include tumor biomarkers, tumor microenvironment biomarkers, circulation-related biomarkers, host environmental biomarkers and combinatorial biomarkers. They are of great significance for screening, individualized treatment and prognosis evaluation of tumor patients. This article reviews the advances of predictive markers for tumor ICIs therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms , Biomarkers , Immunotherapy/methods , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2787-2801, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007614

ABSTRACT

As one of the most malignant tumors worldwide, lung cancer, fueled by metastasis, has shown rising mortality rates. However, effective clinical strategies aimed at preventing metastasis are lacking owing to its dynamic multi-step, complicated, and progressive nature. Immunotherapy has shown promise in treating cancer metastasis by reversing the immunosuppressive network of the tumor microenvironment. However, drug resistance inevitably develops due to inadequate delivery of immunostimulants and an uncontrolled immune response. Consequently, adverse effects occur, such as autoimmunity, from the non-specific immune activation and non-specific inflammation in off-target organs. Nanocarriers that improve drug solubility, permeability, stability, bioavailability, as well as sustained, controlled, and targeted delivery can effectively overcome drug resistance and enhance the therapeutic effect while reducing adverse effects. In particular, nanomedicine-based immunotherapy can be utilized to target tumor metastasis, presenting a promising therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. Nanotechnology strategies that boost the immunotherapy effect are classified based on the metastatic cascade related to the tumor immune microenvironment; the breaking away of primary tumors, circulating tumor cell dissemination, and premetastatic niche formation cause distant secondary site colonization. In this review, we focus on the opportunities and challenges of integrating immunotherapy with nanoparticle formulation to establish nanotechnology-based immunotherapy by modulating the tumor microenvironment for preclinical and clinical applications in the management of patients with metastatic lung cancer. We also discuss prospects for the emerging field and the clinical translation potential of these techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Tumor Microenvironment , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immunotherapy/methods
5.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 585-616, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010817

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated unparalleled clinical responses and revolutionized the paradigm of tumor treatment, while substantial patients remain unresponsive or develop resistance to ICIs as a single agent, which is traceable to cellular metabolic dysfunction. Although dysregulated metabolism has long been adjudged as a hallmark of tumor, it is now increasingly accepted that metabolic reprogramming is not exclusive to tumor cells but is also characteristic of immunocytes. Correspondingly, people used to pay more attention to the effect of tumor cell metabolism on immunocytes, but in practice immunocytes interact intimately with their own metabolic function in a way that has never been realized before during their activation and differentiation, which opens up a whole new frontier called immunometabolism. The metabolic intervention for tumor-infiltrating immunocytes could offer fresh opportunities to break the resistance and ameliorate existing ICI immunotherapy, whose crux might be to ascertain synergistic combinations of metabolic intervention with ICIs to reap synergic benefits and facilitate an adjusted anti-tumor immune response. Herein, we elaborate potential mechanisms underlying immunotherapy resistance from a novel dimension of metabolic reprogramming in diverse tumor-infiltrating immunocytes, and related metabolic intervention in the hope of offering a reference for targeting metabolic vulnerabilities to circumvent immunotherapeutic resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , Immunotherapy/methods , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 291-297, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984722

ABSTRACT

In recent years, immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors programmed death 1 (PD-1) has made great progress in the treatment of esophageal cancer and is rewriting the global paradigm for the treatment of esophageal cancer. According to current data, only a small number of patients with esophageal cancer could benefit from immunotherapy. Therefore, it is a challenge to screen the potential beneficiaries of PD-1 inhibitors. Studies have shown that the expression level of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in esophageal cancer is closely associated with the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors, and PD-L1 is the most important predictive biomarker of the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors. With the clinical application of different PD-1 inhibitors and PD-L1 protein expression detection platforms, clarifying the clinical significance and timing of detection of PD-L1 protein expression in esophageal cancer, and establishing a standardized PD-L1 testing procedure, are of great significance to improve the accuracy of detection and reduce the difference between laboratories, so as to maximize the therapeutic benefits for patients. This consensus was finally reached, based on the combination of literature, expert experience, and internal discussion and voting of committee members, to provide an accurate and reliable evidence for clinicians to make decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Consensus , Esophageal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1569-1573, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010007

