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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18630, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364418

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the present investigation was to design, optimize and characterize the gastro retentive floating levofloxacin tablets and perform in-vivo evaluation using radiographic imaging. The floating tablets were prepared by using polymers i.e hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K4M) and carbopol-940 individually and in combination by nonaquous granulation method. All the Formulations were evaluated for swelling index (S.I), floating behavior and in-vitro drug release kinetics. The compatibility study of levofloxacin with other polymers was investigated by FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD. Results from FTIR and DSC revealed no chemical interaction amongst the formulation components. The optimized formulation (F11) showed floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) swelling index (S.I) of 60 sec, >16h and approximately 75 %, respectively. Moreover, F11 showed zero order levofloxacin release in simulated gastric fluid over the period of 6 h. X-ray studies showed that total buoyancy time was able to delay the gastric emptying of levofloxacin floating tablets in rabbits for more than 4 hours. In conclusion the optimized formulation (F11) can be used for the sustained delivery of levofloxacin for the treatment of peptic ulcer.


Subject(s)
Drug Liberation , Peptic Ulcer/classification , Tablets/pharmacology , X-Rays/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Drug Compounding/instrumentation , Process Optimization/analysis , Levofloxacin/analysis , Gastric Emptying/drug effects
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190750, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249207

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this paper, the antibacterial activity of triazole functionalized cyclodextrin (CD.Click) and cyclodextrin-triazole-titanium based nanocomposite (CD.COM) was evaluated. The results indicated that CD.Click and CD.COM perform a wide range of antibacterial activity against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. The cytotoxic effect of CD.COM was investigated in vitro on cancerous cell lines (cervical cancer, breast carcinoma and sarcoma osteogenic) and fibroblast cells by MTT assay. The cell viability evaluation confirmed that the growth of cancerous cells is inhibited in a dose and time dependent way without any significant effect on the normal fibroblast cells.


Subject(s)
Triazoles/chemical synthesis , beta-Cyclodextrins/chemical synthesis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19048, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345460

ABSTRACT

Drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a frightening reality. The aim of this study is to examine the expression profiles of blaOXA-51 gene in carbapenemases producing A. baumannii treated with imipenem/sulbactam combination. Carbapenemases producing A. baumannii was identified among clinical isolates of A. baumannii obtained from patients at Shahid Rajaee hospital, Gachsaran, Iran, from January to June 2018. Synergism testing of imipenem/sulbactam on carbapenemases producing A. baumannii was carried out by broth microdilution method. Eventually, the expression of blaOXA-51 gene was carried out to investigate the inhibitory properties of imipenem/sulbactam combination against carbapenemases producing A. baumannii using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Among A. baumannii isolates, 24% were carbapenemases producing A. baumannii. Imipenem/sulbactam combination revealed synergistic and partial synergistic effect for all tested isolates (FIC= 0.313-0.75). Finally, imipenem/sulbactam combination displayed significant down-regulation of blaOXA-51 gene in carbapenemases producing A. baumannii. Imipenem synergizes with sulbactam against carbapenemases producing A. baumannii by targeting of the blaOXA-51 gene.


Subject(s)
Sulbactam/agonists , Imipenem/agonists , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Patients/classification , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Hospitals/classification , Methods
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e181086, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350237

ABSTRACT

Malaria is nowadays one of the most serious health concerns in a global scale and, although there is an evident increase in research studies in this area, pointed by the vast number of hits and leads, it still appears as a recurrent topic every year due to the drug resistance shown by the parasite exposing the urgent need to develop new antimalarial medications. In this work, 38 molecules were synthesized via copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) or "click" chemistry, following different routes to produce 2 different organic azides, obtained from a 4,7 dicholoquinoline, reacted with 19 different commercially available terminal alkynes. All those new compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against the chloroquine resistant malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (W2). The cytotoxicity evaluation was accomplished using Hep G2 cells and SI index was calculated for every molecule. Some of the quinoline derivatives have shown high antimalarial activity, with IC50 values in the range of 1.72-8.66 µM, low cytotoxicity, with CC50>1000 µM and selectivity index (SI) in the range of 20-100, with some compounds showing SI>800. Therefore, the quinolinotriazole hybrids could be considered a very important step on the development of new antimalarial drugs


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/analysis , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Research/classification , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Chimera/abnormalities , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Click Chemistry
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18310, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350230

