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1.
Coluna/Columna ; 20(3): 156-160, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339745

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Evaluate and compare the mechanical resistance and the fatigue behavior associated with the use of three different modalities of vertebral fixation system rod connectors through in vitro pre-clinical mechanical tests developed specifically for this application (linear, lateral with square connector and lateral with oblique connector). Methods Cobalt chromium rods 5.5 mm in diameter were used and coupled with three types of connectors: a) side rod with oblique connector, b) side rod with square connector, and c) rod and linear connectors. Quasi-static mechanical four-point bending and fatigue tests were performed. The variables measured were (I) the bending moment at the yield limit, (II) the displacement at the yield limit, (III) the rigidity of the system in flexion and (IV) the number of cycles until system failure. Results The linear system presented the greatest force and the greatest moment at the yield limit, as well as the greatest stiffness equivalent to bending. All specimens with square and oblique connectors endured 2.5 million cycles in the minimum and maximum conditions of applied moment. The specimens with linear connector endured 2.5 million cycles with fractions of 40.14% of the bending moment at the yield limit, but failed with levels of 60.17% and 80.27%. Conclusions Systems with linear connectors showed greater mechanical resistance when compared to systems with square and oblique connectors. All systems supported cyclic loads that mimic in vivo demands. Level of evidence V; In vitro research.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar e comparar a resistência mecânica e o comportamento em fadiga associados ao uso de três modalidades distintas de conectores de hastes do sistema de fixação vertebral por meio de ensaios mecânicos pré-clínicos in vitro desenvolvidos especificamente para essa aplicação (linear, lateral com conector quadrado e lateral com conector oblíquo). Métodos Foram usadas hastes de Cromo-cobalto de 5,5 mm de diâmetro acopladas a três modalidades de conectores: a) haste lateral com conector oblíquo, b) haste lateral com conector quadrado e c) haste e conector lineares. Foram realizados ensaios mecânicos quase-estáticos e de fadiga sob flexão em quatro pontos. As variáveis medidas foram (I) o momento fletor no limite de escoamento, (II) o deslocamento no limite de escoamento e (III) a rigidez do sistema em flexão e (IV) número de ciclos até a falha do sistema. Resultados O sistema linear apresentou a maior força e o maior momento no limite de escoamento, bem como maior rigidez equivalente à flexão. Todos os corpos de prova com conectores quadrados e oblíquos suportaram 2,5 milhões de ciclos nas condições mínimas e máximas de momento aplicado. Os corpos de prova com conector linear suportaram 2,5 milhões de ciclos com frações de 40,14% do momento fletor no limite do escoamento, porém falharam com níveis de 60,17% e 80,27%. Conclusões Os sistemas com conectores lineares apresentaram maior resistência mecânica quando comparados aos sistemas com conectores quadrados e oblíquos. Todos os sistemas suportaram carregamentos cíclicos que mimetizam as solicitações in vivo. Nível de evidencia V; Pesquisa in vitro.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar y comparar la resistencia mecánica y el comportamiento de fatiga asociado al uso de tres modalidades distintas de conectores de varilla del sistema de fijación vertebral a través de ensayos mecánicos preclínicos in vitro desarrollados específicamente para esta aplicación (lineal, lateral con conector cuadrado y lateral con conector oblicuo). Métodos Se utilizaron varillas de cromo-cobalto de 5,5 mm de diámetro acopladas a tres tipos de conectores: a) varilla lateral con conector oblicuo, b) varilla lateral con conector cuadrado y c) varilla y conector lineales. Se realizaron ensayos mecánicos y de fatiga cuasi-estáticos y ensayos por flexión de cuatro puntos. Las variables medidas fueron (I) el momento flector en el límite elástico, (II) el desplazamiento en el límite elástico y (III) la rigidez del sistema en flexión y (IV) el número de ciclos hasta la falla del sistema. Resultados El sistema lineal presentó la mayor fuerza y el mayor momento en el límite elástico, así como la mayor rigidez equivalente a la flexión. Todas las probetas con conectores cuadrados y oblicuos soportaron 2,5 millones de ciclos en las condiciones mínimas y máximas de momento aplicado. Las probetas con conector lineal soportaron 2,5 millones de ciclos con fracciones del 40,14% del momento flector en el límite elástico, pero fallaron con niveles de 60,17% y 80,27%. Conclusiones Los sistemas con conectores lineales mostraron mayor resistencia mecánica en comparación con los sistemas con conectores cuadrados y oblicuos. Todos los sistemas admitían cargas cíclicas que imitan las solicitudes in vivo. Nivel de Evidencia V; Investigación in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Fusion , Implants, Experimental , Arthrodesis , Essay
2.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170470, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954503