ABSTRACT

Although the body has a strong immune system which can resists the invasion of leukemia cells, leukemia cells disseminate systemically and form an immunosuppressive microenvironment through a variety of mechanisms, including regulation of antigen presentation, utilization of immunosuppressive enzyme AXL, immune cell inhibitory checkpoint NKG2A and immunoregulatory gene VISTA, resulting in immune escape. Therefore, most types of leukemia are inevitable for the affliction of drug resistance or relapse, and the immune efficacy is not as significant as that of other hematological tumors and the prognosis is suboptimal. This article reviews the immune heterogeneity of leukemia microenvironment from many aspects, including anti-leukemia immunity and immune escape. In addition, it also reviews the latest progress and future prospects of immune checkpoint inhibition, adoptive cell therapy and vaccine therapy in leukemia, providing a theoretical basis for the development of personalized combination therapy strategies with less toxic side effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Leukemia/therapy , Immunity , Combined Modality Therapy , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4981-4992, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008668

ABSTRACT

This study constructed a nano-drug delivery system, A3@GMH, by co-delivering the stapled anoplin peptide(Ano-3, A3) with the light-harvesting material graphene oxide(GO), and evaluated its oncolytic immunotherapy effect on triple-negative breast cancer(TNBC). A3@GMH was prepared using an emulsion template method and its physicochemical properties were characterized. The in vivo and in vitro photothermal conversion abilities of A3@GMH were investigated using an infrared thermal imager. The oncoly-tic activity of A3@GMH against TNBC 4T1 cells was evaluated through cell counting kit-8(CCK-8), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) release, live/dead cell staining, and super-resolution microscopy. The targeting properties of A3@GMH on 4T1 cells were assessed using a high-content imaging system and flow cytometry. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to investigate the antitumor mechanism of A3@GMH in combination with photothermal therapy(PTT) through inducing immunogenic cell death(ICD) in 4T1 cells. The results showed that the prepared A3@GMH exhibited distinct mesoporous and coated structures with an average particle size of(308.9±7.5) nm and a surface potential of(-6.79±0.58) mV. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of A3 were 23.9%±0.6% and 20.5%±0.5%, respectively. A3@GMH demonstrated excellent photothermal conversion ability and biological safety. A3@GMH actively mediated oncolytic features such as 4T1 cell lysis and LDH release, as well as ICD effects, and showed enhanced in vitro antitumor activity when combined with PTT. In vivo, A3@GMH efficiently induced ICD effects with two rounds of PTT, activated the host's antitumor immune response, and effectively suppressed tumor growth in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, achieving an 88.9% tumor inhibition rate with no apparent toxic side effects. This study suggests that the combination of stapled anoplin peptide and PTT significantly enhances the oncolytic immunotherapy for TNBC and provides a basis for the innovative application of anti-tumor peptides derived from TCM in TNBC treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Photothermal Therapy , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Immunotherapy/methods , Cell Line, Tumor , Phototherapy/methods , Nanoparticles/chemistry
9.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 102-106, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971238

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) significantly reduce the risk of recurrence and metastasis and prolong survival in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), but drug resistance is often inevitable. Immunotherapy has been proven effective in multiple solid tumors, but the efficacy in GIST is unclear. The efficacy of immunotherapy depends on the tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor-infiltrating immune cells and immune checkpoints are important components of TME, which not only participate in the regulation of tumor immune response but are also the key target of immunotherapy. A comprehensive analysis of them can clarify the mechanism of tumor immune escape. This review found that there are abundant tumor-infiltrating immune cells in GIST, which play an important role in tumor immune surveillance and escape. Although early clinical studies have shown that patients with GIST have a good tolerance to immunotherapy, the curative effect is not satisfactory. Therefore, how to select the responders of immunotherapy and coordinate the relationship between immunotherapy and TKIs is the key issue to be explored. At the same time, the gradual deepening of basic research and large sample prospective clinical trials will certainly provide more strategies for the application of immunotherapy in GIST.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Immunotherapy/methods , Tumor Microenvironment , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
10.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 58-67, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971234