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the anticholinesterase activities of extracts and fractions of Ocotea daphnifolia in vitro and characterize its constituents. The effects of hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanolic extracts on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity were determined with a spectrophotometry assay. All extracts inhibited cholinesterase activity, and the ethanolic extract (2 mg/mL) exhibited the highest inhibition of both enzymes (99.7% for BuChE and 82.4% for AChE). The ethanolic extract was fractionated by column chromatography resulting in 14 fractions that were also screened for their anticholinesterase effects. Fraction 9 (2 mg/mL) showed the highest activity, inhibiting AChE and BuChE by 71.8% and 90.2%, respectively. This fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry which allowed the characterization of seven glycosylated flavonoids (containing kaempferol and quercetin nucleus) and one alkaloid (reticuline). In order to better understand the enzyme-inhibitor interaction of the reticuline toward cholinesterase, molecular modeling studies were performed. Reticuline targeted the catalytic activity site of the enzymes. Ocotea daphnifolia exhibits a dual cholinesterase inhibitory activity and displays the same pattern of intermolecular interactions as described in the literature. The alkaloid reticuline can be considered as an important bioactive constituent of this plant.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/analysis , Lauraceae/classification , Ocotea/adverse effects , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Acetylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Flavonoids , Butyrylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Alkaloids
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18579, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132059

ABSTRACT

Temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic drug that is often administered for the treatment of brain cancer has severe side effects and a poor aqueous solubility. In order to decrease the detrimental effect of the drug over healthy cells, a novel drug delivery vehicle was developed where the therapeutic drug was encapsulated within the hydrophobic cavities of b-CD modified magnetite nanoparticles, which are embedded in chitosan nanobeads prepared by salt addition. In-vitro studies have shown that the magnetic properties of the novel delivery vehicle are adequate for targeted drug delivery applications under an external magnetic field. Additionally, an increase in the amount of chitosan was shown to exhibit a strong shielding effect over the magnetic properties of the delivery vehicle, which lead to deterioration of the amount of captured drug at the targeted area, suggesting a delicate balance between the amounts of constituents composing the drug delivery vehicle.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Brain Neoplasms , Temozolomide/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Chitosan/antagonists & inhibitors , Ferrosoferric Oxide/pharmacology , Magnetite Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Magnetic Fields/adverse effects , Magnetics/classification
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18996, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249164

ABSTRACT

Paclitaxel spirulina nanoparticles were said to have promising anticancer activity against gastric cancer. Nanoparticles of paclitaxel-spirulina were prepared for treating gastric cancer using precipitation technique. The synergistic anticancer efficiency againstMKN45 cells retains when the paclitaxel and spirulina were encapsulated into nanoparticles. To increase the site specific delivery, intra-tumoral administration was carried in the in vivo evaluation. There was an increase in overall survival in an MKN45-transplanted mice model and notable improvement in anti-tumour efficacy when paclitaxel-spirulina nanoparticles were delivered through intra-tumoral administration. The further investigation of overall anticancer mechanism of these nanoparticles is made as a major part in this research. Hence, the conjecture of this research is that, the paclitaxel-spirulina encapsulated nanoparticles could be an effective chemotherapeutic formulation for gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Paclitaxel/analogs & derivatives , Spirulina , Nanoparticles/classification , Organization and Administration , Efficiency , Methods
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18806, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249156

ABSTRACT

Ethnomedicinal survey documents the traditional practices of Tetrastigma angustifolia leaves in the management of diabetes in the North-eastern region of India. The present study was aimed at isolation of possible antidiabetic principle(s) from T. angustifolia leaves and evaluation of antidiabetic efficacy of isolated compound(s) in experimental animal model. The methanolic extract of T. angustifolia leaves was obtained by Soxhlet extraction method and subjected to silica gel column chromatography (100-200 mesh). Fraction 18-176 chloroform:methanol (70:30) yielded a pale yellow colored compound. The structure of pure compound was elucidated with the help of UV, IR, NMR and Mass spectrometric/techniques. The antioxidant activity of the isolated compound was evaluated in vitro by various radical scavenfing assay methods.. Oral acute toxicity study was carried out according to OECD guideline 423 in Wistar rats. The antidiabetic efficacy of the isolated compound was evaluated in STZ-induced diabetic rats at the dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. for duration of 21 days. The present study reports a new flavocnoid compound isolated from the methanolic extract of T. angustifolia leaves and identified as 8-hydroxyapigenin 7-O-D-glucopyranoside. The flavonoid compound exhibited potent antidiabetic (hypoglicemic) activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats with promising antioxidant (radical scavenging activity) potential in vitro.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Leaves/adverse effects , Vitaceae/classification , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Chromatography , Models, Animal , Dosage/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/analysis
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18327, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132053