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hypothesis of this study was that the peri-implant bone healing of the group of pinealectomized rats would differ from the control group. The samples were subjected to immunohistochemical, microtomographic (total porosity and connectivity density), and fluorochrome (mineralized surface) analyses. Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the cellular changes and bone remodeling dynamics along the bone/implant interface in pinealectomized rats. Material and Methods The total of 18 adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) was divided into three groups (n=6): control (CO), pinealectomized without melatonin (PNX) and pinealectomized with melatonin (PNXm). All animals were submitted to the first surgery (pinealectomy), except the CO group. Thirty days after the pinealectomy without melatonin, the second surgery was conducted, in which all animals received an implant in each tibia (36 titanium implants with surface treatment were installed - Implalife® São Paulo, SP, Brazil). By gavage, the rats of the PNX group received the vehicle solution, and the procedure. Results Immunohistochemical analysis for runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OP) and osteocalcin (OC) showed that the bone repair process in the PNXm group was similar to that of the CO group, whereas the PNX group showed a delay. The microtomographic parameters of total porosity [Po(tot)] and bone surface (BS) showed no statistically significant differences, whereas for the connective density (Conn.Dn) a statistical difference was found between the CO and PNXm groups. Fluorochrome analysis of the active mineralized surface showed statistically significant difference between the CO and PNX and between the CO and PNXm groups. Conclusion The absence of the pineal gland impaired the bone repair process during osseointegration, however the daily melatonin replacement was able to restore this response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pineal Gland/surgery , Osseointegration/drug effects , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Bone-Implant Interface , Melatonin/pharmacology , Tibia/drug effects , Tibia/injuries , Tibia/pathology , Titanium , Immunohistochemistry , Osteocalcin/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Implants, Experimental , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/analysis , Osteopontin/analysis , X-Ray Microtomography , Fluorescent Dyes
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772309

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to examine the effect of low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) loading, and anti-osteoporosis medications such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bisphosphonates on peri-implant bone healing in an osteoporosis model, and to assess their combined effects on these processes. Thirteen-week-old ovariectomized rats (n = 44) were divided into three groups: PTH, alendronate, and saline. After 3 weeks of drug administration, titanium implants were inserted into the tibiae. Each group was subdivided into two groups: with or without LMHF loading via whole-body vibration (50 Hz at 0.5 g, 15 min per day, 5 days per week). Rats were killed 4 weeks following implantation. Removal torque test, micro-CT analyses (relative gray (RG) value, water = 0, and implant = 100), and histomorphometric analyses (bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and peri-implant bone formation (bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV))) were performed. Removal torque values and BIC were significantly differed by loading and drug administration (ANOVA). Post hoc analysis showed that PTH-treated groups were significantly higher than the other drug-treated groups. BV/TV was significantly enhanced by PTH administration. In cortical bone, RG values were significantly increased by loading. In trabecular bone, however, RG values were significantly increased by PTH administration. These findings suggest that LMHF loading and PTH can act locally and additively on the bone healing process, improving the condition of implant osseointegration.


Subject(s)
Alendronate , Pharmacology , Animals , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Methods , Dental Implants , Female , Implants, Experimental , Osseointegration , Ovariectomy , Parathyroid Hormone , Pharmacology , Rats , Tibia , General Surgery , Vibration , Wound Healing
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772304

ABSTRACT

Microarc oxidation (MAO) has become a promising technique for the surface modification of implants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to further quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the osteointegration abilities of MAO-treated and smooth surface (SF) implants in vivo and to investigate the areas in which the superiority of MAO-treated implants are displayed. In a rabbit model, a comprehensive histomorphological, osteogenic, mineralizational, and integrative assessment was performed using light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and radiographic analyses. Compared with the SF groups, the MAO-treated groups exhibited more active contact osteogenesis, as well as distant osteogenesis, under fluorescence examination, the mineral apposition rate was found to be greater for all of the MAO-treated implants, and the osteointegration index (OI) value was greater in the MAO-treated groups at different times. In conclusion, the calcium-rich amorphous layer created by MAO provided a better environment for osteointegration, with more active contact osteogenesis, a more rapid mineral apposition rate and greater OI values.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bone-Implant Interface , Physiology , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Methods , Dental Implants , Femur , General Surgery , Implants, Experimental , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Models, Animal , Osseointegration , Physiology , Oxidation-Reduction , Rabbits , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties , Titanium
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 42-52, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841161

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sodium alendronate is a bisphosphonate drug that exerts antiresorptive action and is used to treat osteoporosis. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone repair process at the bone/implant interface of osteoporotic rats treated with sodium alendronate through the analysis of microtomography, real time polymerase chain reactions and immunohistochemistry (RUNX2 protein, bone sialoprotein (BSP), alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin). Material and Methods A total of 42 rats were used and divided in to the following experimental groups: CTL: control group (rats submitted to fictitious surgery and fed with a balanced diet), OST: osteoporosis group (rats submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy and fed with a low calcium diet) and ALE: alendronate group (rats submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy, fed with a low calcium diet and treated with sodium alendronate). A surface treated implant was installed in both tibial metaphyses of each rat. Euthanasia of the animals was conducted at 14 (immunhostochemistry) and 42 days (immunohistochemistry, micro CT and PCR). Data were subjected to statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. Results Bone volume (BV) and total pore volume were higher for ALE group (P<0.05). Molecular data for RUNX2 and BSP proteins were significantly expressed in the ALE group (P<0.05), in comparison with the other groups. ALP expression was higher in the CTL group (P<0.05). The immunostaining for RUNX2 and osteopontin was positive in the osteoblastic lineage cells of neoformed bone for the CTL and ALE groups in both periods (14 and 42 days). Alkaline phosphatase presented a lower staining area in the OST group compared to the CTL in both periods and the ALE at 42 days. Conclusion There was a decrease of osteocalcin precipitation at 42 days for the ALE and OST groups. Therefore, treatment with short-term sodium alendronate improved bone repair around the implants installed in the tibia of osteoporotic rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Dental Implants , Osseointegration/drug effects , Alendronate/pharmacology , Bone Density Conservation Agents/pharmacology , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteoporosis/physiopathology , Tibia/surgery , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Bone Density/drug effects , Osteocalcin/analysis , Osteocalcin/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Implants, Experimental , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Alkaline Phosphatase/analysis , Alkaline Phosphatase/drug effects , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/analysis , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/drug effects , Osteopontin/analysis , Osteopontin/drug effects , X-Ray Microtomography , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
6.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(4): 325-331, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-792600