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy has been one of the hot topics in the field of colorectal cancer research in recent years. Patients with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) are the main beneficiaries of immunotherapy. The response rate of patients with dMMR/MSI-H colorectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant immunotherapy is nearly 100%, of which the pathological complete response rate approximately accounts for 60%-67%. The prospect of neoadjuvant immunotherapy in dMMR or MSI-H colorectal cancer patients, especially in the rectal cancer patients, lies in achieving sustainable clinical complete response so as to achieve organ preservation and avoid adverse effects on reproductive, sexual, bowel and bladder function after surgery and radiotherapy. Studies have shown that part of the colorectal cancer patients of microsatellite stability (MSS) or mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) can respond to neoadjuvant immunotherapy in combination with other treatment methods such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In pMMR or MSS colorectal cancer, optimizing neoadjuvant immunotherapy regimens and finding effective efficacy prediction biomarkers are important research directions. In neoadjuvant immunotherapy, overcoming primary and secondary resistance and identifying the pseudoprogression and hyperprogression of neoadjuvant immunotherapy are clinical challenges that require attention. This paper comprehensively reviews the research progress, controversies,challenges and future research directions of neoadjuvant immunotherapy (mainly immune checkpoint inhibitors) in colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Immunotherapy/methods , DNA Mismatch Repair , Microsatellite Instability
11.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 698-704, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the impact of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on clinical outcomes of patients receiving anti-PD-1 immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.@*METHODS@#We conducted a retrospective study among 215 patients with primary liver cancer receiving immunotherapy between June, 2018 and October, 2020. The patients with balanced baseline characteristics were selected based on propensity matching scores, and among them 33 patients who used NSAIDs were matched at the ratio of 1∶3 with 78 patients who did not use NSAIDs. We compared the overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease control rate (DCR) between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in OS between the patients using NSAIDs (29.7%) and those who did not use NSAIDs (70.2%). Univariate and multivariate analyses did not show an a correlation of NSAIDs use with DCR (univariate analysis: OR=0.602, 95% CI: 0.299-1.213, P=0.156; multivariate analysis: OR=0.693, 95% CI: 0.330-1.458, P=0.334), PFS (univariate analysis: HR=1.230, 95% CI: 0.789-1.916, P=0.361; multivariate analysis: HR=1.151, 95% CI: 0.732-1.810, P=9.544), or OS (univariate analysis: HR=0.552, 95% CI: 0.208-1.463, P=0.232; multivariate analysis: HR=1.085, 95% CI: 0.685-1.717, P=0.729).@*CONCLUSION@#Our results show no favorable effect of NSAIDs on the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with advanced primary liver cancer, but this finding still needs to be verified by future prospective studies of large cohorts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
12.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 199-204, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936065

ABSTRACT

Microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancer accounts for approximately 10%-15% of all colorectal cancer patients, while in metastatic diseases the MSI-H population accounts for only 5% of patients. Previous studies have shown that early-stage MSI-H colorectal cancer patients have a good prognosis, but those with advanced disease have a poor prognosis and are not sensitive to chemotherapy. The advent of PD-1 antibodies has significantly improved the prognosis and changed treatment landscape in this population, not only achieving good outcomes in late-line therapy, but also significantly outperforming traditional chemotherapy combined with targeted therapy in first-line therapy. How to overcome primary and secondary drug resistance is a key issue in improving the outcome of MSI-H metastatic colorectal cancer, and commonly used approaches include changing chemotherapy regimens, combining with other immunotherapies, combining with anti-angiogenesis, and local treatments (surgery, radiotherapy, or interventional therapy). It is worth noting that immunotherapy has certain lifelong or even lethal toxicity, and the indications for neoadjuvant immunotherapy must be evaluated with caution. Neoadjuvant immunotherapy in MSI-H advantaged population can achieve high rates of pathological complete remission (pCR) and clinical complete remission (cCR). Therefore, for MSI-H patients with a strong intention to preserve anal sphincter and a strict evaluation of cCR after neoadjuvant immunotherapy, the Watch-and-Wait strategy offers an opportunity to preserve sphincter function and improve long-term survival quality in a subset of mid-to-low rectal cancers. Research on adjuvant immunotherapy in the field of colorectal cancer is also in full swing, and the results are worth waiting for.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Microsatellite Instability , Microsatellite Repeats
13.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 291-296, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935689