ABSTRACT

Hypericum sinaicum L. is an endangered Egyptian medicinal plant of high importance due to the presence of naphthodianthrones (hypericins), which have photodynamic properties and pharmaceutical potential. We sought to assess H. sinaicum ability to develop hairy roots that could be cultured in contained conditions in vitro and used as a source for hypericin production. We used four A. rhizogenes strains differing in their plasmids and chromosomal backgrounds to inoculate excised H. sinaicum root, stem and leaf explants to induce hairy root development. Additionally, inoculum was applied to shoots held in Rockwool cubes supporting their stand after removal of the root system. All explant types were susceptible to A. rhizogenes although stem explants responded more frequently (over 90%) than other explant types. The A4 and A4T A. rhizogenes strains were highly, and equally effective in hairy root induction on 66-72% of explants while the LBA1334 strain was the most effective in transformation of shoots. Sonication applied to explants during inoculation enhanced the frequency of hairy root development, the most effective was 60 s treatment doubling the percentage of explants with hairy roots. However, shoot transformation was the most effective approach as shoots developed hairy roots within 10 days after inoculation. Molecular analyses confirmed that the established hairy root cultures in vitro were indeed obtained due to a horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. These cultures grew fast and the hypericin content in hairy roots was about two fold higher than in H. sinaicum plants as determined by HPLC.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plant Roots/adverse effects , Hypericum/adverse effects , Agrobacterium/metabolism , Plasmids , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18411, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132049

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial and antitumor activities of resveratrol, a compound found mainly in grapes, have already been demonstrated. However, its low bioavailability is a limiting factor for therapeutic application. Polymeric micelles can be an approach to solve this problem since they can encapsulate hydrophobic substances. We developed and characterized micellar formulations containing resveratrol and evaluated their cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. The formulations were prepared by the cold dispersion method with different concentrations of F127 (5 or 10% w/w) and resveratrol (500 or 5000 µM). The formulations were characterized according to size, polydispersity index, pH, encapsulation rate and in vitro release. Cytotoxic effect was evaluated on a bladder cancer cell line and antimicrobial effect was evaluated on E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. One of the formulations (10% w/w of F127 and 5000 µM of resveratrol) was a monodispersed solution with high encapsulation rate, thus it was chosen for the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial assays. MS- 10+RES-3 was able to preserve the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of resveratrol. This is the first study that evaluated antimicrobial potential and cytotoxicity of micelles containing resveratrol on bladder cancer cells and the results showed that micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of resveratrol.


Subject(s)
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Cells , Resveratrol/analysis , Neoplasms/pathology , Solutions/administration & dosage , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Cell Line/classification , Vitis/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Micelles
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18171, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132034

ABSTRACT

Gold coated magnetite nanoparticles were prepared and coated with ranibizumab as an ocular drug delivery system. The surface morphologies of the nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The size and surface charge were determined by using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. Crystallographic properties of the gold coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were recorded on X-ray diffractometer (XRD) the XRD pattern of nanoparticlees were shown to have uniqe Fe3O4 and gold peaks. Conjugation of ranibizumab onto nanoparticles was achieved using the physical adsorption method. The amount of ranibizumab on the surface of the nanoparticles was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In the in vitro release studies performed using UV spectroscopy; it was found that almost 60% of antibodies were released within the first 30 minutes. Antibody activity after release studies was also proved with ELISA. Non-toxicity of gold coated Fe3O4 particles were proved with MTT. Results of the studies, showed that the antibody conjugated magnetic nanoparticle system could be a potential treatment system for ocular diseases.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Magnetite Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Ranibizumab/adverse effects , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , X-Rays , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Drug Delivery Systems , Dynamic Light Scattering/instrumentation , Gold , Methods
12.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 79 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007570

ABSTRACT

Compostos de amônio quaternário (QACs) têm sido amplamente utilizados como desinfetantes e antissépticos, sendo essenciais na prevenção e controle de infecções bacterianas na medicina humana e veterinária. Embora patógenos prioritários multirresistentes têm sido muito bem caracterizados quanto ao perfil de suscetibilidade e contexto genético da resistência aos antibióticos, dados de resistência aos QACs são limitados. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a atividade in vitro dos QACs de uso doméstico e hospitalar [cloreto de benzalcônio (BAC), cloreto de cetilpiridinio (CPC) e brometo de cetiltrimetilamônio (CTAB)], contra patógenos prioritários multirresistentes, identificando os principais genes de resistência associados. Foram estudadas 100 cepas multirresistentes previamente sequenciados usando as plataformas Illumina MiSeq e NextSeq representativas de diferentes hospedeiros (humanos e animais) e fontes (ambientes e alimentos). As cepas foram identificadas como Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 24), Escherichia coli (n= 30); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n= 10), Enterobacter spp, (n= 8), Acinetobacter baumannii (n= 11) e Salmonella spp. (n= 17). Genes de resistência aos QACs foram identificados in silico através do alinhamento dos contigs obtidos de cada cepa sequenciada com genes de referência obtidos do GenBank, utilizando o programa Geneious versão 8 (Biomatters Ltd). A identidade de cada gene foi analisada utilizando o programa BLASTx, no qual um critério baseado em ≥90% identidade resultou na identificação dos genes mdfA (77%), qacE (44%), qacEΔ1 (43%), sugE(c) (29%), emrE (21%), qacA (19%), sugE(p) (5%), qacF (7%), qacH (7%) e qacL (7%) em 85 cepas; enquanto que 15 cepas não possuíam nenhum gene de resistência aos QACs. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) dos QACs para as 100 cepas foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Os resultados sugeriram que a resistência em patógenos prioritários circulando na interface humano-ambiente-animal não é restrita aos antibióticos, uma vez que a elevada ocorrência de genes qacE, qacEΔ1 e mdfA poderia estar associada com uma redução da suscetibilidade para QACs. Consequentemente, a resistência aos QACs poderia também contribuir para a persistência e adaptação destes patógenos nos seres humanos e outros animais, assim como em ambientes impactados antropogenicamente


Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) have been widely used as disinfectants and antiseptics, being applied as essential compounds in the prevention and control of bacterial infections in human-and veterinary hospital medicine. Although multiresistant priority pathogens have been well characterized with respect to their susceptibility profile and their genetic context of resistance for antibiotics, studies of resistance to QACs are limited. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of QACs [(benzalkonium chloride (BAC), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)] for household and hospital use against multiresistant priority pathogens, identifying the main resistance genes associated. A hundred multiresistant isolates (previously sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq and NextSeq platforms), representative of different hosts (humans and animals) and sources (environment and food) were studied. Isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=24), Escherichia coli (n=30), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=10), Enterobacter spp. (n=8), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=11) and Salmonella spp. (n=17). In silico analysis for identification of genes conferring resistance to QACs were performed by aligning the contigs obtained from the strains with reference genes deposited in GenBank, using the Geneious version program (Biomatters Ltd). Similarities were analyzed using the BLASTx online program, considering the alignment criteria based on ≥ 90% identity. The result of these analysis revealed the presence of the following QAC genes: mdfA (77%), qacE (44%), qacEΔ1 (43%), sugE(c) (29%), emrE (21%), qacA (19%), sugE (p) (5%), qacF (7%), qacH (7%) e qacL (7%); while 15 strains showed no resistance genes for QACs. Determination of QACs minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the 100 isolates, by the broth microdilution method. These results suggest that resistance to QACs in priority pathogens, circulating at the human-environment-animal interface, is not restricted to antibiotics, since the high occurrence of genes qacE, qacEΔ1 and mdfA were associated with a reduced susceptibility to QACs. Consequently, resistance to QACs could also contribute to the persistence and adaptation of these pathogens in humans and othes animals, as well as in anthropogenically impacted environments


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/analysis , Noxae , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation
13.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 102 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023978

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is related to the development of skin cancer and photoaging, also produces free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause premature aging. Therefore, sunscreens with extended UV protection capacity have been studied associated with antioxidant compounds. Different components can be incorporated with the purpose of improving, the photoprotection efficiency, as well as other cosmetic attributes, creating a multifunctional product. Among the compounds, there are some to be used from natural origin that are excellent, because it reduces the side effects and toxicity. Flavonoids are good examples of natural agents, because have demonstrated photoprotective antioxidant action in food and it is also promising for topical use. The aim of this work is to develop photoprotective formulations with quercetin, evaluating potential photoprotective and antioxidant of each formulation through tests already established and described in the literature, with emphasis on in vitro testing of potential photoprotective, antioxidant and security (het-cam); ex vivo antioxidant potential (tape-stripping). The results show us the photoprotective and antioxidant capacity of quercetin and the ideal concentration for this potential, thereby contributing to the synthesis of new molecules and development of new products, concerning stable, safe and effective exposure to solar UV radiation, preventing new incidences of skin cancer and reduction of photoaging


A radiação ultravioleta (UV) está relacionada ao desenvolvimento de câncer de pele e fotoenvelhecimento, também produz radicais livres ou espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs) que causam o envelhecimento precoce. Portanto, protetores solares com capacidade de proteção UV amplo espectro foram estudados associados a compostos antioxidantes. Diferentes componentes podem ser incorporados com o objetivo de melhorar a eficiência da fotoproteção, assim como outros atributos cosméticos criando um produto multifuncional. Entre os compostos a serem utilizados, de origem natural são excelentes, pois reduzem os efeitos colaterais e a toxicidade. Os flavonóides são bons exemplos de agentes naturais, porque demonstraram ação antioxidante fotoprotetora nos alimentos e também são promissores para uso tópico. O objetivo deste trabalho é desenvolver formulações fotoprotetoras com quercetina, avaliando potenciais fotoprotetores e antioxidantes de cada formulação através de testes já estabelecidos e descritos na literatura com ênfase em ensaios in vitro de potenciais fotoprotetores, antioxidantes e de segurança (het-cam); potencial antioxidante ex vivo (tape-stripping). Os resultados nos mostram a capacidade fotoprotetora e antioxidante da quercetina e a concentração ideal para este potencial, contribuindo para a síntese de novas moléculas e desenvolvimento de novos produtos estáveis, seguros e eficazes em relação à exposição à radiação solar UV, prevenindo novas incidências de câncer de pele e redução do fotoenvelhecimento