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Artificial bone has been employed to reconstruct bone defects. However, only few reports on implant placement after block bone grafting exist. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of dental implant in bone reconstructions with interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA). Material and Methods The IP-CHA cylinders (D; 4.3 mm, H; 10.0 mm) were placed into bone sockets in each side of the femurs of four male dogs. The IP-CHA on the right side was a 24-week sample. Twelve weeks after placement, a titanium implant was placed into a socket that was prepared in half of the placed IP-CHA cylinder on the right side. On the left side, another IP-CHA cylinder was placed as a 12-week sample. After another 12 weeks, the samples were harvested, and the bone regeneration and bone-implant contact (BIC) ratios were measured. Results New bone formation area was superior in the 24-week IP-CHA compared with the 12-week IP-CHA. BIC was not significantly different between IP-CHA and the parent sites. Osseointegration was detected around the implant in IP-CHA-reconstructed bone. Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that IP-CHA may be a suitable bone graft material for reconstructing bones that require implant placement.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dogs , Osseointegration/drug effects , Bone Transplantation/methods , Durapatite/pharmacology , Bone Substitutes/pharmacology , Dental Implantation, Endosseous/methods , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Titanium/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Prosthesis Design , Implants, Experimental , Femur/surgery
7.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 74(5): 279-283, set.-out. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757460

ABSTRACT

Purpose:To compare by optical microscopy, tissue reaction caused by the Alloplant ™ to conjunctiva and backs of 24 rabbits.Methods:All rabbits underwent implantation of Alloplant ™ on the inner third of the lower eyelid, replacing the tarsal conjunctiva of one eye. After thirty days six rabbits (Group I) were sacrificed and lower eyelids of both sides and a back fragment (control) routed to optical microscopy. After sixty days six rabbits (group II) were sacrificed and their eyelids and a back fragment (control) sent for microscopic examination. That day were also performed surgical implantation of Alloplant ™ on the back of the twelve remaining rabbits. They were sacrificed ninety days (group III) and one hundred and twenty days (group IV) after the first surgery of the eyelids and microscopic study backs.Results:The “Alloplant™” (aloimplante), caused an intense inflammatory reaction, mixed exudative and proliferative with a predominance of lymphocytes, macrophages and formation of foreign body granulomas in both locations, which evolved with the replacement of the implant by dense fibrous connective tissue.Conclusion:eyelid inflammatory reaction was more intense and more prolonged in the eyelid than in the back. In the back the formation of fibrosis was more intense, what is not suitable for eyelid surgery.


Objetivo:Analisar comparativamente através da microscopia óptica, a reação tecidual causada pelo Alloplant Ô na conjuntiva e dorso de 24 coelhos.Métodos:Todos os coelhos foram submetidos a implantação do AlloplantÔ no terço interno da pálpebra inferior, em substituição à conjuntiva tarsal de um dos olhos. Após trinta dias seis coelhos (grupo I) foram sacrificados e as pálpebras inferiores dos dois lados e um fragmento do dorso (controle) foram encaminhados para a microscopia óptica. Após sessenta dias foram sacrificados mais seis coelhos (grupo II) e suas pálpebras um fragmento do dorso (controle) foram encaminhados para estudo microscópico. Nesse dia também foram realizadas implantações cirúrgicas do aloimplanteÔ no dorso dos doze coelhos restantes, os quais foram sacrificados noventa (grupo III) e cento e vinte (grupo IV) dias após a primeira cirurgia para estudo microscópico das pálpebras e dorsos.Resultados:O “Alloplant Ԕ (aloimplante), causou intensa reação inflamatória mista exsudativa e proliferativa com predominância de linfócitos, macrófagos e formação de granulomas de corpo estranho nas duas localizações, que evoluiu com a substituição do implante por tecido conjuntivo fibroso denso.Conclusão:na pálpebra a reação inflamatória foi mais intensa e mais prolongada do que no dorso e no dorso a formação de fibrose foi mais intensa, mostrando inadequação ao uso cirúrgico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Back/anatomy & histology , Back/surgery , Implants, Experimental , Microscopy , Eyelids/anatomy & histology , Eyelids/surgery , Evaluation Studies as Topic
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(9): 598-603, Sep. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761494

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE:To compare chronic physical stressed with normal tense animals regarding implant osseointegration in the rat mandible.METHODS:Thirty six Wistar rats were anesthesiaded and blunt instruments were used to expose and empty their alveolar inferior nerve. One implant (2.2 x 4mm) was installed into the mandibular canal. Following 72 hours, all rats were equally divided in: Control Group analyzed in 18 days (CG18); Control Group analyzed in 33 days (CG33); Stressed Group with stress during 18 days (SG18) and Stressed Group with stress during 33 days (SG33) - The animals from Stressed Groups (CG 18 and CG33) were placed individually in plastic pipes (PVC) during 12 hours daily to physical restraint. Histomorphometric analysis included bone-implant-contact (BIC) and bone area (BA).RESULTS: In relation to BIC - CG18 (49.8+20.3); SG18 (29.0+16.5) - and BA - CG18 (50.13+21.2); SG18 (23.8+7.8)-, there was a bone repair delayed in SG18 when compared with CG18 (p<0.05). After 33 days, BIC - CG33 (59.6+26.8); SG33 (49.52+17.3)- and BA - CG33 (41.90+17.4); SG33 (43.91+14.7)- showed no difference between groups (p>0.05).CONCLUSION: Chronic physical stress interfere with the initial stage of osseointegration in the rat mandible, but not the final process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dental Implantation, Endosseous/methods , Implants, Experimental , Mandible/surgery , Osseointegration/physiology , Stress, Physiological , Body Weight , Disease Models, Animal , Hydrocortisone/blood , Mandible/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Surface Properties , Time Factors
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(4): 255-263, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744282