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the factors affecting the efficacy of mite subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in allergic asthma patients aged 5-18 years, and to find the best predictive model for the curative effect. Methods: The data of 688 patients aged 5-18 years with allergic asthma who completed more than 3 years of mite SCIT from December 2006 to November 2021 in the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University were retrospectively analyzed. Male, results of skin prick test (SPT), age, daily medication score (DMS), visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and enrollment season were defined as independent variables. R language models, including Logistic regression model, random forest model and extreme gradient boosting (XGboost) model, were used to analyze the impact of these independent variables on the outcomes. The receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to compare the predictive ability of the models. Hypothesis testing of the area under curve (AUC) of the 3 models was performed using DeLong test. Results: There were 435 males and 253 females in the 688 patients. There were 349 patients aged 5-<8 years, 240 patients aged 8-<11 years, and 99 patients aged 11-18 years. SPT showed that 429 cases (62.4%) were only allergic to mite, and 259 cases (37.7%) were also allergic to other allergens. According to the efficacy after 3 years of SCIT, 351 cases (51.0%) discontinued the treatment and 337 cases (49.0%) required continued treatment. The DMS was 4 (3, 6) at initiation, 3 (2, 5) at 3 months, 3 (2, 5) at 4 months, 2 (1, 3) at 12 months, and 0 (0, 1) at 3 years of SCIT treatment. The VAS was 3.5 (2.5, 5.2) at initiation, 3.2 (2.2, 4.8) at 3 months, 2.6 (1.4, 4.1) at 4 months, 1.0 (0.6, 1.8) at 12 months, and 0.5 (0, 1.2) at 3 years of treatment. At 3, 4, and 12 months, the rate of decline in DMS was 0 (0, 20%), 16.7% (0, 33.3%), and 50.0% (31.0%, 75.0%), respectively; and the VAS decreased by 7.1% (3.2%,13.8%), 27.6% (16.7%,44.4%), and 70.2% (56.1%, 82.3%), respectively. Regarding the enrollment season, 99 cases were in spring, 230 cases in summer, 171 cases in autumn, and 188 cases in winter. The R language Logistic regression model found that DMS>3 points at 3 months (OR=-3.5, 95%CI:-4.3--2.7, P<0.01), male (OR=-1.7, 95%CI:-2.3--1.0), P<0.01), DMS decline rate>16.7% at 4 months (OR=-1.6, 95%CI:-2.3--0.8, P<0.01) and DMS decline rate>0 at 3 months (OR=-0.7, 95%CI:-1.3--0.2, P<0.05) had higher possibility of drug discontinuation; whereas, the decline rate of DMS at 12 months>50.0% (OR=0.7, 95%CI: 0.1-1.3, P<0.05), VAS at 12 months>1.0 points (OR=0.9, 95%CI: 0.3-1.6, P<0.05), and initial VAS<4.0 points (OR=1.0, 95%CI: 0.4-1.6, P<0.01) had lower possibility of drug discontinuation. Both the random forest model and the XGboost model showed that DMS>3 points at 3 months (mean decrease accuracy=30.9, importance=0.45) had the greatest impact on drug discontinuation. The AUC of the random forest model was the largest at 0.900, with an accuracy of 78.2% and a sensitivity of 84.5%. Logistic regression model had AUC of 0.891, accuracy of 80.0%, and sensitivity of 80.0%; XGboost model had AUC of 0.886, accuracy of 76.9%, and sensitivity of 84.5%. The AUC of the pairwise comparison model by DeLong test found that all three models could be used for the prediction of this data set (all P>0.05). Conclusions: The more drugs used to control the primary disease, and the more careful reduction of the control medicine after starting SCIT treatment, the more favorable it is to stop all drugs after 3 years. The random forest model is the best predictive model for the efficacy of mite SCIT in asthmatic children.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Allergens , Asthma/therapy , Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Injections, Subcutaneous , Mites , Retrospective Studies
14.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 524-533, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939742

ABSTRACT

Neoadjuvant immunotherapy, including neoadjuvant single- or dual-drug immunotherapy or combined immunotherapy with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, has witnessed a rapid development in non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials exhibited the encouraging pathological responses and certain clinical benefits in selected patients, with tolerable toxicity. Nivolumab with chemotherapy has been approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first immunotherapy-based treatment for non-small cell lung cancer in the neoadjuvant treatment setting. There is the need for further evaluation of long-term efficacy, side effects or surgical issues for neoadjuvant immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Nivolumab/therapeutic use
15.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 425-433, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939727