Subject(s)
Quercetin/pharmacology , Sunscreening Agents/analysis , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Flavonoids/agonists , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Skin Aging , Antioxidants/analysis
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18204, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039079

ABSTRACT

The development and clinical application of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) as a new type of antitumor drug are limited due to its poor solubility, rapid metabolism in vivo, and large oral dosage. 2-ME-loaded pH-sensitive liposomes (2-ME-PSLs) was prepared containing the lipids, Lipoid E-80 (E-80), cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS), and cholesterol (CHOL) via thin-film ultrasonic dispersion. First, preparation conditions of 2-ME-PSLs were optimized by orthogonal test. Then 2-ME-PSL was characterized, and the release behavior and stability of 2-ME-PSL in vitro were evaluated. The optimal preparation conditions for 2-ME-PSLs were as follows: 2-ME : E-80+CHEMS 1:15; CHOL : E-80+CHEMS 1:5; ultrasonication time 20 minutes. The mean particle size, PDI, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency (EE) of 2-ME-PSLs were 116 ± 9 nm, 0.161 ± 0.025, −22.4 ± 1.7 mV, and 98.6 ± 0.5%, respectively. As viewed under a transmission electron microscope, 2-ME-PSLs were well dispersed and almost spherical. They exhibited significant pH-sensitive properties and were fairly stable when diluted with a physiological solution. In conclusion, 2-ME-PSLs were successfully prepared and possessed a favorable pH sensitivity and good dissolution stability with a normal solution


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , /pharmacokinetics , Liposomes/analysis , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/drug effects
15.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 140 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007576

ABSTRACT

A Hipercolesterolemia Familial (HF) é uma doença genética do metabolismo das lipoproteínas, caracterizada pelo aumento do colesterol plasmático, transportado principalmente pela lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL). A HF é causada principalmente por mutações nos genes LDLR, APOB e PCSK9. As mutações conhecidas na PCSK9 podem levar ao aumento ou diminuição da função proteolítica da proteína, as quais são associadas ao aumento ou diminuição da LDL-c plasmática, respectivamente. Com o projeto genoma humano surgiram novos métodos de sequenciamento, o que resultou em um grande número de novas variantes genéticas relacionadas à HF. Entretanto, os mecanismos pelos quais essas variantes influenciam na concentração do colesterol e sua interferência na resposta terapêutica não estão totalmente elucidados. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar in vitro o efeito de variantes na região codificadora e reguladora do gene PCSK9 identificadas em pacientes HF utilizando sequenciamento de nova geração. Para a caracterização funcional das variantes na região codificadora da PCSK9, primeiramente foi avaliado o impacto dessas variantes na interação PCSK9-LDLR via Docking molecular. Células HEK293FT foram transfectadas com as diferentes construções da PCSK9, e posteriormente, foram utilizadas em ensaios para avaliar a atividade do LDLR e a internalização de LDL por citometria de fluxo. Para as variantes na região reguladora da PCSK9, foi realizado uma predição in silico do possível efeito de variantes na região 3UTR na ligação de miRNAs. A avalição da interação entre os miRNAs preditos, e a região 3UTR da PCSK9, e o possível impacto nessa interação na presença de variantes na região 3UTR, foi realizada em células HEK293FT transfectadas com um plasmídeo contendo a 3UTR da PCSK9 e um gene repórter da Gaussia luciferase, juntamente com um plasmídeo de expressão contendo os miRNAs de interesse. Foi também estudado o efeito dos miRNAs preditos sobre a expressão, RNAm e proteína, da PCSK9 via RT-qPCR e Western blot, em células HepG2. Foram identificadas 9 variantes na região codificadora da PCSK9, e duas, E32K e R469W, foram selecionadas para os ensaios posteriores. Para a R469W foi observada uma possível alteração conformacional a qual poderia aumentar a afinidade da PCSK9 pelo LDLR. Para a E32K, uma possível associação com HF foi observada em uma família brasileira com ascendência japonesa. As variantes E32K e R469W apresentaram uma redução na atividade do LDLR de 5 e 11%, respectivamente em comparação a PCSK9-WT. Entretanto, não foram observadas reduções estaticamente significativas na atividade do LDLR e na internalização da LDL em células transfectadas com ambas as variantes. Dez variantes foram encontradas na região 3UTR da PCSK9, entre elas três foram selecionadas por impactar a ligação de quatro miRNAs. Nossos dados demonstraram uma redução significativa na expressão da PCSK9 em células HepG2 transfectadas com os miR-4721 e miR-564 (p=0,036 e p=0,010, respectivamente). Porém, não foi observada diferenças na expressão da luciferase em células transfectadas com esses miRNAs, não sendo possível validar a interação miRNA-RNAm. As variantes no gene PCSK9 identificadas no nosso estudo podem não explicar individualmente o fenótipo HF, mas podem contribuir para a severidade da doença juntamente com outras variantes em outros genes


Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, characterized by elevated plasma cholesterol levels, mostly carried by low-density lipoprotein (LDL). FH is mainly caused by mutations in three genes, LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9. Gain-of-function mutations in PCSK9 reduce LDL receptor levels, resulting in high levels of LDL cholesterol in the plasma. Loss-of-function mutations lead to higher levels of the LDL receptor, resulting in lower LDL cholesterol levels. The Human Genome Project led to a faster technological development related to sequencing methods, which allowed identifying many novel variants associated with FH. However, the mechanisms by which these variants influence cholesterol levels and their interference in therapeutic response are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to perform an in vitro characterization of the effect of PCSK9 variants identified in FH patients using Next-Generation Sequencing. For the functional characterization of variants in the coding region of PCSK9, the impact of these variants on PCSK9-LDLR interaction was evaluated by molecular docking. HEK293FT cells were transiently transfected with different PCSK9 constructs, and the amount of cell surface LDLR and LDL internalization were determined by flow cytometry. For the variants in PCSK9 3UTR region, an in silico prediction of PCSK9 3UTR variants in miRNA seed regions and target sites was performed. To determine whether the predicted miRNAs directly interact with PCSK9 3UTR region, HEK293FT cells were co-transfected with a vector containing a PCSK9 3'UTR region and a Gaussia luciferase reporter gene, together with an expression plasmid containing the miRNAs of interest. The effect of the predicted miRNAs on the expression of PCSK9 was evaluated using RT-qPCR and Western blot in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with miRNA mimics. Nine missense variants were identified in PCSK9 gene. E32K e R469W were chosen for further analysis. For R469W, a possible conformational change was observed that could increase the affinity of PCSK9 for LDLR, when compared to the wild-type. For E32K, a possible association with FH in a Brazilian family with Japanese ancestry was observed. E32K and R469W had a 5% and 11% decreased level of cell surface LDLR, respectively, as compared with WT-PCSK9. However, no significant reduction in the number of cell surface LDLR and LDL internalization was observed in transfected cells for both variants. Ten variants were found in PCSK9 3'UTR region, of which three were selected for affecting the binding of four miRNAs. Our data demonstrated a significant downregulation of PCSK9 in cells transfected with miR-4721 and miR-564 miRNA mimics, compared to cells transfected with a scramble control (p=0,036 and p=0,010, respectively). However, no differences in luciferase expression were observed in cells transfected with these miRNAs, therefore, it was not possible to experimentally validate miRNA-mRNA interaction. PCSK9 variants found in our study may not fully explain FH phenotype but may contribute to the severity of the disease together with other variants in other genes


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Proprotein Convertase 9/analysis , Pharmacogenomic Variants/genetics , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/diagnosis
16.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 132 p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007406

ABSTRACT

Em condições inflamatórias do sistema vascular, altas concentrações de mieloperoxidase somada à presença do ácido úrico, sugerem a formação local do oxidante hidroperóxido de urato. A ação desse peróxido já foi demonstrada sobre glutationa e peroxirredoxinas, tornando plausível a possibilidade de que outras proteínas tiólicas também pudessem ser alvo de oxidação. A proteína dissulfeto isomerase é uma ditiol-dissulfeto oxidoredutase e chaperona, localizada principalmente no retículo endoplasmático, onde participa do enovelamento de proteínas nascentes. Além disso, um pool dessas enzimas foi identificado na superfície da célula e no meio extracelular (secretada) e parece ser especialmente importante em eventos vasculares como ativação e agregação de plaquetas, trombose e remodelamento vascular. Primeiramente, foi investigado se o hidroperóxido de urato era capaz de oxidar a PDI. Pelo ensaio do DTNB foi verificado que os tióis livres da proteína eram consumidos após reação com o peróxido e, em seguida, por nLC-MS/MS os resíduos de cisteínas dos sítios catalíticos foram identificados como os principais alvos de oxidação. Embora não tenham sido verificadas outras modificações além de dissulfetos, foi observado que o tratamento com hidroperóxido promoveu agregação e inativação da proteína. Os estudos subsequentes envolveram uma linhagem de células endoteliais (HUVECs). Análises preliminares de citotoxicidade (detecção da atividade da enzima lactato desidrogenase no sobrenadante e incorporação de sondas fluorescentes ao DNA) mostraram que tratamentos com concentrações de até 400 µM de hidroperóxido de urato não são letais às células em cultura. Usando alquilantes impermeáveis à membrana celular foi mostrado que o hidroperóxido de urato oxida não só a proteína dissulfeto isomerase, mas também proteínas tiólicas totais expressas na superfície das HUVECs. Experimentos de wound healing foram feitos para avaliação da capacidade de migração das células mediante o tratamento com hidroperóxido de urato, mas nenhuma diferença foi observada. Contudo, a incubação das células com os agentes oxidantes hidroperóxido de urato e diamida, inibidores de PDI e integrina e um alquilante de tiol, resultaram, pelo menos nos trinta primeiros minutos, em menor capacidade de adesão das células à fibronectina. Além disso, as células tratadas com hidroperóxido de urato se tornaram mais sensíveis ao destacamento da placa de cultura e apresentaram alteração na morfologia. O tratamento com o peróxido também afetou a homeostase redox das HUVECs, observado pela diminuição da razão GSH/GSSG. Finalmente foram apresentadas evidênciasindiretas de que o ácido úrico é substrato da peroxidasina, uma heme peroxidase abundantemente expressa no sistema vascular. Primeiro, pelo ensaio do Amplex Red foi observado que a presença de ácido úrico na mistura reacional resultou em menor taxa de oxidação do reagente. Depois, por LC-MS/MS, também em amostra na qual o ácido úrico estava presente, foi identificado o hidroxiisourato, álcool resultante da decomposição do hidroperóxido de urato. Todo o conjunto de dados deverá contribuir para o maior entendimento da participação do hidroperóxido de urato em processos oxidativos vasculares − especialmente a oxidação de proteínas − que pode ser um dos mecanismos responsáveis pela alteração da função endotelial e da homeostase vascular