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the biocompatibility and osteogenesis of castor oil polymer doped with SiO2 or BaTiO3 nanoparticles. METHODS: Twenty four male rats Wistar were submitted to bone defect filled with castor oil polymer. The animals were distributed in two experimental groups had been formed with 12 animals each: Group 1 - Castor oil polymer doped with 0.30 grams of SiO2 replacing 0.30 grams of CaCO3. Group 2 - Castor oil polymer doped with 0.30 grams of BaTiO3 replacing 0.30 grams of CaCO3. Euthanasia occurred 30 and 60 days after surgery and the femurs were sent to histological analysis and MEV. RESULTS: The implants were biocompatible and allowed for progressive osteogenesis through osteoconduction in both observation periods. There was significant bone neoformation at 30 and 60 days in both groups within the histomorphometric evaluation, but group 1's osteogenesis was lesser in the 30 and 60-day periods observed when compared to the animals of group 2. The MEV morphometric evaluation evidenced a lesser percentage of osseous tissue filling within the BaTiO2-doped polymer. CONCLUSION: The castor oil polymer doped with SiO2 or BaTiO3 remained biocompatible and allowed for progressive osteogenesis in both observation periods. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Barium Compounds/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Biopolymers/pharmacology , Castor Oil/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Silicon Dioxide/pharmacology , Titanium/pharmacology , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Femur/drug effects , Femur/pathology , Implants, Experimental , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Osseointegration/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(1): 24-33, 01/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735711

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of propranolol on capsular architecture around silicone implants by measuring the inflammation, capsular thickness, and collagen fiber density, using a guinea pig experimental model. METHODS: Thirty six adult male guinea pigs randomly divided into two groups (n=18) were used. Each one received a silicone implant with textured-surface. The capsular tissue around implants from untreated or treated animals with the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (10 mg/kg, dissolved in daily water) were analyzed for inflammation by histological scoring, capsular thickness by computerized histometry, and collagen fibers type I and Type III density by picrosirius polarization at different time points (7, 14 or 21 days after silicone implantation). RESULTS: Propranolol treatment reduced inflammation and impaired capsular thickness and delayed collagen maturation around the textured implant. CONCLUSION: Propranolol reduces the risk of developing capsular contracture around silicone implants with textured surface. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Male , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Implant Capsular Contracture/prevention & control , Propranolol/pharmacology , Silicone Gels/adverse effects , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Breast Implants/adverse effects , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type I/drug effects , Collagen Type III/analysis , Collagen Type III/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Implant Capsular Contracture/pathology , Implants, Experimental/adverse effects , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(9): 579-587, 09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722127

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the osseointegration properties of prototyped implants with tridimensionally interconnected pores made of the Ti6Al4V alloy and the influence of a thin calcium phosphate coating. METHODS: Bilateral critical size calvarial defects were created in thirty Wistar rats and filled with coated and uncoated implants in a randomized fashion. The animals were kept for 15, 45 and 90 days. Implant mechanical integration was evaluated with a push-out test. Bone-implant interface was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The maximum force to produce initial displacement of the implants increased during the study period, reaching values around 100N for both types of implants. Intimate contact between bone and implant was present, with progressive bone growth into the pores. No significant differences were seen between coated and uncoated implants. CONCLUSION: Adequate osseointegration can be achieved in calvarial reconstructions using prototyped Ti6Al4V Implants with the described characteristics of surface and porosity. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ceramics/therapeutic use , Implants, Experimental , Osseointegration/physiology , Skull/surgery , Titanium/therapeutic use , Calcium Phosphates , Coated Materials, Biocompatible , Ceramics/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Titanium/chemistry
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(8): 715-720, 08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716274

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to observe the biodegradable and osteogenic properties of magnesium scaffolding under in vivo conditions. Twelve 6-month-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups. The chosen operation site was the femoral condyle on the right side. The experimental group was implanted with porous magnesium scaffolds, while the control group was implanted with hydroxyapatite scaffolds. X-ray and blood tests, which included serum magnesium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine (CREA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were performed serially at 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and 1, 2, and 3 months. All rabbits were killed 3 months postoperatively, and the heart, kidney, spleen, and liver were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The bone samples were subjected to microcomputed tomography scanning (micro-CT) and hard tissue biopsy. SPSS 13.0 (USA) was used for data analysis, and values of P<0.05 were considered to be significant. Bubbles appeared in the X-ray of the experimental group after 2 weeks, whereas there was no gas in the control group. There were no statistical differences for the serum magnesium concentrations, ALT, BUN, and CREA between the two groups (P>0.05). All HE-stained slices were normal, which suggested good biocompatibility of the scaffold. Micro-CT showed that magnesium scaffolds degraded mainly from the outside to inside, and new bone was ingrown following the degradation of magnesium scaffolds. The hydroxyapatite scaffold was not degraded and had fewer osteoblasts scattered on its surface. There was a significant difference in the new bone formation and scaffold bioabsorption between the two groups (9.29±1.27 vs 1.40±0.49 and 7.80±0.50 vs 0.00±0.00 mm3, respectively; P<0.05). The magnesium scaffold performed well in degradation and osteogenesis, and is a promising material for orthopedics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Absorbable Implants , Bone Substitutes/therapeutic use , Implants, Experimental , Magnesium/therapeutic use , Osteogenesis/physiology , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Creatinine/blood , Durapatite/therapeutic use , Femur , Femur/surgery , Heart/anatomy & histology , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology , Magnesium/blood , Porosity , Spleen/anatomy & histology , X-Ray Microtomography
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 29(2): 272-278, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719402