ABSTRACT

Small cell lung cancer is a kind of malignant tumor with strong invasiveness and poor prognosis, and the classic therapeutic modality of the disease remains multidisciplinary and comprehensive treatment. Treatment options for small cell lung cancer have been stalled for a long time, and new opportunities have emerged in recent years due to the development and initial experience of immunotherapeutic drugs. Clinical trials of some selected immune checkpoint inhibitors have confirmed the efficacy and safety in small cell lung cancer. Based on the results of phase III clinical trials (Impower133 and CASPIAN), Atezolizumab or Durvalumab in combination with chemotherapy has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the first-line treatment of extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials involving immune checkpoint inhibitors are being actively carried out and provide different perspectives for the management of small cell lung cancer. This article aimed to review the clinical progress in immunotherapy of small cell lung cancer.
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Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/pathology
16.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 8-8, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929138

ABSTRACT

The heterogeneity of exhausted T cells (Tex) is a critical determinant of immune checkpoint blockade therapy efficacy. However, few studies have explored exhausted T cell subpopulations in human cancers. In the present study, we examined samples from two cohorts of 175 patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) by multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) to investigate two subsets of Tex, CD8+PD1+TCF1+ progenitor exhausted T cells (TCF1+Texprog) and CD8+PD1+TCF1- terminally exhausted T cells (TCF1-Texterm). Moreover, fresh tumor samples from 34 patients with HNSCC were examined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to further investigate their properties and cytotoxic capabilities and their correlation with regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). mIHC and flow cytometry analysis showed that TCF1-Texterm represented a greater proportion of CD8+PD1+Tex than TCF1+Texprog in most patients. TCF1+Texprog produced abundant TNFα, while TCF1-Texterm expressed higher levels of CD103, TIM-3, CTLA-4, and TIGIT. TCF1-Texterm exhibited a polyfunctional TNFα+GZMB+IFNγ+ phenotype; and were associated with better overall survival and recurrence-free survival. The results also indicated that larger proportions of TCF1-Texterm were accompanied by an increase in the proportion of Tregs. Therefore, it was concluded that TCF1-Texterm was the major CD8+PD1+Tex subset in the HNSCC TIME and that these cells favor patient survival. A high proportion of TCF1-Texterm was associated with greater Treg abundance.


Subject(s)
Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Prognosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/therapy , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
17.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 323-336, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The advances in the lung cancer screening methods and therapeutics, together with awareness towards deleterious habits, such as smoking, is increasing the overall survival with better quality of life for the patients. However, lung cancer is still one of the most common and fatal neoplasm with a high incidence and consequently burden to public health worldwide. Thus, based on guidelines and recent phases II and III clinical trials studies, this manuscript summarizes the current treatment sequencing strategies in lung cancer.@*METHODS@#A comprehensive search of related articles was performed focused on phases II and III clinical trials studies.@*RESULTS@#The lung cancer management should take into consideration the tumor characteristics, histology, molecular pathology and be discussed in a multidisciplinary team. Lung cancer treatment options comprises surgery whenever possible, radiotherapy associate with/or chemotherapy and immunotherapy as monotherapy, or combined with chemotherapy and best palliative care.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The screening predictability in more patients, smoking reduction, early diagnosis, better disease understanding and individualized, more effective and tolerable therapeutics are related to an increasing in overall survival and quality of life. In the near future improvement of personalized therapy in precision medicine is expected, enhancing new predictive biomarkers, optimal doses and optimal treatment sequencing as well as anti-cancer vaccines development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Early Detection of Cancer , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Quality of Life
18.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 92-101, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928785

ABSTRACT

The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has dramatically changed the therapeutic outlook for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Preoperative neoadjuvant immunotherapy has been paid more and more attention as an effective and safe treatment. Neoadjuvant immune therapy, however, the relevant research started late, relatively few research results and mainly focused on the small sample size of phase I and II studies, treatment itself exists many places it is not clear, also in benefit population screening, the respect such as the choice of treatment and curative effect prediction has not yet reached broad consensus. This paper reviews the important studies and recent achievements related to neoadjuvant immunotherapy, aiming to comprehensively discuss the procedures and existing problems of this kind of therapy from three aspects of beneficiary groups, treatment cycle and efficacy prediction.
.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy
19.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32210, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425697