During vascular inflammatory conditions, high amounts of myeloperoxidase added to the presence of uric acid, suggest the local formation of urate hydroperoxide. Its oxidative action has already been demonstrated on glutathione and peroxiredoxins, making plausible the possibility that other thiol proteins could also be a target for oxidation. The protein disulfide isomerase is a dithiol-disulfide oxidoreductase and chaperone, located mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is involved in the correct folding of nascent proteins. Also, a pool of these enzymes has been identified in cell surface and the extracellular (secreted) milieu and appears to be important in vascular events, such as platelet activation and aggregation, thrombosis and vascular remodeling. First, it was investigated whether urate hydroperoxide was capable of oxidizing PDI. By the DTNB assay, it was found that the free thiols of the protein were consumed after reaction with the peroxide and then, by nLC-MS / MS, the active redox cysteine residues were identified as the main oxidation targets. Although no modifications other than disulfides have been found, hydroperoxide treatment has been shown to promote protein aggregation and inactivation. Subsequent studies involved an endothelial cell line (HUVECs). Preliminary cytotoxicity analyzes (detection of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in the supernatant and incorporation of fluorescent probes into DNA) have shown that treatments with concentrations up to 400 µM are not lethal to cells in culture. Then, using alkylating agents impermeable to the cell membrane, urate hydroperoxide was shown to oxidize not only PDI but also total thiol proteins expressed on HUVECs surface. Wound healing experiments were performed to evaluate cell migration after treatment with urate hydroperoxide, but no difference was observed. However, incubation of the cells with the oxidizing agents urate hydroperoxide and diamide, inhibitors of both PDI and integrin and a thiol alkylator, resulted, at least for the first thirty minutes, in reduced cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, cells treated with urate hydroperoxide became more sensitive to detachment from the culture dish and exhibited alterations in morphology. Treatment with the peroxide also affected the redox homeostasis of the HUVECs, observed by a decrease in the GSH / GSSG ratio. Finally, indirect evidence was presented that uric acid is a substrate of peroxidasin, a heme peroxidase abundantly expressed in the vascular system. First, with the Amplex Red assay it was observed that the presence of uric acid in the reaction mixture resulted in lower oxidation rates of the reagent. Then, by LC-MS / MS, hydroxyisourate, which is the alcohol derived from urate hydroperoxide decomposition, was also identified in samples containing uric acid. Taken together, the data presented should contribute to a better understanding of the involvement of urate hydroperoxide in vascular oxidative processes − especially protein oxidation − that may be one mechanism associated to disturbances in endothelial function and vascular homeostasis


Subject(s)
Endothelium, Vascular , Oxidation/adverse effects , Uric Acid/agonists , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Protein Disulfide-Isomerases/analysis
17.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 55: e18217, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011649

ABSTRACT

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) placed the most widely used herbicide glyphosate (GLY) into the category 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), a classification questioned by experts from academia and industry. This article critically appraised the epidemiological and experimental data that led the IARC working group (WG) to consider GLY a probable human carcinogen and the ensuing controversy. An association of GLY with non-Hodgkin lymphoma was suggested by some observational studies. A non-causal explanation for this weak association, however, cannot be excluded. Contrary to WG's view, long-term rodent assays yielded no convincing evidence that GLY is carcinogenic. The mechanistic evidence remains elusive as well. Bacterial reverse mutation tests (including tester strains sensitive to oxidative mutagens) were clearly negative, and so were rodent genotoxicity assays by oral route. Tests with mammalian cells in vitro yielded conflicting results at high (cytotoxic) concentrations of GLY-based formulations. Conflicting results were also obtained when high doses of GLY-based herbicides were administered to rodents by the intraperitoneal route. Such high doses are unlikely to be attained in realistic scenarios of exposure. Finally, the IARC classification is based on a conjectural hazard, and rational public health interventions must be based on estimated risks.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Rats , Pesticides/toxicity , Carcinogens/classification , Herbicides/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology, Experimental , Genotoxicity/prevention & control
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18736, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011637