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether the difference in inflammatory tissue reaction between the Riccinus communis (castor) polymer with calcium carbonate and the titanium implant is statistically significant. Methods: Thirty-two Cavia porcellus were allocated into four groups of eight animals each. We implanted the two types of materials in the retroperitoneal space of all the animals. They were euthanized at 7, 20, 30 and 40 days after surgery, and an histological study of the samples was conducted. Results: All implants showed characteristics of chronic inflammation regardless of the material and timepoint of evaluation. There was no statistically significant difference between Pm+CaCO3 and Ti with regard to the presence of granulation tissue, tissue congestion, histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, giant cells, and fibrosis (P> 0.05). Conclusion: The castor oil polymer plus calcium carbonate implant was not statistically different from the titanium implant regarding inflammatory tissue reaction. .


Objetivo: Determinar se a reação tecidual do implante retroperitoneal do polímero de óleo de mamona com acréscimo de carbonato de cálcio (Pm+CaCO3) é significativa, por meio de análise histopatológica, tendo como controle o implante de titânio não tratado (Ti). Métodos: Estudo experimental, intervencionista e randomizado com 32 cobaias. Os animais foram separados em quatro grupos iguais e eutanasiados com 7, 20, 30 e 40 dias após o ato cirúrgico. Foram confeccionadas lâminas em hematoxilina-eosina e em tricrômio de Masson. Em relação a variáveis qualitativas dicotômicas, para análise da diferença entre o Pm+CaCO3 e o Ti em cada momento de avaliação foi usado o teste binomial. Considerando os materiais separadamente, a comparação dos quatro grupos foi feita utilizandose o teste exato de Fisher. Valores de P<0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: Todos os implantes apresentaram características de inflamação crônica, independente do material e do momento de avaliação. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o Pm+CaCO3 e o Ti considerando a presença de tecido de granulação, congestão tecidual, histiócitos, linfócitos, neutrófilos, células gigantes e fibrose (P>0,05). Conclusão: Não foi encontrada diferença significativa entre a reação tecidual do Pm+CaCO3 e a do Ti. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Male , Calcium Carbonate/pharmacology , Castor Oil/pharmacology , Polymers/pharmacology , Ricinus/chemistry , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Titanium/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Calcium Carbonate/chemistry , Castor Oil/chemistry , Granulation Tissue/drug effects , Implants, Experimental , Materials Testing , Models, Animal , Prostheses and Implants , Polymers/chemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Time Factors , Titanium/chemistry
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. [72] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-750126

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Apesar de bons resultados descritos na literatura, o substituto ideal para a utilização como remendo no fechamento arterial ainda não existe. Por este motivo, ainda há espaço para a busca por remendo que seja biocompatível, e que apresente facilidade de manuseio e resultados satisfatórios. Avaliamos remendos arteriais de silicone (polidimetilsiloxano com reforço em poliéster - PDMSr) em comparação com remendos arteriais de PTFEe. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é comparar, em modelo experimental, em coelhos, os resultados de remendos arteriais feitos em PDMSr com remendos de PTFEe. Materiais e Método: A amostra foi definida em 10 animais que completassem todas as etapas da pesquisa em cada grupo. Os animais foram submetidos à laparotomia mediana e abertura longitudinal da aorta de aproximadamente 8mm, realizando-se o seu fechamento com remendo do grupo selecionado, seguido do fechamento por planos. Os animais foram mantidos em biotério até o 60º PO, quando, então, realizou-se arteriografia de controle, e análise macro e microscópica de peça. Resultados: Para se atingir a amostra desejada, foram necessários 12 procedimentos no grupo PDMSr e 16 no grupo PTFEe. Ocorreram 2 óbitos no grupo PDMSr e 6 no grupo PTFEe. Apesar do número maior de óbitos no grupo PTFEe não houve diferença estatística na sobrevida entre os grupos. Um animal do grupo PDMSr apresentou monoparesia em pata posterior direita e um animal do grupo PTFEe apresentou hérnia incisional. Não houve diferença estatística nas complicações entre os grupos. O tempo operatório foi estatisticamente maior no grupo PTFEe quando comparamos todos os animais, fato que não se repetiu quando excluímos os animais que faleceram...