ABSTRACT

As células CAR-T são linfócitos geneticamente modificados para reconhecerem um espectro amplo de antígenos de superfície celulares. Além disso, atacam células tumorais malignas, que expressam esses antígenos, por meio da ativação da coestimulação citoplasmática, secreção de citocinas, citólise de células tumorais e proliferação de células T. O objetivo desse estudo é abordar a imunoterapia com células CAR-T, a fim de explicar seu conceito, processo de fabricação e papel no tratamento de neoplasias hematológicas e tumores sólidos. Foi realizada uma revisão através do portal PubMed, utilizando como descritores: "car-t cell therapy" e "neoplasms", determinados com base nos "Descritores em Ciências da Saúde". Foram obtidos, inicialmente, 10 artigos, os quais foram lidos integralmente para a confecção dessa revisão. Além disso, foram adicionados 3 ensaios clínicos atualizados sobre o tema. Na terapia com células CAR-T, as células T são coletadas do paciente, geneticamente modificadas para incluir receptores de antígeno específicos e, posteriormente, expandidas em laboratórios e transfundidas de volta para o paciente. Assim, esses receptores podem reconhecer células tumorais que expressam um antígeno associado a um tumor. A terapia com células CAR-T é mais conhecida por seu papel no tratamento de malignidades hematológicas de células B, sendo a proteína CD19 o alvo antigênico mais bem estudado até o momento. Entretanto, estudos estão sendo feitos para verificar a eficácia desse tratamento, também, em tumores sólidos. Portanto, apesar de inicialmente ser indicada apenas para um grupo seleto de pessoas, essa terapia tem demonstrado grande potencial para atuar em um espectro maior de pacientes.


The CAR-T cells are lymphocytes genetically modified to recognize a broader spectrum of cell surface antigens. In addition, they attack malignant tumor cells, which express these antigens, by activating cytoplasmic co-stimulation, cytokine secretion, tumor cell cytolysis and T cell proliferation. The aim of this study is to address immunotherapy with CAR-T cells, in order to explain its concept, manufacturing process and role in the treatment of hematological neoplasms and solid tumors. This is a literature review conducted through the PubMed portal, that uses the terms "car-t cell therapy" and "neoplasms" as descriptors, determined based on the DeCS (Descritores em Ciências da Saúde). To prepare this review, initially 10 articles were found and read in full. In addition, 3 updated clinical trials on the subject were added. For CAR-T cell therapy, T cells are collected from the patient, genetically modified to include specific antigen receptors, and later expanded in laboratories and transfused back to the patient. Thus, these receptors can recognize tumor cells that express a tumor-associated antigen. CAR-T cell therapy is best known for its role in the treatment of B cell hematological malignancies, with the CD19 protein being the most studied antigenic target to date. However, studies are being conducted to verify the effectiveness of this treatment, also, in solid tumors. Therefore, despite being formulated only for a selected group of patients, this therapy has great potential to act on a broader spectrum of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Hematologic Neoplasms , Cellular Reprogramming , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Receptors, Antigen , Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator Ligand , Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Antigens/immunology , Neoplasms
20.
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(1): 8-16, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289739

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1), play key roles in the suppression of the cytotoxic activity of T cells. PD-L1 is overexpressed on various types of cancer cells, leading to immune evasion. In the past decade, therapeutic antibodies that target the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have been developed to inhibit the immune suppression triggered by these two proteins. At present, five antibodies (two anti-PD-1 and three anti-PD-L1) have received approval by regulatory agencies in the US and Europe. In this work, we aimed to review their clinical applications and adverse effects. Furthermore, using their reported crystal structures, we discuss the similarities and differences between the PD-1/PD-L1 interface and the epitopes that are recognized by the antibodies. Detailed analyses of the contact residues involved in the ligand-receptor and target-antibody interactions have shown partial overlap. Altogether, the data presented here demonstrate that: (1) in contrast to other therapeutic antibodies, anti-PD-1/PD-L1 has a wide range of clinical applications; (2) these targeted therapies are not exempt from adverse effects; and (3) the characterization of the structural domains that are recognized by the antibodies can guide the development of new PD-1- and PD-L1-blocking agents. (REV INVEST CLIN. 2021;73(1):8-16)


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , Immunotherapy/methods , Antibodies/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/therapy
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