ABSTRACT

The major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biodegradable polymer type and surfactant concentration on various characteristics viz. particle size, entrapment efficiency and drug release rate constant of aqueous core nanocapsules (ACNs) containing tenofovirdisoproxil fumarate. In this study, the nanocapsules were prepared by modified multiple emulsion technique with biodegradable polymers viz. poly(lactide-co-glycolide) of two different grades (PLGA RG502H and PLGA RG503H) and poly lactic acid (PLA R203H); and the surfactant employed was span 80. The experiments were designed under response surface methodology by employing the Design Expert software. Entrapment efficiency, particle size and drug release rate constant were taken as response variables. The prepared nanocapsules were subjected to characterization studies and the obtained results were statistically analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for response surface 2-Factorial Interaction model. ANOVA studies showed that the influence of both factors on all the response variables were significant at p<0.05. The optimized formulation was found to have the entrapment efficiency of 71.58%, particle size of 252.41 nm and the drug release rate constant of 0.045 h-1; thus, indicating that the ACNs were obtained with finest characteristics. SEM studies showed that the particles were spherical.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/adverse effects , Analysis of Variance , Nanocapsules/analysis , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170779, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989424

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plants are the main sources of natural antioxidants in the form of phenolic compounds, which help human beings to deal with oxidative stress, caused by free radical damage. For this reason, the present study was carried out to evaluate the antiproliferative, antioxidant and inhibition of oxidative DNA damage activities of n-butanol extract obtained from aerial parts of Limonium bonduelli. The antioxidant potential was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation assay. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated using xCELLigence RTCA instrument on two tumor cell lines; HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) and HeLa (human cervix carcinoma). DNA damage inhibition was evaluated using photolyzing 46966 plasmid. Also, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were determined using a spectrophotometric method. Total phenolic (343 ± 0.05 µg/mg) and flavonoid (220.5 ± 0.04 µg/mg) were indicated as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents respectively. The extract exhibited significant IC50 values in lipid peroxidation (IC50= 181.18 ± 0.65 µg/mL) and DPPH radical scavenging assays (IC50= 14.92 ± 0.032 µg/mL). The extract also partially protected 46966 plasmid DNA from free radical-mediated oxidative stress in a DNA damage inhibition assay and showed concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects. n-butanol extract of L. bonduelli is a rich source of natural antioxidants and anticancer agents.


Subject(s)
Plumbaginaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Oxidative Stress
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17536, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055294

ABSTRACT

Tadalafil, a long-acting PED-5 inhibitor, is commonly used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, its efficacy and clinical application are severely limited by the poor water solubility, low bioavailability and a series adverse effects (e.g. headaches, indigestion). In this study, tadalafil was prepared and loaded into biodegradable PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) microspheres (TDF-PLGA-MS) via emulsification-solvent evaporation. The resulting microspheres were processed into pulmonary inhalant by freeze drying. The TDF-PLGA-MS was spherical and uniform, with an average particle diameter ~10.29 µm. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading yield of TDF-PLGA-MS were 81.68% and 8.52%, respectively. The investigation of micromeritics showed that the TDF-PLGA-MS had low moisture content. The fluidity of powders was relatively good. The aerodynamic diameter and emptying rate of microspheres powders were 3.92 µm and 95.41%, respectively. Therefore, the microspheres powders were easy to be atomized, and can meet the requirements of pulmonary administration. In vitro release results showed that the microspheres group released slowly. The cumulative release in 24 h and 10 d was 46.87% and 84.06%, respectively. The in vitro release profile of TDF-PLGA-MS was in accordance with the Weibull model. The results of Pharmacokinetics showed that tadalafil from microspheres slowly released into the blood after intratracheal instillation. The pulmonary drug residue in 0.5 h was 3.5 times compared with solution group. The residual concentration in lung after 10d was still higher than that of solution group in 48 h. The t1/2β and MRT0-∞ were 3.10 times and 3.96 times that of solution group, respectively. Moreover, the Cmax and AUC of drug residues in lung ​​were 3.48 times and 16.36 times that of solution group, respectively. The results of tissue distribution showed that the Re in lung was 16.358, which indicated the lung targeting. In conclusion, the TDF-PLGA-MS for pulmonary administration in this study can significantly improve the pulmonary targeting, increase efficacy of tadalafil and reduce other non-target organs toxicity. This study will have an important clinical significance for PAH patients who need long-term drug therapy.


Subject(s)
Pharmacokinetics , Tadalafil/adverse effects , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/drug therapy , Microspheres , Patients/classification , Solubility/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy , Lung
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