Introduction: Although good results are reported for various materials for use as patches for arterial closure, as yet none of these is ideal. Therefore, research is continuing into development of a patch that is biocompatible and provides ease of handling, while having satisfactory outcomes. A new silicone arterial patch (polydimethylsiloxane reinforced with polyester fabric, PDMSr) was compared with patches made of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). Objective: To compare the outcomes between arterial patches made of PDMSr with those made of ePTFE, in an experimental rabbit model. Materials and Method: Rabbits were placed in two groups, and received either PDMSr or ePTFE arterial patches (PDMSr group and ePTFE group, respectively). The animals underwent laparotomy and longitudinal opening of the aorta, which was then closed with the selected patch, followed by suture of all layers. The animals were kept in their cages until the 60th postoperative day, when arteriography, removal of the aorta, and macroscopic and optic and scanning electron microscopic analyzes of the aorta were performed. Ten rabbits from each group that had completed all stages of the research were included in analyses. Results: Twelve procedures were performed in the PDMSr group and 16 in the ePTFE group. There were 2 deaths in the PDMSr group and 6 in the ePTFE group. Despite the higher number of deaths in the ePTFE group, there was no statistical difference in survival rate between the groups. One animal in the PDMSr group developed monoparesis in its right hind paw and 1 animal in the ePTFE group had an incisional hernia. There was no statistical difference in complications between the groups. The operative time was significantly longer in the ePTFE group when all animals were included in analysis, but not when animals that died were excluded...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rabbits , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Dimethylpolysiloxanes , Endothelium, Vascular , Polyesters , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Silicones , Vascular Grafting , Vascular Patency , Implants, Experimental , Rabbits
15.
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. 81 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-719950

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Os enxertos vasculares sintéticos disponíveis atualmente apresentam baixos índices de patência, quando utilizados na revascularização de vasos de pequeno calibre, e possuem resultados inferiores quando comparados ao uso de veias autólogas em derivações infrageniculares. Nova prótese de pequeno calibre confeccionada em silicone (polidimetilsiloxano, PDMS) com reforço de tecido de poliéster foi desenvolvida e comparada à prótese de PTFE. OBJETIVOS: Analisar, em modelo experimental em coelhos, o tubo de PDMS como material para prótese vascular e compará-lo a prótese de PTFE. MÉTODOS: Quarenta coelhos foram submetidos a interposição na aorta infrarrenal de próteses de 4mm de diâmetro, sendo 20 animais com PDMS e 20 com PTFE (grupo controle). Foi medido o tempo de clampeamento e realizada arteriografia retrógrada da aorta para avaliar a patência das próteses. Para avaliar a endotelização das próteses foi realizada microscopia eletrônica de maneira amostral pareada. RESULTADOS: Vinte e cinco animais (62,5%) não apresentaram intercorrências pós-operatórias; oito (20%) morreram precocemente e sete (17,5%) ficaram paraplégicos no pós-operatório imediato (e foram sacrificados), sendo que esses animais não foram incluídos nas análises de patência. Não foi observada diferença entre os grupos quanto à evolução com complicações pós-operatórias (p=0,526) e quanto ao tempo de clampeamento da aorta (p=0,299). A patência em 30 dias foi de 100% para as duas próteses. Aos 60 dias, a taxa de patência do PDMS foi de 92,3% (± 7,4), e de 73,8% (±13,1) em 90 dias; as próteses de PTFE tiveram taxas de patência de 87,5% (± 11,7) aos 60 e 90 dias. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre as taxas de patência dos grupos (p=0,62). Não houve diferença siginificativa entre os grupos quanto ao grau de estenose das próteses patentes (p=0,650) à avaliação angiográfica. A microscopia eletrônica mostrou crescimento endotelial limitado às regiões próximas...


INTRODUCTION: Synthetic vascular grafts currently available have suboptimal patency rates in small-diameter vessels and inferior outcomes in below-the-knee arterial bypass procedures when compared to the use of autologous vein. A new small vessel prosthesis made of silicone (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) and reinforced with polyester fabric was developed and compared to the standard PTFE prosthesis. OBJECTIVES: On a rabbit experimental model, we compared the outcomes of new PDMS vascular prostheses with PTFE vascular prostheses. METHODS: Forty rabbits underwent infra-renal aorta replacement with 4 mm diameter prostheses, twenty animals with PDMS and twenty animals with PTFE (control group). Aortic clamping time was measured and retrograde aortic angiography was performed to assess patency. Histological graft samples were examined by electron microscopy to evaluate prostheses endothelialization. RESULTS: Twenty-five (62,5%) animals had good surgical outcome; eight animals (20%) expired and seven animals (17.5%) became paraplegic (and subsequently sacrificed) during early follow up and were not included in anastomosis patency analysis. Postoperative complications (death, paraplegia) rates (p=0,526) and aortic clamping times (p=0,299) were comparable in both groups. Patency rates in 30 days were 100% for both grafts. At 60 days, patency rate for PDMS was 92,3% (±7,4), and 73,8% (±13,1) at 90 days. PTFE grafts had patency rates of 87,5% (±11,7) at 60 and 90 days. No statistically significant difference was found in between groups for patency rates (p=0,62). No statistically significant difference for stenosis was found on angiographical analysis in between groups (p=0,650). Electron microscopy revealed limited anastomotic endothelial ingrowth in both prostheses used. CONCLUSION: In this experimental model, PDMS and PTFE vascular prostheses had comparable outcomes and PDMS prosthesis could be used as a vacular graft


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Rabbits , Aorta, Abdominal/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Comparative Study , Dimethylpolysiloxanes , Implants, Experimental , Polyesters , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Rabbits , Silicones
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201574

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of implant thread profile on the marginal bone stresses which develop during implant insertion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four experimental implants were created by placing four different thread systems on the body (4.1 mm x 10 mm) of the ITI standard implant. The thread types studied in this study included the buttress, v-shape, reverse buttress, and square shape threads. In order to examine the insertion stress generation, 3D dynamic finite element analysis was performed which simulated the insertion process of implants into a 1.2 mm thick cortical bone plate (containing 3.5 mm pilot hole) using a PC-based DEFORM 3D (ver 6.1, SFTC, Columbus, OH, USA) program. RESULTS: Insertion stresses higher than human cortical bone developed around the implants. The level of insertion stresses was much different depending on the thread. Stress level was lowest near the v-shape thread, and highest near the square shaped thread. Difference in the interfacial bone stress level was more noticeable near the valley than the tip of the threads. CONCLUSION: Among the four threads, the v-shape thread was turned out to minimize the insertion stress level and thereby create better conditions for implant osseointegration.


Subject(s)
Bone Plates , Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Implants, Experimental , Osseointegration
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of present investigation was to find out the influence of several times iatrogenic mobilization in the initial stage of implant installation on bone-implant osteointegration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experimental implants (3.75 mm in diameter, 8.0 mm in length) were made of commercially pure (Grade IV) titanium, and were treated with RBM (MegaGen(R): Ca-P) on lower 4.0 mm part. Only lower part of implant was inserted to bone and the implants were nonsubmerged. The 130 implants (two in each tibia) were inserted into the monocortical tibias of 33 rabbits which each weighed more than 3.5 kg (Female, New Zealand White). According to the removal torque interval, the groups were divided into 13 groups, group I (1 day), group II (1 day + 2 days), group III (1 day + 2 days + 3 days), group IV (1 day + 2 days + 3 days + 4 days), group V (2 days), group VI (2 days + 4 days), group VII (2 days + 4 days + 6 days), group VIII (2 days + 4 days + 6 days + 8 days), group IX (4 days), group X (4 days + 7 days), group XI (4 days + 7 days + 10 days), group XII (4 days + 7 days + 10 days + 14 days) and control group. In the control group, the removal torque was measured at 8 weeks with a digital torque gauge (Mark-10, USA). In the experimental groups, the removal torque was given once, twice, three times or four times by experiment design before the final removal torque and the value was measured each time. The implants were then screwed back to their original positions. All the experimental groups were given a final healing time of 8 weeks after placement, in which values were compared with the control groups and the 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th removal torque values in each experimental group. RESULTS: In comparison of the final removal torque tests among experimental groups, the removal torque value of experimental groups except group XII were not statistically different that of control group. And the values of group I and II were significantly higher than the values of group VI, VIII, X, XI, and XII. In addition, the values of group III, IV, and V were significantly higher than group XI and XII. In comparison of the removal torque in the each experimental group, the final removal torque were significantly higher in all groups except group VIII, X, XI, and XII. CONCLUSION: If sufficient healing time was allowed, a few mobilization of fixture at the very early stage after the implant placement in the rabbits didn't interrupt the final bone to implant osseointegration.


Subject(s)
Dental Implants , Implants, Experimental , New Zealand , Osseointegration , Rabbits , Tibia , Titanium , Torque
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(2): 700-705, jun. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-687127

ABSTRACT

El torque de remoción es utilizado para estudiar el comportamiento de implantes y su oseointegración. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el torque de retiro de implantes dentales con defectos óseo asociados de tipo fenestración. Seis perros (Canis familiaris) fueron en semejantes condiciones de peso y talla seleccionados para la investigación. Se realizó un acceso quirúrgico al fémur del animal sitio donde se instalaron 3 implantes, realizándose defectos circulares de 5mm en cada implante. El defecto fue cubierto con membrana absorbible (colágeno), membrana no absorbible (celulosa) o sin cobertura (control). Los animales fueron sometidos a eutanasia a las 3 semanas y a los 8 semanas, momento en que se les realizó el torque de retiro a los implantes con una llave especialmente diseñada para el procedimiento; el análisis de datos se realizó con la prueba de Turkey con significancia estadística p<0.1. Se observó una creciente reparación ósea en los diferentes tiempos de eutanasia; el defecto control reveló un menor nivel de reparación al ser comparado con los defectos cubiertos por membranas. Se realizó el torque de retiro en los implantes estableciendo valores crecientes de unión hueso-implante en los tiempos de eutanasia. No existió diferencias significativas en los torques de retiro de los implantes en ninguno de los defectos generados. Finalmente se puede concluir que las membranas biológicas y la reparación no influyó en el torque de retiro de implantes dentales.


The removal torque has been used for analysis of implant and their osseointegration. The aim of this research was to determine the removal torque of dental implants installed with fenestration-type bone defect. Six dogs with similar conditions of weight and height were selected for this research. We realized a surgical approach to the tibia and in place installed 3 dental implants with 5 mm- diameter circular bone defect in each implant. The bone defects were covered with absorbable membrane (collagen), non absorbable membrane (cellulose) and one (control) defect without coverage. The animals were euthanized at three weeks and at eight weeks when torque withdrawal of the implant was realized with a ratchet especially designed for this procedure. Data analyses was realized with Turkey test with statistical significance of p<0.1. We observed an increasing bone repair for the two periods of euthanasia; the control defect show minor level of reparation when compared to defect coverage for membrane. We realized the removal torque with increasing values of bone-implant union for two periods of euthanasia. No difference was observed in removal torque in either defect with or without membrane. Finally, we conclude that biological membrane and bone repair was not influenced in the removal torque of dental implants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Bone Regeneration , Dental Implantation , Implants, Experimental , Titanium , Tibia/surgery , Device Removal , Osseointegration , Time Factors , Torque
19.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 72(1): 21-25, jan.-fev. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-667592

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar experimentalmente a biocompatibilidade de cones de biovidro e biovitrocerâmico em cavidades evisceradas de coelhos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 45 coelhos albinos submetidos à cirurgia de evisceração do olho direito, seguida da inclusão de cones de biovidro e dois tipos de biovitrocerâmicos (chamados de FI e FII) na cavidade escleral. Os animais foram sacrificados em três momentos (7, 90 e 180 dias). Os parâmetros avaliados foram: peso, exame clínico diário, exames bioquímicos, avaliação histológica, exame morfométrico. RESULTADOS: Os animais mantiveram-se saudáveis durante o experimento, não tendo ocorrido extrusão do implante em nenhum animal. O exame morfológico mostrou que houve a formação de pseudocápsula ao redor dos cones, com superioridade dos cones de biovidro e biovitrocerâmico FI, os quais apresentaram menor reação inflamatória e menor formação da pseudocápsula ao redor dos cones que os demais. A reação inflamatória foi mais intensa após 7 dias da colocação dos cones, diminuindo em direção aos 180 dias, sendo menos intensa nos coelhos que receberam cones de biovidro. CONCLUSÃO: Os cones de biovidro e biovitrocerâmico FI e FII podem ser úteis para a reparação da cavidade anoftálmica, com melhor resposta quando se usa cones de biovidro e de biovitrocerâmico FI.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bioglass, bioglassceramic biocompatibility in rabbit's eviscerated cavities. METHODS: Forty- five rabbits were submitted to right eye evisceration, followed by the inclusion of bioglass and bioglassceramic I e II prosthesis in the escleral cavity. The animals were sacrificed at seven, 90 and 180 days after surgery. The animals had daily clinical exam; biochemical exam, histological analysis and morphometric evaluation. RESULTS: The animals stayed healthy during the expriment, with good cone integration to the host tissue. None cone extrusion were observed. Histologically, it was observed pseudocapsule formation around the cones and the inflammatory reaction was higher at M1, getting progressively lower while getting at M3, being the lowest in rabbits which received bioglass cones (GA) than at any other groups. CONCLUSION: Bioglass and bioglassceramic I e II cones can be useful to repair anophthalmic cavity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Biocompatible Materials , Eye Evisceration , Glass , Implants, Experimental , Materials Testing/veterinary , Intervention Studies
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 73(1): 173-177, Feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671376

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to assess the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and/or coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of a dense hydroxyapatite (DHA) implant in rats. For this study, 20 male rats were divided into four groups (n = 5): CT (control) group, CE (coffee) group, CI (cigarette) group and CC (coffee + cigarette) group. During 16 weeks, animals in the CI group were exposed to cigarette smoke inhalation equivalent to 6 cigarettes per day; specimens in the CE group drank coffee as liquid diet; and rats in the CC group were submitted to both substances. In the 6th week a 5 mm slit in the parietal bone and a 4 mm slit in the tibia were performed on the left side: the former was left open while the latter received a DHA implant. As soon as surgeries were finished, the animals returned to their original protocols and after 10 weeks of exposure they were euthanised (ethically sacrificed) and the mentioned bones collected for histological processing. Data showed that exposure to cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption did not interfere in weight gain and that solid and liquid diet consumption was satisfactory. Rats in the CC group showed a decrease in bone neoformation around the tibial DHA implant (31.8 ± 2.8) as well as in bone formation in the parietal slit (28.6 ± 2.2). On their own, cigarette smoke inhalation or coffee consumption also led to diminished bone neoformation around the implant and delayed the bone repair process in relation to the CT group. However, reduction in the bone repair process was accentuated with exposure to both cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption in this study.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do tabagismo e do consumo de café, isolada ou concomitantemente, sobre a formação óssea e a osseointegração de implantes hidroxiapatita densa. Foram utilizados 20 ratos machos, divididos em quatro grupos (n = 5): grupo CT (controle); grupo CA (café); grupo CI (cigarro), e grupo CC (cigarro + café). Durante 16 semanas, os animais do grupo CI foram expostos à fumaça de seis cigarros/dia; os animais do grupo CA consumiram café como dieta líquida, e os animais do grupo CC, ambas as substâncias. Após seis semanas de exposição, uma falha óssea de 5 mm foi produzida no osso parietal esquerdo e de 4 mm, na tíbia esquerda dos animais. A falha do parietal foi mantida aberta, enquanto na tíbia corpos cerâmicos de hidroxiapatita densa (HAD) foram implantados em cavidade produzida cirurgicamente. Após as cirurgias, os animais retornaram aos protocolos experimentais e, ao término de dez semanas, foram eutanasiados, sendo as tíbias e os parietais coletados para processamento histológico. A exposição à fumaça do cigarro e o consumo de café não interferiram no ganho de peso dos animais, e os consumos de dieta líquida e sólida foram satisfatórios entre os grupos. Os animais do grupo CC apresentaram menor volume de osso neoformado ao redor do implante de HAD na tíbia (31,8 ± 2,8) e menor osteogênese na falha produzida no osso parietal (28,6 ± 2,2). O café e o cigarro consumidos isoladamente provocam a diminuição do volume de osso ao redor do implante e o atraso no processo de reparação óssea. Observou-se que o consumo de café associado à exposição à fumaça do cigarro reduziu de forma acentuada o processo de reparação óssea, no presente estudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bone Substitutes , Coffee/adverse effects , Durapatite , Osseointegration , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Implants, Experimental , Inhalation , Parietal Bone/pathology , Parietal Bone/surgery , Rats, Wistar , Tibia/pathology , Tibia/surgery
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